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A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.org By Steve Diver NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart, NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Aquaponics is a bio-integrated system that links recirculating aquaculture with hydroponic vegetable, flower, and/or herb production. Recent advances by researchers and growers alike have turned aquaponics into a working model of sustainable food production. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics with brief profiles of working units around the country. An extensive list of resources points the reader to print and Web-based educational materials for further technical assistance.
Introduction ..................... 1 Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations ............... 2 Aquaponic Systems ...... 3 Organic Aquaculture .................. 11 Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise ........................ 12 References ...................... 13 Resources ....................... 13 Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics ............. 20 Appendix II: Dissertations ................. 25
quaponics, also known as the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture, is gaining increased attention as a bio-integrated food production system. Aquaponics serves as a model of sustainable food production by fol low ing certain principles: • The waste products of one biological system serve as nutrients for a second biological system. • The integration of fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity and yields multiple products. • Water is re-used through biological ﬁltration and recirculation. • Local food production provides access to healthy foods and enhances the local economy. In aquaponics, nutrient-rich eﬄuent from ﬁsh tanks is used to fertigate hydroponic production beds. Th is is good for the ﬁsh because plant roots and rhizobacteria remove nutrients from the water. These nutrients – generated from ﬁsh manure, algae, and decomposing ﬁsh feed – are contaminants that would otherwise build up to toxic levels in the ﬁsh tanks, but instead serve as liquid fertilizer to hydroponically grown plants. In turn, the hydroponic beds function as a bioﬁlter – stripping oﬀ ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and phosphorus – so the freshly cleansed water can then be recirculated back
Aquaponic vegetable bed in Australia. Photo by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics. www.backyardaquaponics.com
into the ﬁsh tanks. The nitrifying bacteria living in the gravel and in association with the plant roots play a critical role in nutrient cycling; without these microorganisms the whole system would stop functioning. Greenhouse growers and farmers are taking note of aquaponics for several reasons: • Hydroponic growers view fishmanured irrigation water as a source of organic fertilizer that enables plants to grow well. • Fish farmers view hydroponics as a bioﬁ ltration method to facilitate intensive recirculating aquaculture. • Greenhouse growers view aquaponics as a way to introduce organic hydroponic produce into the marketplace, since the only fertility input is ﬁsh feed and all of the nutrients pass through a biological process.
ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (www.attra.ncat.org) is managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) and is funded under a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture’s Rural BusinessCooperative Service. Visit the NCAT website (www.ncat.org/ sarc_current.php) for more information on our sustainable agriculture projects.
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• Food-producing greenhouses – yielding two products from one production unit – are naturally appealing for niche marketing and green labeling. • Aquaponics can enable the production of fresh vegetables and ﬁsh protein in arid regions and on waterlimited farms, since it is a water re-use system. • Aquaponics is a working model of sustainable food production wherein plant and animal agriculture are integrated and recycling of nutrients and water ﬁltration are linked. • In addition to commercial application, aquaponics has become a popular training aid on integrated bio-systems with vocational agriculture programs and high school biology classes. The technology associated with aquaponics is complex. It requires the ability to simultaneously manage the production and marketing of two diﬀerent agricultural products. Until the 1980s, most attempts at integrated hydroponics and aquaculture had limited success. However, innovations since the 1980s have transformed aquaponics technology into a viable system of food production. Modern aquaponic systems can be highly successful, but they require intensive management and they have special considerations. This publication provides an introduction to aquaponics, it proﬁ les successful aquaponic greenhouses, and it provides extensive resources. It does not attempt to describe production methods in comprehensive technical detail, but it does provide a summary of key elements and considerations.
all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic systems employ the nutrient film technique (NFT), f loating rafts, and noncirculating water culture. Aggregate hydroponic systems employ inert, organic, and mixed media contained in bag, trough, trench, pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media used in these systems include perlite, vermiculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat, and sawdust. Normally, hydroponic plants are fertigated (soluble fertilizers injected into irrigation water) on a periodical cycle to maintain moist roots and provide a constant supply of nutrients. These hydroponic nutrients are usually derived from synthetic commercial fertilizers, such as calcium nitrate, that are highly soluble in water. However, hydroorganics – based on soluble organic fertilizers such as ﬁsh hydrosylate – is an emerging practice. Hydroponic recipes are based on chemical formulations that deliver precise concentrations of mineral elements. The controlled delivery of nutrients, water, and environmental modiﬁcations under greenhouse conditions is a major reason why hydroponics is so successful. Nutrients in Aquaculture Eﬄuent: Greenhouse growers normally control the delivery of precise quantities of mineral elements to hydroponic plants. However, in aquaponics, nutrients are delivered via aquacultural eﬄuent. Fish eﬄuent contains suﬃcient levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, potassium, and other secondary and micronutrients to produce hydroponic plants. Naturally, some plant species are better adapted to this system than others. The technical literature on aquaponics provides greater detail on hydroponic nutrient delivery; especially see papers cited in the Bibliography by James Rakocy, Ph.D. Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The selection of plant species adapted to hydroponic culture in aquaponic greenhouses is related to stocking density of ﬁsh tanks and subsequent nutrient concentration of aquacultural eﬄuent. Lettuce, herbs, and specialty greens (spinach, chives, basil, and watercress) have low to medium nutritional requirements and are well adapted to aquaponic systems.
Aquaponics: Key Elements and Considerations
A successful aquaponics enterprise requires special training, skills, and management. The following items point to key elements and considerations to help prospective growers evaluate the integration of hydroponics with aquaculture. Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the production of plants in a soilless medium whereby
Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
Tilapia produces a whiteﬂeshed meat suitable to local and wholesale markets. chlorine.Plants yielding fruit (tomatoes. The gravel functions as a “ﬂuidized bed bioreactor. for in-depth descriptions and technical details. The literature on tilapia contains extensive technical documentation and cultural procedures. Water quality testing kits from aquacultural supply companies are fundamental. The variation in range depends on type of hydroponic system (gravel vs. nitrite. the square footage of grow space will increase four times. and cucumbers) have a higher nutritional demand and perform better in a heavily stocked. and dissolved solids. Barramundi and Murray cod ﬁsh species are raised in recirculating aquaponic systems in Australia. and bass. Most of these operations are featured in magazine articles and conference proceedings. dissolved solids. The stocking density of ﬁsh. each arranged in a separate node. oxygen. pH. and related environmental ﬂuctuations can elicit rapid changes in water quality. nitrate. Critical water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen. trout. plant species. Please refer to articles in the Resources section. when shallow bed systems only three inches in depth are employed for the production of specialty greens such as lettuce and basil. Water Quality Characteristics: Fish raised in recirculating tank culture require good water quality conditions. and on-site tours. Greenhouse varieties of tomatoes are better adapted to low light. In the 1980s Mark McMurtry (former graduate student) ATTRA Page 3 .org nitrifying bacteria involved in nutrient conversions.attra. For example. raft). etc. Thus. T Aquaponic Systems Proﬁles of several aquaponic greenhouses are highlighted below as models of commercially viable systems. Tilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture. tilapia is tolerant of ﬂuctuating water conditions such as pH. ﬁsh density. and waste byproducts. but 1:2 is now common and tank: bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed. Fish Species: Several warm-water and coldwater ﬁsh species are adapted to recirculating aquaculture systems. design manuals. bell peppers. growth rate of ﬁsh. well established aquaponic system. most commercial aquaponic systems in North America are based on tilapia. ammonia. A “node” is a conﬁguration that links one ﬁsh tank to a certain number of hydroponic beds. The North Carolina State University System Water consumption in an integrated aquavegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. the component ratio can favor greater outputs of either hydroponic produce or ﬁsh protein. Furthermore. ﬁsh species. and other characteristics. However. Bioﬁltration and Suspended Solids: Aquaculture eﬄuent contains nutrients. Early aquaponics systems were based on a ratio of 1:1. feeding rate. Some aquaponic systems are designed with intermediate ﬁlters and cartridges to collect suspended solids in ﬁsh eﬄuent. temperature. The design manuals and technical documentation available in the Resources section can help growers decide which system is most appropriate. Arctic char. feeding rate and volume. Some operations oﬀer technical assistance through short courses. carbon dioxide. perch. including tilapia. Component Ratio: Matching the volume of ﬁsh tank water to volume of hydroponic media is known as component ratio. constant and vigilant water quality monitoring is essential. and the Bibliography. and to facilitate conversion of ammonia and other waste products to forms more available to plants prior to delivery to hydroponic vegetable beds. high humidity conditions in greenhouses than ﬁeld varieties. Other systems deliver ﬁsh eﬄuent directly to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds.ncat. Further. Depending on the system design.” removing dissolved solids and providing habitat for www. one greenhouse may contain a multiple number of ﬁsh tanks and associated growing beds. the Speraneo system described below is designed for one cubic foot of water to two cubic feet of grow bed media (pea gravel). ilapia is a warm-water species that grows well in a recirculating tank culture.
