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Chapter Six The Economy

1. Agriculture
I. 1. Rainfall; 1.4; 60
2. Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, England
II. B A B C
III.1---4 F F T F
1. change labor-intensive into efficient
2. change rice into barley
4. change large into very small

IV. 1. First, the modern agriculture in the UK is highly mechanized and efficient, thus
requiring much less labor force. Secondly, with the process of industrialization and
urbanization, people in general would prefer jobs in cities. Thirdly, industry and
service sector have replaced agriculture as the major industries in the UK.
2. During Enclosure, many farmlands were changed into places for raising sheep as
it was rather profitable.

2. Industry
I. mineral, Industrial Revolution, nuclear energy, 18, 80
II 1. A 2. D 3.A 4. D
III 1. F 2. F 3.F 4. T
1. Nowadays, service industry is the strongest in British economy.
2. the current focuses in British industry are aerospace, automobiles, pharmaceuticals,
chemicals and so on.
3. Britain is an important oil exporter even though its oil industry has a short history.
IV
1. Firstly, in the late19th century, a large number of countries industrialized, thus
making the UK less competitive. Secondly, the British Empire collapsed, so Britain
lost its many overseas market and cheap raw material providers. Thirdly, the two
world wars weakened British economy a lot. (based on the textbook)
2. Firstly, due to the ageing-related problems that would affect plant availability, some
of the old nuclear plants had to be shut down. Secondly, the increasingly wide-spread
social concerns over safety and environmental protection are the major reason for the
decommissioning of nuclear plants in the UK.

3. Trade
I. 1. Service, financial
2. commercial, imports, trade deficit
II.1---4 B A B C
III. 1. F 2. F 3. F
1. tobacco is not included.
2. outward investment collapsed by a record decrease of 75%.
3. china comes after Germany….

IV. The British economy is still one of the strongest economies in the world. For
example, it still has the largest industries in Europe, such as financial services,
creative industries, life sciences and etc and the British pound is still solid in its
strength. (based on the textbook)

4. Tourism
I. 1. cultural 6th 2. hotel 80
II. 1. D 2.A 3.B
III. 2;3
1. F Domestic travel, inbound travel and outbound travel make up the UK tourism
industry.
IV.
1. The economic recession, unemployment concerns, increasing levels of air travel
taxation and a low exchange rate for sterling .
2. It is worth around 115 billion pounds annually.

5. Finance
I
1. pound; pound sterling; pounds sterling; GBP(Great British Pound);quid
2. decimal system; 100; coins; banknotes
3. retail banks; automated teller machines; credit cards; debit cards
II
1. B 2.B 3.C
III
True: 1, 3, 4
2. monopoly ×
IV
1. It is the central bank of the United Kingdom, the center of the British financial
system. It is the sole issuer of banknotes in England and Wales. It also sets the interest
rates in the country and controls the amount of currency in circulation. It plays a key
role in national monetary policy, as well as in promoting and maintaining the stability
of the financial system.

2. Leeds: the UK’S largest center for business and financial services outside London.
Edinburgh: the 11th largest banking center in Europe.
Cardiff, Manchester and Birmingham are also cities with large financial districts.

6. Transportation
I.
1. taxicab, cab
2. black
3. London Underground, rapid transit
II.
1.B 2. C 3. A
III.
1. T
2. F The largest airport in the UK is the London Heathrow Airport.
3. F Britain has single-decker buses and double-decker buses.
IV.
1. One is that of Great Britain, the other is that of Northern Ireland.
2. BAA is the UK’s predominant airport operator. It is the owner and operator of six
airports including Heathrow and Stansted.

7. Communication
I.
1. Royal Mail; Post Office Ltd
2. 90%; business; financial; home ; government
II.
1.D 2.A 3.A
III. 2? I think No statement is correct.
1. F In the UK, the total revenue generated in the traditional broadcasting industry is
taking up a smaller proportion in the communications sector.
2. F Over 91% adults in the country own or use a mobile phone. Consumers are
substituting mobiles for fixed landlines.
3. F More people in Britain, especially the young generation, are in favor of online
services and gradually turning away from television , radio and newspapers.
IV.
Despite of its relative decline, Britain has been well-known for its multi-channel TV
market. The number of households owning TV in UK is about 60 million. In terms of
net advertising revenue, the UK television still earned 5 billion. The most watched
TV channels include BBC1, 2 and ITV. (Based on the textbook)