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Chapter 1; Introduction to Integrated Marketing Process

Marketing: An organizational function. Processes for creating,

communicating, and delivering value to customers. Managing
customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and
its stakeholders.
Marketing Mix: the four Ps: Product, Price, Place, Promotion

IMC is a strategic business process used to plan, develop,

execute and evaluate coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand
communication programs with consumers, customers, prospects
employees and other relevant external and internal audiences.
The goal of IMC is to generate short-term financial returns and
build long-term brand value.
Behind the Growing Importance of IMC:
 The Role of IMC in Branding: Brand identity is a combination
of  Name  Design  Image or associations
 Logo  Packaging
 Symbols  Performance
IMC plays a major role in developing and sustaining brand
identity and equity.

 Advertising: Paid forms of non-personal communication

1. About an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified
2. No feedback from audience
3. Important for products and services aimed at mass consumer
4. Cost effective
 The Most Common Forms of Advertising
Consumer Based: Organization Based:

 Direct Marketing: the

Business of selling products
or services directly to the
public, e.g. by mail order or
telephone selling, rather
than through retailers. It is a
form of advertising where organizations communicate directly to
customers through a variety of media including cell phone text
messaging, email, websites, online adverts, catalog distribution,
promotional letters and television, newspaper and magazine.
 Digital/ Internet Marketing: Digital marketing benefits
businesses of all sizes by giving access to the mass market at an
affordable price. Unlike TV or print advertising, it allows truly
personalised marketing. The main advantage of digital
marketing is that a targeted audience can be reached in a cost-
effective and measurable way.
oBack-and-forth communication: Users participate in and modify
the form and content of information.
oInteractive media: Internet, CD-ROMs, Kiosks, Interactive
television, Digital cell phones
 Importance of Digital/ Internet Marketing: Digital marketing
benefits businesses of all sizes by giving access to the mass
market at an affordable price. Unlike TV or print advertising, it
allows truly personalised marketing. The main advantage of
digital marketing is that a targeted audience can be reached in a
cost-effective and measurable way. The benefits of digital marketing include:
1. Global reach - a website allows you to find new markets and
trade globally for only a small investment.
2. Lower cost - a properly planned and effectively targeted digital
marketing campaign can reach the right customers at a much
lower cost than traditional marketing methods.
3. Trackable, measurable results - measuring your online
marketing with web analytics and other online metric tools makes
it easier to establish how effective your campaign has been.
4. Personalisation - if your customer database is linked to your
website, then whenever someone visits the site, you can greet
them with targeted offers. The more they buy from you, the
more you can refine your customer profile and market effectively
to them.
5. Openness - by getting involved with social media and managing
it carefully, you can build customer loyalty and create a
reputation for being easy to engage with.
Sales Promotion:is
One level or type of
marketing aimed either at
the consumer or at the
distribution channel (in the
form of sales-incentives). It
is used to introduce new
product, clear out inventori
-es, attract traffic, and to lift
sales temporarily.
 Publicity Vehicles: 3. Special Events
1. Feature Articles 4. Press Conferences
2. Interviews 5. News Releases
 Public Relations: is a strategic communication process that
builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations
and their publics." Public relations can also be defined as the
practice of managing communication between an organization
and its publics.
 Systematically planning and distributing information in an
attempt to control and manage image and the nature of the
publicity received
 Involves managing relationships with investors, employees,
suppliers, communities and governments as well as consumers
 Personal Selling: Person-to-person communication
A seller attempts to assist and/or persuade prospective buyers to
make a purchase or act on an idea.
 The IMC Planning Process: Developing an integrated
marketing communications plan requires
1. Planning 2. Executing 3.Evaluating 4.Controlling
 Basic Elements of a Marketing Plan
1. A detailed situation analysis
2. Specific marketing objectives
3. A marketing strategy and program
4. A program for implementing the strategy
5. A process for monitoring and evaluating performance
Model of the IMC Planning Process

Ch- 2 The Role of IMC in the Marketing Process

 Strategic Marketing Plan: evolves from an organization’s
overall Corporate strategy and serve as a guide for specific
marketing programs and policies
1) Opportunity Analysis,
2) Competitive Analysis, 3) Target Market Selection
 The Target Marketing Process
1. Identify markets with unfulfilled needs – this isolates
consumers with similar lifestyles, needs, and wants
2. Determine market segmentation – dividing a market into
distinct groups that have common needs and will respond
Similarly to a marketing action.
3. Select a market to target – determining how many segments to
enter, and which segments offer the most potential.
4. Position through marketing strategies – the art and science of
fitting the product or service to one or more segments of the
broad market in such a way as to set it meaningful apart from
 The Marketing Segmentation Process
1. Find ways to group consumers according to their needs
2. Find ways to group marketing actions available to the
3. Develop a market/product grid to relate the market segments
to the firm’s products and actions
4. Select the product segments toward which the firm will direct
its marketing actions
5. Take marketing actions to reach target segments
 Bases for Segmentation (Customer characteristics):
1. Geographic divides markets by geographic locations such as
nations, states, regions, or cities.
2. Demographic divides markets based on demographic variables
such as gender, age, education, race, and life stage.
3. Socioeconomic divides markets based on socioeconomic
variables such as income, education, and occupation.
4. Psychographic divides markets based on personality values or
lifestyle. VALS is a popular approach to lifestyle segmentation
 Bases for Segmentation (buying situation):
1. Behavioral segmentation divides a market into groups
according to their level of involvement with and purchase
behavior toward a product or service.
2. Outlet types segments a market based on the type of store
where a product is sold, such as convenience, Supermarket, mass
Merchandiser, specialty.
3. Benefit segmentation divides markets on the basis of the
Specific benefits or outcomes consumers want from a product or
4. Awareness segmentation is based on the product knowledge of
the consumer.
5. Usage segmentation classifies customers based on their level
of use of a product or service.
 Selecting a Target Market: Determine how many segments to enter
1. Undifferentiated marketing ignores segment differences and
offers just one product or service to the entire market.
2. Differentiated marketing involves marketing in a number of
Segments, but developing separate marketing strategies for
3. Concentrated marketing involves selecting, and trying to
capture a large share of, a single segment.
Determine which segments have the greatest potential
 Market Positioning: Fitting the product or service to one or
more segments of the broad market in such a way as to set it
apart from the competition 1. Attributes and
 Developing a Positioning Strategy: Benefits?
1. What position do we have now? 2. Price or Quality?
2. What position do we want to own? 3. Use or Application?
3. From whom must we win this position? 4. Product Class?
4. Do we have the money to do the job? 5. Product User?
5. Do we have the tenacity to stay with it? 6. Competitor?
6. Does our creative strategy match it? 7. Cultural Symbols?
 Developing The Marketing Planning Program
1. Product decisions
2. Branding
3. Packaging
4. Price decisions
5. Relating price to advertising and promotion
6. Distribution channel decisions
7. Developing promotional strategies: push or pull?
 Branding and Packaging Are Linked

Pricing Decisions
 Distribution Channel Decisions:
1) Selecting 2) Managing 3) Motivating
 Distribution Intermediaries
1. Brokers 3. Wholesalers
2. Distributors 4. Retailers
Promotional Strategy: Push or Pull?