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Dictionary of Psychological Testing,

Assessment and Treatment

by the same author

The Psychology of Ageing

An Introduction
4th edition
ISBN 978 1 8431 0426 1

An Asperger Dictionary of Everyday Expressions

2nd edition
ISBN 978 1 84310 518 3

Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology

ISBN 978 1 85302 148 0

Dictionary of Developmental Psychology

ISBN 978 1 85302 146 6

Key Ideas in Psychology

ISBN 978 1 85302 359 0
Dictionary of Psychological
Testing, Assessment and Treatment
Second Edition

Ian Stuart-Hamilton

Jessica Kingsley Publishers

London and Philadelphia
First edition published in 1995
Paperback edition published in 1996

This edition published in 2007

by Jessica Kingsley Publishers
116 Pentonville Road
London N1 9JB, UK
400 Market Street, Suite 400
Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA

Copyright © Ian Stuart-Hamilton 1995, 1996, 2007

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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Stuart-Hamilton, Ian.
Dictionary of psychological testing, assessment, and treatment / Ian Stuart-Hamilton. -- 2nd ed.
p. cm.
ISBN-13: 978-1-84310-494-0 (pb : alk. paper) 1. Psychological tests--Dictionaries.
2. Psychometrics--Dictionaries. 3. Psychotherapy--Dictionaries. I. Title.
BF176.S78 2007

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 978 1 84310 494 0

ISBN pdf eBook: 978 1 84642 657 5

Printed and bound in Great Britain by

Athenaeum Press, Gateshead, Tyne and Wear
To the present and future members of the
Sunley Appreciation Society*

* Well, some of them, anyway…

Introduction to the First Edition
This dictionary is intended as a guide to the basic tools of the trade of psychology
– namely, the commonly-used (and some of the less commonly-used) tests, exper-
imental methods and analyses, and therapies. A quick glance through the book
will show that some definitions get much lengthier definitions than others. I have
intentionally pitched definitions at the likely readership. Thus, in writing the
fairly basic definitions (e.g. of some statistical tests), I have assumed that the
reader is a newcomer to the subject, and hence I have provided a greater depth of
information. For definitions of more complex matters, the immediate definition is
aimed at a reader with some background knowledge (although use of the
cross-referencing allows a less experienced reader to retrace his or her steps for
greater levels of explanation).
I have intentionally not included every test (statistical or psychological)
known to humankind, because there simply wasn’t room (unless there is genu-
inely a demand for compact dictionaries the size of the London A-Z telephone
directory). When one considers that approximately 20,000 new tests are devised
each year (most to be reported in one journal article and then never seen again),
the reader will appreciate why I have chosen only those which appear to be most
frequently mentioned in the literature. If I have inadvertently omitted a test which
a reader feels I should have included, then if they write to me, I will be happy to
consider it for inclusion in any future edition of this dictionary.
Many of the dictionary entries are cross-referenced. This has the advantage,
that by judiciously using this facility, the reader should be able to gain at least an
overview of the appropriate subject area. However, a caveat to this is needed. Dic-
tionary definitions, no matter how lengthy, are intended solely as guides and
primers – they are not a substitute for reading a textbook or journal article, which
can provide a deeper, if less immediately accessible level of understanding than a
dictionary can ever hope to do.
I finish with the traditional plea to dictionary readers to send me details of
omitted definitions.
Dr Ian Stuart-Hamilton,
Principal Lecturer in Psychology,
Worcester College of Higher Education
Introduction to the Paperback Edition
This new paperback edition gives me an opportunity to spruce up a few of the
existing definitions and to add a few entries which slipped through the net. It also
gives me the chance to respond to a couple of enquiries I received about the
hardback edition of this text. First, it will not have escaped the reader’s notice that
there is no Bibliography in this book. Why is this so? This can be best explained
in the following way: Q: why will someone be looking up a term or the name of a
test in a dictionary? A: because they have read about the term or test in a book or
article – which will have a bibliography. Not only would a list of references be super-
fluous, but it would also at least double the length of the book. The second point
is that descriptions of some of the tests in this book are very brief. There are two
reasons for this. The first is that usually all the information someone wants is what
the test is assessing – details can be burdensome and will militate against under-
standing. The second reason is that this dictionary and its companion volumes are
textbooks which are going to be readily available, inter alia, to the general public
and undergraduates – in other words, not fully trained psychologists. Without
being pompous about this, I feel a certain moral responsibility not to divulge lots
of details of tests to the occasional reader who may be looking up a definition to
see what sort of test they are about to be given or have been given during, for
example, a clinical examination or selection procedure. Where tests are described
in greater depth, it is because the details are already widely available in textbooks.
If people want to know lots of details of tests, then they are welcome to consult
the Mental Measurements Yearbooks – that is their purpose. However, if people want
to understand the terms used in books such as the MMYs, then they may well
need a dictionary such as this one – that is its purpose.
I would like to take this opportunity once again to thank the staff of Jessica
Kingsley Publishers for their invaluable support in the preparation of these dic-
tionaries, and to my wife for putting up with my behaviour whilst writing them.
Dr Ian Stuart-Hamilton,
Principal Lecturer in Psychology,
Worcester College of Higher Education

Introduction to the Second Edition
Ten years have passed since the first edition of this dictionary appeared (though
in the interim there has been a revised edition). For the new edition I have taken
the opportunity to revise some of the existing definitions and add new ones. In
total, about 10 per cent of the book is new.
As with the previous edition, I have intentionally only given the briefest of
descriptions of tests. To quote from the introduction to the revised edition:
if people want to know lots of details of tests, then they are welcome to
consult the Mental Measurements Yearbooks – that is their purpose. However, if
people want to understand the terms used in books such as the MMYs, then
they may well need a dictionary such as this one – that is its purpose.
The intention of this book has always been to provide a reader stuck on a techni-
cal phrase in a book or journal paper with just enough information to allow them
to carry on with their reading. No dictionary (unless it offers several paragraphs
of information on each entry, in which case it’s no longer a dictionary of course)
can realistically hope to do more. For many readers (e.g. professionals and
students from outside psychology) this may in any case be all they require or need
to know. I have only tended to provide lengthier definitions when some technical
background information is required to make any sense at all of the term in
question. I have also intentionally restricted the number of entries on types of test
in use. As noted in the introduction to the first edition, some 20,000 new tests are
created each year, and there is no realistic chance of covering all of them in a
compact space. All I can say is that I hope I have covered the frequently used tests.
In a similar vein, I have attempted to place pragmatic limits on entries on
other topics. Thus, statistical terms used in typical university syllabuses are
included, as are tests commonly available in computer packages and cited in psy-
chology journals and similar publications. Measures rarely used in psychological
research have tended to get rather shorter shrift. The same applies to therapies.
As usual, I shall be delighted to hear from readers. I must however offer an
apology to several people who were kind enough to write in with suggestions for
new definitions and amendments after the first edition was published. I faithfully
kept a copy of this correspondence with the intention of incorporating it into the


next edition. However, over the last decade I have moved houses twice and indeed
changed not only offices but universities. Somewhere along the line, the corre-
spondence was lost. All I can do is to say sorry – an author never willingly tries to
antagonize their readers!
Professor Ian Stuart-Hamilton,
Faculty Head of Research and External Activity,
University of Glamorgan
Guide to Use
Cross-references are in italics. Four caveats are required, arising from a desire to
avoid unnecessary repetition or superfluous entries and definitions.

(1) Very occasionally, italicized words’ entries are in a slightly different grammat-
ical inflexion (e.g. feral children may actually be entered as feral child). In
addition, I have deliberately not included every spelling variant or semantic per-
mutation (e.g. ‘water therapy’ would not be included if ‘water treatment’ already
had an entry) unless there is a danger of misunderstanding.

(2) Within a definition, an italicized word in bold type (e.g. definition rather than
definition) indicates that the term is fully defined within the entry being read.
The word’s own entry will simply refer the reader back to this definition.

(3) An entry followed only by a word or phrase in italics indicates a synonym,

which should be consulted for the full definition. It should not be supposed that
the main entry necessarily denotes the best phrase – in many instances, use of
terms is a matter of personal taste.

(4) Words linked by a hyphen are treated as if there is a space between them, and
numbers are entered as if they were given their full spelling.

There are relatively few inverted headings – entries are usually given the word
order they have in normal text. Therefore, if the reader looks up ‘deep play’, he or
she finds deep play, not an irritating note to see play, deep. If the reader should be
aware of related terms, then a cross-reference is provided. Where an inverted
heading has been used, it is for clear logical reasons. On rare occasions, the reader
may be sent on a trip through two or three definitions before gaining the infor-
mation he or she wants. I apologize in advance, but assure the reader that using
other methods, these occasions would be more frequent.


A ment. E.g. A=measure of behaviour

(e.g. biting nurses); B=therapeutic
A agreeableness. intervention (e.g. course of therapy).
a- As a prefix in descriptions of disability abasia A somatoform disorder in which the
see dys-. patient is unable to walk.
a posteriori test post hoc test. Abbe criterion Measure of level of ran-
domness in a series of events occurring
a priori test Any method of assessing a over time.
planned comparison. See post hoc test.
ABC Movement Assessment Battery for
a priori validity Whether, by the ‘laws’ Children.
of common sense, a test will measure
what it claims. ABC approach The study of a behaviour
(B) in terms of its antecedents (A) and
A scale A measure of ability to accept its effects (C). The model is particularly
ambiguity. used in rational-emotive therapy and
A-state state anxiety. behaviour therapy.
A-trait trait anxiety. abducens cranial nerve cranial nerve
number VI. Concerned with the eye
A-S scale A measure of strength of anti- muscles. Compare with trochlear cranial
Semitic opinions. nerve and oculomotor cranial nerve.
A-type personality Type A personality. abduction Explaining what is known.
AA Alcoholics Anonymous. ability grouping Group of subjects
AAD Academic Achievement Discrepancy. united by having a similar level of abil-
ity on a particular measure.
AAI acute alcoholic intoxication.
ability test The term is a confusing one –
AAMD American Association for Mental
some researchers use it synonymously
with achievement test, others with aptitude
AAMD Adaptive Behaviour Scale test. Since the everyday use of the word
Adaptive Behaviour Scale. ‘ability’ is similarly ambiguous, it is a
term best avoided.
AAMI age associated memory impairment.
ablation surgical removal.
AAT Achievement Anxiety Test.
abreaction A release of emotion. Usually
AATP Alcohol Assessment and Treatment
the term denotes such a release during a
therapeutic session which has tapped
AB design Shorthand for the stages in an the root of an underlying problem. A
experimental design. ‘AB’ denotes that feeling of catharsis may accompany it.
there are two separate phases. The
ABS Adaptive Behaviour Scale.
shorthand can of course be applied to
other designs. E.g. ‘ABC’ indicates 3 ABS-SE Adaptive Behaviour Scale – School
separate stages. Edition.
ABA design Experimental design in abscissa X axis.
which the first stage of the experiment
absolute deviation The size of the dif-
is followed by a second stage before the
ference (ignoring the plus or minus
first stage is repeated. The method is
often used to assess the effect of a treat-

sign) between a particular value and a means a rather inferior method of

value being used as a point of reference. thinking, in which the subject (an as yet
undeveloped young child) is restricted
absolute difference The size of the dif-
only to being able to think about what
ference (ignoring the plus or minus
s/he can see – genuine abstraction of
sign) between two variables.
thought is held to be beyond him/her.
absolute error See true scores theory.
absurdity test Test (usually of intelli-
absolute frequency The number of gence) in which the subject must iden-
times an event actually occurs (as op- tify what is wrong with an illogical
posed to e.g. the proportion of times on statement or picture.
which it occurs relative to other events).
abulia profound indecisiveness.
absolute rating Rating made without
abuse The misuse of a position of power
comparison with other stimuli.
and/or responsibility in order to cause
absolute risk The probability of having suffering. Typically divided into three
a particular disease within a stated time types: physical (suffering and/or injury
period. Compare this with relative risk, by means of e.g. blows or poisoning);
the differences in probability of having sexual (forcing an unwilling partner to
a particular disease across different engage in sexual activity or to persuade
groups (e.g. risk of a heart attack in or command a partner to participate
smokers and non-smokers). when they are incapable of making
absolute threshold See threshold. an informed decision); and emotional
(use of behavioural measures to inflict
absolute value The value of a number suffering whether through action or
regardless of whether it is positive or neglect). The terms are often applied to
negative (e.g. the absolute values of 2 cases of child abuse, but can denote
and –2 are identical). Usually denoted abuse in any situation where the abused
by vertical lines around the number in is in a position of weakness (e.g. elderly
question (i.e. |x|). frail patients).
absolute zero true zero (see ratio scale). ABX design Experimental design in
absorbing barrier (1) See random walk. which the subject is presented with
(2) absorbing state. three stimuli and must decide if one of
them (‘X’) is the same as ‘A’ or ‘B’.
absorbing state A state in some types of
stochastic sequences which once reached AC assessment centre.
cannot be escaped. ac- The prefix is often used interchange-
abstinence syndrome withdrawal. ably with ak-. A sought-for word may
be entered with an ak- prefix.
abstract intelligence (1) The ability to
process abstract concepts. This is con- Academic Achievement Discrepancy
trasted with concrete intelligence – the (AAD) A measure of level of scholastic
ability to deal with practical problems underachievement.
and ‘real-life’ situations. (2) In some acalculia A profound failure of arithme-
theories of psychological development, tic skills.
particularly those of, or influenced by,
Jean Piaget, the term ‘abstract intelli- acanthaesthesia A hallucination in which
gence’ has much the same meaning as the patient has the sensation of suffer-
above. However, ‘concrete intelligence’ ing pin pricks.

acarophobia A phobia of small animals achievement age The age at which the
or objects. average subject (usually a child) scores at
a particular level on an achievement test.
acatamathaesia A profound failure of
E.g., if the child’s scores have an appre-
ciably higher achievement age than the
acataphasia A profound inability to con- child’s actual age, then s/he is consid-
struct grammatical and/or meaningful ered to be bright for his/her years.
Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT)
acathisia A profound and uncontrollable Measure assessing the degree to which
restlessness and agitation. anxiety enhances an individual’s per-
accelerated test Test that exaggerates formance (the ‘facilitation scale’) and
and/or speeds up conditions so that hinders it (the ‘debilitating scale’).
the long-term effects of a process can be achievement motivation level of
seen within a practicable length of time. ambition.
Calculating how a process will perform
achievement need need for achievement.
in normal conditions from such data can
be problematic. achievement quotient Calculated as for
an intelligence quotient, except using ach-
acceptance error Type II error.
ievement age rather than mental age.
accidental sample Sample in which the
achievement test A measure of what the
items and/or participants are gathered
subject is currently capable of (e.g. a
on an ad hoc basis, or at least with no
child’s scholastic attainment). Compare
clear rationale (i.e. there is no attempt
with aptitude test, and see achievement age.
to ensure that they are truly randomly
selected). See opportunistic sampling. achluophobia A phobia of the dark.
account analysis Analysis of subjects’ achromatopsia A disorder of visual per-
verbal accounts of their thoughts, ception, in which everything is seen in
behaviours, etc. shades of grey (or more rarely, a single
accuracy test Any test in which the ac-
curacy of the answers, rather than time ACL Adjective Checklist.
taken to answer, is of prime importance.
acmaesthesia An abnormal perception of
ACE test American Council on Education what would normally be considered
test. painful stimulation purely in terms of
the stimulation, and without any feeling
acenaesthesia An absence of feeling of
of pain. E.g. being squeezed very hard
would feel like strong pressure, with no
ACER Tests Set of tests of basic skills pain.
pertinent to engineering.
acoasm A hallucination of a formless
acerophobia A phobia of sourness. noise.
acetylcholine Form of neurotransmitter. acoria gluttony.
ACF Microcog – Assessment of Cognitive acousma acoasm.
acousticophobia A phobia of noise.
Ach acetylcholine.
acquiescence acquiescent responding.

