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I am truly indebted to my family for their invaluable support. I wish to express my profound

gratitude to Prof. A.O. Ibe for his exceptional guidance and direction throughout the work. My

appreciation also goes to Dr. R. Uhunmwangho for his motivation during the work, as well as to

Raymond Akwijoro for the support he gave me.


I declare that this report is my unaided work and it was not copied or written in collaboration
with any other person.



(Unu, Ochuko Valerie)


I certify that this report is an independent work carried out by UNU, OCHUKO VALERIE for
registration as corporate member of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE).

Signed: ____________________

Name: ____________________________

Position in the Company/ Organization: ___________________

NSE Registration Number: _____________________

COREN Number: _____________________

Date: ____________________


I dedicate this report to God Almighty.


Cover Page i

Acknowledgement ii

Declaration iii

Certification Page iv

Dedication v

Table of Contents vi

List of Figures x

List of Tables xi

PART A xii

Personal Details xiii

Educational Institution Attended xiv

Summary of Post-Graduate Work Experience xv

PART B xvi

Project One: Optimization Of A Solar Pv/Diesel Hybrid System For An Administrative

Block xvii

Abstract xviii

Chapter One: Introduction 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Statement of Problem 2

1.3 Aim and Objectives 3

1.4 Scope of Work 3

1.5 Methodology 3

1.6 Review of Related Work 4

Chapter Two: Methodology 5

2.1 System Inputs 5

2.2 HOMER inputs 5

2.3 Load Data 6

2.4 Photovoltaic System 8

2.5 Battery Sizing 11

2.6 Diesel Generator 12

2.7 Converter 13

2.8 Solar Resource 14

Chapter Three: Results and Discussion 15

3.1 Optimal System 15

3.2 Cost Summary 15

3.3 The PV Output 16

3.4 Diesel Generator Output 17

3.5 Converter Output 17

3.6 Battery Output 18

3.7 Emissions 18

3 .8 Sensitivity Analysis 19

Chapter Four: Conclusion 21

4.1 Challenges and Recommendations 21

Chapter Five: Bill Of Engineering Measurement Evaluation (BEME) 22

References 23

Project Two: Electrical Design/Installation of Lighting and Power Points for a Three
Bedroom Bungalow 24

Abstract 25

Chapter One: Introduction 26

1.1 Background 26

1.2 Statement of Problem 26

1.3 Aim and Objectives 27

1.4 Scope of Work 27

Chapter One: Methodology 28

2.1 Work Planning 28

2.2 Electrical Design 28

2.3 Materials and Use 30

2.4 Installation and Termination 34

Chapter Three: Design Analysis 39

3.1 The Lighting Load 39

3.2 Power Load 39

3.3 The Load Schedule 40

Chapter Four: Conclusion and Recommendation 41

4.1 Recommendation 41

Chapter Five: Bill Of Engineering Measurement Evaluation (BEME) 42

References 44


Project One:

Figure 2.1System Design 6

Figure 2.1 Load Profile 8

Figure 2.2 PV Details 10

Figure 2.3 Battery Details 12

Figure 2.4 Diesel Generator Details 13

Figure 2.5 Converter Details 14

Figure 3.1 Optimal Systems 15

Figure 3.2 Tabular Cost Summary 15

Figure 3.3 Graphical Cost Summary 16

Figure 3.4 Solar PV Output 16

Figure 3.5 Diesel Generator Output 17

Figure 3.6 Converter Output 18

Figure 3.7 Battery Output 18

Figure 3.8a Optimal System (PV/Diesel/Battery) 19

Figure 3.8b Diesel/Battery System 19

Figure 3.9 Sensitivity Analysis 20

Project Two:

Figure 2.2: 3x3 and 3x6 Knockout Box 30

Figure 2.3 PVC Pipes 31

Figure 2.4 Bending Spring 32

Figure 2.5 Hack Saw Blade 32

Figure 2.6: 4-Way Boxes 33

Figure 2.7: U-boxes 33

Figure 2.8 Fishing Tape 33

Figure 2.9 13A Double Switch Socket Outlet 34

Figure 2.10 Consumer Unit 35

Figure 2.11. Air Conditioning Wiring Setup 37


Project One:

Table 2.1: Load Data for an Administrative Block 6

Table 2.2: PV Panel Electrical Specifications 9

Table 2.3 Solar resource data for Choba 14

Project Two:

Table 3.1: Lighting Points Rating 39

Table 3.2: Power Points Rating 40
Table 3.3: Load Schedule Summary 40





DATE OF BIRTH: 28/08/1988





TELEPHONE NO.: 07035751612








B.Eng., Electrical Electrical Engineering (2011)

WAEC (2005)




PERIOD: 2012-2013

Teach students Computer appreciation and applications.