After draining from the beds. • Reciprocating biofilters provide uniform distribution of nutrientladen water within the filtration medium during the ﬂood cycle. glutamic acid. Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has been discontinued because the technology had evolved to the point where it is ready Page 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . • Such low-water-use symbiotic systems are applicable to the needs of arid or semi-arid regions where fish and fresh vegetables are in high demand. • Dissolved and suspended organic materials accumulate rapidly in aquaculture systems and must be removed for eﬃcient ﬁsh production. • Tomatoes may have also assimilated nitrogen in organic amino acid forms. the water recirculated back into the ﬁsh tanks. The only fertility input to the system was ﬁsh feed (32 percent protein). The component ratios of the system may be manipulated to favor ﬁsh or vegetable production according to local market trends or dietary needs. and the sand beds and plant roots functioned as a bioﬁ lter. The nutrients in the irrigation water fed tomato and cucumber crops. 70: 187-203) found that tomatoes utilize alanine. • Water consumption in an integrated aqua-vegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. Soil Science. Removal of the solid wastes resulted in insuﬃcient residual nutrients for good plant growth. • Previous integrated fish-vegetable systems removed suspended solids from the water by sedimentation in clariﬁers prior to plant application. Eﬄuent from the ﬁsh tanks was trickle-irrigated onto sand-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds located at ground level. Some f i nd ing s a nd h ig h l ig ht s of McMurtry’s research: B ioﬁlters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately ﬂooded and drained with nutrient-laden ﬁsh tank water are called reciprocating bioﬁlters. Vol. • Beneﬁts of integrating aquaculture and vegetable production are: 1. • Aqueous nitrate concentrations in recirculating aquaculture can be adequately regulated when ﬁsh and vegetable production are linked via reciprocating bioﬁlters. pesticide-free produce and “fresh-daily” fish can bring premium prices. Fish stocking density and feeding rates are adjusted to optimize water quality as inﬂuenced by plant growth rate. conservation of water resources and plant nutrients 2. intensive production of ﬁsh protein 3. • Research to determine the optimum ratio of ﬁsh tank to bioﬁlter volume on ﬁsh growth rate and water quality found that stocking density of ﬁsh and plants can vary depending on desired goal. and improved aeration from atmospheric exchange during each dewatering with benefits to both nitrifying bacteria and plant roots. reduced operating costs relative to either system in isolation. and leucine as eﬀectively as inorganic nitrogen sources. • Bioﬁlters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately ﬂooded and drained with nutrient-laden ﬁsh tank water are called reciprocating bioﬁlters.and the late Doug Sanders (professor) at North Carolina State University developed an aqua-vegeculture system based on tilapia ﬁsh tanks sunk below the greenhouse ﬂoor. acceptable fruit yields had previously only been achieved with substantial supplementation of plant nutrients. • Organic vine-ripened. See the Bibliography on Aquaponics in the appendix for a of list articles that resulted from the North Carolina research. histidine. particularly during winter months in urban areas. In 1950 Gosh and Burris (Utilization of Nitrogenous Compounds by Plants.
In the early 1990s. Tom and Paula were raising and selling basil for $12 a pound to gourmet restaurants about four hours away in St. including school children. Purina® ﬁsh chow at 40 percent protein was the primary fertility input. Louis market. and ornamental bedding plants in the aquaponic greenhouse. The following notes describe the Speraneo system and available resources. however. For years. Paula Speraneo and her family continue to run the greenhouse and actively participate in aquaponics technology transfer. The resource packet is available through: ATTRA Page 5 The Speraneo System In the early 1990s. Tom was a true pioneer in aquaponics. mixed salad greens. productive. The Department of Horticulture and the Cooperative Extension Service at NCSU provide technical assistance to aquaponic greenhouse growers in North Carolina. Tom referred to each tank-plus-hydroponic bed setup as a “node.to 12-month time period required to raise ﬁsh to harvest. Each tank is linked to six one-foot-deep hydroponic beds ﬁlled with river gravel.000 visitors to the small farm in Missouri. Tilapia are raised in ﬁsh tanks. and he was unfailingly generous and helpful to others. with ﬁsh eﬄuent linked to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable beds inside an attached solar greenhouse. an impressive yield. tomatoes. The component ratio favors vegetables over ﬁsh yields in the Speraneo system. S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil. Response from growers to a practical design manual such as this was tremendous. Missouri – modiﬁed the North Carolina State method by raising tilapia in a 500-gallon tank. The commercial-scale solar greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by 80 feet. It contains six 1. Mexican imports of basil resulted in a market crash to $4 per pound. PVC piping.org . the Speraneos compiled a resource packet and design manual with technical speciﬁcations to establish an S & S Aqua Farm-style aquaponic system. Sadly. and government oﬃcials. but the tanks are more conveniently located above ground and tilapia hybrids adapted to cooler water temperatures are grown. Tom Speraneo died in February 2004. each node can operate independently of one another. The Speraneo system was practical. and an assortment of vegetable. supplemented with tank-cultured algae. The Speraneos employ hydroponic vegetable beds as “ﬂuidized bed reactors. Tom started adding small amounts of Planters 2® rock dust on top of the gravel as a trace element supplement. and return-flow water pumping www.for grower application.ncat.” but they use pea-grade river gravel instead of sand. Louis. Later. researchers. Tom and Paula Speraneo – owners of S & S Aqua Farm near West Plains.attra.200 gallon ﬁsh tanks.” This way. cucumbers. Later. Some aspects of the Speraneo system were modeled after the aquaponics research at North Carolina State University. It became the model for dozens of commercial aquaponic greenhouses and high school biology programs. However. oriented East-West to create a south-facing slope. S & S Aqua Farm now grows a diverse variety of vegetable and herbs. Missouri. The reciprocating water cycle. The resource packet includes a 10-minute video and a list of supplies. herb. Tilapia in the Speraneo system are raised for 7 to 12 months. The Speraneo system is now in use worldwide. while others are modified. methods were designed by Tom and Paula to match their system. Paula explained this ﬁgure takes into account the cumulative yields of multiple vegetable crops raised during the 7. and wildly successful. they expanded to a full-size commercial greenhouse. To handle requests for assistance. so they dropped the St. then harvested at one to one-and-ahalf pounds in size. Following passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). selling locally at a farmers market combined with direct sales out of their greenhouse. farmers. Interest in the Speraneo system resulted in more than 10. Tom once calculated the farm produces 45 to 70 pounds of produce for every pound of tilapia.
NCAT. Photos by Steve Diver. West Plains.Aquaponic greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farms. Missouri. Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture .
and the aquacultural eﬄuent is linked to ﬂoating raft hydroponics. Projected annual ﬁsh production is 4. air diﬀusers. May-June 1998. www. Basil. researcher Rakocy sees integrated water reuse systems as a viable solution to sustainable food production in developing countries and arid regions – such as the Caribbean Islands – where fresh water is scarce. The production schedule is staggered so that one tank is harvested every six weeks. with outstanding quality and yields. Basil and okra were raised in raft hydroponics. okra.210 per system per year. which buﬀers the aquatic system and supplements calcium and potassium ions at the same time.S & S A qua F arm [Contact: Paula Speraneo] 8386 County Rd. the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than ﬁve years. et al. and other crops have been raised successfully. MO 65775 417-256-5124 Especially see: Maturing Marvel (PDF/282K) by Vern Modeland. Ph. www. To provide in-depth technical support. Yields of aquaponic basil were three times greater than ﬁeld-grown. In addition to aquaponics. lettuce. Rakocy has published extensive research reports and several Extension Service bulletins on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. ﬁeld production systems.attra. clariﬁers. The pH is monitored daily and maintained at 7.ncat. Virgin Islands of $22 per kg for fresh basil with stems. or 154 ﬁsh per cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured for 24 weeks.245 (Rakocy.growingedge. and associates at the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed a commercial-scale aquaponic system that has run continuously for more than ﬁve years. UVI specializes in greenwater tank culture. base addition tank. pipes and pumps.D. a recirculating aquaculture system.org ATTRA Page 7 . The Growing Edge. Like McMurtry. ﬁlter and degassing tanks. When ﬁsh sales are included. Ph.growingedge. ﬂoating ﬁsh pellet at 32 percent protein. The ﬁsh are fed three times daily with a complete. The only other supplemental nutrient required is iron.808 per year for the same production area. ft. Based on a market price in the U. www. the UVI research team oﬀers a week-long short course on aquaponics each year at the UVI agricultural experiment station.5 by alternately adding calcium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide to the base addition tank. Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 ﬁsh per cubic meter for Nile tilapia. 8820 West Plains.com/magazine/back_ issues/view_article. December 1997.16 metric tons for Nile tilapia and 4. In one notable experiment the UVI researchers compared the yields of a leafy herb (basil) and a fruiting vegetable (okra) grown in aquaponic vs.78 metric tons for red tilapia. while yields of aquaponic okra were 18 times greater than ﬁeld-grown. After harvest.. 2004). the ﬁsh tank is immediately restocked.php3?AID=90535> The Genius of Simplicity (PDF/30K) by John Wesley Smith. The aquaponic method would result in $515 per cubic meter per year or $110. researchers calculated gross income potential.. which is added in a chelated form once every three weeks.S. The system components include: Four ﬁsh rearing tanks at 7. and six 400-square foot hydroponic troughs totaling 2.800 liters each. Winter 1993-94. the aquaponic system yields $134. J ames Rakocy. Nile and red tilapia are raised in ﬁsh rearing tanks. The UVI short course is the premier educational training program available to farmers in the world. Th is compares to ﬁeld-produced basil at $172 per cubic meter per year or $36.D. and associates at The University of the Virgin Islands System James Rakocy. sump. The Growing Edge. com/magazine/back_issues/view_article. php3?AID=50240 Bioponics – Revolution in Food Growing: Missouri Aquafarmer Discovers Huge Beneﬁts in Trace Elements by David Yarrow Remineralize the Earth.0 to 7.400 sq.
D. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture.pdf Aquaponics: Integrated Technology for Fish and Vegetable Production in Recirculating Systems. it has made some of their publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics available online. estimated operating expense.See the Bibliography in the appendix for citations to articles and papers by Rakocy. Hydroponic crops include basil.arizona.uvi. Philippines. the institute has specialized in cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems raising trout and arctic char. Trials at the institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ AES-Aquaculture-Home. protection of spring water quality as it relates to aquaculture eﬄuent is viewed as a vital component of this technology. West Virginia – a program of The Conservation Fund. Thoman. and further informational resources. To provide technical assistance to farmers and high school biology teachers. University of the Virgin Islands Agriculture Experiment Station RR 1. Bailey.000 Kingshill. held September 12-16. organization – specializes in aquaculture research and education. 69 slides. Contact: James Rakocy.gov/icd/stconf/session2/ session%202d/02-rakocy_j-2D%202nd_ﬁles/ frame. lettuce.47 MB) http://ag. Proceedings paper: 15 pages (PDF/254 K) http://ag. PowerPoint Presentation. and other nutrients in aquaculture eﬄuent can be eﬀectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems. the institute published a series of publications on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. Fresh spring water is an abundant resource in the Appalachian region. Donald S. PDF Presentation: 49 pages (PDF/1. low-tech recirculating tank method. St. R.edu Aquaculture Program www. edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/presentation/ p676. Ph.pdf. Treatment of aquaculture eﬄuent prior to its return to the natural stream ﬂow led to collaborative research with USDA-ARS scientists in Kearneysville. In the mid-1990s. phosphorus.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ AES-Aquaculture-Aquaponic_Systems. Included are diagrams and photos. T Aquaponics www. Contact The Freshwater Institute for information on obtaining design manuals and other publications not available as Web downloads. Croix U. University of the Virgin Islands USDA Ministerial Conference and Expo on Agricultural Science and Technology.aspx?s=RE rials at the Freshwater Institute’s greenhouses showed that nitrogen. 2004 in Manila.htm The Freshwater Institute System The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown.fas. and other nutrients in aquaculture eﬄuent can be eﬀectively removed by plants grown in NFT hydroponics or constructed wetland systems. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 340-692-4031 (340) 692-4035 FAX jrakocy@uvi. For years. Rakocy.arizona. www. However. hightech recirculating tank method and (b) an outdoor. an environmental non-proﬁt Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . Charlie Shultz and Eric S. phosphorus. Box 10. details on greenhouse layout and aquaponic production. and wetland plants. James Rakocy. West Virginia. The institute helps Appalachian farmers set up two types of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor.S. the institute implemented an aquaponic demonstration program based on a Speraneo-style gravel-cultured system. Page 676690. Instead. Tilapia is raised as a warm-water ﬁsh species.usda. Please note the institute no longer provides direct technical assistance to farmers on aquaponics. The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual is a 37page manual published by the institute in 1997.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ ista6web/pdf/676.uvi. aspx?s=RE Especially see: Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Production in the UVI Aquaponic System James E. parts list with suppliers and cost. on integrated hydroponic-ﬁsh culture systems.
Although the institute closed in 1991. Massachusetts. New Alchemy publications on greenhouse production and aquaponics provide historical insight to the emerging bioshelter (ecosystem greenhouses) concept and are still a valuable resource for technical information.The Freshwater Institute 1098 Turner Road Shepherdstown. water passes through a constructed reed bed outside the greenhouse for additional nutrient removal. Hatchville. sustainable agriculture and local food systems. Zweig. Cabbage Hill Farm 115 Crow Hill Road Mount Kisco. In addition to hydroponics.attra. As an example.thegreencenter.cabbagehillfarm. The website has a section featuring for-sale articles on aquaculture and bioshelters (integrated systems).net Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online Summary of Fish Culture Techniques in Solar Aquatic Ponds (PDF/815K) by John Wolfe and Ron Zweig.thegreencenter. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. NY 10549 914-241-2658 914-241-8264 FAX www.ncat. formed by a group of former New Alchemists. Aquaculture Magazine. is again making these publications available for sale.org www. ﬁsh production can be located in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings.57 MB) by Ronald D. www. I The Cabbage Hill Farm System Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-proﬁt organization located about 30 miles north of New York City. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes education on aquaponics and hosts greenhouse interns.Pomona implemented an outdoor integrated bio-system that links: (a) a pond containing treated sewage wastewater stocked with tilapia and carp. conducted research on integrated aquaculture systems during the 1970s and 1980s. MA 02536 www. The Green Center.net Especially see: An Integrated Fish Culture Hydroponic Vegetable Production System (PDF/6. Cabbage Hill Farm designed and continues to operate a simple recirculating aquaponic system.org Miscellaneous Systems Instead of locating the ﬁsh and vegetable components in separate containers inside a greenhouse. Tilapia ﬁsh and leaf lettuce are the main products of the Cabbage Hill Farm system. Tours are available. (b) water hyacinth – an aquatic plant ATTRA Page 9 . Contact: The Green Center 28 Common Way. In warm climates. A selection of past articles is available online. The foundation is dedicated to the preservation of rare breeds of farm animals. hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. though basil and watercress are also grown in smaller quantities. May-June 1986. 1977. www. the Center for Regenerative Studies at California State Polytechnic University .org Selected Publications from The Freshwater Institute: • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System – Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manua l for 880 – Recycle System The New Alchemy Institute The New Alchemy Institute in East Falmouth.thegreencenter.net Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institute Publications Online n warm climates. Journal of The New Alchemists. WV 25443-4228 Phone (304) 876-2815 www. The eﬄuent simply needs to be delivered to hydroponic vegetable beds. and aquaponic greenhouse production.freshwaterinstitute.
com Page 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . (with permission) www. Photos by Joel Malcolm.backyard aquaponics.Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia. Backyard Aquaponics.
