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1.1 Burnt clay bricks are most utilizing brick in construction world due to its physical,

chemical, mechanical properties. Since the large demand has been placed a building

material industry especially in the last decade owing to the increasing population, which

causes a chronic shortage of building materials; the child engineers have been challenged

to convert the industrial wastes to useful building and construction materials. The

worldwide annual production of bricks is expected to be continuously rising. Clay fired

bricks form the backbone of the construction industry. India is estimated to have over

150000 bricks pilns producing annual demand 200 billion bricks per year. One of the

most common issues for India and other countries for using residue, by product wastes

and raw materials in the production of construction materials such as clay brick. Globally

the estimated quantity of wastes generation was 12 billion tones in year 2002 and about

19 billion tones of solid wastes are expected to be generated annually by the year 2025.

Presently in India, about 960 million tones of solid waste is being generated annually as

by products during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes of this

350 million tones are organic waste from agricultural sources. 290 million tones are

inorganic waste of industrial and mining sectors and 45 million tones are hazardous in

nature. Disposal of solid waste generated from agricultural and industrial production

activity is another serious problems in developing countries like India. The wastes

generated from agricultural source are sugarcane baggage, paddy husk, wheat husk ash,

waste of vegetables, food products, tea, oil, production, jute, fibre, groundnut shell,

wooden mill waste, coconut husk, cotton stall, etc. out of these one of the major quantity

of wheat husk annually generated about 20 million tones per years.

Burnt clay bricks are being use extensively almost throughout India and one

perhaps the most important building construction material. But the unlimited use of clay

is harmful to society as all the bricks piln in India depend on good quality of clay

available from agricultural fields and presuming quantity of 3 kg per brick. The total clay

taken out from the agricultural fields per day was over 300 millions tones for 10000 crore

bricks. Moreover, clay bricks available in certain regions are poor in quality and costly

which have forced engineers to look for better material capable of reducing the cost of

constructions. At present, India has production capabilities of over 10000 crore bricks

through 45000 local kiln / khattas, in the unorganized sector. So the use of agricultural

waste product such as wheat husk ash, for making bricks is ecologically and economically

advantage since apart from saving previous top agricultural soil, it meets the social

objective of disposing agricultural waste.

The need for locally manufactured building materials has been emphasized in

many countries of the world. There is imbalance between the expensive conventional

building materials coupled with depletion of traditional building materials. To address

this situation, attention has been focused on low cost alternative building materials.

Bricks are masonry units composed of inorganic non metallic material and are widely

used as building component all over the world. The bricks could be sun dried or burnt.

Burnt bricks usually stronger than sun dried bricks especially if they are made of clay or

clay materials. There are diff categories of the bricks, depending upon the admixtures and

raw material used for making bricks. It is also common that certain admixtures are added

to burnt brick raw mixes to produce diff. effects of finish product & second category of

admixtures includes organic matter such as rice husk, raw dust, coal etc. which burn out

when the bricks firing, this category of admixtures serves three purpose:
1. As they burn out they leave pores in the product. This permits the central of the

bulk density of brick products and help in producing lighter and more prous


2. The second purpose is that they result in more uniformly burnt bricks, especially

when the firing is being done outside of factory and in which case mobility to

reach the mini-desire temperature of 1000°C results in unburnt cores especially in

solid bricks.

3. The pores produced as the admixtures are burnt out permit the heat to reach into

the innermost part of the core, thereby avoiding unburnt cores, while the

admixtures on their own part serve as extra fuel which provides more heat for the


Overall, there is a reduction in fuel and power expenditures. The temperature to

which the brick is fired during burning is of paramount importance. The higher the firing

temperature, the higher is the quality of finished products the third category of admixtures

are added to increase the bond between the particle and thus the strength of the brick.

Such admixtures are either cementitious or pozzolanic materials. Pozzolonic materials

include tradition lime. The recent non-traditional pozzolanic admixtures used for brick

production include wheat husk ash, raw dust ash and wood ash.

1.2 Objective of Thesis

Objective of the present study are

- To investigate the effect of wheat husk ash on comp strength and water absorption of

fixed day brick in industrial scale brick manufacturing process.

- To investigate optimum mix proportion of WH that can be used to manufactured fired

clay brick.

1.3 Methodology

Methodology includes selection of materials, manufacturing of fire brick with

WHA in industrial scale and conducting experiments in the laboratory:

1. Materials used




2. Laboratory Experiment (Particle Size Analysis, Specific Gravity) are conducted on

clay and WHA. Clay soil is also test for plastic and liquid limit.

3. Preparation of brick is divided into two group

1. Partial replacement of clay by WHA

WHA is mixed with clay in different proportions i.e. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and


2. Partial replacement of clay by WHA with added amount of 2% lime by wt.

(Constant) for every replacement of clay by WHA.

4. Moulding, drying and burning in kiln.

5. Transportation to laboratory and conducting lab test

Crushing Strength

Water Absorption

Efflorescence test etc.


As our aim is to develop bricks concern on the strength and water absorption of

brick. So for this we need to go for the addition of pozzolanic materials as a partial

replacement of clay in brick earth. The uses of wheat husk ash are a lot, which is having

excellent pozzolanic activity and is a good material for the making wheat husk ash brick.

Many researchers attempt to make the bricks with the use of waste material with clay

industrial waste ash, agricultural ash as a combination.