POSITION HELD: Electrical Design Staff

PERIOD: 2013 Till Date

Produce Electrical designs for both commercial and residential buildings. Such designs
include the power, lighting, fire alarm, CCTV, audio/tv and intercom layouts where






Instability in power supply in the Choba campus of the University of Port Harcourt has led to the
disruptions in both academic and administrative activities in recent times. Over-reliance on diesel
has become very expensive as fuel cost keeps increasing, whilst pollution has recorded from the
emissions of the engines. This work is about the development of an alternative renewable energy
source using PV/Diesel hybrid system based on simulated results of HOMER (Hybrid
Optimization Model for Electrical Renewables) software. The hybrid system is designed and the
calculated results are then simulated using HOMER in order to obtain the optimal system
configuration with the least cost of energy, operation and net present cost. The result shows that
the optimal system consists of a 33kW solar PV, 33kW Diesel generator, a 33kW bidirectional
converter and 20 x 6FM200D batteries for energy storage.



1.1 Background

The World Energy Outlook (2014) report shows that nearly 1.3 billion people are without access

to electricity and 2.7 billion people rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking, which

causes harmful indoor air pollution. These people are mainly in either developing Asia or sub-

Saharan Africa, and in rural areas.

According to a special report in the Africa Energy Outlook(2014) contained in the World Energy

Outlook series, more than 620 million people in sub-Saharan Africa (two-thirds of the

population) live without electricity, and nearly 730 million people rely on dangerous, inefficient

forms of cooking. According to the World bank data on energy (2014), only 48% of the

population in Nigeria has access to electricity. Nigeria has an enormous solar energy resource

with up to 6kWh/m2/day in the Northern parts (NASA).

Solar PV systems convert sunlight energy into electricity through solar cells, which are

composed of semiconductor materials. When these solar cells are combined they form a solar

panel with a peak capacity of 80-200W according to Wiki-solar, depending on size and

technology used. Several panels can be installed together to meet a desired demand.

The output of the solar PV system is determined by the insolation, which is the amount of solar

energy received at a specific location. According to Insight Guides, the insolation value is higher

at regions closer to the Equator than at other regions. This is why PV systems tend to have more

performance in Africa. Choba region of Port Harcourt has an average solar radiation of 4.4

kWh/m2/d which is sufficient for the production of electricity, thus solar PV installation is

feasible. During warmer months, the insolation is higher than in cold months. Similarly,

insolation is higher during the dry season than the rainy season. Thus, the lower production of

PV during the rainy season can be offset with a diesel generator which will operate at higher

levels. Unlike solar PV systems, conventional generators utilize fossil fuel (in this case, diesel) in

order to generate electricity. Combining the renewable energy generation with conventional

diesel power generation will enable the power generated from renewable energy sources to be

more reliable and affordable.

1.2 Statement of Problem

In recent times, the electricity demand by consumers has increased in the University of Port

Harcourt. This is a result of the infrastructural development and population which in turn have

led to the establishment of more hostels, offices and classrooms. The same cannot be said of the

electricity supply from the utility companies. Choba campus barely has power supply for 4-8

hours inconsistently each day. This means for the period when there is no electrical power

supply, diesel generator is used to meet the demand.

Photovoltaic systems however, do not produce pollutants. They operate without noise to convert

sunlight energy to electricity. Choba has high solar resource suitable for the operation of PV

system. PV systems are easy to install, require very insignificant maintenance and does not use

fuel to operate. This makes the project useful in determining the most cost efficient PV system

size to be used (in addition to the diesel generator) to meet the power demand of the department.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The main aim of this report is to determine the optimum size of PV-Diesel system that

sufficiently serves the load of a typical office administrative block in the University of Port

Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State. This is achieved using HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for

Electric Renewables) software. The procedure includes:

1) Calculating a load profile for the commercial building

 An hourly load data for a day is calculated using the power rating of appliance in

2) Determining the appropriate sizes and amount of the PV, inverter and battery and diesel

 These values are calculated using the appropriate formulas
3) Simulation and Optimization
 HOMER uses the data obtained in steps 1 and 2 to perform simulations from

which the optimum system is selected and listed.

1.4 Scope of Work

This report focuses on how HOMER technically and economically selects the optimal PV-Diesel

systems configuration that meets the daily load demand of the administrative building.

1.5 Methodology

The optimum PV-Diesel system size for a commercial building load will be determined and

analyzed mathematically to determine the appropriate size of the individual energy sources. The

obtained data are then simulated using HOMER in order to determine the techno-economically

feasible system configurations and properties. The load data of the building, the PV system data

(including the solar resource data) and the diesel generator data (including fuel price) will be

entered into HOMER as input values. HOMER then performs simulations using these inputs and

gives out sets of optimum system configurations as its output.

1.6 Review of Related Work

Kazem et al (2013) evaluated PV systems against diesel generator system for 4.7kWh/day

average load with a peak load of 520W, using intuitive and numerical techniques. For the

intuitive technique, the optimal system comprises of a 1.7kW PV module, six batteries and

1.5kW inverter. From the numerical technique and using HOMER, the optimal result is achieved

when the system is composed of 1.54kW PV module, five batteries and 1kW inverter.

Al-Asadi and Kazem (2013) designed a hybrid PV/Wind/Battery system in Oman for loads

which included street lights, billboards, traffic lights and telephones, for a distance of 880km.

For this load, 4500kW PV modules, 20,000 batteries, 5000kW inverter and 100 wind turbines

were selected as the optimum system size by HOMER.