acquiescent responding Habitually ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone.

agreeing with the semantic direction of
acting out (1) A characteristic of a pa-
questions, regardless of what the state-
tient’s behaviour which reveals a key
ment is arguing. E.g. in answer to the
aspect of his/her problem but which
questions ‘do you agree with hanging?’
may not be a direct manifestation of the
and ‘is capital punishment a bad idea?’,
problem (e.g. being hostile to a particu-
the subject would answer ‘yes’ on both
lar therapist because s/he reminds the
patient of his/her parents). (2) A
acquiescent response set acquiescent sudden outburst of virtually uncontrol-
responding. lable behaviour.
acquired aphasia See aphasia. action research (1) The evaluation of a
situation (usually connected with the
acquired dysgraphia A profound diffi-
workplace), the introduction of a
culty in spelling resulting from brain
change (hoped to be an improving one),
and the evaluation of the effects of the
acquired dyslexia A profound difficulty change. The process can be repeated –
in reading resulting from brain damage. i.e. having seen the effects of the change,
This takes various forms, some of which further changes may be introduced, and
resemble developmental dyslexics or chil- their effects evaluated (these changes
dren learning to read (see phonological can lead to further changes, etc.). (2)
dyslexia and surface dyslexia), and one Research in which the experimenter is
form (demented dyslexia) is usually associ- also one of the subjects (typically, in a
ated with dementia. See attentional study of social behaviour). (3) Research
dyslexia, deep dyslexia, direct dyslexia, pho- on an active process.
nological dyslexia, surface dyslexia and
action tremor Trembling during an
contrast with alexia.
intended movement.
acrasia A profound absence of self-disci-
activating event An event which can be
identified as the trigger for a particular
acroaesthesia Heightened sensation in behaviour.
the extremities of the body.
active therapy General term for any ther-
acroanaesthesia Reduction in sensation apeutic technique in which the therapist
in the extremities of the body. Com- directly offers advice, rather than guiding
plete loss of sensation is acropara- the patient’s own thoughts. In contrast,
esthesia. passive therapy seeks to give as few overt
acrocinesia excessive movement. instructions as possible.

acroparaesthesia See acroanaesthesia. activities of daily living assessment of

daily living.
acrophobia See phobia.
activity dimension See semantic differen-
ACS Analysis of Coping Style. tial technique.
act psychology School of psychological activity inventory A catalogue of ac-
thought active in the late nineteenth tions performed in a particular task.
century, which concentrated on the
totality of the mental experience and the activity scheduling The division of
act of thinking, rather than on the sub- time into a series of activities, so that
processes of thought. the person is aware of what s/he should

be doing at particular points of the day, ability of long-stay patients to adjust to

week, etc. the ‘real world’ upon release.
actor-observer bias The tendency for an adaptation syndrome Physical reaction
observer to exaggerate the role of the (principally hormonal) to extreme stress.
actor’s own personality in causing a
adapted child See transactional analysis.
particular sequence of events, and for
the actor to exaggerate the importance adaptive behaviour The degree to which
of the particular situation. an individual copes with society. Impor-
tant in judging degree of mental retarda-
actual illness A mental illness which has
tion when conventional IQ tests might
a physical cause.
be inappropriate (e.g. in some mentally
actualizing tendency The drive towards retarded members of an ethnic minority
self-actualization. with poor command of the majority
actualizing therapy Therapeutic process
which emphasizes self-actualization as the Adaptive Behaviour Scale (ABS)
primary goal, rather than dealing with Rating scale, devised by the AAMD, for
specific problems of which the patient assessing the degree to which a mentally
may complain. retarded person can adapt into the com-
munity. Can be divided into three sub-
acuity (vision) The ability to focus on
scales – measuring how far the subject is
distant objects/fine detail.
self-sufficient in looking after him/
aculalia garbled speech. herself, how well s/he fits into the
acute (1) Lasting a short time and/or community, and how firmly s/he under-
sudden: contrast with chronic. (2) Very stands the concept of social norms and
severe/debilitating. responsibility.

acute alcoholic intoxication (AAI) Adaptive Behaviour Scale – School

Short-lived but severe mental and Edition (ABS-SE) Version of the
physical incapacitation resulting from Adaptive Behaviour Scale specifically
over-consumption of alcoholic bever- designed for mentally retarded partici-
ages. pants of school age.

acute confusional state delirium. adaptive test Test whose structure is based
upon the answers given to earlier ques-
acute post-traumatic stress disorder tions.
See post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
ADC AIDS dementia complex.
acute stress disorder See post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD). ADD attentional deficit disorder.

acute tolerance tachyphylaxis. ADD-H attentional deficit disorder with

AD Alzheimer’s Disease.
addiction Psychological and/or physio-
AD-MID A dementia in which the patient logical dependency on a drug or other
displays symptoms of dementia of the Alz- (usually pleasure-giving) substance or
heimer type and multi-infarct dementia event. Common addictions include
simultaneously. illegal drugs (drug addiction), alcohol,
adaptation (1) Adjustment to stimulation tobacco, and gambling. If the addiction
and/or the environment. (2) Hence, the is purely governed by a psycho-
logical drive, then it is known as a

psychological addiction, or psychologi- adjustment disorder A profound

cal dependency. If the patient’s bodily distress resulting from a failure to cope
mechanisms require the drug (i.e. if with a stressful event or drastic change
s/he feels physically ill if the drug is in circumstances.
withdrawn), then the phenomenon is
adjustment inventory Name for any
called physiological addiction or sub-
measures of how well the subject has
stance dependence (note that there may be
adjusted to (i.e. is in harmony with)
a psychological drive as well).
his/her environment.
Addison’s disease Organic affective
adjuvent therapy Supporting therapeu-
syndrome caused by a deficiency of cor-
tic techniques given in addition to the
tisone, and characterized by tiredness
principal form of therapy.
and depression. See Cushing’s syndrome.
ADL assessment of daily living.
additive interaction See interaction.
Adlerian theory/therapy individual
additive scale interval scale.
ADEPT Adult Development and Enrichment
AD-MID A dementia in which the patient
displays symptoms of dementia of the
ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia
disorder, a.k.a. ADD-H. simultaneously.
adiadochokinesis An inability to execute adrenaline Chemical which can act as
repetitive actions, usually caused by damage both a hormone and a neurotransmitter,
to the cerebellum. Impaired ability to execute and which is involved in ‘fright, flight
repetitive actions is known as dysdiadoc- and fight’ – namely, it raises metabolic,
bokinesis. heart and breathing rates and generally
prepares the body for more energetic
adipsia A profoundly low drive to drink
(any fluids).
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
Adjective Checklist (ACL) List of 300
Hormone which stimulates the release
adjectives, out of which the subject
of adrenaline.
selects those which s/he feels most
apply to him/herself. Yields an impres- adrenogenital syndrome Premature
sive (if unwieldy) 37 scales of personal- sexual development caused by an
ity measurement. over-active adrenal gland.
adjunctive behaviour Inappropriate adult children Grown up sons and
behaviour reinforced by events result- daughters; usually the term more spe-
ing from that behaviour. cifically refers to adults who experience
problems as a result of events which
adjusted correlation (radj) Mathemati-
occurred during their childhood (e.g.
cally adjusted value of the correlation
‘adult children of abusing parents’).
coefficient that controls for potential
biasing in small samples. Adult Development and Enrichment
Programme (ADEPT) A training
adjusted mean mean adjusted in value to
programme for older people.
account for the effects of a covariate.
adult ego state See transactional analysis.
adjusted R2 Mathematically adjusted
value of R 2 designed to compensate for adult offspring adult children.
measurement errors when the data set
being analysed is small.

adult survivors survivors (definition 2) affective psychosis psychosis in which a

who are adults, who suffered a trau- major symptom is a gross disturbance
matic event (e.g. sexual abuse) as of affect.
afferent (neurons) Carrying signals
Advanced Progressive Matrices from the peripheral nervous system to the
(APM) See Raven’s Progressive Matrices. central nervous system. See efferent.
adventitious resulting from injury. affiliation motivation A drive to
belong to a group, form friendships,
adventitious deafness Deafness result-
ing from injury.
affiliation need (nAff ) The need to
advocacy group Group representing the
belong to a group, family, etc.
case for a particular cause. In the context
of this dictionary, advocacy groups affirming the consequent Error of logic
commonly encountered are those repre- in which it is assumed that because
senting the interests of patients with a event y can be caused by event x, then
particular condition. the existence or truth of y proves the
existence or truth of x.
aeroacrophobia A phobia of flying.
AG age group.
aerophagia ‘gulping’ in air.
age associated memory impairment
aerophobia A phobia of wind and
(AAMI) Normal memory decline asso-
ciated with old age.
aetiological validity The concept that
age cohort A group of people born and
a patient possessing a particular set of
raised in the same period of time/
symptoms must be suffering from a par-
history. Generally, the age range of such
ticular disease, because other patients
a group increases the older its average
known to suffer from the same disease
age. E.g. an acceptable grouping of
possess the same set of symptoms. See
newborn babies would not include a
three-month-old; a group of year-old
aetiology (1) The study of causes (e.g. of babies would not include a 5- year-old,
disease). (2) cause(s) (e.g. of disease). but a group of ‘old’ subjects could
AFF auditory flutter fusion. have a 20-year age range of 60–80-
affect emotion.
age-equivalent scale Test scores
affectionless psychopathy Disorder expressed in terms of the proportions
characterized by an absence of emo- of an age group who typically possess
tional responses and disregard for other them, enabling the assessment of whe-
people’s emotions. ther a person is advanced or retarded for
affective bridge A link made between their age.
emotional states on different occasions. age-grade scale Test scores expressed in
affective disorders General term for a terms of the school year/grade in
group of illnesses whose principal which they are usually found.
symptom is a severe disturbance in emo- age norm The mean score for a given age
tional state. Principal examples are group, and hence the score one would
depression and mania. expect an average person of that age
affective flattening flat affect. group to possess.

age normative effect A factor which agoraphobia See phobia.

influences the majority of people at the
agrammatism A profound failure of
same point in their lives.
age scale age-equivalent scale.
agraphia A complete failure to write/
age score mental age. spell. See dysgraphia.
AGECAT A computerized package for agreeableness (A) Personality trait (one
assessing the mental state of elderly of the ‘Big Five’) measuring the degree
patients. to which the subject is prepared to ‘go
along with’ a situation. Accordingly,
ageusia loss of taste.
the trait has extremes of gullibility and
aggregate data Data about a group of cynicism.
items, people or events which have
agreement coefficient item reliability.
something in common (e.g. all aard-
varks called Kevin, sandwiches with agricultural psychology Study of psy-
vegan fillings). chological aspects of farming and the
rural lifestyle.
aggression An intent to cause harm,
aggressive socialized conduct disorder agrypnia insomnia.
antisocial personality disorder in which the
agyiophobia A phobia of streets.
patient is also capable of caring behav-
iour. AH intelligence tests A collection of
fluid intelligence tests devised by Alice
agitated depression depression accompa-
Heim (hence the name). The tests are
nied by extreme levels of physical agi-
available in several versions, from AH1
(the easiest) to AH6 (the hardest),
agitated melancholia (Now outmoded) which are intended for different subject
term for depression coupled with anxiety. groups. E.g., by giving the AH6 test to
a group of bright subjects, one avoids
agitation Term covering a set of sym-
the problem of ceiling effects, which
ptoms indicative of restlessness and dis-
would be encountered if one gave them
satisfaction, including acts of physical
a test designed for the general popula-
aggression, grabbing, complaining,
tion. Similarly, a group of dull subjects
shouting, verbal abuse, etc. Often used to
might benefit from taking the AH2,
describe a range of problematic behav-
because a more demanding test would
iours found in institutionalized older
create floor effects.
adults, particularly those who are intel-
lectually compromised or suffering from ahedonia anhedonia.
ahistorical therapy Therapy which
agitolalia Rapid speech, in which it seems takes no or relatively little account of
that the words cannot be pronounced the patient’s past.
quickly enough.
ahypnia insomnia.
agnosia A profound failure of recogni-
aichmophobia A phobia of pointed
tion. The failure can be restricted to one
sense – e.g. auditory agnosia, visual
agnosia, etc. AIDS dementia complex (ADC)
dementia caused by the onset of AIDS.
agnosic alexia An inability to read,
although other linguistic skills (includ- ailurophobia A phobia of cats.
ing writing) are intact.

air encephalograph pneumoencephalo- heavy drinkers, withdrawal can result in

graph. delirium tremens.
Ai3Q personality inventory assessing obses- aleatory Pertaining to chance.
sional personality.
alethia Inability to suppress a memory.
ak- The prefix is often used interchange-
Alexander technique A therapeutic
ably with ac-. A sought-for word may
technique, whose principal point of
be entered with an ac- prefix.
interest lies in its emphasis on bodily
akathisia extreme restlessness. posture. It is claimed to help alleviate
negative symptoms and create a feeling
akinaesthesia Loss of sensitivity to
of greater well-being.
signals from muscles and tendons.
alexia A complete failure to read or to
akinesia Inability to initiate movements.
recognize words or letters (in dyslexia
akinetic apraxia Inability to perform there is a partial ability). Only usually
spontaneous movements. seen in brain-damaged individuals.
alalia A profound absence of speech. alexia without agraphia agnosic alexia.
Alcohol Assessment and Treatment alexithymia Inability to monitor one’s
Profile (AATP) structured interview own emotional state.
package eliciting details of a patient’s
algebraic transformation square root
drinking habits and attitudes.
alcohol dependence alcoholism.
algesia (1) Sense of pain. (2) Heightened
alcohol withdrawal delirium delirium sense of pain.
algolagnia General term for receiving
alcoholic dementia Old (and mislead- sexual pleasure from pain, whether
ing) synonym for Korsakoff ’s syndrome. through masochism or sadism.
alcoholic psychosis General term for algophilia masochism.
intellectual impairment caused by alco-
alienation An actual state and/or per-
ceived feeling that one is separate and
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Self-help detached from others.
group for people suffering from alco-
alienation coefficient The opposite of
the correlation coefficient – a measure
alcoholism substance abuse where the sub- assessing how unrelated two variables
stance in question is alcohol. Although are.
most alcoholics are heavy drinkers, the
all or nothing thought Erroneous
condition is determined less by the
belief that anything less than absolute
quantity consumed than by the alco-
success in seeking a particular goal is to
holic’s abnormal need for it (either con-
be regarded as abject failure.
stantly or in binges), and the fact that the
alcohol consumption is having negative allachaesthesia allaesthesia.
effects on the patient’s well-being and
allaesthesia A misperception of the
on those close to him/her. As the illness
location of a sensation in the body –
progresses, alcoholics tend to require
often that it is on the opposite side of
ever-increasing amounts of drink in
the body (when it is more properly
order to attain the same effects. With
called allochiria).