Apurva Kulkarni, Samruddha Raje, Mamta Rajgor, et. al. (Oct 2013) Bagasse

ash bricks reduce the seismic weight of building. It reduces the density of bricks from 20

(clay bricks) to 11 (bagasse ash bricks)

Chatveera, P. NtmJtyonglkul, et. al. (1994) this research is conducted to

developed new kinds of pozzolana from other agricultural wastes apart from rice husk

and rice straw. The study investigated the use of coconut husk, Corn cob and peanut shell

ash as pozzolana. The properties of CHA, CCA and PSA namely specific gravity,

fineness, chemical composition and the strength activity index with Portland cement were

determined. For properties of paste, only ordinary Portland cement and 30% PSA were

investigated for normal consistency and initial and final setting time. CCA mortars have

lower compressive strength than the controlled compressive strength than the controlled

mortar (0% PSA). Among the four mortars tested for chemical attack. PSA mortars

showed higher resistance against sulphate attach and RHA against acidic attack.

AeslinaBinti Abdul Kadir – He in his research investigated on bricks durability

of cast brick with industrial sludge. The results show that the earth brick can be replaced

with sludge upto 40% by weight with satisfactory value in strength. The compressive

strength of brick without sludge and 5% of sludge were 11.7 MPa and 17.6 MPa
respectively. The compressive strength was decreasing with addition of sludge beyond

5% from 17.6 MPa to 10.5 MPa. For water Absorption result, when the sludge added

more than 10% by weight, the water absorption was gradually increased. In the study,

addition of sludge into brick gives dual benefits of safe disposal of sludge from industry

and also conversation of brick making.

Hegazy et al – He discussed the incorporation of water treatment sludge and rice

husk ash in clay bricks. In the study 25%, 50% and 75% by weight of water treatment

sludge was added to produce clay bricks. Each brick series was fired at 900°C, 1000°C,

1100°C and 1200°C. The compressive strength of brick value were 5.7 MPa to 6.8 Mpa

for the control brick and 2.82 MPa to 7.82 MPa for sludge – RHA brick. Meanwhile for

the water absorption test, the results were 9.94% to 11.18% of control brick and 17.41%

to 73.33% for sludge-RHA brick respectively. From the obtained results, it was

concluded that by common temperature, 75& addition was the optimum sludge to

produce the bricks. On the other hand, Hegazy et al also discussed the corporation of

water sludge, silica fume (SF) and rice husk ash (RHA) in brick making. Three different

series of sludge of SF and RHA proportion which were (25: 50: 25%), (50: 25: 25) and

proportion which were (25: 50: 25%), (50: 25: 25) and (25: 25: 50%) were incorporated.

Each brick was fired at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C. For the compressive

strength and water absorption the results obtained 5.03 MPa to 8.12 MPa and 16.24% to

42.11% respectively. The operating at the temperature commonly practiced in brick klin

could be concluded that mixture consists of 50% of sludge, 25% of SF and 25% of RHA

was the optimum materials proportions that demonstrated obvious superior properties to

the 100% clay control-brick.

Ingunza, Liew – They used 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sewage sludge

incorporated into soft-mud brick with 42 specimens for each sludge percentage. From the

result obtained there is no sign of alteration in colour or odour. Brick with 35% sludge

were very brittle and there are some of dimension reduction changes between 1 mm to 7

mm. Based on the result, the brick mass significantly loss according to the percentage of

sludge. Wengalo reported the same conclusion. Ingunza also claim that bricks

manufactured with 20%, 25% and 30% are above the limit proposed. In terms of

properties the water absorption result shows there were increment for each brick

absorbing capability increased to an average of 160% more than control brick. The sludge

brick with 25% and 30% inclusion do not meet minimum standard required but other

percentages comply with the minimum standard strength.

2.2 Earlier Researches:

A number of the early research works had done using various pozzolanic materials

with the substitute of clay for the development of bricks. An overview of different studies

has high performances been represented.

Danupan Tonnayopes, Perapung, Tetasakul and Sarawat Jaritgnous (2008)

investigate the effect of RHA addition on the physical and mechanical properties of the

light weight building fired clay bricks. Different proportioned of RHA from 10-50% by

mass were wired to the raw fired clay. Higher RHA addition required a higher water

content to ensure the right dry density. The water absorption of RHA brick has ranged

from 9.63% of normal brick to 41.22% of RHA 50 brick. It can observe that inc. in RHA

replacement give rise to an inc. in the water absorption. The increase in amount of RHA

addition causes a reduction in brick density an increase in the content of the RHA

addition loads to an decrease in the firing linear shrinkage firing weight loss increased as
the amount of RHA additive increased. Also an increase of RHA leads to an increase in

the open persity and this effect decreased the bulk density and improve the thermal

insulating properties with confirm of electrical resistance behaviour particularly at 40-

50% RHA. In addition to rusting strength values decrease with increasing the amount of

RHA addition. An 90% reduction in the rusting strength of central brick is obtained from

50% RHA replacement.

Agbede, I.O. and Joel, M. (2011) study was undertaken to investigate the effects

of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on the burnt prop. of the clay brick 2 to 10% RHA was blended

with the clay Alterberg limits, specific gravity, comp. strength and water absorption test

were conducted on each adviature. The result showed that the plasticity index reduced

gradually and had a min. value of at 6% RHA. Compressive strength and water

absorption attained a max. value of 18.64 HN/m° and a min. value of 14.8% respectively

at 2% RHA. Thus a 2% RHA additive load to a significant improvement in prop. of burnt

clay brick. The plasticity index dec. 203% at 0% RHA to a min. value of 6.5% at 6%

RHA. A dec. in plasticity index is a sign of improvement of the soil. The linear shrinkage

dec. from 10% for natural soil sample to min. value of 4.9% at 6% RHA and remain

constant. It appears that no further gain in volume stability is achieved beyond 6% RHA.

