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FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PRESTRESSED PRETENSION CONCRETE

T-BEAM

ELWALID ADAM ISHAG ADAM

A report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the award of the degree of
Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

JANUARY 2013
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‫‪ ‬‬

‫اھدى كل تحياتي وشكري وتقديري الى كل من ساھم في انجاح ھذا البحث‬


‫واخص بالذكر استاذي الفاضل البروفسور بدر الھشام بن احمد ‪ ،‬عائلتي الكبيرة‬
‫‪.‬والصغيرة واصدقائي جميعا خصوصا اسامة عبدالرزاق ‪.‬حبي لكم جميعا‬
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ABSTRACT

Prestressed concrete constructions become a one of the famous constructions


method. The stresses occurred in concrete and reinforcement became kind of
complex due to prestressing and applying loads. And in reasons of costs and time for
lab tests, Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of prestressed reinforced
concrete T-beam had been developed in this study. This lead to the requirement by
codes of practice to obtain design parameters for each new system by extensive full-
scale testing. According to the high costs and time consuming for laboratory tests.
Many researchers tried to propose alternative methods of small-scale testing and
finite element models. These methods are still being refined to make them more
accurate and practical for use in design offices. In this study we are going to develop
a model to simulate a model had been tested at lab of structure in Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia and to obtain the best method of modeling the specimen. At the
end of this study it should be aim to develop a 3D finite element model of prestressed
concrete T-beams and analyzed them using finite element software, ANSYS package.
Interface elements will be used for modeling bond interaction between concrete,
reinforcement and prestressed force in tendons. And by applying loads up to ultimate
loads and plot the graph of loads verses displacement in linearity region, and by
increasing loads up to non-linearity region will be illustrated in the criteria of flexure
behavior. The results was be verified against published experimental data for test on
T-beam done in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. It is expected that, by using the
mentioned combination, a more accurate model was be achieved as compared to
result out from tests.
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ABSTRAK

Pembinaan konkrit prategasan menjadi salah satu kaedah pembinaan yang


terkenal. Tegasan yang berlaku dalam konkrit dan tetulang menjadi jenis kompleks
kerana prategasan dan memohon beban. Dan sebab-sebab kos dan masa untuk ujian
makmal, Tiga dimensi linear model unsur terhingga prategasan konkrit bertetulang T-
beam telah dibangunkan dalam kajian ini. Ini membawa kepada keperluan oleh kod
amalan untuk mendapatkan parameter reka bentuk untuk setiap sistem baru oleh
ujian skala penuh yang luas. Menurut kos yang tinggi dan mengambil masa yang
lama untuk ujian makmal. Ramai penyelidik cuba untuk mencadangkan kaedah
alternatif ujian kecil-kecilan dan model unsur terhingga. Kaedah-kaedah ini masih
sedang diperhalusi untuk membuat mereka lebih tepat dan praktikal untuk digunakan
di pejabat-pejabat reka bentuk. Dalam kajian ini kita akan membangunkan model
untuk mensimulasikan model telah diuji di makmal struktur di Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia dan untuk mendapatkan kaedah terbaik model spesimen. Pada akhir kajian
ini, ia harus bertujuan untuk membangunkan model unsur terhingga 3D T-rasuk
konkrit prategasan dan dianalisis menggunakan perisian unsur terhingga, pakej
ANSYS. Unsur Antara Muka akan digunakan untuk bon model interaksi antara
tetulang konkrit, dan daya dalam tendon prategasan. Dan dengan menggunakan
beban sehingga beban muktamad dan plot graf sesaran ayat beban di rantau
kelinearan, dan dengan meningkatkan beban sehingga ke rantau bukan kelinearan
akan digambarkan dalam kriteria kelakuan lenturan. Keputusan telah disahkan
terhadap data yang diterbitkan eksperimen bagi ujian ke atas T-beam yang dilakukan
di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Ia dijangka bahawa, dengan menggunakan
gabungan yang disebutkan, model yang lebih tepat dapat dicapai berbanding
mengakibatkan keluar dari ujian.
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION ii
DEDICATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
ABSTRACT v
ABSTRAK vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Problem statement 2
1.3 Objectives and Outline 3
1.4 Significance of Study 4
1.5 Scope of Study 5