ncat. a second group – The National Organic Aquaculture Working Group (NOAWG). accessible at www. To provide access to the large volume of documents.0/getﬁle?dDocName=STELPRD C5062436&acct=nopgeninfo. and abroad under a private label.ams. For example. but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. which in turn results in greater hydroponic surface under production.org .S.attra. and the solar-aquatic ponds. The interim ﬁnal report published by NOAWG in January 2006 provides proposed recommendations on organic aquaculture to NOSB.usda. In fact. ﬁsh and plants can be placed in the same container to function as a polyculture. barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) ﬁsh species have been adapted to recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics systems. Australia. plants sit on top of ﬂoating polystyrene panels with their roots hanging down into the water that fish swim around in. AquaRanch (www. Meanwhile. Production inputs used in organic production – such as feed and fertilizers – must be of natural origin and free of synthetic materials. reports. This process allows farm products to be labeled and sold as organic. the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) established an Aquatic Animals Task Force in June 2000. O Organic Aquaculture Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program. A farm plan. documentation of inputs and production methods. The ATTRA publication Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies contains a section on organic aquaculture. tilapia.pdf ). made popular by John Todd at Ocean Arks International. and organic production standards surrounding the issue of organic aquaculture. The NOP is an organic certiﬁcation and marketing program that ensures foods and food products labeled as “organic” meet universal standards and guidelines for organic production. In addition to locating the ﬁsh and vegetable components in separate containers. or Living Machines. (for more information see The IFOAM Norms for Organic Production and Processing.aquaranch. ifoam. Version 2005 and updated in 2009 at www. In 2003. solar-algae ponds (see literature by Zweig and Kleinholz).very eﬃcient at sucking up nutrients – covering 50 percent of the water surface area. (c) nearby vegetable gardens irrigated with nutrient-laden pond water.org/about_ifoam/standards/norms/ norm_documents_library/Norms_ENG_V4_ 20090113. comprised of 80 aquaculture professionals and related stakeholders – formed to provide further guidance and clarification to the NOSB. Organic Aquaculture. The stocking densities for these ﬁsh species is higher than tilapia. the National Agricultural Library published an 80-page bibliography. and Israel using production standards developed by international organic certiﬁcation agencies www. In Australia. or NOP. com/index. but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. Several references are provided on these ﬁsh species and aquaponic systems in the Resources and Bibliography sections. Quality Certiﬁcation Services in Florida has certiﬁed three organic aquaculture operations in the U. It states that accredited organic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. and farm inspection are required to obtain “certiﬁed organic” status. through the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. set a precedent for the aquaponics industry by obtaining organic certiﬁcation for its hydroponic produce through Indiana Certiﬁed Organic. gov/AMSv1. the plant biomass generated by water hyacinth is used as feedstock for compost heaps. organic aquaculture was not clearly deﬁned in the NOP and the lack of organic aquaculture guidelines has hampered the growth of a domestic organic aquaculture industry in the United States. Models include the Rakocy system.” To address the issue of organic aquaculture. salmon and other ﬁsh species are raised in Europe. ATTRA Page 11 rganic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations. However. AquaRanch markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as “naturally grown. Organic trout.html) an aquaponic greenhouse in Illinois.
www. and investigate local and regional markets and related point of sales. USDA.nal. No date) in Wisconsin.000. The Web Resources listed below provide quick access to reading material. No date). prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. Keep in mind that aquaponic growers are busy people with a considerable investment in time and resources to establish their businesses. Stephanie Hauser. Obtain one or two aquaponic training manuals to acquire detailed technical speciﬁcations. 3. In addition. Bill Thomas. Take lots of pictures to document the system components and how they relate to one another.Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by Stephanie Boehmer. and related details. A sequence of considerations and learning opportunities geared to evaluating an aquaponic greenhouse enterprise are listed below.000 to $30. Aquaponics is one method of hydroponics. Cornell University cohosts a recirculating aquaculture short course in association with The Freshwater Institute (Cornell University. Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. 6. depending on the system design and choice of components. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. You may quickly ﬁnd that your biggest challenge is weekly marketing of fresh produce rather than successful production of vegetables. Complementary ATTRA publications include Organic Greenhouse Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops. Attend a short course. with compost-based potting mixes – is a simple and productive way to get started in greenhouse vegetable production. National Agricultural Library. 2. 4. diagrams and images. No date) in North Carolina. The Bibliography in the appendix provides access to in-depth research and technical data.usda. Consider lowercost and simpler alternatives.htm Evaluating an Aquaponic Enterprise Due to the highly technical nature of aquaponics and the expense associated with greenhouse production. has a list of training courses on their website accessible at www. Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain ﬁrsthand observations. Building and equipping a commercial-sized aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10. To evaluate greenhouse proﬁtability. and quick delivery of perishable produce to established markets. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production. see the ATTRA resource list Greenhouse and Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources on the Internet. This includes labor to harvest vegetables. The book Aquaponic Food Production: raising ﬁsh and plants for food and proﬁt. A quaponics is one method of hydroponics. Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food products.aquaponics. obtain typical yields and market prices for hydroponic vegetables and ﬁsh. post-harvest handling methods to maintain superior quality. Bag culture of greenhouse vegetables – raising plants in polyethylene grow bags ﬁ lled Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture . and Ann Young. Read technical and popular literature on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics to become familiar with production methods. For general information and supplies associated with greenhouse vegetable production. Nelson and Pade.htm. Retail sales directly out of your greenhouse or roadside stand might be an ideal situation. yields. 1. There are three prominent aquaponic short courses in North America.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/ afnotes5. prospective growers are advised to thoroughly investigate production methods and market potential. Inc. and market prices for fresh ﬁsh and hydroponic vegetables. but this will depend on your location. Mary Gold. and Growing Power (Growing Power. and hydroponics is one method of greenhouse production. 5. grading and packing with brand name labels. oﬀered by University of the Virgin Islands. No date) Aquaculture International (Aquaculture International.com/ infoCourses. (University of the Virgin Islands. the Desktop Aquaponics Booklet.
Successful aquaponic greenhouse operators have already ﬁgured out the system components and methods of production. go to: Aquaponics List – Before 2002 www. Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire expert advice and consultation. practical solutions. com/snsaqua 7. Cornell University – Short Course on Recirculating Aquaculture www. Pick one of the existing models and duplicate it insofar as possible. E-mail discussion lists have become the modern town square.cornell. 7. Growing Power – Short Course on Aquaponics www. Joel Malcolm. When you are ready to explore a commercial system.org ATTRA Page 13 .growingpower. supplies. 2004 in Manila.edu/cals/bee/ outreach/aquaculture/short-course/index.Hydroponics . In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. and business people all share resources. based on years of research and experience. and to shorten the time and risk involved getting started. R. Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail Discussion Group. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. This is where practitioners.org 4. The e-mail archives are a key source of information. To subscribe. ﬁ sh species. The old saying.and the Introduction to Aquaponics DVD from Nelson and Pade.com Resources E-mail Discussion Lists for Aquaponics . Joel Malcolm – Backyard Aquaponics Design Manual Western Australia email@example.com. University of the Virgin Islands – International Aquaponics and Tilapia Aquaculture www.com/aquaponics www.aquacultureinternational.bee.Aquaculture Aquaponic E-Mail List Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in Missouri hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail list on the Internet. and serve as a treasure trove of technical information and farmer-to-farmer exchange. and parts lists (S&S Aqua Farm. S&S Aqua Farm – Design Manual www. p. The archives are publicly accessible. 676-690. 9.. Th e Aquaponics List is a prominent source of technology transfer and resource sharing on all aspects of aquaponics: hydroponics. References 1.uvi. Rakocy. Lastly. “Get the engine running ﬁrst. Held September 12-16. edu/sites/uvi/Pages/AES-AquacultureInternational_Aquaponics. The Web Resources section lists additional training manuals and technical documentation. 2. avoid the “inventor’s urge” to reinvent the wheel.com To view Web e-mail archives.aspx?s=RE 3. Bailey. Philippines.jaggartech. Aquaculture International – Short Course on Aquaponics www. Inc. then adjust the carburetor. scientists. Thoman.com. and resources. send an email request to: firstname.lastname@example.org 5. supplies. 2004.cfm 6. 8. The e-mail list is hosted by Paula Speraneo with S&S Aqua Farms. and production methods. Donald S.i55mall. A few consultants with expertise in aquaponics are listed in the Agriculture Consultants section below. aquaculture.backyardaquaponics. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. James E. illustrations. are good starting points. specialists. www.” can be aptly applied to aquaponic start-up greenhouses. the design manuals from S&S Aqua Farm in Missouri and Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics in Western Australia contain in-depth technical speciﬁcations.ncat. no dates).