The specific gravity of the RHA was found to be 2.04 while that of clay was found

to be 2.42. Therefore the addition of RHA to the soil led to a reduction in the specific

gravity of the admixture. It is of particular note that the comp. strength of the brick

decreased as the amount of RHA substituted into the clay increased. The water absorption

characteristics of the bricks show that wine water absorption 14.8% was obtained for

brick made with 2% RHA. The inc. in comp. strength of the bricks from 17.60 MN/m2 at

0% RHA to 186 MN/m2 at 2% RHA might have been caused by presence of CaO in RHA
in very small quantity which reacted with the soil to form silicate of calcium at

introduction of water.

J. Sutar, A. Mona, L. Pitak (2011) concluded that more adding rice husk ash less

compressive strength and density of specimen. The parasity inc. when adding rice husk

ash. By adding 2% of rice husk ash by wt. is best of brick properties which 6.20 MPa of

comp. strength, 1.68 g/an3 of density and 15.20% of water absorption. The bulk density

were high max. 1.68 g/cm3 with 2% addition of rice husk ash and dec. when rice husk ash

addition more than 2%. The comp. strength dec with increase rice husk addition, because

of high porosity and low bulk density for rice husk ash addition were 2% by wt. show

height max. of comp. strength are 6.20 MPA. The effect of rice husk ash to water

absorption inc. with inc. addition of rice husk ash content in clay mixture.

N. Vamsi, Trof. P.V.V. Satyanarayana, Dr. K. Srinivasa Rao (2012) in the sty,

rice husk ash has been utilized for preparation of bricks in partial and full replacement of

clay from the studies, it is observed that optimum proportion for (RHA + Clay) bricks

was observed as 30% RHA and 70% clay as brick exhibited high comp. strength and low

brick weight. In full replacement of lay with 40% RHA, 40% lime and 20% gypsum give

more strength (41 kg/cm2) when compared to all other possible proportions after 28 days

during period. As the % of lime and gypsum inc. water absorption of RHA + lime

gypsum brick dec. and as % of RHA increased water absorption inc. beyond the addition

of 40% RHA the CS decrease.

Er. Rinku Kumar, Er. Naveen Hooda (2014) studied the effect of fly ash on

properties of brick and behaviour of fly ash bricks is compared with conventional burnt

clay brick. They conclude that crushing strength of clay brick is found to 8.14 N/mm2 and

for fly ash brick is found to be 18.81. Thus there is net 56.72% increase in crushing
strength for fly ash brick as a part to clay brick. The avg. water absorption of clay is

found to be 11.93% and for fly ash brick are found to be 9.77%. Thus there is net 18.10%

dec. in moisture absorbed for fly ash brick as a part of clay bricks. The efflorescence of

all bricks tested were found to be slight as white or gray deposits were less than 10% on

surface of the bricks which is almost same as there is normal brick.

Akshay Satish More, Ahad Trade, Ashwani Arant (2014) this study involves

the experimental investigation of effect of fly ash and rice husk ash on the properties of

burnt clay bricks. Determination of properties of the bricks casted with varying properties

of admixtures is taken up to ascertain whether the admixture can be used for the

production of clay bricks. Materials like fly ash and Rice Husk ash are added to clay at

5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% by weight there compressive strength and WA are determined.

This paper concluded that clay bricks having fly ash as a admixture showed best

performance having compressive strength of about 23% greater than that of conventional

bricks. The water absorption for these bricks was found to be more than that of

conventional bricks but still within the prescribed maximum limit as per Indian standards

is 20%. The bricks having rice husk ash as an admixture showed lower compressive

strength and higher % of water absorption when compared to the conventional cly bricks.

Also, for higher percentage of RHA, the edges were found to be irregular in nature.

Hence RHA is not recommended to be used an admixture with clay bricks. The bricks

having both fly ash and RHA as admixtures in equal properties showed a marginal

increase in strength for higher % of admixtures. The water absorption of these bricks was

found to be more than that of conventional bricks. Addition of both the admixtures

together gives only a small increase in performance hence is not highly recommended.
Ashish Kumar Parashar, Rinku Parashar (2010) present the research paper, the

effect of waste product like rice husk, wood husk, clay, fly ash an compressive strength of

brick. The results shows that clay brick gave the compressive strength of 5.26 N/mm2 but

when 4% of wood ash added by weight in the clay, then it gave the compressive strength

of 5.78 N/mm2 again while increasing the % of wood ash 8%, 12%, 16% by weight

increasing the % of wood ash brick also increase respectively 6.31, 7.36, 10 N/mm2. The

diff. % of RHA 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% was added by wt. in the clay, the compressive

strength of brick decreased in the clay, when % of cement was added 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%

by diff wt. the compressive strength of bricks also increased when diff % of fly ash 4%,

8%, 12%, 16% was added in the clay by wt., the comp. strength of bricks decreased. Thus

the study, concluded that with addition of waste material like wood ash in the clay, the

comp. strength of bricks increases, but with the RHA & F the comp. strength of bricks

decreases also when cement content was added in clay by wt. the compressive strength of

bricks increased rapidly than with the wood ash.

Bach Eldin Ezat Hegazy, Hanan Ahmed Sawad and Ahmed Mohammad

Hossanian (2012) this study investigate the complete substitution of brick clay by WTP

sludge incorporated with some of the agricultural and industrial waste, such as RHA and

silica fume (SF). Three diff. series of sludge to SF to RHA proportions by wt. were tried,

which were (25:50:25), (50: 25: 25), (25: 25: 50) respectively. A mixture consists of 50%

of WTP sludge, 25% of SF, and 25% of RHA was the optimum materials proportions to

produce brick from WTP sludge incorporated with SF and RHA. The test result in the

aspect of water absorption, efflorescence and compressive strength showed that most of

research, brick types were superior to control clay bricks types. WTP sludge can be

successfully used in brick manufacture incorporated with agriculture and industrial waste
materials which certain high silica content such as RHA, SF. The maximum % of WTP

sludge, which can be used in the mixture, should be determined by firing temperatures.