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Experiment-Based Testing Of Concrete 7
2.3 Finite Element Analysis 8
2.4 FE Modeling of Steel Reinforcement 12
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3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 13
3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 Experimental beam 14
3.3 ANSYS Finite Element Model 16
3.3.1 Element Types 17
3.3.2 Real Constants 19
3.3.3 Material Properties 21
3.3.4 Modeling 27
3.3.5 Meshing 28
3.3.6 Numbering Controls 29
3.3.7 Loads and Boundary Conditions 29
3.3.8 Analysis Type 32
3.3.9 Analysis Process for the Finite Element
Model 35

4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 39


4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Prestressing forces 40
4.3 Bursting Phenomenon 42
4.4 Analysis of Service Limit State Condition 43
4.5 Stress at PC strand 44
4.6 Deflections in Serviceability limit state 45
4.7 Deflections in Ultimate limit State 51

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION 55


5.1 Introduction  55
5.2 Conclusions  55
5.3 Recommendations for Future Work  57
REFERENCES 58

APPENDIX A 59
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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO TITLE PAGE

3.1 Properties for Steel and Concrete (Dr.Wahid,200 17


3.2 Element Types For Working Model 19
3.3 Real Constants for Calibration Model 21
3.4 Material Models for the Calibration Model 23
3.5 Strain and Stress relation for Prestressing Strands 27
3.6 Commands Used to Control Nonlinear Analysis 35
3.7 Commands Used to Control Output 35
3.8 Nonlinear Algorithm and Convergence Criteria
Parameters 36
4.1 Deflection results for SLS for T-Beam (Experimental). 45
4.2 Deflection results for SLS for T-Beam (ANSYS). 45
4.2 Deflection results for ULS for T-Beam 53
4.4 Deflection results for ULS for T-Beam (ANSYS). 54
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LIST OF FIGURES

 
FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE

2.1 Typical Cracking of Control Beam at Failure


(Buckhouse 1997) 8
2.2 Reinforced Concrete Beam With Loading (Faherty
1972) 9
2.3 FEM Discretization for a Quarter of the Beam
(Kachlakev, et al. 2001) 10
2.4 Load vs. Deflection Plot (Kachlakev, et al. 2001) 11
2.5 Typical Cracking Signs in Finite Element Models 12
2.6 Models for Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete
(Tavarez 2001) 13
3.1 Dimension of the Beam (Wahid,2002) 16
3.2 Loading and Supports for the Beam (Wahid,2002) 17
3.3 Failure load arrangement in Flexure (Wahid,2002) 18
3.4 Solid 65 Element Ansys 20
3.5 Solid 45 Element Ansys 20
3.6 Link 8 Element Ansys 21
3.7 Strain Stress relation for prestress strands 27
3.8 Strain Stress relation for concrete 29
3.9 Volumes and Mesh Created for the beam in ANSYS 30
3.10 Boundary Conditions for Planes of Symmetry 32
3.11 Boundary Condition for Support 33
3.12 illustrates the plate and applied loading. 34
 
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4.1 Deflection due to prestress forces 40


4.2 Detail of the reinforcement bar and PC strands 41
4.3 Bursting Phenomenon 42
4.4 Section division on prototype beam 44
4.5 Serviceability load vs deflection curve 51
4.6 Ultimate limit state load vs deflection curve 54
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

Recently a lot of methods had been discovered to understand the behavior


and responses of the structure elements due to the effects of applied loads. For past
few centuries an experimental method and different methods have been utilized to
study the response of structural elements such as try and error for analyze for
individual elements.

Those methods of analysis had been developed in cause of time consuming


and high costs for that materials which used in the analyzing methods, till the finite
element method (FEM) had been discovered, which will be considered in this thesis
as the most methods to obtain the behavior of prestressed pretention concrete T-
beam. And by applying the service load and the ultimate load for this study and by
understanding the load-deflection relation, cracks, and stresses responses parameters
will be developed. results will be compared with the experimental one.
2

Unfortunately, early attempts to accomplish this were also very time


consuming and infeasible using existing software and hardware. In recent years,
however, the use of finite element analysis has increased due to progressing
knowledge and capabilities of computer software and hardware. It has now become
the choice method to analyze concrete structural components. The use of computer
software to model these elements is much faster, and extremely cost-effective.

The parameters of prestressed concrete beam were used to model a beam and
study of those parameters effects on load-deflection curve. By using finite element
method can predict the characteristic points on load-deflection response curve were
compared to experimental one.