greenhousegrower. and organic hydroponics.hydroponics.com email@example.com Greenhouse Product News www.noaa. 31 Cambridge Rd. Level 2. research and development. It also reports on new products. www. Inc. LA 70803 (USA) 1-225-578-3137 FAX: 1-225-578-3493 carolm@was. http://pdacrsp.permacultureactivist. and supplies for the aquaponics industry. It has become a prominent source for articles. MSN.au Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bimonthly magazine dedicated to soilless culture and greenhouse production. Box 1660 West Chicago. Bellerive Tasmania.com Page 14 Ball Publishing 622 Town Road P. The Growing Edge Magazine New Moon Publishing P.oregonstate.com Greenhouse Grower www.com http://aquafeed.O. Salt Creek Lane.au www.austasiaaquaculture.com The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine on high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics. Bellerive Quay.html Aquaculture articles. M. Past articles are an important source of technical information on aquaponics.Hydroponics and Aquaculture E-Mail List A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aquaculture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites like YahooGroups.gpnmag. bioponics.net Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program. Summer 2004.com.oregonstate. The awardwinning magazine is now online as an exact digital copy of the print edition. Box 1027 Corvallis. reports.O.edu/aquanews/archive.growingedge. Articles proﬁle soilless culture and greenhouse enterprises from around the world. news. Suite 201 Arlington Heights. Director WAS Home Oﬃce 143 J.com. USA phone 608-297-8708 Toll-free Fax: 866-815-9734 info@aquaponics. and Journals Aquaponics Journal Nelson and Pade.was.com www. Inc. Illinois 60005-5025 USA 847-391-1000 847-390-0408 World Aquaculture www.O. Back issues are a valuable resource.com. aquaponics. WI 53949. Permaculture Activist #52 (magazine). Oregon State University.org Aquafeed.com Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from Nelson and Pade. Aquaculture and Aquaponic Trade Magazines.edu NOAA Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture.com Austasia Aquaculture www.com.com. Australia 701803 6245 0064 Aquanews Archives http://pdacrsp. available in print or as e-ﬁles. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses P.aquaponicsjournal. and ecologically based pest management.org/main/summaryasp?page=magazine Carol Mendoza. 3030 W. and industry news. 541-757-8477 541-757-0028 Fax www. bioponics.com. PO Box 761 Montello. Grower Talks www. NSW 2101 Australia Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933 Fax: +61 (02) 9905 9030 firstname.lastname@example.org. and Topica. Back issues are a valuable resource. Box 225 Narrabeen.com Scranton Gillette Communications. using DjVu technology. Organizations. Inc. Parker Coliseum Louisiana State University Baton Rouge.gov Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . IL 60186 Tel: (630) 231-3675 Toll Free (888) 888-0013 Fax: (630) 231-5254 email: info@ballpublishing. OR 97339-1027 800-888-6785.au Unit 2.
com www. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX kat@aquaponics. England: Permanent Publications.Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) www.springerlink.aquaranch. cages. and ﬂowing water.org Ecotao’s Aquaculture Links www. MD 21001 443-243-8840 410-734-7473 FAX email@example.com. FAO/ IIRR/WorldFish Center 2001. Inc.com Mark R. Nelson and John S. See their Web page for details. Hampshire. and educational curricula on aquaponics. East Lincoln St. Contact: Nelson and Pade.ncat.com S&S Aqua Farms [Contact: Paula Speraneo] ATTRA Page 15 Aquaponic Books and Videos Nelson and Pade.growﬁsh. Laurence. videos.com/bw/journal. [Contact: Bill Manci] 506 Wabash Street Fort Collins. 505 Aldino Stepney Rd.htm Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. Pade.com www.sciencedirect.com www. CO 80522-3245 970-225-0150 info@ftai. Aberdeen. PO Box 761 Montello. Inc.com/holism/agric/aqua. Small Scale Aquaculture: A hobbyist’s guide to growing ﬁsh in greenhouses.net Nelson and Pade.htm Hutchinson. MT 59715-4011 (406) 585-8000 firstname.lastname@example.org Gordon Creaser 4886-115 Garﬁeld Street Sumas.aquaponics. www.com/content/1573-143X/?p=d6dfe772b 59245f287cad843d6809276&pi=107 Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) www.htm American Fisheries Society Online Journals http://afs.amazon.attra. PA: Alternative Aquaculture Association. Steven D.com Global Aquatics USA. McMurtry PMB 267 1627 W. Inc.ecotao.aquaponics.com/book. DVDs. Bozeman.allenpress. hydroponics. Aquaponic Food Production: raising ﬁsh and plants for food and proﬁt.com/science/journal/00448486 Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) www. LLC [Contact: Myles Harston] 404 D.altaqua.org . P.com Fisheries Technology Associates.com www.asp?ref=1355-557X The Aquaponics Guidebook http://accesstoaquaponics.com www. 2005.html Agricultural Consultants for Integrated Hydroponics and Aquaculture AquaRanch Industries. Wisconsin 53949 USA 608-297-8708 866-815-9734 FAX Pinfo@aquaponics.com/perlserv/?request=get-archive Scientiﬁc Journals on Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) www.O.wiley.aquaponics. recirculating systems.com/ Ecological-Aquaculture-Sustainable-LaurenceHutchinson/dp/1856230325 Van Gorder. oﬀers booklets. Ecological Aquaculture: A Sustainable Solution.. www. Breinigsville. www. and aquaculture. Box 658 Flanagan. 2008.aquanic. Inc.org/docrep/005/ y1187e/y1187e00. IL 61740 815-796-2978 (815)796-4485 FAX email@example.com Rebecca L. publisher of Aquaponics Journal.com/ShopAFPBook. 2000. Main St.com www. Inc.sciencedirect.ftai.com/science/journal/01448609 Aquaculture International (Springer journal) www.fao. Inc. PO Box 761 Montello. www. Wa 98295 USA Phone: (407) 421-9816 www.
tamu. www.edu/aquadig.407 Pennsylvania Ave West Plains. The Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library is a topic-oriented portal to NSGL.com/snsaqua Aquaculture Associations Aquacultural Engineering Society www. and the complete listing of publications from the Regional Aquaculture Centers.gov/nal_display/index.org American Tilapia Association http://ag.texasaquaculture.usda.gov http://afsic. Aquaculture Directories and Resource Collections National Agricultural Library – Alternative Farming Systems Information Center The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library.aesweb.usda. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems – Index.org/publicat/govagen/nal/associat. a program of USDA-ARS.usda.nal. Inc.arizona.com AFSIC.pdf?CFI D=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c 91b4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Organic Aquaculture • Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents • Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations and Trade Organizations • Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators and Contacts • Automated Searches on General Aquaculture Topics Page 16 ATTRA .org/publicat/usda_rac/fact.html The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work.php?tax_ level=1&info_center=2 Other Aquaculture Resources Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.org Miami Aqua-culture.php?info_ center=2&tax_level=2&tax_subject=295&level3_ id=0&level4_id=0&level5_id=0&topic_ id=1410&&placement_default=0 Aquaponic Resources on the Web Selected Publications from Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture SRAC Publication No. it also contains a section on recirculating aquaculture. NAL. Room 132 Beltsville.gov/nal_display/index.nal. 454 (PDF/314K) http://srac.miami-aquaculture. Aquaculture Resources http://afsic.edu/azaqua/ata.htm Texas Aquaculture Association www.com Directory of Aquaculture Associations Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic. provides extensive aquaculture resource listings. MO 65775 417-256-5124 firstname.lastname@example.org Regional Aquaculture Center Publications – Index.org AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronic resources for aquaculture information.altaqua. Organic Aquaculture (AFSIC Notes No.gso. MD 20705-2351 301-504-6559 301-504-6927 Fax afsic@nal. Selected items include proceedings from recirculating aquaculture conferences and related documents..uri. Especially see the extensive resource listing on recirculating aquaculture systems. USDA-ARS 10301 Baltimore Ave.org/systems/recycle/documents/ recirculatingoklahoma. The NSGL maintains a bibliographical database containing over 36.com www.html The Alternative Aquaculture Association www.htm Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital Library National Sea Grant Library http://nsgd. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic. published in January 2005.jaggartech. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic. organized by subject category. 5).000 records that can be searched by authorkeyword or browsed by topic.edu/tmppdfs/504545-SRAC454. is an important new publication from AFSIC that addresses the potential of organic aquacultural products.
