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The Upper Digestive Tract

Cardia:
The section that marks the opening of the esophagus into thestomach
.

Duodenum:The short section between the stomach and the jejunum. I


tbegins at the duodenal bulb and can be divided into four parts: the su
perior, descending, horizontal, and ascendingduodenum.
esophagogastric angle:
The angle between the esophagus and the cardia at theentrance of th
e stomach.
fundusThe uppermost section of the stomach situated above theentra
nce of the esophagus.
pyloric antrumThe lowest section of the stomach, continuous with th
e pyloriccanal.

The Lower Digestive Tract


anorectal angleThe angle formed by the junction of the rectum with t
he anus.

ascending colonThe section of the large intestine that extends from


the cecumto the right colic flexure.

cecumThe large blind pouch situated below the ileocecal valve where
the large intestine begins.

descending colonThe section of the large intestine that passes down


ward fromthe left colic flexure to the sigmoid colon.

duodenojejunal flexureThe angle that connects the duodenum with t


he jejunum.
ileocecal valveThe structure between the lower end of the ileum and
cecumthat prevents material from traveling back from the large intoth
e small intestine.
ileumThe section between the jejunum and the large intestine thatma
kes up the lower three-fifths of the small intestine. Itoccupies mainly t
he umbilical, hypogastric, right iliac, andpelvic regions.
intestinal juiceA fluid produced in the small intestine consisting mai
nly ofdigestive enzymes and mucus.
jejunumThe section between the duodenum and the ileum making upt
wo-fifths of the small intestine. It occupies mainly the umbilicaland lef
t iliac regions.
Peyer’s patchA collection of circular or oval lymph glands situated in
thesmall intestine, mainly in the ileum, which sometimesdisappears la
ter in life.
plica circularisA mucous membrane arranged in concentric folds situ
ated inthe small intestine that are covered with small projectionscalle
d villi.
rectumThe terminal section of the large intestine that extends from t
hesigmoid colon to the anus.

sigmoid colonThe S-shaped section of the large intestine between th


edescending colon and the rectum.
transverse colonThe longest section of the large intestine that cross
es theabdomen and connects the ascending colon with thedescending
colon.
vermiform appendixA long, narrow, worm-shaped tube that extends f
rom the lowercecum and has no known function.
Accessory Organs
bile ductA bodily tube through which bile passes from the liver orgall
bladder into the duodenum.

caudate lobeA projection of the liver that connects with the right lob
e by anarrow prolongation.

common bile ductThe excretory duct of the liver and gallbladder for
med by theunion of the hepatic and cystic ducts.

cystic ductThe duct of the gallbladder that joins the hepatic ducts to
formthe common bile duct.
Glisson’s capsuleA loose connective tissue surrounding the liver and
envelopingthe hepatic duct, the hepatic artery, and the portal vein tha
taccompanies the vessels in their course through the organ.
hepatic ductEither of two ducts through which bile is carried away fr
om theliver and which, together with the cystic duct, forms thecommo
n bile duct.
hepatic portal veinA large vein formed by the merging of other veins
that carriesblood from the digestive organs and spleen into the liver.

pancreatic ductThe main excretory duct of the pancreas that passes


from leftto right through the pancreas.
salivary glandAny of the three exocrine glands in the mouth that prod
ucessaliva for digestion. The three main salivary glands are theparotid
, submaxillary, and sublingual glands.