Each brick was fired at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C.

Mrs. K. Saranya, M. Santish Kumar, S. Satish (2016) the main objective of this

study is to develop environment friendly and energy saving bricks from sugarcane

begasse ash (SCBS) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA). SCBS and RHA is a vol. by product

from sugar refining industry and rice mills respectively. The ample of these waste

materials was analysed with regarding to chemical composition and particle size

distribution by scanning electron microscopy. In this study SCBS & RHA are mixed in

particular proportion (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) is provided as replacement of clay in

the production of bricks. The experimental results showed that the use of SCBA-RHA

clay combination bricks is lighter in weight, durable non hazardous energy efficient,

additional strength gain due to pozzolanic properties. It is observed that the compressive

strength inc. with increase in ash content in bricks but decrease with inc. in combination

of ash content beyond 15%. The RHA and SCBA used in this study is efficient

pozzolanic material A is rich in amorphous silica (88.32%). The loss on ignition was

relatively high (5.81%) increasing RHA increase its reactivity. The water absorption of

inc. with inc. in ash content in the mix.

2.3 Critical Observation from the Literature

It was observed that much work has been done to make the brick from the

pozzolanic and waste material. The pozzolanic material like fly ash is excelled material

for working brick (partially and fully replace of clay) from crushing strength and water

absorption several attempt has been done to make rice husk ash bricks which is good

pozzolanic material upto the replacement of 2% RHA with clay and provide good
crushing strength. It was observed that several attempt has been done agricultural rice ash

husk, wood ash and bagasse ash waste (fly ash), silica fume.


3.1 Clay

Liquid limit of Clay:

This is the stage when the sample changes from possessing no shearing strength to

having an infinitesimal sheer strength. Liquid limit is the water content at which the soil

changes from the liquid state to the plastic state. The liquid limit (LL) is determined in the

laboratory either by casagrande’s apparatus or by conc. penetration method.

Plastic Limit of Clay:

Plastic Limit (PL) is the water content at which a soil would just begin to crumble

when rolled into a thread of app. 3 mm dia.

Specific gravity of clay:

The specific gravity of solid particles (G) is defined as the ratio of the weight of a

given volume of water at 4°C. The specific gravity of soil is determined by Pycrometer


Plasticity Index (IP):

It is the range of moisture content over which a soil exhibit plasticity.

Ip = LL – PL

LL = Liquid Limit of Clay

PL = Plastic Limit of Clay

S. No. Property of Clay Test Result

1. Liquid Limit (LL) 38.3%

2. Plastic Limit (PL) 18.4%

3. Plasticity Index (Ip) 19.9%

4. Specific Gravity 2.65%

Particle size distribution of clay:

The particle size distribution of clay is present in table. It can be observed that the

percentage of silt and clay (less than 0.006 mm) is more than and sand percentage is

about . It seems that clay has high amount of mix particles which will contribute

efficiently to effective interaction with wheat husk ash (WHA) particles.

Detailed properties of materials used in the study in order to measure the structural

properties and feasibility of using wheat husk ash in brick production, the material and its

properties are explain in this section. In this study the bricks raw material clay and wheat

husk ash one obtained from the field of village Burj Mansa, Bathinda. The moudling and

burning of bricks is done from the kiln situated mixing village Kararwala, Bathinda,

India. Clay  Clay is a fine mixture of decompose igneous rock mineral and organic

matter. Clay refers to naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine grained

minerals, which is generally plastic at appropriate water contents and will harden when

fired or dried. Technological properties of clay materials mainly depend on their degree

of dispersion.

Granulometric composition of lay affects the number of properties such as density,

compressibility, porosity, etc. The clay materials for brick sample taken from one of the

brick manufacturing kiln at village kararwala in Bathinda Distt of Punjab. Clay used for

brick manufacturing should have the following properties

 Plastic when mixed with water

 Have enough tensile strength to keep its shape

 Clay particles must fuse together.

Clay soils are compound of silica and alumina calcarous clay have calcium

carbonate and will burn to yellow or cream color. Non-calcarous typically certain feldspar
and iron oxide, and will burn to a brain, pink or red, depending on the amount of iron

oxide. The silica in the clay, when fired at 900°-1200° degree C will turn to glassy phase.

The process, called vitrification, will turn the clay to a crystalline structure. Therefore, for

the process of vitrification temperature is important. If under fired, the bonding between

the clay particles will be poor and brick will be weak if the temp. is too high the bricks

will be weak. Vitrification does not have to be complete, and does not actually occur in

many of the small traditional brick making plant around the world. However, the

verification does occur enough to give sufficient strength to the brick. It takes

approximately & cubic meters of clay soil to make 1000 bricks.

Sr. No. Sieve Type Mass of Soil % retain Cumulative % passing

retain %age retain
1. 1 mm 6 gm 5% 1% 99%
2. 600 𝜇 10 gm 1.66 % 2.66% 97.34%
3. 424 𝜇 3 gm 0.50 % 3.16% 96.84%
4. 300 𝜇 12 gm 2% 5.16% 94.84%
5. 212 𝜇 74 gm 12.33% 17.49% 82.51%
6. 150 𝜇 84 gm 14% 31.49% 68.51%
7. 90 𝜇 105 gm 17.5% 48.99% 51.01%
8. 75 𝜇 154 gm 25.66% 74.65% 25.35%
9. Pan 152 gm 25.35% 100%



% finer




0.075 0.09 0.15 0.212 0.3 0.425 0.6 1
Particle Size (in mm)
3.2 Wheat Husk Ash:

Wheat Husk is an agricultural waste and majority used in energy sector.