allele One possible form a gene may take alpha error Type I error.
at a particular position on a chromo-
alpha level significance level.
Alpha Test Test of verbal intelligence
allesthesia allaesthesia.
used by the American Army during
allocentrism Attributing an event to en- World War I for personnel selection
vironmental factors (as opposed to the (the Beta Test was visuo-spatial). The
self ). test was one of the first wide-scale uses
of psychometrics, and has been heavily
allochiria See allaesthesia.
criticized for cultural bias.
allopsychosis Any mental illness in which
alpha waves A pattern of electrical acti-
the patient’s principal problem is directed
vity in the brain detected by electroen-
towards the outside world. This contrasts
cephalograph (EEG) with a frequency
with autopsychosis, where the perceived
between 8 and 12 Hz.
problems lie within the patient.
alternate form reliability See reliability.
allotriophagia Consumption of unusual
foods or food combinations. alternating personality See multiple per-
Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Scale Study of
Values. alternating psychosis bipolar disorder.
Allport’s theory of personality devel- alternative hypothesis (Hi) The reverse
opment Gordon Allport argued that of the null hypothesis – the prediction
children do not possess personalities as that the experiment will demonstrate a
much as a collection of behaviours, statistically significant event of the type
which vary according to the needs of predicted by the researcher.
the moment (e.g. children behave radi-
altruistic suicide See Durkheim’s tax-
cally differently with their friends and
onomy of suicide.
their parents). The behaviours even-
tually coalesce into selves, which are aluminium theory of dementia of the
sets of behaviours consistently used in Alzheimer type The (unproven) theory
different settings (e.g. the child has a that an abnormally large intake of alu-
‘home self ’, a ‘school self ’, etc.). An minium (through environmental
individual reaches maturity when the factors and/or faulty ‘body filters’) is
selves in turn coalesce into a proprium, the cause of dementia of the Alzheimer
which is a personality or self relatively type.
stable across situations. In addition, Alzheimer’s disease dementia of the Alz-
Allport saw maturity as involving heimer type.
shifting the motivation for actions from
simply earning reward, avoiding amaurotic idiocy Inherited mental retar-
punishment, obeying orders, etc., to dation, accompanied by blindness.
motivation to do something for its own amaxophobia A phobia of motor vehicles.
sake and virtues (functional autonomy).
This shift in motivation is called the ambiguous figure A visual stimulus
lack of emotional continuity. which can be perceived as possessing
two or more distinct identities.
alogia Lack of, or very limited, speech.
ambiguous loss Phenomenon usually
alpha coefficient coefficient alpha. encountered in severely demented patients,

whereby the afflicted individual exists The term, strictly speaking, means total
only physically – there is no sign of a memory loss, although it is rarely used
sentient being occupying the body. as such – see dysmnesia.
ambivalence The simultaneous holding amnesic aphasia anomic aphasia.
of positive and negative feelings about
amnesic apraxia Inability to remember
something or someone.
sequences of movements.
ambiversion See extroversion.
amnesic syndrome amnestic syndrome.
amblyopia Defective vision with no dis-
amnestic apraxia amnesic apraxia.
cernible physical cause.
amnestic dysgraphia A profound
ambulatory schizophrenia schizotypal
writing disability – the patient can
personality disorder.
write individual letters, but writing is
amenorrhoea An abnormal absence of otherwise incomprehensible.
menstrual bleeding. In primary ame-
amnestic syndrome Amnesia resulting
norrhoea there is no onset of periods at
from brain damage (either injury or
puberty whilst in secondary ame-
damage from toxins, alcohol, etc.)
norrhoea, periods cease during adult-
where there is no other severe intellec-
hood for reasons not commensurate
tual impairment. Some commentators
with the onset of the menopause.
treat the syndrome as synonymous with
amentia mental retardation. anterograde amnesia, although the DSM
includes retrograde amnesia as well.
American Association for Mental
Deficiency (AAMD) American group amniocentesis A sampling of amniotic
promoting the rights and needs of fluid (the fluid surrounding the baby in
mentally retarded people. the womb) during early pregnancy,
which can reveal chromosomal defects
American Council on Education
(particularly trisomy 21) in the foetus.
(ACE) Test Intelligence test primarily
designed for (American) students. amok A culture-bound disorder (found
chiefly in Asia) characterized by a
amimia A profound inability to use
period of extreme listlessness followed
by a very energetic and violent out-
amitriptyline An antidepressant. burst.
amnesia A failure of memory usually amphetamine sulphate Type of amphet-
abnormally severe, arising from e.g. amine.
stroke, head injury, illness (e.g. dementia),
amphetamines Group of drugs whose
or poisoning. The term is occasionally
principal effect is an increased level of
used for memory loss which is normal or
energy and euphoria (in large doses,
not unduly serious in its effects (e.g.
they can induce delusions). They have
childhood amnesia). Anterograde amnesia
accordingly found popularity as an
is amnesia for events which took place
illegal drug. They are still used for
after the brain damage occurred (see
legitimate medical purposes, and until
amnestic syndrome). Retrograde amnesia is
the 1960s, were available in the UK
amnesia for events preceding the brain
without prescription (principally as a
damage (usually this is confined to
slimming aid – the drugs also reduce
memory failure for a brief period before
the damage occurred, not the patient’s
entire past life – see psychogenic amnesia.

amusia A profound failure in musical analogy test Intelligence measure in

perception (i.e. tone and rhythm deaf ). which subjects must identify the logic
of an analogy in an example, and then
amyl nitrate A drug with a legitimate use
provide a similar analogy (usually from
as a heart stimulant, but more often
a multiple choice). E.g. ‘kippers are to
used illegally – induces a burst of energy
marmalade as soup is to: (a) washing
and feelings of euphoria.
powder (b) mashed potatoes (c) hot
amyloid precursor protein (APP) chocolate (d) penguins’.
Gene located on chromosome 21 linked
analysand The patient in psychoanalysis.
to some cases of dementia of the Alzheimer
type. Analysis of Coping Style (ACS)
Measure of social skills in subjects aged
Amytal A type of barbiturate. The drug
5–18 years.
lowers inhibitions, and accordingly, has
been dubbed the ‘truth drug’, much analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
beloved of spy films (in which its analysis of variance in which a difference
efficacy has been grossly exaggerated). is examined after the coincidental
effects of a covariate have been statisti-
anaclisis Extreme dependence on others.
cally controlled for. This means that
anaclitic depression Depression experi- any differences found cannot be attrib-
enced by a child upon prolonged sepa- uted to the coincidental effects of the
ration from its parent(s); more gener- covariate. It logically follows that the
ally, depression upon the death of a ANCOVA can also be used to demon-
parent. strate that a difference is attributable to
anal expulsive personality See anal the effects of the covariate if control-
retentive personality. ling for it removes the group difference.
E.g. one can show that in 5–10-year-
anal retentive personality Derived olds, children with big feet have higher
from the anal stage of Freud’s psychoana- maths scores than small-footed child-
lytic theory, a personality type character- ren. This may indicate advantages of
ized by miserliness and an obsessional big-footedness, but it is also the case
need for detail, rules and procedures. that the big- footed children are usually
Held to be due to retaining faeces older (i.e. the difference between the
rather than expelling them when the groups may simply be due to their dif-
need is felt as an infant. The reverse ferent average ages). By using age as a
behaviour leads, it is argued, to the anal covariate in an ANCOVA, the effects of
expulsive personality, which is over- age can be removed from the equation,
amenable and over-relaxed. and the difference between the scores
anal stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. of big and small-footed children can be
re- examined.
analeptic drug Any drug designed to
stimulate. analysis of covariant structures Form
of LISREL measuring causal relation-
analogue study Study in which a natu- ships.
ralistic situation is replicated in a labo-
ratory. Often the situation cannot be analysis of variance (ANOVA) A para-
precisely replicated, so an analogous metric measure of the differences
situation is devised (e.g. taking ability between two or more groups’ scores on
at video games as an indication of one or more measures or between one
ability to fly fighter planes). group’s performance on two or more

measures. Significance is assessed using analytical psychology Term sometimes

the F ratio. Essentially, the ANOVA can applied to Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.
be employed to measure three things:
anamnesis Medical history of a patient
differences between two or more
before treatment. Often the term is
groups on the same measure (between
restricted to the patient’s own account.
groups measure); differences in the same
The medical history post-treatment is
group’s performance on two or more
known as catamnesis.
different measures (within groups
measure); and differences in the pattern anancasm compulsion.
of responses made by two or more dif- anancastia A state of feeling compelled
ferent groups on two or more different to perform an action against one’s will.
measures (the interaction measure).
Analyses of quantitative differences (i.e. anancastic disorder Disorder charac-
everything but the interactions) are also terized by an unrealistic level of perfec-
known as main effects. The format of tionism and/or pedantry and/or an
the ANOVA remains basically the same expectation that others should obey
when the number of variables being similar unfeasibly exacting standards.
assessed is increased or decreased, anaphia A profound absence of the sen-
although the interactions become more sation of touch.
complex (see interaction). It should be
noted that when two groups are being anaphylaxis The recurrence of symp-
compared on one variable with one toms which had been triggered by an
level, then this is a t test, which can thus earlier upsetting event, when experi-
be regarded as a form of ANOVA. The encing a similar event.
ANOVA is labelled according to the anarithmia acalculia.
number of between and within groups
measures used, and whether the anarithria A profound absence of speech.
measures are all within, all between, or anatomically correct dolls anatomically
a mixture. Hence, a two way between detailed dolls.
ANOVA analyses two between groups
measures; a four way within ANOVA anatomically detailed dolls Dolls pos-
analyses four within groups measures; sessing genitalia, used by therapists in
and a three way mixed ANOVA analyses e.g. cases of child abuse, to enable the
three measures, of which at least one children to describe the nature of the
and no more than two is between abuse.
groups. The ANOVA is one of the com- anchor point A point of reference on a
monest measures of group differences scale against which a participant makes
employed by psychologists. It assumes his/her judgements.
normally distributed populations. See
ANCOVA analysis of covariance.
analysis of covariance, ANOVA table,
Hoyt’s analysis of variance, interaction, androgen General term for hormones
multivariate analysis of variance, post hoc determining male sexual characteris-
tests, repeated measures analysis of variance tics.
and Type I sums of squares.
androgynous personality A personal-
analytic psychology analytical psychol- ity combining the ‘better’ attributes of
ogy. stereotypical ‘masculine’ and ‘femi-
nine’ behaviours (e.g. being gentle
but independent, tough-minded but

succouring, etc.). Compare with undif- animus See Jung’s psychoanalytic theory.
ferentiated sex role identity.
ankle clonus See clonus.
andromania nymphomania.
Anna O See hypnosis.
androphobia A phobia of men.
anniversary reaction Negative feelings
anecdotal evidence Evidence accrued engendered by it being the anniversary
from hearsay or witness reports, which (or general time of year) of an event dis-
has not been systematically examined tressing to a subject (e.g. death of a
for its veracity. A more specific form of close friend or relative). The term can
testing is implied by anecdotal testing. also refer to positive feelings associated
with the anniversary of a more cheerful
anecdotal testing Measurements of a
participant’s behaviour gathered from
observers who have seen the subject in Annual Review of Psychology Annual
question (e.g. of a mentally ill patient’s collection of critical essays on recent
behaviour in the time before referral – developments in key areas of psychol-
the reports of relatives, friends, etc., ogy.
may be more reliable than the patient’s
anodyne drug Any drug with pain-
self-report). See anecdotal evidence.
killing or soothing properties.
anemophobia aerophobia.
Anomalous Sentences Repetition
anencephalia Absence of brain. Test (ASRT) Measure designed to dis-
tinguish patients in early stages of
anergasia Loss of function, usually with
dementia from those with pseudodementia.
the implication that there is a known
Participants are required to repeat sen-
physical cause.
tences spoken by the tester which are
anergia Loss of energy. grammatically correct but have no
anergic Pertaining to anergia. meaning.

anergy anergia. anomia (1) Inability to name. (2) anomie

(rare usage).
anginophobia A phobia of choking or of
suffocation. anomic aphasia Aphasia characterized
by an inability to find specific words.
anhedonia Loss of pleasure or the ability The term is largely interchangeable
to seek and feel pleasure. with anomia.
aniconia A profound inability to pro- anomic suicide See Durkheim’s taxonomy
duce mental images. of suicide.
anima See Jung’s psychoanalytic theory. anomie Loss of a value system, caused by
animal assisted therapy Using interac- extreme stress.
tion with animals (typically, providing anomie scale A measure of moral values
the patient with a pet – more precisely or, more usually, lack of them.
known as pet therapy) as a therapeutic
measure. anorexia Undereating, for reasons other
than a conventional reduction diet. The
animal model Using the findings from disorder can have many causes: the
observations and experiments on commonest are some forms of cancer
animals as an analogue of human per- and anorexia nervosa.