By understanding the behavior of the component materials in each particular


element and study the interaction between all materials and the effects on each on
other, is consider one of the basic of using the finite element method to get and
predict the result after analysis and compare that by one which got from test results.
And by understanding that, the use and efficiency of the software can appear and
derive to similarity results of experimental tests.

The accuracy of using finite element modeling and compare the results to
experimental one will be the conclusion of this thesis.

1.2 Problem Statement

Due to the cost and timing limitations of full-scale tests, and small-scale tests
to some extent; development of a reliable analytical software model is desirable.
3

Previous researchers developed some models based on combination of: software


used analysis type, element types & material properties. Their results could not
completely match experimental data, although some were very close. By using finite
element method (FEM) by computer software, ANSYS, we are trying to produce a
model which closely resembles the experimental data available. And which of
available methods are available in ANSYS gives accurate results to experimental
one.

1.3 Objectives and Outline

Evaluate and investigate the use of finite elements method for analysis of
prestressed reinforced concrete beam is the first objective, second objective is
demonstrate the behavior and effect of prestressed concrete beam according to
distribution of loads, third understand the prestressed reinforced concrete beam
behavior in linear and nonlinear zone and the forth is to predict the ultimate capacity
load of prestressed reinforced concrete beam.

The following objectives must be fulfilled:


i) To determine the most capable methods and techniques that available in
finite element analysis and can be applied for prestressed concrete beam
finite element analysis.
ii) To developed a 3D model of prestressed concrete beam in ANSYS
software and use the available modelling methods.
iii) To determine the most accurate techniques in ANSYS to predict the
experimental results.
4

1.4 Significance of Study

It is hoped that this research will propose a reliable and effective finite
element model which can be used for predicting the behaviour of prestressed
concrete beams. If this is achieved, then the need for expensive time-taking
laboratory tests can be reduced up to some extent. The model may be used for both
educational and practical applications.

1.5 Scope of Study

The scope of this study will be to model a prestress pretension concrete T-


beam of 18 m long by finite element package (ANSYS). Loading was applied at
service load condition to study the behaviour of the beam. The beam was then loaded
until ultimate failure when the deflection increased nonlinearly. In the test at service
load limit, it was found that the beam still in elastic behaviour, with only some
negligible fine cracks within allowable limit. The ultimate bending moment was
observed to be 1.5 times that of bending moment at service loading condition. Tow
plane stress finite element models, which will be created by ANSYS software and
analysed. To verify the reliability of ANSYS, a simple supported prestressed
pretention concrete beam will be analyzed using different materials properties. Later
a cross section and convergence studies will carry out on a T-section prestressed
pretension concrete beam to determine the reliability of the model
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References

ANSYS, ANSYS User’s Manual, Version 13.


A. F. Barbosa, A Study of Models for Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Concrete
Structures (Dissertation for attainment of Master Degree), Federal University of
Minas, Gerais, 1997.
Wolanski, A. J., Flexural Behavior of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Beams using
Finite Element Analysis, MSc. Thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School, Marquette
University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 2004
Faherty KF (1972). An analysis of a reinforced and a prestressed concrete beam by finite
element method. PhD dissertation, Universityof Iowa, Iowa, USA.
Tan, K., Tjandra, R. A. “Shear Deficiency in Reinforced Concrete Continuous Beams
Strengthened with External Tendons. ACI Structural Journal.100 (5),565-572.
Barbosa AF, Riberio GO (2004). Analysis of reinforced concrete structures using ANSYS
nonlinear concrete model. Comput. Mech.1(8): 1-7.
American Concrete Institute (1978), Douglas McHenry International Symposium on Concrete
and Concrete Structures.American Concrete Institute. Detroit, Michigan.
Branson, D.E.; Meyers, B.L.; and Kripanarayanan, K.M. (1970).Loss of Prestress. Camber
and Deflection of Noncomposite and Composite Structures Using Different Weight
Concrete. Iowa State Highway Comission, Report No. 70-6, Aug.
Buckhouse, E.R. (1997).External Flexural Reinforcement of Existing Reinforced Concrete
Beams Using Bolted Steel Channels. Master’s Thesis, Marquette University,
Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Janney, J.R. (1954).Nature of Bond in Pre-tensioned Prestressed Concrete. Journal of the
ACI. Proceedings, Vol.50, No.5, May.
Wahid bin Omar. (2002).Research no.72078 . DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE
EVALUATION OF STANDERED T-SECTION BRIDGE BEAM FOR
MALAYSIA research report UTM.,Feb,2002