Generating energy from wheat husk has great potential particularly in wheat producing

areas. Wheat is staple food for 2.45 billion people (35% of world population) about 30

million people are engaged in wheat production. For every 13 kg wheat grain produced,

about 1 kg of straw (husk) is produced wheat husk is abundantly available and renewable

and is currently used in some limited applications.

Wheat husk upon burning produces wheat husk ash (WHA). The silica in wheat

husk ash undergoes structural transformations depending on the condition of combustion.

To use WHA for silica based products, it should have more amorphous silica than crystal

silica or good quality crystal silica that can be used a filler in polymeric and ceramic

composite wheat husk is burned at 600°C to obtain an amorphous ash structure. Wheat

husk which is alkso produced during production of wheat and has a low economic value

can be used as biomass source as fuel in boiler because of is high clorofic value. As a

product of grain, husks one often burned in open air to produce energy. WHA has a good

pozolanic property. It is used for various purposes. It has high clorific value of about 3.5

Kcal/g. Its by product is often food in the fields because waste is burned by the farmers

after extracting grain. Wheat husk is taken from the agriculture field and burned at basic

to convert into fine ash.

Wheat Husk Ash has a good pozzolanic property. It is used for various

purposes. It is the staple food produced in large quantity for living and non-living

beings. It has high calorific value of about 3.5 kcal/g. Its by –product is often found in

the fields because waste is burned by the farmers after extracting grains. In this
research, the effect of WHA on the soil is studied. Wheat Husk is taken from the

agriculture fields and burned at 600°C to convert into fine ash. This ash has highest

amount of silica which helps in fertility of soil. Wheat Husk Ash, basically a waste

material, is produced by burning crops waste while processing wheat from paddy.

About 20-22% wheat husk is generated from paddy and about 25% of this total husk

become ash when burn. It is non-plastic in nature. Its properties also varied depending

on its burning temperature.

Particle size distribution of WHA

Particle size distribution of the WHA is present in fig. It can be observed that

percentage of WHA passing through 300 M is 83.5% indicating that the collected

WHA samples consist with more fine particles when the WHA particles are much

finer, the particle interaction easier with clay properties. Consequently, the achievable

degree of mixing


Sr. No. Type of Mass retain %age of Cumulative % % finer

Sieve mass retain of mass retain
1. 1 mm Nil 0% 0% 100%
2. 600 𝜇 4g 2% 2% 98%
3. 425 𝜇 13g 6.5% 8.5% 91.5%
4. 300 𝜇 16g 8% 16.5% 83.5%
5. 212 𝜇 53g 26.5% 43% 57%
6. 150 𝜇 42g 21% 645 36%
7. 78 𝜇 50g 25% 89% 11%
8. Pan 22g 11% 100%


% finer 80




0.078 0.15 0.212 0.3 0.425 0.6 1
Particle Size (in mm)


4. Manufacturing of Bricks

4.1 Sample Preparation: The wheat husk ash is added to clay into two ways. The

mixer of clay and wheat husk ash is divided into following two groups:

(i) Clay + Wheat husk ash

(ii) Clay + Wheat husk ash + lime

In first group, wheat husk ash is to clay in varying of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,

25%and proportion and in second category of group. WHA is added into clay along with

constant 2% of Lime (CaCo3).

The tempering of different raw material is done by adding suitable quantity of

water. Before tempering mixing, weighting of each material (quantity) is note down.

After adding the weighing quantity of each raw material mixing is proceed. The mixing

can be done in two ways:

(1) In first way, the raw material is added into each other in suitable proportion and

then add the required water quantity (1/3 to ¼ by weight of the sample) in the raw

material and left it as for some time and then whole mass kneaded done by human

well under the feet of men or cattle so as to obtain homogenous mass of brick

earth and allowed to dry gradually till it becomes stiff and plastic enough to proper


(2) In second way, they require quantity of water is added to weight clay and left it as

for some time and then weight of WHA is added to clay and water kneaded as

mention above.
In this study first way of preparing sample is adopted the tempering is done

manually because of less number of bricks. 7 to 14 bricks prepared of each brick sample.

The block diagram of manufacturing or fabrication of brick analysis is shown in figure


Procuring Selection of Raw Material




Drying for 7 days

Burning for 7 to 28 days

Transportation to Laboratory

Physical Analysis
Density Analysis
Compressive Strength Analysis
Water Absorption
Efflorescence Analysis
Group I: Sample Preparation for (Clay + WHA) bricks

S. No. Clay (%) Wheat Husk Wt. of Clay Wt. of WHA

Ash (%) (kg) (kg)
1. 100 0 30 0
2. 95 5 28.5 1.5
3. 90 10 27 3
4. 85 15 25.5 4.5
5. 80 20 24 6
6. 75 25 22.5 7.5
Group II: Sample Preparation for (Clay + WHA + Lime) bricks

S. Clay (%) Wheat Husk Lime Wt. of Wt. of Wt. of Lime

No. Ash (%) (%) Clay (kg) WHA (kg) (Kg)
1. 98 0 2 29.4 0 0.6
2. 93 5 2 27.9 1.5 0.6
3. 88 10 2 26.4 3 0.6
4. 83 15 2 24.9 4.5 0.6
5. 78 20 2 23.4 6 0.6

4.2 Moulding: The process of making bricks from the minor sample (clay + wheat +

lime) with help of mould is known as moulding of bricks. The moulding can be machine

moulding and hand moulding. In this research, hand moulding is adopted for making

bricks. The size of mould used in this study is 230 mm x 11.2 x 7 mm.