Hughey www. ﬁsh feed.pdf Free Articles on Hydroponics. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education.aces.backyardaquaponics. 453 (PDF/378K) http://srac. including a parts list. Aquaponics Journal.uark.ncat. Johnson University of Arkansas.com/articleaustralia.edu/dept/ﬁsheries/education/documents/ barrel-ponics.tamu.htm www. 282 (PDF/49K) http://srac.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Management of Recirculating Systems SRAC Publication No.htm Enhancing Student Interests in the Agricultural Sciences through Aquaponics (PDF/725K) by G.Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: An Overview of Critical Considerations SRAC Publication No.uark.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Integrated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic System • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered Aquaponic System .rainbowﬁsh. Department of Agricultural and Extension Education AgriScience Project www. It describes a low cost (less than $600) recirculating aquaculturehydroponic system suitable for use in laboratory settings.jaggartech.com.edu/tmppdfs/504545-453fs.Recycle System Aquaculture on Cat Beach www.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart.se/mailgroup/index.freshwaterinstitute. greenhouses.html The Essence of Aquaponics website of Pekka Nygard and Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to key topics (aquaponics.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart2. www. links.09MB) by Travis W.se/english/f89. plants.se/bilder/education_short. Shepherdstown. including a materials list with approximate cost of materials to set up a 350-gallon aquaponic unit. water. plant nutrition.edu/tmppdfs/504545-282fs.com/snsaqua Design manual with speciﬁcations Backyard Aquaponics http://www. Th e HTML version contains additional photos that illustrate system components and greenhouse production.attra.php?f=3 Aquaponics Proves Proﬁtable in Australia.Design Manual • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installation Guide • Linking Hydroponics to an 880 Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System • Operators Manual for 880 .tamu.doc A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a small aquaponic system.rainbowﬁsh. economics. originally published in Journal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997).aquaponicsjournal. Wardlow and D. The Freshwater Institute Publications Index. 452 (PDF/115K) http://srac. Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel) (PDF/3.edu/tmppdfs/504545-452fs. Aquaponics Library http://aquaponicslibrary.htm ATTRA Page 17 .au/php/viewforum.W.tamu.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Component Options SRAC Publication No. West Virginia www.com/Index.pdf A 10-page reprint article. Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses http://hydroponics.org General Aquaponic Resources on the Web The Essence of Aquaponics – Index to Aquaponics Mail Group Topics www.20megsfree.edu/tmppdfs/504545-451fs.pdf Selected Aquaponic Training Materials and Design Manuals S&S Aqua Farm www.M. 451 (PDF/142K) http://srac. literature) posted on the Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above). bioﬁlters.rainbowﬁsh. ﬁsh. 2002. First Quarter.org/publications www.pdf?CFID=5 04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b 4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Tank Culture of Tilapia SRAC Publication No.tamu. www.com Design manual with speciﬁcations A Prototype Recirculating AquacultureHydroponic System (PDF/94K) By Donald Johnson and George Wardlow University of Arkansas. maintenance.
ﬂoridaaquaculture. Publications are located here www.ca/$Department/deptdocs.php The Extension specialists at Auburn have developed four Excel spreadsheets and are available as a free Page 18 ATTRA .noaa.org/BuildingGrounds/aqua/TOC. from pond and cage construction to species and disease to marketing and promotion.ab. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www.agecon.edu/~agexten/aquaculture Water Engineering Bocek. Universities of Illinois and Indiana Sea Grant www.edu/smallfarm/pdf/oursare/ aquaponics.com.edu/dept/ﬁsheries Mississippi State University Aquaculture Publications http://msucares.purdue.umd.nrac.htm Aquaponics Combine Fish.html Aquaculture Publications Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publications. Auburn University: International Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments.htm Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -.edu NRAC is a principal public forum for the advancement and dissemination of science and technology needed by Northeastern aquacultural producers and support industries.pdf download from their website.auburn.edu The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center has an online library of very helpful publications on all aspects of aquaculture. Springs Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture Aquaculture Budgets Aquaculture Enterprise Budget Spreadsheets.texasaquaculture.uaex.edu/dept/ﬁsheries/aquaculture/budgets.agric.tamu.php The Urban Aquaculture Manual by Jonathan Woods www.Teacher’s Resource Website.com National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Aquaculture Program http://aquaculture.northernaquafarms.Integrated Systems of Agriculture and Aquaculture Aquaculture in the Classroom.php Alberta Agriculture.edu/AQUABUSINESS/budgets. Tomatoes. Recreational ﬁsheries and Natural resource conservation (ALEARN) www.extension. www. http:// www1.com West Virginia University Extension Service Aquaculture www.com www.Part 650. Alex.aces.org/Presentations/ Masser%20Aquaponics.com/en/communications/ publications/Publications+Catalog/Environment/ Aquaculture++Fisheries/Greenhouse+Tilapia+Production +in+Louisiana.arizona.aces. Auburn University www. Spring Development.htm Aquaponics Pty Ltd www.wvu.pdf Hydroponics Integration with Aquaculture (powerpoint) www. National Engineering Handbook .edu/dept/ﬁsheries/education/ recirculatingaquaculture.edu/ﬁsh/international// waterharvestingpubs.nrac. Chapter 12. 1984.html NorthernAquaFarms.org/readingrooms/aquaculture Aquaculture Resources on the Web Greenhouse Tilapia Production in Louisiana Louisiana State University www.webofcreation.edu/ publications/factSheets.umd.ag.aces. The budgets include • Channel catﬁsh pond farm • Hybrid striped bass pond farm • Rainbow trout raceway farm • Water recirculating ﬁsh farm Aquaculture Budgets.cfm. Aquaculture. http://srac.gov Florida Division of Aquaculture www.uiuc.au/index.edu/azaqua/extension/Classroom/ Aquaponics. Technical Services Division.edu/aqﬁ/extension/publications/factsheet National Ag Law Center – Aquaculture http://nationalaglawcenter. University of Arizona http://ag. Auburn University Marine Extension & Research Center.nsf/all/ agdex4595 USDA. www. 2002. Engineering Field Handbook.com/aquaculture University of Arkansas Aquaculture/Fisheries Center Publications www.lsuagcenter. and Ingenuity University of Illinois Extension http://web.gov. ALabama Education in aquatic sciences. Water Harvesting and Aquaculture for Rural Development. Agdex 716 (A15).aquaponics.
ATTRA Page 19 .com Aquaculture Investment: Lowering the Risks. Carteret County.org Integrated Bio-Systems on the Web Integrated Biosystems. Four innovative projects are listed below: Port Clyde Fresh Catch CSF www. Because the ﬁsh. www.msstate.com www.org Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) www. The University of Adelaide www.pdf World Fish Center www. veggie residues.worldﬁshcenter.com DukeFish.aspx?content=17550.g. To learn more about our greenhouse system please follow the link below.com/blog Sweet Water Organics will be the ﬁrst major commercial upgrading of MacArthur genius Will Allen’s aquaculture methodologies.portclydefreshcatch.edu/wrac Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture www. NC http://greenleaf.html Catch a Piece of Maine. http://sweetwater-organic.sc.PDF Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsored by the Extension Service Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www.ctsa.bioshelters.and Wells.usda.umd.uncg. Lobster Community Supported Fishery www. no pesticides can be used on our produce.egov.com Aquacultural and Maricultural Business Development Aquacopia www. http:// greenleaf. www.edu North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC) www.com Bioshelters is a recirculating aquaponics facility located in Amherst. e. Sweet Water will be the anchor project in the transformation of a massive industrial building in an “ industrial slum” into a showcase of the potential of living technologies and high-value added urban agriculture. Solar structures create the least expensive and best natural environment for plants. animals and people. bio-intensive ﬁsh-vegetable garden. i.html Information for ﬁshermen and consumers.e. cardboard. a three-tiered. Eli Rogosa. and brewers mash.ncat. Bioshelters.gov/OpenNon WebContent.edu. along vermiculture lines.ﬁsh.org/wfcms/HQ/Default.adelaide.nrac. plant and human systems are linked.aquanic. whereby customers receive a certain amount of product per week (a share) for a yearly share price. Organic Aquaponics.ncrac.washington.org Community Supported Fisheries Much like community supported agriculture.edu/carteretcatch/Index3.ucdavis. http://directives.wba Aquaculture and Aquaponic Farms Sweet Water Organics. coﬀee grounds.sciencedirect.growseed. Project Green Leaf. Paul Harris. Western Regional Aquaculture Center http://aqua. This soil in hundreds of potted plants on the simulated wetland tiers is key to the transformation of ﬁsh wastes into natural nitrate for plant growth and water ﬁltration.edu/carteretcatch/CommSuppFish1.walking-ﬁsh. Our entire system is contained in a large solar-heated greenhouse called a Bioshelter.org/growingpower.com/science/journal/09258574 Ecological engineering has been deﬁned as the design of ecosystems for the mutual beneﬁt of humans and nature.org Aquaculture Network Information Center www.org Carteret Catch.html Photographic tour of a Growing Power aquaponic system. aquaponic. a Durham-based community-supported ﬁshery.catchapieceofmaine. Sweet Water’s sustainable aquaculture system harvests urban waste streams. community supported ﬁsheries are cooperatives of family ﬁshermen who market their catch directly to customers usually through a subscription mechanism.attra. Duke University’s student chapter of the American Fishery Society www.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/WRAC-103.edu/dept/srac Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) www. yielding the richest possible soil. Massachusetts.uncg.au/biogas/website/integratedbiosys.aquacopia.aspx Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal) www. wood chips. Backyard Aquafarms http://backyardaquafarms.