anorexia nervosa A mental disorder in anoxia A lack of oxygen; if this occurs at

which the patient wilfully starves/seri- birth, then mental retardation can result.
ously undereats, in the erroneous belief
ANS autonomic nervous system.
that s/he is overweight and has an
unattractive body shape. The illness is answer until correct (AUC) score
largely (but not solely) confined to Marking system for a multiple choice
females, usually in adolescence. Com- test, in which a subject makes as many
pare with bulimia and bulimia nervosa. attempts as is necessary until s/he
See anorexia. obtains the right answer; the more
attempts made, the fewer points scored.
anorexigenic appetite-suppressing.
See inferred number right (INR) score.
anorgasmia Inability to orgasm.
Antabuse Trade name of disulfiram.
anosmia Inability to smell.
antecedent In expressing a ratio (e.g.
anosognosia Denial of illness. The term ‘x:y’), the first number in the expression
is usually employed specifically to (i.e. ‘x’). The second number (i.e. ‘y’) is
describe denial of a very ‘obvious’ the consequent.
debilitating problem such as paralysis
antecedent variable A variable preced-
or blindness.
ing another one, and often inferred to
ANOVA analysis of variance. be the cause of the latter.
ANOVA table The ‘correct form’ for pre- anterior Anatomical term denoting the
senting the results of an analysis of ‘head end’ or front section in a quadru-
variance. The table varies in complexity ped, and the front or ‘face end’ in a
with the size of the ANOVA, but all bipedal animal (e.g. human). See cranial.
contain the following headings:
anterograde amnesia See amnesia.
Source, S.S., d.f., M.S., F. ‘Source’ refers
to the source of the variance. This anthropomorphism Attributing human
includes all the empirically observed qualities, thought processes, etc., to
measures (the between groups measures non-human animals. The most extreme
and within groups measures), plus any reaction against it is behaviourism.
interactions. In addition, it also lists anthropomorphizing anthropomor-
headings of BETWEEN GROUPS, phism.
VARIANCE. These refer to all between anthroposophy Therapeutic method
group variance, all within group devised by Rudolf Steiner (1861–
variance, and the total variance of the 1925), aimed at ‘liberating’ spiritual
whole analysis. They are essential in aspects of the mind and behaviour.
calculating the F ratios and eta squared. anticathexis Expressing the opposite
S.S. refers to the sum of squares, which is emotion from the one actually felt.
the sum of all the squared deviations
from the mean. D.f. refers to the degrees of anticipatory grief Preparing for the
freedom for the section of the analysis in death of a loved one.
question. M.S. is the mean square, antidepressant A drug to counteract the
which is the mathematically-adjusted effects of depression.
mean of the sum of squares. F refers to
the F ratio, calculated as the ratio of the antimode The least frequently occurring
mean squares. value in a sample.

antipsychiatry movement Movement strategies to cope with the problem. See

which began in the 1960s which criti- desensitization.
cizes mainstream psychiatric methods
anxiety hysteria phobia.
for their alleged degrading of mentally
ill patients (e.g. by stereotyping anxiety neurosis (1) Old term for gener-
patients according to their perceived alized anxiety. (2) anxiety disorder.
‘disease’, over-using tranquillizing anxiety object An object inducing a
drugs, etc.). feeling of anxiety (including phobic
antipsychotic drug Drug designed to objects).
counteract the effects of psychotic ill- anxiety-relief response Behaviour therapy
nesses. technique. The patient learns to associ-
antisocial personality disorder (psy- ate a word or act with a feeling of
chopathy) personality disorder charac- calmness. Accordingly, repeating the
terized by a profound lack of moral act or word in moments of anxiety should
sense, often resulting in illegal and/or help reduce the negative feelings.
violent behaviour. Sufferers may also anxiety states Group term for generalized
engage in sports and other activities anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and
with a high level of risk. panic disorder.
antonym test Test in which the subject anxiety tolerance The maximum level
must supply the opposite of a word of anxiety an individual can experience
supplied by the experimenter. without suffering psychological and/
anxiety The term is usually used in the or physical damage.
lay sense of the word. Namely, a feeling anxiolytic drug minor tranquillizer.
of profound agitation and of an im-
minent unpleasant experience, often anxyolytic anxiolytic.
with accompanying physical symp- AOA age of acquisition.
toms of racing pulse, sweating, breath-
lessness, etc. Normally, the sensation is APA (1) American Psychiatric Associa-
experienced as a reaction to anxiety- tion. (2) American Psychological Asso-
provoking events (e.g. a trip to the ciation.
dentist, ‘exam nerves’, etc.), and is rela- APA guidelines Any set of guidelines
tively quickly dissipated. If the feeling (usually on codes of professional
of anxiety is unusually severe or pro- conduct and publication protocol)
tracted, or arises without apparent issued by the American Psychological
reason, then it is usually classified as Association.
one of the anxiety disorders.
apeirophobia A phobia of infinity.
anxiety disorders General term for a
group of illnesses whose principal Apgar score Named after its inventor
symptom is a high level of (unrealistic) Apgar. A scaled measure of a newborn
anxiety. Principally, these are the anxiety baby’s physical condition. Takes five
states, and the phobias. criteria – heart rate; respiratory effort
(i.e. how well s/he is breathing); muscle
anxiety hierarchy Therapeutic tech- tone; reflex irritability (i.e. how well
nique in which an over-anxious patient baby responds to an irritating stimu-
arranges a series of events in order of lus); and colour (for Caucasians, the
how anxious they make him/her feel. pinker the better). Each measure is
This forms the basis of developing scored on a three point scale, and pro-

vides a quick indicator of the baby’s applicant client.

application blank American term for
aphagia A profoundly low drive to eat. application form.
aphasia Failure of language. Strictly applied psychology Any method of
speaking, the term refers to an entire applying psychological theory and
loss of language (a partial failure is techniques to ‘real life’ problems. The
dysphasia), but it is generally used for term principally covers clinical psychol-
any language failure. Also, usually ogy, educational psychology and occupa-
refers to acquired aphasia – i.e. the pat- tional psychology.
ient has acquired it through accident or
applied research Research with a
illness, and prior to this s/he had
solution to a practical problem as its
normal linguistic abilities. Aphasia can
goal. This contrasts with basic research,
be broadly divided into three catego-
whose principal interest is in a theoreti-
ries – receptive aphasia is a specific
cal concept, but not necessarily its prac-
failure to understand language, expres-
tical utility.
sive aphasia a failure to produce it, and
global aphasia a failure of both compre- approach-approach conflict The
hension and production. For more conflict a participant feels when s/he
specific categories, see: anomic aphasia., equally desires to perform two acts.
ataxic aphasia, audio-verbal aphasia, approach-avoidance conflict (1) The
auditory aphasia, Broca’s aphasia, conduc- conflict a participant feels when s/he
tion aphasia, developmental aphasia, mixed desires to perform an act, which s/he
transcortical aphasia, transcortical aphasia, knows has previously been punished.
transcortical motor aphasia, transcortical (2) In young children, the simultaneous
sensory aphasia, and Wernicke’s aphasia. desire to approach and to avoid a
Also see jargon aphasia. stranger.
aphephobia A phobia of being touched. Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI)
aphonia Inability to speak (the patient Questionnaire of study habits. Divided
may, however, be able to whisper or into 16 sub-scales, it assesses a range of
croak). study skills (e.g. over-reliance on
details, ability to comprehend broad
APM Advanced Progressive Matrices.
issues, etc.).
apoE apoliproprotein E.
approximate visual access Misreading
apoliproprotein E (apoE) A gene found a word as one which looks similar (e.g.
on chromosome 19 believed to be ‘house’ for ‘horse’). Found especially in
linked to dementia of the Alzheimer type beginning readers and surface dyslexics.
(and also vascular dementia). The gene
approximation error Inaccuracy intro-
comes in several forms, the commonest
duced by using approximate rather
being e2, e3 and e4. It is e4 that is
than stringently accurate measurements
believed to be associated with a higher
(e.g. in calculating the circumference of
possibility of developing late-onset
a circle, estimating the value of pi to be
DAT. Interestingly, the e2 variant seems
21/7). The seriousness of the error is
to carry a lower risk of developing
usually dependent upon demands of
the particular situation (e.g. using the
apoplexy stroke. 22/7 value may be adequate for
planning a garden pond, but may be
APP amyloid precursor protein.

seriously inaccurate when planning a ARIMA autoregressive integrated moving

space voyage). average.
apraxia Inability to perform intentional arithmetic mean mean.
arithmomania (1) An unnatural preoc-
aprosexia A profound failure of atten- cupation with the mathematical prop-
tion. erties of events. (2) An obsessive desire
to count.
aprosodia Failure of speech intonation.
Arlin Test of Formal Reasoning
apsychognosia Absence of understand-
Measure of a child’s reasoning abilities.
ing of the effects of one’s actions.
Based around Piaget’s concepts of
aptitude test A measure of what the par- formal and concrete intelligence.
ticipant is potentially capable of, even
array (1) Set of data or stimuli (often
although s/he may not currently attain
arranged in order of size). (2) The set of
such heights (e.g. an IQ test might
variables associated with another
show that a child’s teaching is not
stretching him/her sufficiently). Com-
pare with achievement test. arrested development A failure to
develop beyond a particular stage of
aqua-energetics Therapeutic technique
development (particularly with refer-
which, through emphasis on posture
ence to social age).
and breathing whilst floating in water,
attempts to release tensions, repressed arrows (in correlation/regression
feelings, etc. A central feature of some illustrations) A line with an arrow
forms of the therapy is the use of nude head at one end indicates a causal rela-
group therapy sessions in swimming tionship, with the arrow indicating the
pools. direction of causation. A line with
arrow heads at both ends indicates the
aquaphobia A phobia of expansesof water
items are related, but there is not a
and/or bathing.
causal relationship. In structural equation
arachnophobia See phobia. modelling, a two-headed arrow indi-
arbitrary inference The drawing of a cates variance shared by the connected
wildly incorrect conclusion about an items that is not explained by the
event by a patient, which conforms to equation.
his/her dysfunctional views (e.g. inter- art therapy Therapeutic method in
preting anything less than an effusive which the patient, through making an
greeting as ‘evidence’ that nobody likes artistic object (e.g. painting, sculpture),
him/her). explores his/her feelings, motives, etc.
archetype See Jung’s psychoanalytic theory. arteriosclerotic dementia multi-infarct
area sampling cluster sampling. dementia.

arena The situation in which a therapy articulated thoughts during simu-

takes place (e.g. one-to-one, group lated situations Therapeutic tech-
sessions, etc.). nique in which the patient hears or sees
a situation acted out and paused at
arhythmia A profound absence of sense regular intervals, to allow him/her to
of rhythm. comment on what s/he thinks about
the enacted scene. The scenes could be

e.g. situations which the patient finds by many authorities as, a form of autism
hard to deal with. (sometimes the two illnesses are found
in the same family, indicating a genetic
artifact An incidental by-product of an
component). The principal differences
experimental method, which may
between the conditions are that the
colour the results.
Asperger patient possesses near-normal
artificial dichotomy See dichotomous language, and usually has a higher
variable. degree of social skills. Sufferers are
artistic morphology The study of the often perceived as normal, if eccentric.
use of shape in art. Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale
Arthur Scale A non-verbal intelligence (ASDS) Test for assessing presence or
test for children. absence of symptoms associated with
Asperger’s syndrome.
ascending pathways nerves conducting
impulses along the spinal cord to the ASQ Attributional Style Questionnaire.
brain. Compare with descending path- ASRT Anomalous Sentences Repetition Test.
Assertion Inventory Measure of the
ascriptive responsibility Acknowledge- degree to which a person feels comfort-
ment of responsibility for an illegal or able about asserting him or herself in
morally wrong act, which will be puni- particular situations.
assertion training (AT) Form of behav-
ASD autistic spectrum disorder. iour therapy, training people to express
ASDS Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale. themselves and their wishes more easily
and forcefully (but not aggressively, as is
asemia A failure to recognize and/or use often erroneously supposed).
symbols and gestures. Sometimes used
more loosely to denote a failure to assertiveness training assertion training.
understand language. Assessing Reading Difficulties Reading
ASH Automated Social History. skills test for subjects aged 5–8 years.
Subjects are given an odd man out test, in
ASI Approaches to Study Inventory. which all but one of a list of words have
ASI-S Shortened version of Approaches to the same sound in common – the subjects
Study Inventory. have to name the ‘odd one out’ (e.g.
‘cat, hat, rat, man’). The test claims to
asitia A profound aversion to food. assess phonemic awareness skills, and
Loosely used as a synonym for anorexia performance is correlated with reading
nervosa. ability.
asociality Inability to form social rela- assessment centre (AC) A detailed per-
tionships. sonnel screening, using a variety of tech-
asonia Inability to discriminate between niques.
sound frequencies. Assessment for Training and Employ-
Asperger’s syndrome Named after its ment (ATE) Set of tests assessing basic
discoverer, H. Asperger. A condition intellectual and social abilities and apti-
quite similar to, and currently classified tudes in the context of suitability for

employment. The Differential Aptitude astasia-abasia A somatoform disorder, in

Tests form a sub-section of the battery. which the patient is unable to stand or
walk, although the legs otherwise fun-
assessment of daily living (ADL) Any
ction normally.
method of measuring daily activities,
usually with the purpose of identifying astereognosis A failure to recognize by
memory slips, etc. touch.
asset search Therapeutic technique in asthenia A feeling of profound weak-
which the patient lists all his/her attrib- ness.
utes. Sometimes the search is confined
asthenic personality Abnormally pro-
to looking for positive attributes
nounced inability to experience
(positive asset search) e.g. to increase the
pleasure and enthusiasm, coupled with
confidence of patients with low self-
increased sensitivity to stress.
esteem, depression, etc.
asthenophobia A phobia of weakness.
assets-liabilities technique Technique
used in some therapies, in which the Aston Index Reading skills test battery for
patient lists everything which is good subjects aged 5–14 years. Includes
and bad in his/her life. This list is used picture recognition, a vocabulary test,
to decide what the therapy should try the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test, the
to remove, what should be enhanced, Schonell Graded Word Reading Test,
etc. various tests of phonological skills and
memory. Primarily designed to assess
assignment therapy group therapy.
poor readers with suspected dyslexia.
association The degree to which two or
astraphobia A phobia of thunder and
more variables are related to each other.
association area association cortex.
asymbolia A failure to recognize sym-
association cortex See primary cortex. bolic information.
association test Any test in which the asymbolia for pain A failure to recog-
participant must produce a word asso- nize that pain signals indicate pain.
ciated with a given example. See con-
asymmetric correlation See symmetric
trolled association test and free association.
associational fluency Fluency in pro-
asymmetric distribution Distribution
ducing similes or synonyms. Often
with skew.
tested by giving a participant a list of
words and asking for their synonyms. asymptote The uppermost value, of e.g.
performance (may be actual or a theo-
associative visual agnosia A less severe
retical perfect upper limit).
form of visual agnosia. The participant
may be able accurately to copy an asymptotic Approaching (but never
object, and/or use it as part of a routine actually reaching) the asymptote.
learnt before the illness. In other asynergia A form of ataxia characterized
respects, however, his/her behaviour is by a profound lack of coordination
as that of a patient with full visual between different muscle groups.
AT assertion training.
astasia A psychological inability to stand.
At Ease Collection of computerized
relaxation therapy techniques.