4.3 Drying of bricks: The process of staking bricks with spaces in between free

circulation of air so as to remove their moisture content is known s drying of bricks. After

moulding, it is necessary to dry the bricks so that they can be early handled, staked in kiln

or clamps without being damaged. If they are put into the kiln in damp condition, they are

liable to crack and wrap at kiln temperature. The drying of bricks is done for 7 days in

open space.

4.4 Burning of Bricks: After 7 days of drying, the bricks are burnt to make them

hand, strong and durable. The bricks are burned in kiln (bhatha) at a temperature 475°C
for 7 days to 28 days. The kiln, where the burning of bricks is done, in this study is

situated at Burj Mansa Road, Rampura Phul named as Singla brick industries. It has been

seen that the bricks, made with WHA admixture takes less time to become hard and

strong i.e. burning time is less as compared to purely clay bricks. The WHA add bricks

taken out from the kiln after 16 days and clay bricks are taken out after 28 days from the

kiln bricks, after taken out from kiln, these are contact down and weighting of each

sample group to laboratory to perform the desire test.

Chapter – 5

Experimental Investigation (Programme) Compression Test, Water absorption Test,

Efflorescence Test (Quality Control Clay Bricks)

(a) Water Absorption Test:

Five bricks are picked at random from a stack of bricks intended to be used.

They are then dried thoroughly in a laboratory oven at a temperature between 105¤C

to 110¤C. Thereafter they are cooled and weighed separately. Then they are kept

immersed in cold water (27¤C or – 2¤C). After 24 hours the bricks are taken out of

water and excess surface water is wiped off using a damp fabric. Immediately after,

they are weighed again separately. Supposing that the dry weight of a brick is Wd and

the wet weight of the same brick is Ww, the water absorption capacity of the brick

expressed in percentage of it’s dry wt. is = (Ww – Wd)/Wd X 100. Upon calculating

the same for each of the 5 bricks the average is found out which is considered as the

water absorption capacity for the bricks. The water absorption capacity of first class

bricks should not exceed 20% when calculated as described above. The same for 2nd
and 3rd class bricks are not to exceed 22% and 25% respectively. For any superior

quality brickwork, first class bricks only are recommended while 2nd & 3rd class clay

bricks are advised for moderate to low quality work.

b) Efflorescence test:

Conventional clay bricks may contain some amount of alkaline substance in

them. However, the greater the presence of such content the greater the risk of

efflorescence which appear in the surfaces of bricks as fine whitish layers (deposits).

These are hard to control and can lead to other perpetual problems, especially esthetic

ones, in a structure. It is always better to ascertain the quality of bricks beforehand

with regard to the efflorescence matter. A simple test as described below can serve the

purpose easily. Five randomly picked clean bricks are placed together on their ends in

a pan so that there are gaps among the bricks as well as between the bricks and the

outer edges of the pan. Cold distilled water is then poured in the pan such that the

depth of water is at least one inch. That is, at least one inch of the bricks must be

under water. The pan is then kept under observation in an well-ventilated room at

room temperature (27¤C or so). As soon as the entire water in the pan gets exhausted

distilled water is poured again exactly as described above and kept as it was until the

whole water disappears again due to evaporation and suction by the bricks. The bricks

are then examined for efflorescence and appraised as described below: If no or

negligible whitish salty formation is observed, efflorescence is considered as “nil”.

Similarly, efflorescence is considered as “slight” if 10% or less of the brick surface

only is covered with the salty substance. The same is regarded as “moderate” if 50%

of the surface is affected by the whitish salty deposit but without formation of flakes.
Efflorescence is considered as “heavy” in case 50% of the surface is affected by

whitish powdery deposit simultaneously with flaking of the surface. For any quality

brickwork bricks of “nil” or, at the most, “slight” efflorescence only are advised.

Anything more than that may be used only in low quality work where efflorescence

won’t pose as a major issue.

c) Test of compressive strength:

Five randomly picked clean & smooth bricks are kept immersed in water for 24

hours at room temp. Thereafter these saturated bricks are taken out and any excess

surface water is wiped off. The frogs are then filled with 1: 1 mortar and smoothened

flat with trowel. The frogless bricks are now kept under wet fabric for 24 hrs.

Thereafter, they are kept immersed in water for 72 hrs. These are then taken out of

water. A thin plyboard is placed on the lower plate of a compressive strength testing

machine. One brick is placed on the ply-board with it’s filled frog upwards. Another

similar sheet is placed on the top of the brick. Load is now applied on the brick at an

uniform rate of 1.4 kg/ per minute. When the brick fails the reading shown by

the needle in the dial is noted down. This is repeated for all of the five bricks. The

average of the five readings is calculated and is considered as the compressive

strength for the bricks. For any brickwork of good quality the compressive strength

should not be less than 50 kg/

(d) % weight Loss Test:

In this test, weight of each sample bricks is note down before placing into in kiln

and after taken out of it from the kiln. Generally the weight of three bricks from each

sample is noted and graph is drawn between weight loss of inc. in amount of WHA in

clay and % of WHA add in the clay.

(e) Linear Shrinkage Test of WHA bricks:

In this test, Length Linear of brick from each sample is note down before placed it

into a kiln and after taken out it from kiln. Charge in dimension is the linear shrinkage of

WHA bricks and graph drawn between linear shrinkage in mm and between WHA %

added in clay.