ch/pub/ﬁles/15. 407–409. 7. 5 (May. 9. Vol.Speciﬁc topics covered in the journal include: ecotechnology. 1997. wetland restoration and construction. 420–428. Amand. McMurtry. p. Closed system opens markets. see the publisher’s websites: The Growing Edge www. Mineral nutrient concentration and uptake by tomato irrigated with recirculating aquaculture water as inﬂuenced by quantity of ﬁsh waste products supplied. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture North Carolina State University McMurtry. ecosystem rehabilitation. Deni.R. Doug.C. M. 6. Rich. (July-September). Fish increase greenhouse proﬁts.hortikultur. J. 23–25. Modeland. Small Farm Today.pdf McMurtry. and P. p.G. http://aquanic. p. 28. The Growing Edge. Tilapia Production Systems in the Americas: Technological Advances. non-renewable resource conservation. 5. Eﬀects of bioﬁlter/culture tank volume ratios on productivity of a recirculating ﬁsh/vegetable co-culture system. Aquaculture International.aquaponicsjournal. However. Page 20 ATTRA . Wastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate Climates Nutrient recycling with Daphnia and Fish (PDF/97K). Greenhouse Management and Production). Haning. M.C. p.com/BackIssues.G. bioengineering. McMurtry. reclamation ecology. including farmer proﬁles. 4th International Conference on Ecological Engineering for Wastewater Treatment. 280–284. BackHome. 1992. Thomas M. The High Plains Journal. (Fall). PhD. 1998. Mark Richard. 4.R.com. Vern. 33–51. Nelson. Sanders. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. No. No.. Vol. Applied Agricultural Research.au The Speraneo System Durham. R.C.html Aquaponics Journal www. 10(3&4): 465–498. Doug. sustainable agroecology. and Mark McMurtry. 34. 16. 3. 28–31. and Challenges.R. Vol. Journal of Production Agriculture. They are provided here as an important time saver to those seeking technical and popular information on this topic. Integrated Aquaculture. February.S. No. Yield of tomato irrigated with recirculating aquacultural water. and R. June-July. Aquafarming on a budget.hydroponics. No. 428–432. and they oﬀer on-site photocopying services to library visitors. Aquaponics Journal. Kevin Fitzsimmons. B.. Wade O. these articles provide an instant library on aquaponics. 32–33. and related topics. North Carolina State University. p. and Fred Hanley. For a complete list of articles and back issues available through these trade magazines. 35–38. The Ozarks Mountaineer. and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most relevant trade magazines for aquaponics.D. p. No. Journal of Plant Nutrition.June). 4. D. hydroponics. recirculating aquaculture. habitat reconstruction.R. synthetic ecology. et al. Aquacultural Engineering) and trade magazines (Aquaculture.org/species/tilapia/documents/s6. Sanders. 42–44. Reviews in Fisheries Science. and can provide photocopies of articles for a small fee. Cure. high proﬁt. restoration ecology. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 1997. D. Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua Farm. Eﬃciency of water use of an integrated ﬁsh/vegetable co-culture system. Losordo. MI. McMurtry.. they are relatively new and less widely distributed in university libraries. 78 p. p.. June 1999. ecosystem conservation. 1993. Please note The Growing Edge. Sanders. 1988. M. 1993. Inter-Library Loan is a service available through most local libraries.growingedge. 1998. 4. Collectively. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm. Vern. June. 1998. UMI. Norway www. Summer.htm Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses www. Modeland. Vol.. D. August 24. p.R.. Dissertation.. 2002. p. Vol. Trends.Olericulture System as Inﬂuenced by Component Ratio. stream and river restoration.C. p. No. Aas. Sand culture of vegetables using recirculating aquacultural eﬄuents. M. University libraries carry scientiﬁc journals (e.C.com/magazine/compindex.pdf Appendix I: Bibliography on Aquaponics The following bibliography contains selected literature citations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponicsaquaculture published in trade magazines and scientiﬁc journals. Hodson. 1990. Vern. Low-tech polycultural yields. 3. Vol. 1–A. Vol. M. 1992. 115. 1993. Sanders. No.V. and P. McMurtry. Watanabe. et al.g. Hodson. Modeland. Ann Harbor. p. American Vegetable Grower.
E. 83-88. J. In B. p. World Aquaculture. James E. Part II. D. Presented at the Auburn Fisheries and Aquaculture Symposium. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference. Baton Rouge. 64-70.. Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Cole.arizona. K. James.pdf Rakocy. John Wesley. 392-394.E.pdf Rakocy. Masser. Donald S. 30 p. and J. Aquaculture Magazine.A. SRAC Publication No. 1984. and A. 648. Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture.E. p.htm#bm7. Integration of vegetable hydroponics with ﬁsh culture: A review. James E. treatment process. p. In: J.E. www. J.S.K.E. p. 1. 28. Remineralize the Earth. Vol. W. Thompson. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Yarrow. Missouri Conservationist. http://nsgd. p. Rakocy. Fish + plants = food. 704 www. Spring-Fall. A recirculating system for tilapia culture and vegetable hydroponics in the Caribbean. Croix.edu/vsgcp/vsgcpc98001/ vsgcpc98001index. World Aquaculture Society.E. J. 12-13. Joseph. James E. Shultz and W. Bailey. 1997. p. (Winter/ Spring 1987). Vol. (PDF/ 251K). Hargreaves. 70.html Rakocy. Bailey. The status of aquaponics.org/books/648/648_8. 5. Evaluation of a commercial-scale aquaponic unit for the production of tilapia and lettuce. No. Philippines.actahort. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. J. Joseph. Wang (ed.) Tilapia Aquaculture in the Americas. 148-158. http://ag. Bailey.S.C. p. Nair.org . Nina. and D. J.org/docrep/006/Y4921E/y4921e07. D.fao. Intensive tank culture of tilapia with a suspended. J. Tilapia production systems for the Lesser Antilles and other resource-limited. The Growing Edge.3 Rakocy. MI. Virgin Islands. Vol. In: J. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. 112-136.arizona. Integrating ﬁsh culture and vegetable hydroponics: Problems and prospects. 163-184. Rakocy.A. Losordo. Bailey. Roanoke. 38–43. Integrating hydroponic plant production with recirculating system aquaculture: Some factors to consider. 1993.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture. 1999. Shultz.A. In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture. No.) Techniques for Modern Aquaculture. Vol. 2004. James E. Shultz. 584–596.A. The genius of simplicity. Virgin Islands Perspectives.. p. and Thoman. Orlando. Eric.K.htm Rakocy. J. 2. D. September-October. Rakocy. St. Part I.S. p. 1. LA. U.M. A food production revolution: Missouri aquafarmers discover huge beneﬁts in trace elements integrated with hydroponics. 63–69. Charlie Shultz. In: Report of the Subregional Workshop to Promote Sustainable Aquaculture Development in the Small Island Developing States of the Lesser Antilles. Aquaponic production of tilapia and basil: comparing a batch and staggered cropping system. p. 42-47. and Michael P. Rakocy. (Fall). MI. J.M. Thoman and R.. No. The status of aquaponics. Aquaculture Magazine.. p. (PDF/368K). Rakocy. 2004.uri. Cole and K.. Mississippi State University. J.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/584. 454. 6p. Thomas M. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. September 20-22. Integrating tilapia culture with vegetable hydroponics in recirculating systems. Held July 16-19.gso. Manila. 1989. American Society for Agricultural Engineers. Auburn University.M. p. 258 p. Bailey. Bailey. p. 1993.S. Rakocy. July-August. 19-23. 1993. http://ag. 1992. Martin and R.S.. James. Rakocy. Costa Pierce and J. Rakocy. Rakocy (eds. D. Rakocy. bacterial-based. tropical areas.Smith. 357-372. St. 2004. 1998. Hargreaves. 676–690.E. www. University of the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station.S. E. Proceedings Aquacultural Engineering Conference. J. Shultz.C. September. Acta Horticulturae. St. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale aquaponic ATTRA Page 21 The Rakocy System and Related Papers Rakocy. August. p. Donald S. p. FAO Fisheries Report No. James E.ncat. Bailey.S. James E. David. Vegetable hydroponics and ﬁsh culture: A productive interface. Thoman... VA.attra. 1999. Update on tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI aquaponic system. Southern Region Aquaculture Center. 1997. 40–44.A.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/676.. 1997. FL. 2003. Wang (ed.E. R. Alabama. 1993. Rakocy. 1998. 1987. R. S. 1. Nutrient accumulation in a recirculating aquaculture system integrated with hydroponic vegetable gardening.