Nfah et al (2007) modeled a Solar/Diesel/Battery hybrid system to meet the energy demands of a

typical rural domestic region and concluded that a hybrid power system comprising a 1440Wp

solar PV array and a 5kW diesel generator with a load factor of 0.7, met the demand.



2.1 System Inputs

The system consists mainly of the solar PV, Diesel generator, Converter and batteries. The inputs

for each of these system components comprise of both calculated and existing variables. The

load data for this system, for example was calculated using the known ratings of each appliance

in the building. The PV size was calculated using the selected type specifications, while the cost

was obtained from the website of the manufacturer. The battery and generator data were also

gotten from the specification of the manufacturer.

2.2 HOMER inputs

HOMER is a computer model that simplifies the task of designing hybrid renewable micro grids,

whether remote or attached to a larger grid. It simulates the operation of a system with the

calculated and existing information for the various components and resources by making energy

balance calculations for each of the 8,760 hours in a year. It performs energy balance calculations

for each system configuration that considered. It then determines whether a configuration is

feasible, i.e., whether it can meet the electric demand under the conditions specified, and

estimates the cost of installing and operating the system over the lifetime of the project. The

system cost calculations account for costs such as capital, replacement, operation and

maintenance, fuel, and interest (HOMER manual, 2011).

Fig.2.1 System Design

The system design above consists of the primary load of daily average of 142kWh/d with a peak

of 30kW, a 33kW diesel generator connected to the ac bus bar along with a 33kW converter

(with inverter and rectifier characteristics). Both the 33kW PV array and the 6FM200D batteries

are connected to the dc bus bar.

2.3 Load Data

The load under consideration is that of an office block located in the University of Port Harcourt

in Choba, Rivers State. This is situated at 4.78oN 6.98oE according to Maplandia (2014). The

table below shows the rated appliances as well as the time of use each day.

Table 2.1 Load data for an Administrative block

Appliance Rating Number of Total Rating Duration Energy Per

(Watts) Appliance (Watts) of Use Day
s (Hours) (Watts/hour)

Fan 75 15 1125 8 9000

Air conditioner 1400 15 21000 4 84000

Desktop 300 4 1200 4 4800

Laptops 70 15 1050 4 4200

Fridge 500 10 5000 4 20000

Printer 25 5 125 0.75 93.75

Light 20 18 360 8 2880

Security Light 200 4 800 16 12800

Television 80 4 320 8 2560

Photocopier 1200 1 1200 0.5 600

TOTAL 32,180 140,934

The above data is split into a 24-hour profile and then entered into HOMER.

The average load is calculated using:

Total demand(Watts)
Average Load= …3.1

The peak load is the greatest demand of load on the power station during a given period. The

load factor is given as:

Average Load
Load Factor= …3.2
Peak Load

Fig. 2.1 Load Profile

The daily profile graph above shows the load (in kW) for each hour in a typical day of the

month. Next to it is the DMap (data map) which is a type of graph showing one year of hourly

data. The DMap allows daily and seasonal patterns to be seen much more easily than would be

possible with a simple time series plot. The seasonal profile indicates the maximum, mean and

minimum load for each month in a year.

2.4 Photovoltaic System

When the sun rays strike the Solar PV panels, it produces electricity. A PV module is composed

of interconnected photovoltaic cells encapsulated between a weather-proof covering (usually

glass) and back plate (usually a plastic laminate). It will also have one or more protective by-pass

diodes. The output terminals, either in a junction box or in a form of output cables, will be on the

back. Most modules have frames, but those without frames are called laminates. Some have glass

back plates, which gives a higher fire rating. This however, almost doubles the weight.

Solar PV modules are connected in series-parallel. Cells connected in series increases the voltage

output while cells connected in parallel increases the current. A group of several PV modules

connected together are called a solar array.

2.4.1 PV Array Sizing

To calculate the appropriate PV array size for the load under consideration, the cell temperature

has to be calculated first. For this work, Evergreen ES-A-210 solar polycrystalline panels have

been selected. The specifications of these panels are shown below:

Table 2.2 PV Panel Electrical Specifications

Symbol Value Unit

YPV 210 W
Ƞmp,STC 13.4 %
Ta,NOCT 20 C
Tc,NOCT 45.4 C
Tc 134.05 C
Tc,STC 25 C
αp -0.43 %/ oC
Fpv 60 %
ḠT 4.37 kW/m2
ḠT,STC 1 kW/m2
ḠT,NOCT 0.8 kW/m2
Source: Evergreen Solar

These are very useful in calculating the cell temperature as seen in the equation given by

Tesfaye (2011) below:

T C , NOCT −T a , NOCT η
T c =T a +GT ( )(1− c ) …3.3
GT , NOCT τα

A value of 0.9 is assumed for τ α in the above equation.

ηc =ηmp ,STC [1+α p ( T c −T c , STC ) ] …3.4

The next step is to calculate the PV array output by using the equation:

PPV =Y PV f PV ( Ḡ T , STC)[1+α p ( T c −T c ,STC ) ] …3.5

The maximum installed power capacity of PV Array is therefore 33 KW. The cost of installing a

33kW PV module taken from Renesol consumer fact sheet (2014) is ₦12,375,000. The

replacement cost is ₦11,550,000. Since the operation and maintenance cost is minimal, HOMER

assumes it to be done once a year, which amounts to ₦10,000/year. This is shown below:

Fig. 2.2 PV Details

Note: All the dollar symbols as used in HOMER are assumed to represent naira.