(f) Bulk density Test:

Bulk density defined as the weight per unit volume of brick. Weight divided by

volume bulk density of brick can be calculated. It is generally represent in kg/cm3. Bulk

density of brick calculated three times:

(i) Density before placing bricks into kiln (drying bricks)

(ii) Density after bricks taken out of kiln (burnt bricks)

(iii) Density of bricks after placing it water for 24 hours (after water absorption test)

(g) Soundness Test:

In this test, two bricks are taken and they are struck with each other. Brick should

not break and clear ringing sound should be produced.

(h) Hardness Test:

In this test, a scratch is made on brick with the help of a finger or nail. If no
impression is left on the surface, bricks is treated to be sufficiently hard.
(i) Toughness Test:

In this test, bricks should not break into pieces when dropped flat on hard ground

from a height about one meter.

(j) Structure Test:

The bricks when broken or fractured should show bright homogenous structure

and uniform compact structure free from voids, holes and lump etc.

(k) Shape and Size Test:

Shape and size of bricks are very important consideration. All bricks used for

construction should be of same size. The shape of bricks should be purely rectangular

with square sharp edges. If all the bricks are of similar size then they are qualified for

construction work.

(l) Color Test:

A good brick should have bright and uniform color throughout its body.


Bulk Density of bricks (before placing in kiln, after taken out of kiln and after 24

hrs water absorption shown in fig. 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 compare between specimen with add

WHA and without WHA (pure clay bricks and clay + lime bricks) bricks has bulk density

less than without WHA bricks. Bulk density decrease with inc. WHA addition because of

inc. in porosity between particles. Therefore, higher WHA addition, inc. the porosity

volume, dec. the weight of brick and therefore bulk density also decrease. The bulk

density, high at 5% addition of WHA and dec. continuously when WHA addition increase

in clay. The main reason for such a result is the burning of WHA addition as an organic

burn out during the burning period.




Clay + WHA Bricks Sample


Clay 3.270 1.813 gm/cm3
Clay + 5% WHA 2.905 1.611 gm/cm3
Clay + 10% WHA 2.580 1.480 gm/cm3
Clay + 15% WHA 2.560 1.419 gm/cm3
Clay + 20% WHA 2.260 1.253 gm/cm3
Clay + 25% WHA 2.190 1.214 gm/cm3

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)

0 5 10 15 20 25
WHA Contents (%)

Bulk Density

Fig. 6.1
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample


Clay + Lime 2.970 1.647 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 5% WHA 2.770 1.536 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 10% WHA 2.530 1.403 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 15% WHA 2.080 1.153 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 20% WHA 2.030 1.125 gm/cm3

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)

0 5 10 15 20
WHA Contents (%)

Bulk Density
Fig 6.2
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

Clay + WHA Bricks Sample


Clay 3.078 1.773 gm/cm3
Clay + 5% WHA 2.745 1.563 gm/cm3
Clay + 10% WHA 2.407 1.402 gm/cm3
Clay + 15% WHA 2.375 1.383 gm/cm3
Clay + 20% WHA 2.077 1.210 gm/cm3
Clay + 25% WHA 2.023 1.178 gm/cm3

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)



0 5 10 15 20 25
WHA Contents (%)

Bulk Density

FIG 6.3
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample


Clay + Lime 2.771 1.585 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 5% WHA 2.531 1.454 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 10% WHA 2.360 1.356 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 15% WHA 1.813 1.057 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 20% WHA 1.736 1.012 gm/cm3

Bulk Density (gm/cm3) 1.5


0 5 10 15 20
WHA Contents (%)

Bulk Density

Fig 6.4
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

Clay + WHA Bricks Sample


Clay 3.429 1.979 gm/cm3
Clay + 5% WHA 3.230 1.839 gm/cm3
Clay + 10% WHA 3.011 1.748 gm/cm3
Clay + 15% WHA 2.926 1.706 gm/cm3
Clay + 20% WHA 2.757 1.607 gm/cm3
Clay + 25% WHA 2.700 1.578 gm/cm3

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)




0 5 10 15 20 25
WHA Contents (%)

Bulk Density

FIG 6.5
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample


Clay + Lime 3.337 1.908 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 5% WHA 3.182 1.828 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 10% WHA 2.794 1.598 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 15% WHA 2.552 1.460 gm/cm3
Clay + Lime + 20% WHA 2.285 1.307 gm/cm3

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)



0 5 10 15 20
WHA Contents (%)

Bulk Density
Fig 6.6
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

Water Absorption:

The effect of WHA to water absorption is shown in fig 6.4, 6.5. The water

absorption of WHA has ranged from 12.91% to 34.88%. In case of clay + WHA bricks,

in the case of clay + lime + WHA bricks, it range from 17.16% to 47.77%. The water

absorption increase with inc. addition WHA because of high porosity in clay + lime

WHA bricks, at 10% addition of WHA there is incidentally increase in water absorption

of bricks. Similar in Clay + WHA at 20% addition of WHA in clay, there is also

incidentally increase to water absorption of bricks. The addition of 5% WHA by wt. in

clay (in clay + 5% WHA) bricks shows of water absorption 18.2% because of low

porosity and high density properties and it confirms the first class category of bricks. The

major factor affecting the durability of brick is water absorption. The less infiltration of

water in the brick, the more durable is the brick. So, the internal structure of the brick

must be intensive enough to prevent the intrusion of water. It is found that WHA property

of prepared brick initially with an inc. in ash content upto optimum ash content 10% low

in clay and clay + lime bricks. However it increase at much rate afterwards. This is due

fact that addition of additive (ash) to the soil generates desire heat of hydration which

starts the pozzolanic reaction resulting in gel foundation. At an optimum ash %, a

homogenous gel formation takes place in which all the soil particle will be involve in

pozzolanic reaction leading to formation of less porous hard cementitous product. Any

further inc. in ash proportion in soil will result in excess of ash which remains unused and

prevents the soil particles from point to point contact leading to inc. in porosity.
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Types of Sample % Absorption