at-risk children/infants Children/ attentional deficit disorder (ADD) A

infants with a heightened risk of suffer- disorder first found in childhood, char-
ing a deleterious change. Although a acterized by an extreme inability to
popular media shorthand for ‘at risk attend. The condition of attentional
from parental abuse’, the term also deficit disorder with hyperactivity
refers to threats from disease, environ- (ADD-H) indicates that the patient
mental factors, etc. cannot attend, and also exhibits hyper-
at-risk subjects Subjects who stand a
higher than average chance of develop- attentional deficit disorder with hyper-
ing an illness, being abused spouses, activity See attentional deficit disorder.
children, etc.
attentional dyslexia An acquired dyslexia
ataractic drug Any drug which tran- in which the patient reads segments of
quillizes or otherwise calms. separate words as a whole (e.g. ‘kill’ and
‘sock’ read as ‘kick’).
ataraxia calmness.
attenuation Reduction in the size of a
ataxia Absence of muscular coordina-
correlation, due to measurement error.
attenuation, correction for correction
ataxic (1) Pertaining to ataxia. (2)
for attenuation.
Muddled, uncoordinated.
attitude measure attitude scale.
ataxic aphasia Aphasia due to an inability
to articulate. attitude scale Any method of assessing
the strength of a person’s attitudes,
ataxic speech Speech with no intonation
thoughts or feelings about a topic.
or stress.
Commonest examples are the Guttman
ATE Assessment for Training and Employ- scale, the Likert scale and the Thurstone
ment. scale.
athetosis Slow repetitive movements attitudinizing See catatonic state.
(often twisting) of the limbs, fingers
Attributional Style Questionnaire
and toes, resulting from brain damage.
(ASQ) A measure of level of causal attri-
atonia Absence of normal muscle tone. bution.
ATQ Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. attrition subject attrition.
atrophy Loss or severe wastage. atypical In diagnosis, a prefix denoting
attainment test achievement test. that the patient’s symptoms are most
like those of the disease forming the
attention The ability to concentrate on a suffix (e.g. ‘atypical schizophrenia’), but
target item(s) or task at hand despite that other uncommon symptoms are
distracting stimuli. See distractibility, also present.
divided attention, selective attention, and
sustained attention. The term is also used atypical paraphilia Term for a group of
in the everyday sense. paraphilias not adequately covered by
the other sub-categories. They include
attention seeking behaviour Behav- coprophilia, frotteurism, necrophilia, and
iour, often unpleasant (e.g. very late telephone scatologia.
night or otherwise inconvenient tele-
phone calls), used to attract the atten- audile auditory type.
tion of others. Usually an expression of
a need for help.

audio-oculogyric reflex Turning the leptic attack or a migraine. (2) In some

eyes in the direction of a sound. versions of parapsychology, the psychic
field which supposedly surrounds the
audio-verbal aphasia An inability to
comprehend phrases (although com-
prehension of single words may be authoritarian personality trait measur-
intact). ing strength of belief in a disciplined
society, in blindly accepting orders
audiogenic seizure A fit induced by
from higher authority figures, in con-
high frequency sound.
forming to societal norms, etc.
audiometry The study of hearing.
authoritarianism authoritarian personal-
auditory agnosia An inability to recog- ity.
nize an item or an event by its sound.
autia Cattell’s term for a personality trait
auditory aphasia An inability to com- corresponding to ‘imagination’.
prehend spoken language.
autism (1) An obsessional interest in the
auditory cortex Collective term for areas self to the exclusion of others. (2) Rare
of the cortex responsible for collating (approx. 4 per 10,000 live births) but
and interpreting auditory information. serious disturbance of thought proces-
Principally located in the temporal lobe ses arising in infancy. First identified
(see primary auditory cortex). by L. Kanner, although an independent
auditory evoked potential evoked poten- paper by H. Asperger also identifies the
tial created by administering a sound to condition. The autistic child usually
the subject. avoids social contact, and may have
lacked ‘cuddliness’ as a baby. S/he
auditory flutter fusion (AFF) The rate often seeks a monotony of environment
at which a pulsing sound must repeat and action (resulting in repetitive ste-
itself for it just to be heard as a continu- reotyped movements) which appear to
ous sound. provide some comfort. There is usually
auditory projection area primary a strong linguistic handicap, and social
auditory cortex. skills are poor. Media coverage of
autistic children with remarkably good
auditory type Participant whose mental (by any standards) artistic or arithmeti-
imagery is primarily auditory. The cal talents can create the impression
phrase is sometimes applied to readers that the disease always has compensa-
who have a tendency to read words by tions. However, most autistic children
mentally ‘sounding them out’. This con- appear to have poor abilities, and are
trasts with the visual type, whose frequently diagnosed as mentally handi-
imagery (and reading) is predominantly capped. Autism is usually inherited, but
visual. cases resulting from brain damage have
auditory-vestibular cranial nerve been reported. A case has been made
cranial nerve number VIII. Concerned for it being the product of faulty
with hearing and balance. parenting methods (see refrigerator
parent), but this has been largely dis-
aura (1) An ‘unreal’ and practically inde- counted. The disease is four times more
finable sensation (often a feeling akin to common in males. In earlier terminol-
dizziness, or that one is losing full ogy, ‘autism’ referred to schizophrenia,
contact with one’s surroundings), and later the term was used synony-
which may precede the onset of an epi- mously with schizophrenia (the degree

of division between the two diseases is automatic thought A thought which

still debated). The immediate explana- appears unbidden. A preponderance of
tion of what is wrong with autistic these (particularly if negative) can be
patients is still not fully resolved, but an indicative of mental illness.
ingenious recent theory is that they
Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire
cannot create representations of how
(ATQ) A standardized measure of the
other people think see mind, theory of.
degree of automatic thoughts a partici-
See Asperger’s syndrome and triad of
pant/patient experiences.
autonomic nervous system Carrying
autistic Pertaining to autism.
signals to and from the central nervous
autistic continuum The argument that system to bodily systems over which
autistic spectrum disorders is a contin- there is little conscious control (e.g.
uum of dysfunction, ranging from ex- glands, smooth and cardiac muscle).
tremely dysfunctional behaviour through
autonomy versus shame and doubt
to apparently ‘normal’ individuals with
See Erikson’s theory of development.
traces of ASD-like behaviour that are
explained away as eccentricities. autophobia A phobia, of being alone
and/or of oneself. (Not a fear of cars –
autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) Group
see amaxophobia).
term for autism, Asperger’s syndrome and
(by some but not all commentators) per- autopsy, psychological psychological
vasive developmental disorder not otherwise autopsy.
specified. autopsychosis See allopsychosis.
autochthonous From within. autoregressive Dependent upon preced-
autocorrelation correlation between ing events.
events or items in a sequence of events autoregressive integrated moving
or items. average (ARIMA) Statistical method
autoeroticism masturbation. of discerning trends in sequences of
autoregressive events and/or measures.
autogenic From within the self.
autosomal Any aspect of chromosomes
autogenic training A therapy in which
other than the sex chromosomes.
the patient trains him/herself to relax,
using a series of exercises which induce autosomal dominant Describes genetic
progressively deeper levels of relax- inheritance where the genetic material
ation/meditation. responsible is on one non-sex chromo-
some. In the case of autosomal recessive
automated reporting General term for
the genetic material must be on both of
any computerized method of scoring
a pair of non-sex chromosomes for the
tests and reporting an interpretation of
inheritance to manifest itself. It follows
the findings.
from this that autosomal recessive traits
Automated Social History Computer- are easier to pass on.
ized questionnaire eliciting personal,
autosomal recessive See autosomal domi-
medical, and familial details.
automatic speaking Speaking without
autotelic Pertaining to the defence of
any conscious control.
one’s own interests.

autotopagnosia An inability to name

parts of the body. B
availability heuristic The phenomenon B-type personality type B personality.
that the more often one thinks about Babinski reflex A type of primitive reflex.
something, the more likely one is to If a baby’s foot is tickled the toes fan
identify it as occurring in real life, out and then curl. The reflex usually
regardless of the probability of it disappears at 8–12 months of age. Its
actually occurring. retention after this time probably indi-
average deviation The mean of all raw cates neurological damage.
score deviations in a sample. ‘baby blues’ post-natal depression.
aversion relief therapy Therapeutic Baby Talk Register (BTR) Non-sexist
technique in which it is the cessation of (but less memorable) synonym for
the aversive stimulus which is reward- motherese.
ing (rather than using the threat of pun-
ishment as in aversive therapy). BAC British Association for Counselling.
aversion therapy Therapeutic technique bacillophobia A phobia of germs and/or
using counterconditioning. infection.
aversive therapy aversion therapy. backward child Largely outdated term
for a child whose abilities fall apprecia-
avoidance Any method of avoiding con- bly below his/her age norm.
fronting an aversive issue. This can
range in severity from avoiding answer- backward elimination Method of
ing an awkward question to avoidant multiple regression in which all the predic-
personality disorder. tor variables are entered and then those
that do not significantly add to the pre-
avoidance conditioning conditioning dictive power of the equation are
technique in which the participant removed.
learns to prevent an aversive stimulus
occurring. This contrasts with escape backward reader Individual whose
conditioning, in which the subject is reading abilities fall appreciably below
trained to stop an aversive stimulus his/her age norm. No cause for this state
once it has started. of affairs is inferred (i.e. the term is not
synonymous with developmental dys-
avoidant disorder of childhood An lexia).
abnormal aversion to approaching
strangers. backward speller Individual whose
spelling abilities fall appreciably below
avoidant personality disorder person- his/her age norm. No cause for this state
ality disorder characterized by an abnor- of affairs is inferred (i.e. the term is not
mally poor self-image, and an avoidance synonymous with developmental dys-
of social contacts. graphia).
avolition A profound lack of willingness BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory.
to do anything ‘off one’s own bat’, lack
of drive, etc. balanced Latin square See Latin square
Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behav-
iour Rating scales assessing the degree

to which a mentally retarded child/ tested for e.g. knowledge of which is

teenager can adapt into the community. the left or right side of their bodies;
they have to repeat polysyllabic words,
Bandura’s theory of social learning
perform various arithmetical tasks,
Albert Bandura (1925–) observes that
recite the list of months forwards and
in many situations, people (especially
backwards, etc.
children) learn skills simply by observ-
ing others performing them, and then Bannatyne-WISC categories Regroup-
copying (an example of modelling). ing by Bannatyne of WISC sub-test
Often the very first attempt at imitation scores into three categories – Spatial,
is very accomplished – an example of Conceptual and Sequential (essentially
no-trial learning. Bandura identifies maths skills).
various factors which influence the
bar chart bar graph.
success of social learning. The person
must attend to the to-be-copied activ- bar graph Graph for discrete variables, in
ity, and be physically capable of rep- which the name of each variable is
licating it (e.g. it is no use an infant shown on the X axis, and the values on
watching someone toss the caber in the the Y axis. The data entries are repre-
hope of being able to copy the action). sented as solid bars, separated by
The person must also be able to retain equally-sized spaces. This is not synon-
a memory of the task. Bandura argues ymous with a histogram (which is for fre-
that this is often done with a verbal quency distribution data), although the
code (e.g. ‘right hand hold sprocket, two terms are often used interchange-
then left hand turn screw’) which is ably (erroneously).
more flexible than a visual image. barbiturates Group of minor tranquil-
Children under 5 years lack this code, lizers, now rarely used therapeutically
and so are more restricted in what they because they are addictive.
can learn. The motivation for learning
and, more important, performing the Barnum effect The erroneous belief that
task, depends largely upon whether it a general description of personality is
is perceived as rewarding. This can be an exact description of an individual.
learnt by vicarious reinforcement (ob- This can apply to (a) credulous souls
serving if others are rewarded or who believe that e.g. newspaper horo-
punished for performing the same scopes exactly describe them, or (b) cli-
actions). In one study, children were nicians who decide that a patient’s
shown a film in which aggression was symptoms and personality fit the too
either rewarded, punished, or ignored. general profile created by a test.
Left to play afterwards, children who Barron-Welsh test A measure of prefer-
had seen aggression rewarded were sig- ence for simple or complex designs.
nificantly more likely to behave vio-
lently to toys than were children in the BARS behaviourally anchored rating scale.
other two conditions. There is a consid- Bartlett’s method See factor analysis.
erable debate over the range of learning
situations for which Bandura’s methods BAS British Ability Scales.
are applicable. See reciprocal determinism. basal age In a standardized test, the average
Bangor Dyslexia Test (BDT) test battery age of participants who pass all the
of dyslexic symptoms, for subjects aged items passed by an individual partici-
7 years and above. Little direct pant.
emphasis on reading. Subjects are

basal ganglia Section of diencephalon. basophobia A phobia of standing or

Involved in planning and execution of walking.
bathophobia A phobia of depths.
basal measure baseline measure.
Battelle Developmental Inventory
basal metabolism The minimum meta- (BDI) A test battery, assessing develop-
bolic rate of the participant’s body at ment from 0–8 years, in five principal
rest necessary for the participant to areas: adaptation to the environment,
remain awake. cognitive skills, communication skills,
motor skills and social skills.
BASC Behavior Assessment System for
Children. battered child syndrome Pattern of
behaviour which may result from being
baseline measure (1) The level of per-
a victim of physical child abuse (includes
formance before the onset of treatment.
inability to form adequate relationships,
(2) The standard of performance
poor self-image).
against which assessment will be made.
Baye’s formula Baye’s theorem.
Basic Achievement Skills Individual
Screener (BASIS) Measure of scholas- Baye’s theorem Formula expressing the
tic attainment for subjects aged 5–13 probability that an event will occur
years. because of a particular mutually exclusive
event. E.g. suppose we know that di-
Basic Number Diagnostic Test
sease X causes a certain type of rash in
(BNDT) See BasicNumberScreeningTest.
90% of patients, but the same rash
Basic Number Screening Test (BNST) occurs in 20% of patients with disease
Group test of numerical skills for Y and 7% of patients with disease Z.
children aged 7–12 years. A related test Baye’s theorem can calculate the proba-
– the Basic Number Diagnostic Test bility that a patient with this rash has
(BNDT) is for individual testing to each of the three diseases.
identify older children with numeracy
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
problems (or to identify normal num-
(BSID) Test battery of mental, motor
eracy skills in children aged 5–7 years).
and behavioural skills/attributes of
basic research See applied research. infants and young children (up to 42
basic skills Education’s equivalent of pri- months) used particularly to identify
mary mental abilities – the educational abnormal development. A revised
skills which must be present if the edu- version (Bayley Scales II) was published
cation process is to succeed (i.e. basic in 1993.
literacy, numeracy, etc.). BBCS Bracken Basic Concept Scale.
Basic Skills Test (BST) Measure of basic BCDP Bracken Concept Development
literacy and numeracy skills. Intended Programme.
for assessment of unskilled or lowly
BDAE Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examina-
skilled staff.
basic trust versus mistrust See Erikson’s
BDI (1) Beck Depression Inventory. (2)
theory of development.
Battelle Developmental Inventory.
basiphobia basophobia.
BDS Blessed Dementia Scale.
BASIS Basic Achievement Skills Individual
BDT Bangor Dyslexia Test.

Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) Self- Behaviour Evaluation Scale Measure-

report questionnaire, measuring level ment of emotional and social develop-
of anxiety. ment for 5–16-year-olds.
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) behaviour modification behaviour
Widely-used self-report questionnaire, therapy.
measuring depression.
Behaviour Rating Scale (BRS) See
Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) Self- Clifton Assessment Procedure for the Elderly.
report questionnaire, measuring the
behaviour therapy (1) The treatment of a
degree to which the patient feels
mental illness or maladaptive behaviour
hopeful about his/her long-term ex-
by attempting to modify the patient’s
behaviour, rather than discussing the
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI) underlying mental state which caused it.
Self-report questionnaire, measuring The t e ch n i q u e i s d e r i ved f ro m
the degree to which a patient has inten- behaviourism (this excludes introspec-
tions to commit suicide. tion, inter alia). (2) More generally, any
therapeutic method which draws upon
befriending Activity in which (usually
experimental psychological research on
professionally unqualified) volunteers
the acquisition of traits, and general
visit sick, lonely or otherwise disadvan-
learning. Examples of behaviour thera-
taged individuals to chat, do odd jobs,
pies include desensitization and flooding.
etc. The effect can be therapeutic (for
both parties). behavioural assessment (1) A measure
of a subject’s behaviour in a ‘real life’
behaviour The term is used in a variety
situation. (2) behaviour therapy.
of ways in psychology. Often it is used
in the lay manner (i.e. meaning overt behavioural checklist behaviour check-
actions), but it can refer to emotional list.
states and thought processes.
behavioural competence The ability to
Behavior Assessment System for use appropriate behaviour.
Children (BASC) test battery assessing
behavioural contagion The acquisition
behavioural and emotional develop-
of a new behaviour by members of a
ment in people aged from early child-
group copying each other.
hood to young adult.
behavioural contract See contingency
behaviour checklist Set of descriptions
of aspects of behaviour, against each of
which the respondent indicates if the behavioural disorder functional mental
description applies to the subject in disorder.
question. Behavioural Event Recording Package
behaviour contracting Agreement be- (BERP) Timing and recording device
tween therapist and patient regarding for measuring several different events
the structure and course of the treat- simultaneously.
ment. behavioural expectation scale (BES)
behaviour disorder A maladaptive be- Form of behaviourally anchored rating
haviour which is not simply a direct scale.
manifestation of an underlying mental

behavioural genetics The study of to some form of stimulation. Of the

genetic factors fully or partly determin- various stages in this process, the
ing behaviour. stimulus can be measured, as can the
strength and/or appropriateness of the
behavioural interviewing In behaviour
response, but the thought processes
therapy, helping a patient recognize his/
used to do this cannot. Hence, beha-
her problem behaviour, how it arises
viourism concentrated on the stimulus
and what its effects are.
and response, and rigorously excluded
behavioural medicine (1) A combina- discussion of mental processes. The
tion of behaviour therapy and medical theory had a very strong hold on
treatment, primarily used to treat psy- psychology from the 1920s to the late
chophysiological disease. The treatment of 1950s, but was eventually recognized
children with this technique is called as being too limited in its scope, and
behavioural paediatrics. (2) More gener- researchers began to create models of
ally, the study of the relationship bet- mental processing. With its emphasis
ween behaviour and issues pertaining on stimulus and response and operant
to medicine. conditioning, behaviourism gave rise to a
behavioural observation scale (BOS) number of therapies which essentially
A measure (often used in occupational worked by more or less explicitly condi-
psychology) in which the observer tioning the patient (see learning theory
records how often the subject performs and stimulus-response learning). Critics
a particular key act. have argued that the methods were too
harsh and mechanistic – in part, objec-
behavioural paediatrics See behavioural tions may stem from the fact that sym-
medicine. bolically identical conditioning tech-
behavioural therapy behaviour therapy. niques can be used to train laboratory
animals. However, for certain condi-
behavioural toxicology The study of tions, the treatment is effective (e.g. see
the effects of toxins (e.g. poisons, pollu- token economy). See behaviour therapy and
tion) on behaviour. neobehaviourism.
behaviourally anchored rating scale Belbin test A measure of self-perception
(BARS) A rating scale in which a des- of one’s principal abilities in manage-
cription of typical features associated rial tasks.
with the behaviour in question is pro-
vided to help the scorer make his/ her Bell Adjustment Scale Adjustment inven-
choice, and thus improve the reliability tory, for participants aged 12 years and
and validity of the measure. E.g. in a over.
(hypothetical) scale of trustworthiness bell-shaped curve Shape of curve of a
from 1 (‘completely untrustworthy’) to normal distribution.
5 (‘completely trustworthy’), against
the score of 1 might be written ‘cannot bell-shaped distribution normal distri-
be left alone for a minute – has often bution.
been suspected of, or has actually been belle indifférence, la See conversion
caught, stealing’). disorder.
behaviourism In its rigid form, the belief Bellevue Scale Wechsler-Bellevue Scale.
that psychologists should only study
benchmark measure A test or measure
what can be objectively measured. All
which is commonly used in a particular
voluntary acts can be seen as a response
situation, and hence likely to be used

as a common measure. The term usually BERP Behavioural Event Recording Package.
implies that the test or measure is
BES behavioural expectation scale.
widely recognized as being of good
quality. Beta (ß ) (1) The symbol for the probabil-
ity that a Type II error (beta error) will be
Bender-Gestalt Test A test of visuo-
made. See power (of a statistical test). (2)
spatial skills. The subject is required to
See signal detection analysis. (3) standard-
copy geometrical shapes of increasing
ised coefficient.
complexity. Test is suitable for partici-
pants aged 8 years and over. Part of the beta blockers General term for a range
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test battery. of drugs that block or reduce stimula-
tion of a component of the autonomic
Bender Report A computerized assess-
nervous system (more specifically, the beta-
ment of performance on the Bender-
adrenergic receptors). Beta blockers are
Gestalt Test.
used in the treatment of a number of
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test heart conditions and blood pressure
(BVMGT) Battery of visual and motor problems, and can also reduce levels of
skills, including the Bender-Gestalt Test. anxiety.
benign senescent forgetfulness age beta error Type II error.
associated memory impairment.
Beta Test See Alpha Test.
Bennett Differential Aptitude Test
beta waves A pattern of electrical activity
Aptitude test for basic scholastic and
in the brain detected by EEG with a fre-
clerical skills.
quency below 12 Hz.
Bennett Test of Mechanical Compre-
beta weight (1) A measure of how well a
hension Aptitude test of basic engineer-
test score predicts a criterion. (2) See
ing skills.
multiple regression.
Benton Revised Visual Retention Test
between-group variance The degree
Measure of visual skills. The participant
to which the scores of groups differ
has to remember a series of increasingly
on the same measure. Contrast with
complex shapes. For participants aged
between- subject variance.
8 years and over.
between groups ANOVA Analysis of
benzedrine Type of amphetamine.
variance in which all the measures are
benzodiazapines Group of minor tran- between groups measures.
between groups measure See analysis of
Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) variance.
Measure of the degree to which a par-
between-subject variance The degree
ticipant conforms to a ‘traditional’
to which the scores of subjects within
gender role.
the same group differ. Contrast with
Bernoulli distribution binomial distribu- within-group variance.
between-subjects design See within-
Bernreuter Personal Adjustment In- subjects design.
ventory Personality measure yielding
between-subjects measure (1) between
six scores, representing personality traits.
groups measure (2) between-subject vari-

Bexley-Maudsley Test A test battery binomial distribution Frequency distri-

assessing psychological dysfunction bution of the probability of a particular
following brain damage. mutually exclusive event occurring at each
possible number of occasions in a set of
BHS Beck Hopelessness Scale.
trials (e.g. if a coin is tossed six times,
bias test bias. the probability of heads coming up on
biased sample A sample of items or 0,1,2,3,4,5 and 6 occasions). The
subjects which, either deliberately or larger the number of trials, the more the
accidentally is not representative of the binomial distribution resembles the
population (e.g. assuming that political normal distribution. See bimodal distribu-
opinions collected from a fascist rally tion and Poisson distribution.
represent the views of the entire elec- binomial test A test of probability of a
torate). particular series of mutually exclusive
BIB biographic information blank. events (e.g. of throwing 4365123 on a
die of TTHHHTT in a series of coin
bibliotherapy The use of reading mate- tosses). The sampling distribution is the
rials for therapeutic purposes (e.g. binomial distribution. Different formulae
self-help guides, exercises, etc). are used for series above and below 25
Big Five five factor model of personality. in length.
bilateral Involving both sides. Hence, in Binswanger’s disease Dementia whose
discussing brain damage, a‘ bilateral origins are disputed, but whose sym-
loss’ means that the structure has been ptoms are akin to those of lacunar
lost from both sides of the brain. dementia.
bimodal distribution Frequency distribu- bioavailability The speed with which a
tion with two modes. In graphical form, drug becomes active in the body.
appears as a distribution with two peaks. biodynamic therapy (1) General term
Not to be confused with binomial distri- for a range of therapies exploring links
bution. between mind and body through
binaural Of both ears. physical exercises, massage, etc., the
principal aim being to reach the ‘inner
Binet/Binet-Simon Scale Original self ’ beneath the socialized exterior. (2)
(French) version of the Stanford-Binet The original therapeutic technique
Scale/Test. devised by Boyesen using the general
binge drinking Drinking excessively principles of (1).
large amounts of alcoholic drink in bioenergetics Therapeutic technique
sporadic sessions to the point of (often devised by Lowen out of the work of
severe) intoxication. Reich (see orgone therapy, though note
binge eating Eating excessively large that bioenergetics is shorn of the
amounts of food in sporadic sessions, excesses of Reich’s theories). The tech-
well beyond the needs of satisfying nique concentrates on bodily exercises,
hunger. The sessions may be followed and, akin to biodynamic therapy, stresses
by self-induced vomiting. Most com- the need to concentrate on the ‘inner
monly found in bulimia nervosa. self ’ rather than outward appearance
and attitudes that have been created by
bingeing binge eating or binge drinking. socializing forces.
BLAT / 45

biofeedback Providing information on bipolar disorder See depression.

the state of a bodily function. The tech-
bipolar I disorder bipolar disorder.
nique can be used for therapeutic
purposes – e.g. a patient might be given bipolar scale Scale on which partici-
information on his/her brain wave pants make their evaluations on a scale
patterns enabling him/her to judge finishing at either end with opposite
how well a relaxation technique is values (e.g. good-bad, light-dark etc.).
working (an example of biofeedback bipolar II disorder See depression.
birth cohort A group of people born in
biofeedback training See biofeedback. the same period of time. See cohort.
biogenic Of biological origin. birth order Siblings arranged in order of
biographic information blank (BIB) age.
(1) Sheet requesting biographical details birth trauma In some psychoanalytic
which the participant fills in. (2) A theories, the distress surrounding birth,
(computerized) system for extracting which is argued to lie at the root of
biographical details in which the par- future psychological problems.
ticipant's early answers determine the
questions he or she is subsequently biserial correlation coefficient (rbis)
asked. See point biserial correlation coefficient.
biographical approach The analysis of bivariate With two variables.
the lives of people. The term is often bivariate correlation correlation bet-
specifically applied to the analysis of ween two variables.
lives of unusual individuals (e.g. those
pre-eminent in their fields) to find bivariate method Any method using
common factors explaining their un- two variables (although typically refers
usualness. to the procedure of changing the inde-
pendent variable and observing the
biographical inventory List of personal changes in the dependent variable).
details about a person.
Blacky Pictures test projective personality
biological age The body’s state of test, based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
physical development/degeneration. (i.e. examines how well the participant
This is gauged against the state of an has ‘resolved’ the various stages of
average person of the same chronological development). The pictures used are of
age. a family of dogs.
bionomic exogenous. blank American term for a form (either a
biopsychosocial research Research com- test sheet or a form requesting bio-
bining biological, psychological and socio- graphical information).
logical perspectives. blank experiment An experiment or
biosocial theory Theory that discusses task administered to participants which
the interaction between the body in itself is of no interest, but is necessary
(including its psychological processes) in order to distract the participants
and social forces. from another task whose performance
is of interest.
bipolar depression bipolar disorder.
BLAT Blind Learning Aptitude Test.
bipolar dimension See dimension.

Blessed Dementia Scale (BDS) A blind studies). However, in certain cir-

simple test of intellectual impairment cumstances, this knowledge could
and functioning, usually employed in (consciously or unconsciously) sway
the assessment of demented patients. The the experimenters’ judgements where
test requires the patient to answer some measures are essentially subjective. E.g.
simple memory questions (e.g. ‘what is if the drugs are being compared for
your name?’, ‘who is the current Prime their effect on mood change, then the
Minister?’) and to perform some simple experimenters may exaggerate differ-
intellectual tasks (e.g. ‘count backwards ences in effects in support of the drug
in steps of three’). Details of how they favour. This is an example of
capable the patient is of looking after observer bias. In these instances, a double
him- or herself are collected from a blind study is used, where neither the
caregiver. The test provides a useful participants nor the observers know the
‘ready reckoner’ of how intellectually groupings (the information is kept by a
impaired a patient is, and how much third party until testing is complete).
professional nursing care and assistance See Clever Hans.
is required. The Blessed Dementia
blindsight Phenomenon whereby a
Scale (named after its author, Dr
patient, although supposedly blind
Blessed) is a British test. An American
from brain damage, can respond to
equivalent is the Mental Status Question-
some visual stimulation (e.g. pointing
naire, which has a very similar format.
to the source of a light). The patient
Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT) is unaware that s/he can ‘see’ the
Non-verbal intelligence test for vis- stimulus. The phenomenon is due to
ually handicapped children, using only intact connections to parts of the brain
tactile skills. Participants must distin- involved in relatively minor aspects of
guish between shapes by touch, and visual perception.
identify the ‘odd one out’. The shapes
block (1) Group of participants assigned
increase in complexity as the test pro-
together because of something they
have in common. (2) Group of tests
blind study Study in which the partici- or other items, whose link is either
pant is unaware of the group to which that they are all given to the same
s/he has been assigned whilst the study participant, or that they are given in
is conducted (although usually s/he is the same time period (the latter defini-
informed after it is over). E.g. partici- tion applies particularly to repetitious
pants may be divided into two groups measures such as reaction times). For
and receive two different drug treat- either definition, the source of the simi-
ments. Knowing which drug they are larity is called the blocking factor. (3) In
receiving might influence motivation therapy, the inability (either voluntary
and hence performance; this is an unde- or involuntary) to progress along a par-
sirable extra variable, and accordingly, ticular line of thought.
participants are kept unaware of the
block design test Sub-test of the
nature of their treatment. A special
Wechsler intelligence tests. The partici-
form of the blind study is the placebo
pant is required to replicate patterns
study. In conventional blind studies, the
using a set of blocks. As the test pro-
experimenters recording the partici-
gresses, the designs become harder to
pants’ performance are aware of which
participants belong to which groups
(the studies are sometimes called single

block randomization (-isation) (1)

Experimental procedure in which which the stressful situation is deliber-
subjects are presented with the same ately concentrated on.
block of items on more than one
BMDP Bio-Medical Data Package – a
occasion, but on each new presenta-
commonly-used computerized statisti-
tion, the items are presented in a differ-
cal analysis package.
ent order. (2) Presenting blocks of items
in a random order. BNDT Basic Number Diagnostic Test.
block sampling Taking samples of sub- BNST Basic Number Screening Test.
groups in proportion to their incidence Boder Test of Reading-Spelling
in the total population. Patterns Measure of types of reading
blocking factor See block. handicap, including a separation of
developmental dyslexia from motivational
blood–brain barrier A physiological
or perceptual problems.
mechanism which prevents many
chemicals carried in the blood from body dysmorphic disorder A dysfunc-
entering the brain. This protects brain tional and illusory belief that one’s
tissue from damage, but it can also filter body is severely distorted or abnormal
out potentially beneficial drugs. in appearance.
blood pressure The pressure of blood body image The subjective impression
against the walls of the arteries. Is one has of one’s own body. An inaccu-
measured in two components – systolic rate image – a body image disturbance –
pressure is the pressure when the heart can lead to problems such as anorexia
contracts, and diastolic pressure is the nervosa, in which the patient is con-
pressure when the heart relaxes. The vinced that s/he is too fat.
pressure is measured in terms of milli- body image disturbance See body image.
metres of mercury moved in the mea-
suring apparatus (a sphygmomano- body language The behavioural state of
meter) and is expressed as a ratio of an individual as indicated by his/her
systolic/diastolic (e.g. ‘120/80’, posture and/or physical movements.
which is a typical reading for a young, The study of body language can be a
reasonably healthy adult). High blood useful research and therapeutic tool (e.g.
pressure (hypertension) is in itself in estimating the emotional state of an
without symptoms, but can be a precur- individual when a direct question is
sor of serious illness, particularly car- impossible). However, several studies
diovascular problems, including stroke. have shown that the method is not infal-
There are many causes of high blood lible. See non-verbal communication.
pressure, including disease, but the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ)
culprits also include an over-rich diet, Measure of the degree of satisfaction a
smoking and stress. The condition can patient finds in his/her body shape.
also arise for no apparent reason (essen- Used in e.g. assessment of anorexia
tial hypertension). nervosa.
BLUE best linear unbiased estimator. bodywork General term for any thera-
blueprint test specifications. peutic method which emphasizes or is
wholly based on bodily movements
blunting Responding to a stressful situa- and exercises.
tion by trying not to think about it.
This contrasts with monitoring , in Boehm-PV Boehm Test of Basic Concepts –
Preschool Version.