2.5 Battery Sizing

The battery chosen for this work is a 12 volts deep cycle Vision 6FM200D model because they

are lead-acid batteries designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity,

whilst ensuring quicker recharge time. Battery sizing is simply calculating the number of

batteries needed for a hybrid renewable energy system. This mainly depends on the days of

autonomy desired. Days of autonomy are the number of days a battery system will supply a

given load without being recharged by a PV array, wind turbine or another source. If the load

being supplied is not critical then 2 to 3 autonomy days are commonly used. For critical loads 5

days of autonomy are recommended. A critical load is a load that must be used all the time.

Another important factor is maximum depth of discharge of the battery. The depth of discharge

refers to how much capacity will be use from the battery. Most systems are designed for regular

discharges of up to 40 to 80 percent. Battery life is directly related to how deep the battery is

cycled. Atmospheric temperature also affects the performance of batteries. Manufacturers

generally rate their batteries at 25ºC. The battery capacity will decrease at lower temperatures

and increase at higher temperature, while the battery life increases at lower temperature and

decreases at higher. The required battery bank capacity for a hybrid renewable energy system

according to Tesfaye (2011) is given by:

L Ah /day . DST
BR= …3.6
M DD . Df

Where L Ah/ day is the Amp-hour consumed by the load in a day (Ah/day), DST is the number

of autonomy days, M DD is the maximum depth of discharge, Df is the derating factor and

B R is the required battery bank capacity in (Ah).

Since we have considered loads of 100, 125, 142, 150,175 and 200 kWh/day, we would have to

specify different battery sizes for each of them. From the equation above, approximately 20, 40,

60 and 70 batteries are sufficient for the loads. This is shown below:

Fig.2.3 Battery Details

2.6 Diesel Generator

We have used a 33kW Mikano soundproof diesel generator for the load. The cost of this

generator, including its installation is ₦2,200,000, while the replacement cost is ₦1,800,000 as

obtained from the Mikano website. The lifetime of the generator is taken to be 25,000 hours. The

fuel consumption of the diesel generator depends on the rated power of the generator and the

actual output power supplied by it. The fuel consumption of the diesel generator (FC G) in (l/h)

according to Khatib (2011) is given by:

FC G =A G × PG + BG × P R−G …3.7

where PG, PR-G are the output power and the rated power of the generator in (kW) respectively. A G

and BG are the coefficients of the consumption curve in (l/kWh) where A G = 0.246 l/kWh and BG

= 0.08145 l/kWh for the diesel generator. The figure below gives a summary of the diesel

generator details.

Fig.2.4 Diesel Generator Details

2.7 Converter

A power electronic converter is needed to maintain flow of energy between the ac and dc

components. For a 1 kW system the installation and replacement costs are taken as ₦22,000 and

₦20,000 respectively. Cost analysis is shown below. Lifetime of a unit is considered to be 15

years with an efficiency of 85%. We have used a 33kW converter. The number of inverters for a

standalone hybrid system is given by Tesfaye (2011) as:

Number of invertersrequired= …3.8

where Pload is the load of ‘the system in kW. Pinverter is the kW rating of the inverter.

Fig.2.5 Converter Details

2.8 Solar Resource

The solar resource for the solar PV is gotten from NASA. It is shown in the table below:

Table 2.3 Solar resource data for Choba

Month Solar radiation


January 4.820

February 4.845

March 4.816

April 4.540

May 4.256

June 3.846

July 3.846

August 3.755

September 4.333

October 4.312

November 4.658

December 4.770
Source: National Renewable Energy Database



When the software is run, the results will be displayed in the form of tabular and graphical plots

showing the optimal system combinations. Each of these combinations has details about the cash

flow, equipment details and the emissions. For this system, two optimal systems have been

chosen by HOMER according to the least total NPC. This is shown below.

Fig.3.1 Optimal Systems

3.1 Optimal System

The optimal system consists of a 33kW solar PV, 33kW Diesel generator, a 33kW bidirectional

converter and 20 6FM200D batteries. The outputs of each of these components are further

discussed here.

3.2 Cost Summary

The cost summary comprises a graphical and tabular breakdown of the capital, replacement and

O&M costs. It also includes the fuel cost (if applicable) and the salvage cost.

Fig.3.2 Tabular Cost Summary

Fig.3.3 Graphical Cost Summary

3.3 The PV Output

The total production of the solar PV is given as 50,555kWh/yr. The hours of operation of the PV

system is 4,448hours/year. Other details are shown below.

Fig.3.4 Solar PV Output

3.4 Diesel Generator Output

The diesel generator which has a lifetime of 25,000 hours operates for 1,765hr/yr. It produces

34,641kWh/yr with a fuel consumption of 13,320l/yr. More details are presented in the figure


Fig.3.5 Diesel Generator Output

3.5 Converter Output

The converter (inverter and rectifier) has a lifetime of 15 years. The inverter and rectifier operate

for 8,391 and 368 hrs/yr respectively. The output of the inverter is 40,222kWh/yr, while that of

the rectifier is 1,565kWh/yr.