Clay 12.91
Clay + 5% WHA 18.02
Clay + 10% WHA 22.78
Clay + 15% WHA 24.70
Clay + 20% WHA 33.29
Clay + 25% WHA 34.88

Water Absorption (%)

0 5 10 15 20 25
WHA Contents (%)

% Absorption

Fig 6.7
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

Types of Sample % Absorption

Clay + Lime 17.16
Clay + Lime + 5% WHA 20.53
Clay + Lime + 10% WHA 25.15
Clay + Lime + 15% WHA 45.45
Clay + Lime + 20% WHA 47.77

Water Absorption (%)

0 5 10 15 20
WHA Contents (%)

% Absorption

Fig 6.8
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

The wt. loss % with inc. in WHA % by wt. shown in fig. firing wt. loss (%)

increased as the amount of WHA additive increased.

Also an increase of WHA leads to an increase of open porosity and this effect

increase the thermal insulating properties because it decrease the bulk density.

Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Types of Sample Wt. before kiln placing Wt. after taken % wt.
(W1) out of kiln (W2)
Clay 3.270 3.073 6.02
Clay + 5% WHA 2.905 2.745 5.50
Clay + 10% WHA 2.580 2.407 6.48
Clay + 15% WHA 2.560 2.375 7.22
Clay + 20% WHA 2.260 2.077 8.09
Clay + 25% WHA 2.190 2.023 9.23

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)

0 5 10 15 20 25
WHA Contents (%)

% wt.

Fig 6.9
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

TABLE 6.10
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

Types of Sample Wt. before kiln Wt. after taken % wt.

placing (W1) out of kiln (W2)
Clay + Lime 2.970 2.771 6.70
Clay + Lime + 5% WHA 2.770 2.531 8.62
Clay + Lime + 10% WHA 2.530 2.360 6.71
Clay + Lime + 15% WHA 2.080 1.813 12.83
Clay + Lime + 20% WHA 2.030 1.736 14.48

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)

0 5 10 15 20
WHA Contents (%)

% wt.
Fig 6.10
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample

Linear Shrinkage (%):

The WHA proportion effect on the linear shrinkage fig is completely an increase

in the content of WHA addition leads to an decrease in the firing linear shrinkage.

TABLE 6.11
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

Types of Sample Linear Dimension Linear Dimension %

of the brick before of brick after it
placing it in kiln taken out from kiln
Clay 23 cm 22.5 cm 2.2
Clay + 5% WHA 23 cm 22.6 cm 1.769
Clay + 10% WHA 23 cm 22.7 cm 1.32
Clay + 15% WHA 23 cm 22.8 cm 0.87
Clay + 20% WHA 23 cm 22.9 cm 0.436
Clay + 25% WHA 23 cm 23 cm 0

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)



0 5 10 15 20 25
WHA Contents (%)

Fig 6.11
Clay + WHA Bricks Sample

TABLE 6.12
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample
Types of Sample Linear Dimension Linear Dimension %
of the brick before of brick after it
placing it in kiln taken out from kiln
Clay + Lime 23 cm 22.5 cm 2.2
Clay + Lime + 5% WHA 23 cm 22.6 cm 1.769
Clay + Lime + 10% WHA 23 cm 22.7 cm 1.32
Clay + Lime + 15% WHA 23 cm 23 cm 0
Clay + Lime + 20% WHA 23 cm 23 cm 0

Bulk Density (gm/cm3)



0 5 10 15 20
WHA Contents (%)

Fig. 6.12
Clay + Lime + WHA Bricks Sample


Weight of Brick (kg)




0 5 10 15 20 25
Wheat Husk Ash Contents (%)

Fig 13
Weight Analysis of Clay + WHA Brick


Weight of Brick (kg) 2



0 5 10 15 20
Wheat Husk Ash Contents (%)

Fig 14
Weight Analysis of Clay + Lime + WHA Brick

Table 13
Efflorescence (Clay + Wheat Husk Ash Bricks)

Sample Type Efflorescence

0 Nil

5 Nil

10 Slight

15 Moderate

20 Heavy

25 Heavy

Table 14
Efflorescence (Clay + Lime + Wheat Husk Ash Bricks)

Sample Type Efflorescence

0 Nil

5 Slight

10 Moderate

15 Heavy

20 Heavy
Structure Analysis:

It is found that bricks clay + 5% WHA, C+10% WHA, C+L+5% are free from any defect

such as holes, lumps, etc. and are homogenous and compact structure, but all other bricks

having small amount of holes, voids and small lump. These bricks are hetrogenous in

nature and are not in well compact forms. At lower % of WHA, the clay characteristics

are very much dominating than the WHA’s characteristics, so that bonding between the

materials is very high, so these material bricks show compact (free for lamp) and less

porous (free from holes) and homogenous in nature. while as WHA’s % inc. WHA

characterizes predominate, the bonding between the clay and WHA particle is weak, so

that the structure is less compact, more porous and heterogeneous in nature.

Shape and Size Analysis:

In clay + WHA brick sample clay + 5% WHA, clay + 10% WHA, C+15% WHA types

brick have rectangular with square sharp edges and in 20% and 25% WHA content the

bricks have rectangular with rounded edge. In Clay + Lime + WHA brick sample, bricks

having 5%, 10% of WHA have rectangular with square sharp edge while other %age i.e.

15%, 20% have rounded edges.