Boehm-R Boehm Test of Basic Concepts – Bonferroni correction Mathematical

Revised. procedure applied when a group of
comparisons are being made on the
Boehm Resource Guide for Basic
same data to control for the familywise
Concept Teaching A collection of
error rate.
teaching aids for developing certain
concepts in young (3 years and over) Bonferroni inequality Measure of
and retarded children. probability of committing a Type I error
when employing a t test to compare
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts – Pre-
several pairings of groups drawn from
school Version (Boehm-PV) Test of
the same larger set of groups (e.g. if
3–5-year-old children’s comprehen-
there are groups A, B, C and D, using
sion of 26 basic concepts. See Boehm
the t test to compare A and B, A and C,
Test of Basic Concepts – Revised.
A and D, B and C, etc).
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts – Revised
booster session In therapy, a session
(Boehm-R) Test of 4–7- year-old chil-
arranged some time after the main
dren’s grasp of basic concepts. See Boehm
body of treatment has ceased, to check
Test of Basic Concepts – Preschool Version.
on progress, reinforce the original
Bogardus scale A measure of the therapy, etc.
distance (physical and/or social) which
bootstrap statistics General term for a
a participant likes to keep between
range of tests in which there are
him/herself and members of other
repeated random samplings from a
social or ethnic groups.
group of data to determine the data’s
Bogen cage A measure of visuo-spatial statistical characteristics, rather than
intelligence. The participant propels a making reference to the hypothesized
ball around a maze using a prodder. population from which the group was
bogus pipeline A technique for eliciting drawn.
truthful rather than socially acceptable borderline intelligence IQ level which
answers. The experimenter convinces places a subject on the border of being
(i.e. deceives) the subject into believing classified as mentally retarded.
that s/he is being assessed using a very
borderline personality disorder per-
accurate lie detector. This supposedly
sonality disorder characterized by sudden
acts as an incentive for the subject to
and unpredictable swings in mood, and
tell the absolute truth in answering
a chronic need for companionship.
potentially embarrassing questions.
There may also be thought disorders.
BOLD-fMRI (Blood Oxygen Level
borderline significance See significance.
Dependent fMRI) Commonly used
fMRI technique. borderline state The state of an individ-
ual who displays symptoms of a mental
bond (1) Emotional attachment – in lay
illness, but who retains sufficient
terms, a ‘relationship’, with a set of
vestiges of ‘normality’ to be considered
societal expectations on how it should
sane (although only just). Note that the
be conducted (e.g. mother–child bond).
term often carries an implicit value
(2) The verb for the same process.
bonding The formation of a bond.
Borke Interpersonal Awareness Test
Two-part measure of children’s aware-
ness of others’ emotions. Part I:

emotion-inducing situations are box and whisker plot Method of sum-

described to the participant, who must marizing data in which the typical
decide which emotion would be values are presented as a box plotted on
elicited. Part II: the participant hears the graph, with more extreme values
stories in which s/he is described as shown as vertical lines (often T-shaped)
behaving in various ways towards projecting from either end of the box.
another child. The participant must Typically, the bottom of the box repre-
judge how the child would feel. sents the 25th percentile, the top of the
box the 75th percentile, and a horizon-
BOS behavioural observation scale.
tal line within the box represents the
Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examina- 50th percentile. The ends of the lines
tion (BDAE) Test battery used in the represent the highest and lowest scores.
assessment and classification of aphasia. The length of the box thus represents
BOT Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Pro- the interquartile range and whiskers that
ficiency. are appreciably longer than the box
indicate outliers. Although this is the
bottom up data mining See data mining. normal usage, on occasion authors use
bovine spongiform encephalopathy the box and whiskers to denote differ-
(BSE) Degenerative disease of the ent values, so caution is advised.
nervous system in cattle, colloquially BPS (1) British Psychological Society. (2)
known as mad cow disease. The disease Bricklin Perceptual Scales.
probably originated from eating animal
feed contaminated with scrapie (or BPS guidelines Any set of guidelines
possibly infected human remains) and (usually on codes of professional
was (at least in the early stages) princi- conduct) issued by the British Psycho-
pally confined to the United King- logical Society.
dom. A new human disease – variant BPVS British Picture Vocabulary Scale.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (vCJD), first
brachycephalic wide-skulled.
identified in 1995, is believed to have
been caused by eating BSE-infected Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS)
beef products. At the time of writing, Measure of concept acquisition in
this is largely confined to the UK. Early children aged 2 years 6 months–8 years.
predictions were of tens or hundreds of Consists of a group screening test and a
thousands of deaths, but at the time more searching diagnostic test done on
of writing, vCJD has killed circa 150 a one-to-one basis. See Bracken Concept
people (mostly young adults), with Development Programme.
predictions of all future deaths being
Bracken Concept Development Pro-
circa 70 (though some more pessimis-
gramme (BCDP) Teaching pro-
tic predictions have a higher figure).
gramme for developing concept acqui-
The symptoms of vCJD are akin to
sition. Related to Bracken Basic Concept
Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease but typically
early symptoms are anxiety and depres-
sion before movement and/or cognitive bracketing collapsing.
impairment, and brain cell damage has brady- As a prefix: slow and/or halting.
a different appearance.
bradyarthria Slow and/or halting speech,
Bowman Test of Reading Compe- caused by brain damage.
tence Reading test for 7–10-year-olds.
Uses cloze procedure.

bradyglossia Slow and/or halting speech, term has been overused by the media
caused by damage to the mouth. and is probably best avoided.
bradykinesis Abnormally slow move- Brazelton Scale Measure of newborn
ments. infant’s mental state, by measuring
reactions to a variety of stimuli (light,
bradylalia Slow and/or halting speech.
rattle, etc.), reflexes, etc. Used to
bradylexia Slow and/or halting reading, identify possible brain damage, mental
not simply attributable to low intelli- retardation, etc. An amended version –
gence. the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment
bradylogia Slow and/or halting speech. Scale with Kansas Supplements (NBAS-K)
is also in wide use.
bradyphasia bradylalia.
brick test Semi-serious term for a creativ-
bradyphrenia Abnormally slow thought. ity test in which the subject must think
bradypraxia Abnormally slow actions of novel uses for an everyday object
and reactions. (often a house brick, hence the name).
brain death Cessation of function in the Bricklin Perceptual Scales (BPS)
brain, particularly the brain stem and Measure of children’s perceptions of
other areas controlling basic reflexes, their parents.
such as pupillary contraction in bright brief psychotherapy short-term psycho-
light. therapy.
brain stem Section of the brain which is brief psychotic disorder In DSM-IV,
the meeting place between the spinal the preferred term for brief reactive psy-
cord and the brain. Besides acting as a chosis.
relay station between the spinal cord
and other areas of the brain, the brain brief reactive psychosis Psychosis in
stem controls many ‘life support’ which the patient possesses some of the
mechanisms (e.g. blood pressure, respi- symptoms of schizophrenia, which is
ration). a reaction to a highly stressful event,
and which lasts under a fortnight. See
brain stimulation Physical stimulation schizophreniform disorder.
of the brain by chemical or electronic
means. brief therapy Any therapeutic method
which is intentionally limited to a small
brainstorming Session in which a group number of sessions. The definition of
of people is encouraged to generate small varies between therapists (e.g.
ideas, however inappropriate, in the two or three to 20 or more). See short-
hope of creating fresh approaches to a term psychotherapy.
problem. The method has been used
therapeutically to encourage patients to Brinley plot A graph of the average
consider ways of solving their prob- response times of older people plotted
lems. against those of young people perform-
ing the same task.
brainwashing Rather nebulous term for
a variety of methods of attempting to Briquet’s syndrome A somatoform dis-
coerce individuals or groups to change order, characterized by the patient con-
their opinions, attitudes or beliefs. The stantly seeking medical treatment for
non-existent physical complaints.

Bristol Social Adjustment Guides then gives them a distracting task

(BSAG) Measure of the degree to (usually counting backwards in units of
which school age children are able to two or three), before asking partici-
adjust to social situations. pants to recall the items. The task thus
assesses the fragility of short-term
British Ability Scales (BAS) test battery
to assess 2–17-year-old children’s
intellectual abilities. The test can be BRS Behaviour Rating Scale.
used as a straightforward measure of
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test Test of chil-
overall intelligence, and can also
dren’s (4–14 years) motor skills.
provide a profile of abilities.
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor
British Picture Vocabulary Scale
Proficiency (BOT) Measure of gross
(BPVS) Updated version of the English
and fine motor skills for age range
Picture Vocabulary Test (EPVT). Test
young child to young adult.
of vocabulary in young children.
Participants are shown four pictures BSAG Bristol Social Adjustment Guides.
and are asked which best represents a BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
word provided by the experimenter.
The words increase in difficulty as the BSI Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation.
test progresses. The original (American) BSID Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
version of the test is known as the
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scale. BSQ Body Shape Questionnaire.
broad categorizing cognitive style in BSRI Bern Sex Role Inventory.
which the participant uses a small BST Basic Skills Test.
number of categories, each containing
a large number of items. This contrasts BTR Baby Talk Register.
with narrow categorizing, in which the buddying befriending. The term has
participant has a larger number of cate- recently been used particularly for the
gories, each with fewer items. befriending of AIDS patients.
Broca’s aphasia Aphasia whose principal buffering hypothesis Belief that social
symptom is an inability to speak. support systems act as a protection
Contrast with Wernicke’s aphasia. against developing illness.
Broca’s area Area of temporal lobe (in most buggery (1) Anal intercourse. (2) Old
people, the left lobe) controlling term for bestiality.
various aspects of speech production.
Damage to it causes Broca’s aphasia. bulimia Gross over-eating. The cause may
be due to organic changes in the brain
Brodmann’s Areas Division of cerebral (e.g. a tumour) but the most common
cortex into 47 areas, based on differ- reason is bulimia nervosa, where the over-
ences in tissue structure. eating may take the form of binge eating,
brontophobia A phobia of thunder. rather than a constant over-eating.

Brook Reaction Test psychoanalytic bulimia nervosa The urge to eat unnatu-
measure, in which participants produce rally large quantities of food (usually
free associations to a list of words. binge eating, followed by self-induced
vomiting). Patients are usually teenage
Brown–Peterson task Named after its and young adult women. An appreciable
inventors, the task presents participants proportion (some studies record circa
with a list of to-be-remembered items,

50%) of patients have previously cacosmia Disorder of smell in which

suffered from anorexia nervosa. See non-aversively smelling substances are
bulimia. perceived as malodorous.
burnout A loss of affect, feelings of CAD cortical atherosclerotic dementia.
depression, and generally negative
cafeteria feeding Any study in which
feelings and poor self-image, resulting
the participant is given a range of foods
from excessive pressures of work.
to choose from, rather than being pre-
Burt Word Reading Test Reading test sented with a fixed menu.
for 6–12-year-olds. Requires subjects
caffeinism Addiction to substances
to read out loud single words, which
which contain caffeine (principally
increase in difficulty as the test pro-
CAG creative aggression therapy.
BVMGT Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test.
California F Scale A measure of authori-
Bzoch-League Receptive-Expressive
tarian personality.
Emergent Language (REEL) test
Measure of language development from California Infant Scales Forerunner of
birth to 3 years. Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
California Personality Inventory
(CPI) Personality measure derived
from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personal-
C ity Inventory, but intended for normal
subjects, rather than clinical popu-
C (1) contingency coefficient. (2) (In some lations.
models of intelligence) speed of
callosum corpus callosum.
thought. (3) conscientiousness.
Cambridge Research Mood Survey
CA chronological age.
(CRMS) Measure of wide variety (23)
CAAS Children’s Attention and Adjustment of moods in the ‘normal’ population.
CAMDEX Cambridge Mental Disorders
CAB (1) Comprehensive Ability Battery. (2) of the Elderly Examination. A test
Cognitive Ability Battery. battery of measures for assessing older
CAC Compulsive Activity Checklist. people for dementia and other aspects of
mental health and psychological well-
cachexia Weakness resulting from mal- being.
Campbell and Fiske multitrait multi-
cachexis cachexia. method Method of measuring con-
cachinnation Laughter – the term often struct validity.
applies specifically to inappropriate Camphill Movement Worldwide thera-
laughter. peutic movement for training and
cacodaemonomania The delusion that treating mentally handicapped people
one is possessed or controlled by the (children and adults). A particular
Devil, or some other evil force. feature are ‘Camphill Villages’, thera-
peutic working communities for adults.
cacoguesia Disorder of taste in which
normal food has an unpleasant taste. campimetry The measure of the size of a
participant’s visual field (i.e. how big an
area can a person’s sight ‘take in’).