Fig.3.6 Converter Output

3.6 Battery Output

The output of the battery is 1,035kWh/yr with a 255kWh/yr loss. The figure below shows further

details about the battery.

Fig.3.7 Battery Output

3.7 Emissions

The optimal system has 87,656kg/yr less carbon dioxide than the second system. Figures 3.6 (a

and b) below shows that the first optimal system produced fewer emissions than the other, which

makes it a better option.

Fig.3.8a Optimal System (PV/Diesel/Battery)

Fig.3.8b Diesel/Battery System

3 .8 Sensitivity Analysis

When you define sensitivity variables as inputs, HOMER repeats the optimization process for

each sensitivity variable that you specify. For example, if you define wind speed as a sensitivity

variable, HOMER will simulate system configurations for the range of wind speeds that you

specify. For this work, a sensitivity analysis was done for different loads of 100, 125, 142, 150,

175 and 200 kWh/day against the solar resource data of 3.0 to 6.0 kWh/m 2/d. The result is as

shown below:

Fig. 3.9 Sensitivity Analysis

From the optimal system type graph above, the PV/Gen/Battery systems are optimal for most of

the sensitivity space. Diesel/Battery systems are optimal at the bottom right of the sensitivity




In this work, a PV/Diesel system has been designed and results were obtained from simulations

using HOMER to determine the optimal system combination to serve the load of a University

administrative block of about 16 offices. The result shows that the PV/Diesel system with

batteries incorporated is optimal because the excess electricity produced by this system is being

stored by it for future use, saving fuel cost. The system is thus very efficient and reliable with

less emission. Furthermore, HOMER has been able to select the optimal system size as a

function of the net present cost.

4.1 Challenges and Recommendations

The major challenge for this work lies in accurate data collection. It is however, recommended

that other renewable energy sources be studied and their suitability for electricity production

compared. They include biomass, hydro, fuel cell,and wind.



1 PV Panels (200W) 75,000 165 12,375,000

2 Battery (200AH) 20,000 20 400,000

3 Converter and charge 495,000 1 495,000


5 Generator (33kVA) 2,200,000 1 2,200,000

6 Cables and auxiliaries 2,500 10 rolls 20,500

7 Labour (1 month) 6,000 30 days 180,000

8 Transportation 1,500 30 45,000

9 Total 15,715,500

10 Contingencies 1,571,550 10% of total 1,571,550


World Energy Outlook (2014). Retrieved from http://www.worldenergy

Africa Energy Outlook (2014). Retrieved from
World Bank (2014). Retrieved from
NASA. Retrieved from http://www.
Wiki-solar. Retrieved from
Solar Power. Retrieved from http://www.
Kazem, H.A., Salam, M.A, Aziz, A., Alwaeli and A.H.A. (2013): “Sizing of a standalone
Photovoltaic/Battery System at Minimum cost for Remote Housing Electrification in
Sohar, Oman”, Elsevier-Energy and Building, Vol. 6C, pp 108-115.
Al-Asadi S.Q. and Kazem H.A. (2013): “Feasibility Study of Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Hybrid
System for Oman”, IRACST, Vol. 3, No.3, pp 466-470.
Nfah, E.M, Ngundam, J.M and Tchinda, R.(2007): “Modelling of Solar/Diesel/Battery Hybrid
Power Systems for Far-North Cameroon”. Renewable Energy, pp 832-844.
NREL (2011). HOMER user manual
Maplandia (2014). Retrieved from
Gupta, J.B. (2010). A Textbook of Electrical Technology, Student Edition. Kataria & Sons, New
Renesol Consumer Fact Sheet (2014). Retrieved from
Tesfaye, B. (2011). “Improved Sustainable Power Supply for Dagahabur and Kebridahar Town
of Somalia Region in Ethiopia”, pp 63.
Mikano International. Retrieved from
Khatib, T., Mohamed, A., Sopian, K., Mahmoud, M. (2011): “Optimal Sizing of Building
Integrated Hybrid PV/Diesel Generator System for Zero Load Rejection for
Malaysia” Energy and Buildings Vol. 43, No.12, pp. 3430–3435.
Daud, A.K. and Ismail, M.S. (2012): “Design of Isolated Hybrid Systems Minimizing Costs and
Pollutant Emissions”, Renewable Energy Vol. 44, pp. 215-224.


Every engineering model starts with a design that forms the foundation on which the respective
segments are built. In this report, a three bedroom residential bungalow is presented and its
design and installation sequences are discussed. The design was done with the AutoCAD
software to ensure a precise design model. The result shows a well-planned lighting and power
layout that have been protected using the appropriate miniature circuit breakers.

