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UBC MATH 264/ELEC 211 FORMULAS FOR QUIZ 1 – 2016-02-01

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Permittivity of free space: ε0 = 8.854 × 10−12 F/m Permeability of free space: µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H/m
Electron charge: e = 1.602 × 10−19 C Electron mass: m = 9.109 × 10−31 kg
Speed of light in vacuum: c = 2.998 × 108 m/s

ELECTROSTATIC PRINCIPLES
1 q1 q2 R12 R12 r2 − r1
Coulomb’s Law: F2 = 2 a12 a12 = = =
4πε0 R12 |R12 | R12 |r2 − r1 |
1 Q Q
Point Charge Q at O: E= 2
ar , V = (r comes from spherical coords)
4πε0 r 4πε0 r
   
ρL aρ ρL 1
Line Charge, density ρL , on z-axis: E= , V = ln (ρ comes from cylindrical coords)
2πε0 ρ 2πε0 ρ
ρS ρS |z|
Sheet Charge, density ρS , on z = 0: E=± az , V = − (Both ρS and ρL must be constant here.)
2ε0 2ε0
Electric Flux Density: D = εE (ε = ε0 εr in general; vacuum has εr = 1)
ZZ
Gauss’s Law, I: Qenc = Ψ, where Ψ= D•n b dS is net outward flux
S
ZZZ
Gauss’s Law, II: Qenc = ρv dv, where ρv = ∇ • D gives charge density
V
Z B
Electric field and potential: E = −∇V V (B) − V (A) = − E • dL (path indep)
A

MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS (POINT FORM, TIME-INVARIANT CASE)


∇ • D = ρv ∇•B = 0 ∇×E=0 ∇×H=J

VECTOR IDENTITIES
For u = ux ax + uy ay + uz az , v = vx ax + vy ay + vz az , w = wx ax + wy ay + wz az ,
√ q
u • v = ux vx + uy vy + uz vz = |u| |v| cos(θ), 0 ≤ θ ≤ π |u| = u • u = u2x + u2y + u2z

ax ay az

u × v = ux uy uz = huy vz − uz vy , uz vx − ux vz , ux vy − uy vx i |u × v| = |u| |v| sin θ
vx vy vz

u • (v × w) = v • (w × u) = w • (u × v) u × (v × w) = (u • w)v − (u • v)w

SURFACE NORMALS AND AREA ELEMENTS


n n n
For any oriented surface normal n 6= 0, b dS =
dS = n dx dy = dx dz = dy dz, dS = |dS|
|n • az | |n • ay | |n • ax |
Level Surface G(x, y, z) = 0 : normal n = ±∇G(x, y, z) (choose sign to orient)
 
∂R ∂R dS
Parametric Surface hx, y, zi = R(u, v) : dS = ± × du dv b=
(choose sign to orient; n )
∂u ∂v |dS|
CARTESIAN COORDINATES (x, y, z)

Line Element: dL = ax dx + ay dy + az dz Volume Element: dv = dx dy dz


Scalar field: f (x, y, z) Vector field: F(x, y, z) = Fx ax + Fy ay + Fz az
 
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
Differential operator ∇: ∇ = ax + ay + az = , ,
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z
∂f ∂f ∂f ∂Fx ∂Fy ∂Fz
Gradient: ∇f = ax + ay + az Divergence: ∇ • F(x, y, z) = + +
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

POLAR AND CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES (ρ, φ, z)


Transformation: x = ρ cos φ, y = ρ sin φ, z=z

Local basis: aρ = cos φ ax + sin φ ay , aφ = − sin φ ax + cos φ ay , az = az

Surface element (on ρ = a): dS = ±a aρ dφ dz Surface element (on z =const.): dS = ±ρ az dρ dφ


Line Element: dL = aρ dρ + ρaφ dφ + az dz Volume element: dv = ρ dρ dφ dz

Scalar field: f (ρ, φ, z) Vector field: F(ρ, φ, z) = Fρ aρ + Fφ aφ + Fz az

∂f 1 ∂f ∂f 1 ∂ 1 ∂Fφ ∂Fz
∇f = aρ + aφ + az ∇•F= (ρFρ ) + +
∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z ρ ∂ρ ρ ∂φ ∂z

SPHERICAL COORDINATES (r, θ, φ)


Transformation: x = r sin θ cos φ, y = r sin θ sin φ, z = r cos θ

Local basis: ar = sin θ cos φ ax + sin θ sin φ ay + cos θ az , aθ = cos θ cos φ ax + cos θ sin φ ay − sin θ az ,
aφ = − sin φ ax + cos φ ay

Volume element: dv = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ Surface area element (on r = a): dS = ±a2 sin θ ar dθ dφ
Line Element: dL = ar dr + raθ dθ + r sin θaφ dφ

Scalar field: f (r, θ, φ) Vector field: F(r, θ, φ) = Fr ar + Fθ aθ + Fφ aφ

∂f 1 ∂f 1 ∂f 1 ∂  1 ∂ 1 ∂Fφ
∇f = ar + aθ + aφ ∇•F= 2
r2 Fr + (Fθ sin θ) +
∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ

INTEGRATING DERIVATIVES: THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS (FTC)


Z Z
∂φ ∂φ ∂φ
Line-integral form: ∇φ • dL = dx + dy + dz = φfinal − φinitial
C C ∂x ∂y ∂z
ZZZ ZZ
Divergence Theorem: ∇ • F dv = F • dS
R S

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 sin(−x) = − sin x cos(−x) = cos x
tan x ± tan y
sec2 x = 1 + tan2 x csc2 x = 1 + cot2 x tan(x ± y) =
1 ∓ tan x tan y
π
sin(x ± y) = sin x cos y ± cos x sin y cos(x ± y) = cos x cos y ∓ sin x sin y sin = 1 = cos(0)
2
1 − cos 2x 1 + cos 2x  π  √2 π 
sin2 x = 2
cos x = sin = = cos
2 2 4 2 4
π  π 1 π  π  √3 π 
sin(0) = 0 = cos sin = = cos sin = = cos
2 6 2 3 3 2 6
Adapted from R. A. Adams, Calculus, A Complete Course, Addison-Wesley, 2003.