Fishpond eﬄuent + iron=good crop nutrition. and D. Aqua-vegeculture: more food from our water. 4. Gordon. Vol.org/books/439/439_113. Vols. p. No. 57–61. Vol. Takeda.T. P. Michael Glenn and Fumiomi Takeda. p.. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture. 35–40. Summerfelt. 8. 673–678. Vol. 2001. 1. Harper. Summerfelt. F. p. Mechanistic approach to phytoremediation of water. Inc. James E.. Stanley. D.M. 2000. 1982. Hargreaves. R.. Agricultural Research. 9. Summerfelt. 223-254. 5–6.actahort. Vol. 3. p. Paul R. p. Vol. Richards (ed). 2000. 44. 131–136. 1999. 264–267.M. The Growing Edge. 5. D. 1996. No.T. Vol. 348. p. p. J. No. Aquaculture springs up in West Virginia.L.R. AgVentures. 17–21. Strawberry production linked to aquaculture wastewater treatment. 1999. 4. Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses.W. Investing in an ecosystem. 9. Bailey. 5. Brigham Young University Hawaii Campus.M. Phytoremediation of aquaculture eﬄuents. Adler. and S.K. Adler.R. Environmental Research Forum. Eﬀects of solids removal on tilapia production and water quality in continuously aerated. 603-612. Gordon.E. Kara. Growing greenhouse strawberries with aquaculture eﬄuent.R. Integrating aquaculture and hydroponics on the small farm. p. 1997.system for the production of tilapia and lettuce.. 1–3. Acta Horticulturae. 130. The Growing Edge. F. 1990. Bioshelters. Ecological Engineering. 6. 251–264. P. 56-59. 3. Rakocy. 10. 17..S. 1999.R. and S. (May-June). p. 1997. (July-Aug). Vol. No. 1985. Inslee ﬁsh farm: A family run aquaponic operation produces chives and ﬁsh. p. Orlando. p. Gordon.R. Robert H. Glenn. 65. Vol. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Aquaponics Journal. Hydroponics in the Ark. 4–8. p. and S. Ayyappan. production strategy on lettuce and basil productivity and phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater. Spencer. Dinda. Doris. No. Adler. March. W. The Freshwater Institute/USDA-ARS Adler. 22. and D. 11. 373-384.M. Glenn. The Growing Edge. No. 1997. New Alchemy Anon.) 1992. 439. September-October. Vol. Steven T. Water quality characteristics of a closed recirculating system for tilapia culture and tomato hydroponics. Small Farm Today. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Warm Water Aquaculture – Fin-ﬁsh. Watkins. 4. and John A. p. 1. Jenkins. No. Greg. Rakocy. Takeda. Nair. Takeda. 35. Hydroponics & aquaculture working together: A case study. P.K. No.. 23. J. Vol.T. Farmer to Farmer: Better Farming in the Ozarks. No. 4. Aquaponics Journal. P. p. No.. p. Vol. Gordon Watkins’ System Watkins. No.. (Winter 1992–1993). 48–51. Overview of economic evaluation of phosphorus removal by plants. Shultz and D. 1993. (October-November). Harper. Adler. Evaluation of the eﬀect of a conveyor Page 22 Inslee’s Fish Farm Nelson. July-August. In: Randy Day and Thomas L. Vol. 1985. P. P. Vol. Summerfelt. M. F. p.htm Williams. Inslee’s aquaponics. P. R. 1993. FL. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture ATTRA . Brown. 10. 2000. 2003. Summerfelt. Takeda.. HortIdeas. 1998. No. p. 3. p. Jr. 45–46. and Pat Williams (ed. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Cole. 1993. M. R. 15–18.R. p. 993–999. In Business. J. www. K. E. p. Economic analysis of an aquaponic system for the integrated production of rainbow trout and plants. (Spring). 10–15.T. and F. Wade. Orlando. Takeda. Wade. 40-42. 4. Journal of the New Alchemists. Vol. Feedstuﬀs. 5. Jenkins. 15–34. HortScience. Glenn. p. FL. Robert. Acta Horticulturae. Summerfelt. p. May 31. Economic evaluation of hydroponics and other treatment options for phosphorus removal in aquaculture eﬄuent. Vol. 12. No. 5.T. Adler. S. Demonstrating aquaponics. A natural gas-powered small-scale: aquaponic demonstration project. 20. E. Watkins. Scientists seek better ways of utilizing eﬄuent from ﬁsh. F. Adler.M. 1998.A. January-February. (May-June) p. 10. February 5-8. outdoor tanks. 1993. and S. Adler.
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Mark Richard. PhD Dissertation. Ann Harbor. Selected titles on aquaponic systems are listed below. 150 p. Auburn University. Rakocy. An Assessment of a Closed Greenhouse Aquaculture and Hydroponic System (Tilapia Diets). University of Mexico. UMI. tilapia. Oklahoma State University. Seawright. recirculating aquaculture. MI. Singh. Ann Harbor. tank culture. 1996. Integrated Agriculture and Aquaculture for Sustainable Food Production. Utilization of Aquaculture Eﬄuent to Supplement Water and Nutrient Use of Turfgrasses and Native Plants (Ephedra viridis. King. 69 p. MI. Ann Harbor. and wastewater eﬄuent for those who wish to explore further. Contact: UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations 789 E. 1986. New Mexico State University. North Carolina State University. UMI. Carla Dawn. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Daltech-Dalhousie University. Khan. MI. 127 p. Oregon State University. 1992. Chad Eric. MI. MI. UMI. The University of Arizona. MS Thesis. Ann Harbor. UMI. The UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations database (see below) provides public Web access to titles and abstracts. MI. A Computer Simulation Model for Wastewater Management in an Integrated (Fish Production-Hydroponics) System. Jr. 1997.com/en-US/default. MI. PhD Dissertation. Evaluation of a Closed Recirculating System for Tilapia Culture. aquaculture. James Edward. For example. PhD Dissertation. William. 127 p. Ann Harbor. PhD Dissertation. PhD Dissertation. Atriplex canescens.org ATTRA Page 25 .shtml Faucette. via keyword and author search. the Speraneos in Missouri and Gordon Watkins in Arkansas used Mark McMurtry’s dissertation from North Carolina State University as a guide in the design of their systems. UMI. PhD. and Cercocarpus montanus). 1980. UMI. Ann Harbor. The thesis by Carla MacQuarrie contains a detailed description of an aquaponics facility. Dissertation. UMI. UMI. 218 p. for example. Integrated AquacultureOlericulture System as Inﬂuenced by Component Ratio. 87 p. 274 p. Masud A. Print copies are available for sale. Ceratoides lanata. Land-grant university libraries – through fee-based subscription– provide full-text access to recent documents via the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Computational Model of an Integrated Aquaculture. MI. Integrated Aquaculture-Hydroponic Systems: Nutrient Dynamics and Designer Diet Development. Sahdev. PhD Dissertation. UMI. 78 p. Damon Eurgene. MacQuarrie. Ann Harbor. www. Eisenhower Parkway P. Chrysothamnus nauseosus. There are numerous other titles in hydroponics. PhD Dissertation. Ann Harbor. including parts and pumping equipment. Raymond Frank. 1995. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Evaluation of a Recirculating Aquaculture-Hydroponics System. Head.O. Artemesia tridentata. MI.attra. 2005. 1996. McMurtry.Appendix II: Dissertations Dissertations (PhD) and theses (Masters degree) on integrated aquaculture-hydroponic systems can provide critical access to research data and literature reviews. 2002. MI 48106-1346 734-761-4700 800-521-0600 http://proquest. Ann Harbor.ncat.Hydroponic System. 129 p.
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org/attra-pub/aquaponic. Editor Amy Smith. NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart.ncat.pdf IP163 Slot 54 Version 033010 Page 28 ATTRA .html or www. NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Holly Michels.Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture By Steve Diver.ncat.attra.org/attra-pub/PDF/aquaponic.attra. Production This publication is available on the Web at: www.