1.1 Background

During the last century and a half, electricity has evolved from a scientific curiosity, to a luxury

for wealthy people and to a daily necessity in the developed and developing world. Just as water

is necessary for survival, electricity is indispensable in daily life. Without electricity, our way of

life comes to a grinding halt. Modern society requires smart, simple, safe, reliable, and

economical electric power infrastructure for social, political, and economic activities (WBDG,

2015). The infrastructure should be efficient, flexible to expand, economical to maintain and


Electrical drawings, specifications, reports and other documents are thus necessary in setting

forth the overall design and requirements for the construction, alteration, modernization, repair,

demolition, arrangement, and/or use of the electrical system, or analysis or recommendations

(RMIT, 2016).

1.2 Statement of Problem

As both commercial and residential structures are constantly been developed, it has become very

important to take the electrical system into consideration, as it is the source of luminance, power

and in some cases, electronic security. However, if an improper design and installation is

implemented, it could lead to system breakdown and if not promptly addressed, fatal accidents.

Electrocutions, fire outbreaks, physical injuries, loss of lives and properties have been recorded

from electrical faults related to improper design and installation practices.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The main aim of this project is to design the lighting and power points for a three bedroom

residential duplex to ensure proper installations. This will be achieved by first obtaining the

ground floor plan prepared by the architect and then determining the appropriate lighting and

power points for each sections. Next step is to prepare the load schedule which requires the

consumer unit or distribution board selection as well as miniature circuit breaker sizing.

1.4 Scope of Work

This report centers on only discussions of lighting and power points layout and installation. It

does not include other appliances like CCTV, audio/tv, intercom or any other points. It also

presents the load schedule for the building under consideration. Finally, it discusses the basic

installation sequence as it relates to the case study.



2.1 Work Planning

According to a UNEP report (2006), before costing the project, it was important to determine

first, what the building was designed for -in this case, residential. With this, specifications as to

what electrical appliances to include are made. Therefore, since it is a residential building, it

should have 13 Amps sockets for common appliances, 15A sockets for the air conditioning units

and Cooker Control Unit for the kitchen. After deciding which to use and where to use each, the

total number of items to be used was recorded. The total number of lighting and power points

determines the quantity of U boxes, through boxes, looping boxes, cables, and bushings to use.

Next, is to select the lighting fixtures to use which includes where to use fluorescent fittings,

down lights, bowl fittings, ceiling fittings, wall fittings and cables. The cost of each of these

materials is drafted and summed up in addition to the cost of labour (Vatapoulos et al, 2016).

This includes transportation during the period of the project that is, cost of transporting the

workers and materials to and from the site during all working days. Finally, the cost of the job is

recorded. Miscellaneous expenses are often accounted for before project execution.

2.2 Electrical Design

To achieve this, knowledge of AutoCAD is essential. In AutoCAD, lines, rectangles, circles, arcs

and polygons are the basic tools to any electrical drawing. However, other tools like text writing

(which describes the drawing) is needed. To ensure quicker drawing, commands like Mirror

(drawing the same object opposite the source object), Copy (duplicate of the source object),

Move (to change the position of an object), are used. In the case of using symbols to represent

appliances in the electrical design, it is important to have knowledge of circles, arcs, circles and

rectangles. Then to modify them, commands such as Chamfers and Fillets are used to produce

diagonal and curved edges respectively. Where mistakes are made in the drawing, the eraser and

the trim tools are used. The ORTHO mode is used to enable drawings to be made in 90 degrees

only, that is, only vertically and horizontally. Polar tracking is for drawings at angles other than

90 degrees. With these tools, the various schematics can be drawn easily.

2.2.1 Lighting Schematics

Here contains the lighting fixtures (fluorescent lamps, down lights, the appropriate switches to

control each lighting, expeller fans as well as ceiling fans together with each regulator. The

symbols of each component is defined in the lighting legend. A legend is a representation of

electrical appliances using symbols. The switches and fan regulators are usually not placed on

the wall partition towards which a door opens, for easy access. Also they are placed 150cm on

the wall above the ground.

2.2.2 Power Schematics

Here, we normally have 13Amps SSO (switch socket outlet) single and double, CCU (cooker

control unit), Distribution boards, 15Amps SSO (for air conditioners), TV distribution/signal

booster, Water heaters, etc. The power schematics has its own legend. In the drawing, circuit

numbers are been placed on each 13Amps socket point so that all the sockets on the same

circuits are easily identified during installation and maintenance. The height of 13A sockets is

50-60cm above the ground, while that of 15A sockets is 180cm above ground.

2.3 Materials and Use

2.3.1 Fixing of Knock-out Boxes

When fixing boxes, it is important to note that the walls will later be plastered by bricklayers so

each box will have to be fitted two-third into the wall so that they do not get totally submerged

by mortar. Moreover, during termination, the fittings would have no hold on the boxes. As the

boxes are placed into the wall, a little bit of mortar is used to hold them in position. But to ensure

leveling of the boxes, a spirit-level is used by placing it on the box and watching the spirit level.

After making sure that it is straight, more mortar is used to hold the boxes firmly. The boxes used

are 3 x 3 and 3 x 6 knock-out boxes. However, it is important to note that there are standard

measurements for each installation e.g. for switches; 140-150 cm, air conditioning; 180 cm,

sockets; 50-60 cm, etc. This measurement is taken from ground level.

Figure 2.2 3x3 and 3x6 Knockout Box

After the mortar dries up, the conduit pipes are then laid next.

2.3.2 Laying of Pipes

PVC pipes come in different standard sizes. The common ones are 20 mm and 25 mm. But

before these pipes are fixed to the boxes, male bushes are screwed in to the boxes to ensure that

the pipes sit properly. Sometimes, PVC adhesive is rubbed on the tip of the pipe to be slotted in

to hold the pipes firmly.

Figure 2.3 PVC Pipes

To get shorter lengths of pipes for switches or air conditioning, a cutter (saw blade) is used to cut

the long length into the required length. Two lengths of pipes can also be joined to get a longer

length with the use of a joining coupling often called a coupler. But to get a stronger joint, PVC

adhesive is applied to inside of the coupler so that when both pipes are slotted in from both sides

of the coupler, they can stay stronger. Some pipes would have to go through bends which means

the straight length will have to be bent. A bending spring is used to bend pipes to any degree or

angle required.

Figure 2.4 Bending Spring Figure 2.5 Hack Saw Blade
Most times, after the pipes have been laid, the lighting points is taken care of with the use of

looping boxes. After this is done, the pipes are linked between looping boxes. It is impossible to

have ceiling fixtures without the use of looping boxes.

2.3.3 Fixing of Looping Boxes

A looping box is one that is circular in shape with a depression that has four openings into which

male bushes are placed to allow at most four pipes to be fitted in. Therefore, in linking of pipes,

one pipe is fitted into one opening of one box, bent to an angle of 90 degrees and joined with a

coupler to another pipe, bent again to same again and fixed into the other opening of the other

box. These above steps are basically involved in linking pipes for telecom, lighting, fire alarm,

television, etc.

Apart from looping boxes, other boxes are used for lighting and other installations. Some of

them include U box (for lights), Y box (for lights and through box), T box (used as a junction

box), Four way box (used as through and junction box), End box (used for end points

connection), through box (used as through points for easy passage of cables).

Figure 2.6: 4-Way Boxes Figure 2.7: U-boxes

2.3.4 Laying of Cables

In laying cables, there are few steps to allow easy passage and to save time. Previously, the

conduit pipes have been laid and knock-out boxes have been mounted as well as distribution

boxes. The main tool used to pass cables through these pipes is the fishing tape which is a thin

metal tape designed with a hook-like head.

Figure 2.8 Fishing Tape

To pass the cable, the insulation at the tip is peeled off a short length using an electrical knife. If

more than one cable is to be passed, then the tips are twisted together and passed through the

head of the tape and twisted again tightly to ensure easy passage through the pipes. Smoother

passage is achieved with the application of Vaseline to the cables from the tip through the length.

As the cables are passed, one person is at the sending end, aligning the cables and another person

at the receiving end, pulling the cable until the whole length comes fully out. After the cables are

successfully out, they are terminated. Termination is the process of fixing each cable in its

allotted position.

2.4 Installation and Termination

In residential wiring, the number of rooms, sitting room, toilets and other partitions are taken into

consideration. This will determine the type and quantity of distribution boards, consumer units,

low voltage boards, cables, etc to use. The various electrical appliances to be installed include:

1. SSO (Switch Socket Outlet)

The sitting room is fitted with at least 1 x double socket outlet, each rated 13 Amps as shown in

Figure 2.9.

Figure 2.9 13A Double Switch Socket Outlet

The sockets are divided into circuits to prevent overload. The minimum cable size for such

sockets is 2.5mm2. Doubles are used mostly to create more space for appliances to be plugged in.

This sometimes cuts out the use of extension sockets which gets damaged easily and could cause

accidents if the extension cable gets caught with the leg or any other appliance. However, in a

typical socket, we find three points marked live L, neutral N, and earth (with symbol). The red

cable is normally the live cable, black is neutral and the green or yellow cable is for earthing.

Sometimes, distribution boards are used instead of consumer units for larger loads. The

differences of these boards are unique. In this residential building, a distribution board is used to

feed the respective circuits.

2. Consumer units, Distribution boards and Low voltage boards

A consumer unit is a single phase board that has three busbars, live, neutral and earthing. There

are four way boards, six way, eight way, twelve way boards. A way is a distinct circuit. For a

consumer unit, four way would mean four circuits. For a distribution board and a low voltage

board however, a four way board would mean twelve circuits because they are both three phase

boards. The equation used to calculate the total number of ways is:

Ct =N w × ph …2.1

Where Ct is the total number of circuits, Nw is the number of ways, and ph is the number of


A consumer unit is shown below:

Figure 2.10 Consumer Unit

At the live busbars, breakers like MCBs (miniature circuit breakers) or RCDs are used as

protective devices designed to break at specific conditions to protect the various devices in each


3. Circuit Breakers

The miniature circuit breaker to be used for protection of each circuit can be calculated using the

equation below (as represented by Gupta (2010)):

P=VI cos φ …(2.2)

Where V is supply voltage=220 volt

I is the current=?

cos φ is the power factor=1 (assumed)

Pis the rated power∈watts

Therefore, the required current rating (to the nearest whole number) is obtained using the


I =P/ V cos φ Amps …(2.3)

4. Air Conditioners

The cable size is usually 2.5mmsquare. Sometimes, a 4mmsquare cable is used instead in the

case of highly rated air conditioners. In laying out the cables and terminating the socket outlets,

three core cabling is used-Live (red/brown), Neutral (black/blue) and Earth (yellow/green).

These cables are connected each to the corresponding terminals in the socket. The mains,

supplies power to each air conditioner in each circuit. This comes from the distribution board or

consumer unit. In these boards, an MCB is fitted to protect the appliance from damage resulting

from short circuits and over current. The red cable (Live) is connected to the MCB terminal,

while the blue (Neutral) and green (Earth) cables are connected to the neutral and earth bus bars,


Fig. 2.5. Air Conditioning Wiring Setup

4. Lighting

Lighting arrangement deals mainly with lights and the various control switches. There are

different types of fittings for this purpose. For example, incandescent, fluorescent, discharge,

etc., lamps. The installation processes are shown below:

Circuit diagram of Light points

The circuit diagram above is applicable to all lighting systems. The cable size used is 1.5mm 2. It

shows that the switch is powered by from the mains through the live terminal and another cable

connects switch 1 to switch 2 and on. This cable now acts as the supply for the other switches. In

a typical switch, both cables are terminated at the point marked COM (common). Next is the

cable that links the switches to the lights. In a typical switch, it is marked L1. A switch should

not have neutral terminals except the above mentioned terminals. Switches can be two way, one

way and intermediate depending on the connection.

3.1 The Lighting Load
There are a total of 32 lighting points in the three bedroom flat including ceiling fans. The design

layout is presented in Appendix A. Table 3.1 below shows the lighting points summary:

Table 3.1: Lighting Points Rating

Circuit Number Number Total
No. of Lights of Fans Watts
1 7 1 191

2 6 1 273

3 8 1 309

4 6 2 238

Each of the lights selected is an 18Watts energy saving bulb, while each fan is rated 65Watts. The

load schedule in Appendix C indicates that each of the lighting circuits utilizes a 6A circuit

breaker in order to make up for future expansion or additional loads.

3.2 Power Load

Table 3.2 presents the number of 13A and 15A sockets in each circuit. There are a total of four

socket and air-conditioning circuits. The socket circuits each have four 13A sockets, while there

are 1 x 15A sockets in each circuit. The power layout of the building is shown in Appendix B.

Table 3.2: Power Points Rating

Circuit Number Number of Total
No. of Sockets Air- Watts
1 4 1 191

2 4 1 273

3 4 1 309

4 4 1 238

3.3 The Load Schedule

The load schedule is a summary of the load specification for the building under consideration.
Table 3.3 shows that the total load of the building is 20.244kW. Therefore, a 100A rated TPN
(three phase neutral) distribution board is suitable to handle the load. Other appliances and their
ratings are also included such as water heater (2000 Watts), Cooker Control Unit (2200 Watts)
and Cooker Hood Smoke Extractor (1500 Watts).
Table 3.3: Load Schedule Summary
Circuit Lights Sockets Air Water Cooker Smoke
Type Conditione Heater Contol Extracto
r Unit r
Wattage 576 8580 5968 2000 2200 1500

From the foregoing it can be concluded that a proper design must be prepared to meet both the

standard and client requirements. Planning is also very important so that the workflow does not

get affected by improper planning which could be expensive and time-consuming. The design

has been considered essential in instances where a different contractor has to use his own

technicians to carry out the site layout and installations. Furthermore, time and resources are

saved during routine maintenance as it becomes clear from the design the affected circuit as well

as the particular point where repair or replacement is needed.

4.1 Recommendation

It is here recommended that other schedules be included in the electrical design of residential

buildings. Examples of such schedules include fire alarm, CCTV, etc.



S/N Name of Component Unit Cost (₦) Quantity Total Cost (₦)

1 Knock Out boxes 500 4 2,000

2 20 mm PVC Pipes 6,000 2 12,000

3 Couplers 500 2 1,000

5 Bushing 500 2 1,000

6 Saw blade 200 3 600

7 Bending Spring 500 2 1,000

8 Fishing Tape 400 2 800

9 Cable 2,500 5 12,500

10 13A Sockets 450 16 7,200

11 15A Sockets 550 4 2,200

12 Distribution board 9,500 1 9,500

13 Cooker Unit 1,800 1 1,800

14 Smoke Extractor 25,000 1 9,000

15 Water Heater 25,000 1 25,000

16 Cement 1,650 1 1,650

17 Sand 2,500

18 Labour (1 month) 6,000 30 days 180,000

19 Transportation 1,500 30 days 45,000

20 Total 314,750

21 Contingencies 10% 31,475

Grand Total 346,225

REFERENCES Assessed 15/09/2016 3:04p.m. Assessed 15/09/2016 5:12p.m.
Gupta, J.B. (2010). A Textbook of Electrical Technology, Student Edition. Kataria & Sons, New
UNEP report (2006). Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia. SCHAND, Vol II pp. 341-
Vatapoulos K., Andrews D., Carlson J., Papaioannou I. and Zubi G. (2012). Study on the State of
Planning of Energy Efficiency of Heat and Electricity Production Technologies. JRC
Scientific and Policy Reports.