cannabis A variety of hemp, from which is Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) Measure
derived marijuana. In low doses, it of stress and strain in caregivers (usually
produces feelings of relaxation, height- caregivers of older patients).
ened perception, and mild euphoria. In
caretaker (1) caregiver. (2) For the benefit
larger doses, some intellectual impair-
of American readers – ‘caretaker’ is more
ment and (rarely) hallucinations are
commonly used in British English to
observed. The drug is rarely addictive,
denote a janitor, particularly of a school.
but it has carcinogenic properties.
carryover effect (1) See test wise subjects.
canonical correlation canonical regres-
(2) The influence of performing in the
early part of an experiment on later
canonical regression multiple regression parts of the experiment (e.g. confusing
technique in which there are two or memories of items encountered in early
more criterion variables. and later parts of the experiment).
CANTAB Battery of tests of neurological CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale.
and psychological impairment.
Carver Word Recognition Test Read-
CAO computer assisted observation. ing test for participants aged 4–8 years.
Participants must choose the printed
CAPE Clifton Assessment Procedure for the
representation of a word spoken by the
experimenter from a list of alternatives.
Capgras’s syndrome paranoid disorder
CAS (1) Cognitive Assessment Scale. (2)
characterized by an irrational suspicion
Clinical Anxiety Scale.
that one’s friends and close associates
have been replaced by imposters. case The patient, or group of patients
regarded as a single entity being treated
Captain’s Log Set of exercises designed
(as in e.g. family therapy).
to improve basic intellectual function-
ing. The exercises are specifically aimed case study A detailed investigation of a
at subjects with mental retardation. single participant or small group of
participants, who exhibit a particularly
CAQD Clinical Analysis Questionnaire.
unusual or even unique characteristic
card sorting task Any task in which the (e.g. a particularly exotic type of brain
participant must sort a set of cards (con- damage).
ventional playing cards or cards spe-
caseload The number of cases for which
cially devised for the test in question)
a therapist is responsible.
into particular sub-groups.
CASL Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken
cardinal trait general trait.
cardiophobia A phobia of heart disease.
CAT (1) Children’s Apperception Test. (2)
‘care in the community’ community care. Cognitive Abilities Test. (3) cognitive-
caregiver A person who looks after a analytic therapy. (4) computerized adaptive
patient or child. test.

caregiver burden The psychological and CAT scan computerized axial tomography.
material demands and stress placed on a catagelophobia A phobia of criticism.

catalepsy The maintainance of a bodily simply to examine a specific disability

posture for an abnormally long period. at categorization (e.g. after brain
Many commentators use the term inter- damage).
changeably with catatonic state.
categorized list List of items which all
catalexia (1) The inappropriate repeti- belong to the same category or small
tion of a word or phrase when reading. group of categories. Sometimes used in
(2) A form of dyslexia in which this memory experiments.
occurs to an abnormal degree.
category (1) A grouping of participants
catalogia Persistent and illogical repeti- or items on the basis of a unique feature
tion of a nonsense word or phrase. which distinguishes them from
members of other categories (e.g. male
catalytic In therapeutic settings, the
and female, university students and
effect created by a question, event or
school pupils, etc.). A natural category is
person which creates a fresh insight or
one which is ‘innately’ perceived as
action in the patient.
valid (e.g. basic perceptions of colour,
catamnesis See anamnesis. etc.). (2) In some more exacting (and
cataplexy Sudden and temporary col- rarely used) definitions, the set of all
lapse (resulting from loss of muscle groups to which individuals can be
tone) whilst in a state of extreme anxiety assigned.
or strong emotion. category scaling Assigning participants
catatonia catatonic state. or events to categories. If the categories
are suitable, the resulting ‘scores’ can be
catatonic schizophrenia See schizophre- treated as a nominal scale or ordinal scale.
Category Test Computerized version of
catatonic state State of extreme immo- the Halstead-Reitan test battery.
bility, without unconsciousness. In
some instances, it is possible to move catharsis A feeling of immense relief
the patient’s limbs into new postures from tension and release of emotion.
(without apparent reaction from the See cathartic therapy and abreaction.
patient) which are maintained (the cathartic therapy Any therapeutic
effect is rather like posing a doll). This method which enables the patient to
is known as waxy flexibility. The cata- release a suppressed emotion or
tonic state is a principal feature of cata- memory, e.g. through an outburst of
tonic schizophrenia. The postures formed emotion or hypnosis.
during a catatonic state are sometimes
cathexis (1) Freudian concept of the
called attitudinizing.
‘mental energy’ which people place in
catchment area The geographical area thoughts of objects or of other people.
served by a school, hospital, social (2) In transactional analysis, the energy
services group, etc. required to move between ego states.
categorical variable variable which CATI computer assisted telephone interview.
defines membership of a category (defi-
catotrophobia A phobia of mirrors/of
nition 1).
breaking mirrors.
categorization (-isation) test Any test
Cattell Culture-Fair Test (CCFT)
in which participants must place items
Intelligence test. By avoiding measures
into groups or categories. The measure
of linguistic skills and general knowl-
can gauge intelligence, or may be used

edge, it supposedly measures intellec- CBF cerebral blood flow.

tual skills equally accessible to people
CBRSC Comprehensive Behaviour Rating
of all cultural/linguistic backgrounds.
Scale For Children.
Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale Com-
CBQ Cognitive Bias Questionnaire.
panion to the Stanford-Binet Scale, for
infants aged 3–30 months. CBS chronic brain syndrome.
Cattell scree test scree analysis. CCEI Crown-Crisp Experiential Index.
Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor CCFT Cattell Culture-Fair Test.
Questionnaire (16PF) Personality CD conduct disorder.
test assessing 16 aspects of personality
identified by the test’s author, Raymond CDAP Chemical Dependency Assessment
Cattell. The scores can be compressed Profile.
into a more manageable four item scale, CDD childhood disintegrative disorder.
for which population norms (including
details of how prevalent the particular c.d.f. cumulative density function.
type is in common occupational groups) CDI Child Development Inventory.
are available.
CDM Harrington–O’Shea Career Decision-
caudal Anatomical term referring to the Making System.
‘lower’ part of the body or the section
of an organ which is closest to the tail CDR Clinical Dementia Rating.
end. CDS Children’s Depression Scale.
causal analysis The analysis of causes. ceiling effect Effect achieved by giving a
causal attribution theory A revision of group a test which is too easy – an
the learned helplessness model, in which undesirably large proportion of group
the patient attributes causes of his/her members score full or nearly full marks,
problem to three factors – (a) the making discrimination between them
degree to which s/he feels that it is impossible. See floor effect.
due to personal factors, rather than cell In statistics, an intersection of a row
the workings of the outside world and column in a data table. If the rows
(internal-external scale); (b) the degree and columns represent different treat-
to which the problem is specific to the ments or conditions, a cell thus repre-
situation, as opposed to being a general sents a specific combination of treat-
feature of the patient’s life (specific- ments/conditions.
global scale); and (c) the degree to
which the situation is perceived to be a censored observations Those observa-
permanent or temporary feature (stable- tions that do not record what is being
unstable scale). looked for over the period of the study.
E.g. in measuring new cases of mental
causal-comparative research Studies illness in a random sample of the popu-
which assess the causes of a phenome- lation over ten years, at the end of the
non by comparing two or more groups decade of observations, a high propor-
which possess the said phenomenon in tion of the sample will not have con-
differing strengths (e.g. do children tracted any mental illness, and they are
with good and poor attendance records said to be censored observations. Note
[the phenomenon] vary because they that there is an implication that what is
have different levels of neuroticism [the being looked for may occur outside the
hypothesized cause]?).

range of the study (e.g. one year later, cerebellum Area of the brain, primarily
a proportion of the ‘sane’ members of responsible for balance and coordinat-
the sample may have developed mental ing movement.
illness). See left censoring, single censoring
cerebral arteriography Method of
and type I censoring.
assessing the state of the blood supply
centile percentile. to the brain – a tracer dye is injected
into the cerebral blood flow, which is then
central aphasia conduction aphasia.
observed by X-rays or a similar device.
central deafness Deafness resulting
cerebral blood flow (CBF) Blood supply
from damage to the inner ear and/or
to the brain.
cerebral contusion Bruising/bleeding
central limit theorem See sampling dis-
in brain tissue.
cerebral cortex Usually known by its
central nervous system The collective
abbreviated name of cortex. The cerebral
term for neurons which form the brain
cortex is the characteristic wrinkled
and the spinal cord.
surface of the brain. It is divided into
central sulcus The sulcus which marks two linked hemispheres (left and right)
the divide between the frontal lobe and and can be divided into four regions or
the parietal lobe. lobes (see frontal, parietal, occipital and
central tendency, error of See error of temporal lobes) which have different
central tendency. functions. The cerebral cortex is respon-
sible for the majority of higher intellec-
central tendency, measures of See tual functions.
measures of central tendency.
cerebral dominance The control of
central tendency error central tendency other brain functions by the cerebral
set. cortex.
central tendency set See evaluative set. cerebral haemorrhage See stroke.
central trait trait which influences a cerebral localization (-isation) local-
significant proportion of behaviour, ization.
although not as much as a general trait.
cerebral palsy General term for any
centrencephalic epilepsy See epilepsy. defect in motor skills (movement)
centroid In mathematics, the overall ‘di- resulting from brain damage.
rection’ in which several vectors are cerebral thrombosis See stroke.
‘moving’. The concept is used in, inter
alia, factor analysis and multivariate cerebral ventricles Chambers within
analysis of variance to determine the the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid.
strength and nature of certain group cerebrospinal fluid Fluid which cushions
trends compared with others. the brain and in part supplies it with
cephalo-caudal growth Growth pro- nutrients.
gressing from the head to the tail. cerebrotonic personality See Sheldon’s
cerebellar speech A speech disorder personality types.
attributable to damage to the cerebellum, cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke.
and characterized by poor pronuncia-
tion and lack of a controlled ‘tempo’.

cerebrum Largest and outermost section package eliciting details of a patient’s

of the brain, whose ‘surface’ is the substance abuse.
cerebral cortex. Concerned with most
chi squared distribution sampling distri-
higher intellectual functions.
bution for the chi squared statistic.
cervical level (of spinal cord) Topmost
chi squared goodness of fit test See chi
section of the spinal cord. Consists of
squared (x2) test.
eight segments, labelled C1 (the
topmost) to C8. chi squared one sample test chi squared
goodness of fit test.
CFF critical flicker fusion.
chi squared (x2) test A non-parametric
CFQ Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.
test of the frequency of occurrence of
C-GAF Version of Global Assessment of one or more discrete variables. The chi
Functioning for use with children. squared goodness of fit test measures the
frequencies with which each of a single
Chambless Scale Mobility Inventory for
discrete variable’s categories occurs – i.e.
do all categories occur with the same
chance error Error due to chance factors frequency, or are some categories signif-
– any curious deviation in performance icantly over- or under-represented? E.g.,
which cannot be attributed to known given five ice cream flavours to choose
factors. from, are all selected with equal likeli-
chance-half correlation split-half corre- hood? Chi squared is also employed
lation. to measure whether two or more groups
fall into two or more categories with
chance level result A result which fails equal likelihood. E.g. the ice cream
to reach statistical significance. problem can be converted into a two
change agent A participant who plans group problem by considering if men
and/or initiates change (the term and women have different preferences
usually applies to studies of the work- for the flavours. The test analyses the
place). differences between the observed
number of occurrences and the
character disorder A rather nebulous numbers which would be expected from
term for a maladaptive behaviour or a random set of data. The bigger the dis-
personality (e.g. a gross lack of self- crepancy between the observed and the
confidence), which, whilst not neces- expected, the greater the probability
sarily indicating mental illness, may be that the result is significant. There are
sufficiently unusual to merit treatment. two important caveats to the chi squared
character neurosis character disorder. analysis. The first is that if an expected
value is < 5, then the test should not be
characteristic root eigenvalue. run. The second is that when there are
Charteris Reading Test Reading test only two groups and two categories, 0.5
for 10–13-year-olds. should be deducted from the calculated
value of chi squared. This is known as
CHD coronary heart disease. Yate’s correction. See chi squared test of
chemical dependency substance abuse. independence.
Chemical Dependency Assessment chi squared test of independence A
Profile (CDAP) structured interview use of the chi squared test to calculate

whether responses to one test influence ptoms appear to be a mixture of autism

responses to another, subsequent test. and schizophrenia. Amongst the
symptoms are: an abnormally low
child abuse Deliberate psychological or
desire for normal social contacts,
physical mistreatment of a child,
distress at changes in surroundings,
usually by his/her parents and/or
sudden temper tantrums, and a flattened
other caregivers. Compare with child
childhood psychosis psychosis whose
Child Development Inventory (CDI)
onset is in childhood. The term includes
Measure of young children’s behav-
autism and childhood onset pervasive devel-
ioural and intellectual development.
opmental disorder.
child ego state See transactional analysis.
childhood schizophrenia schizophrenia
child neglect Psychological or physical whose onset is in childhood. The term
damage befalling a child resulting from is now largely outmoded. In some older
lack of care, usually by his/her parents texts, the term is used fairly inter-
and/or caregivers. Compare with child changeably with autism.
Children’s Apperception Test (CAT)
childhood amnesia The loss of mem- projective personality test of children’s
ories about early childhood which is beliefs and motivations. The parti-
disproportionately greater than would cipant is shown a series of pictures and
be predicted from simple forgetfulness. is asked to make up a story about each
Originally thought (e.g. by Freud) to one.
be due to suppression of emotionally
Children’s Attention and Adjustment
fraught memories, more recent ex-
Survey (CAAS) Measure of behaviour
planations have taken a cognitive
problems in children with attention
approach (e.g. young children are intel-
deficit disorder and/or hyperactivity.
lectually incapable of storing memories
efficiently, so they are forgotten). Children’s Depression Scale (CDS)
Measure of symptoms of depression and
Childhood Autism Rating Scale
related ideas and behaviours (e.g. guilt,
(CARS) Test assessing the level of
lowered self-esteem, etc.) in children
autism a child with the condition has.
aged 9–16 years.
childhood disintegrative disorder
Children’s Self-Report and Projec-
(CDD) A type of pervasive developmental
tive Inventory Set of projective tests for
disorder characterized by normal devel-
children aged 5–12 years.
opment in the first 2 years, then regres-
sion and loss of language, social skills, Children’s State-Trait Anxiety Inven-
bowel and bladder control, play and/ tory (CSTAI) Junior version of the
or motor skills. There are often repeti- State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.
tive stereotyped patterns of behaviour
chlorpromazine Type of major tranquil-
and/or interests.
childhood neurosis Rather nebulous
choice reaction time (CRT) See reaction
term denoting a neurosis-like, illness
occurring in childhood.
cholinergic hypothesis Theory that
childhood onset pervasive develop-
much of the memory loss in dementia of
mental disorder Disorder which
the Alzheimer type can be attributed to
begins in childhood, and whose sym-

depletion of the cholinergic system. See circular behaviour A behaviour which

ganglioside, ondansetron, and tacrine. causes others to react similarly (e.g.
cholinergic system Shorthand for the
network of neurons which use acetylcho- circular reaction (1) circular behaviour.
line. About 90% of neurons in the brain (2) A term used by the child psycholo-
are cholinergic. gist Piaget, denoting certain repetitious
acts in children, which are held to be
chorea Uncontrollable jerky movements
critical features of intellectual develop-
(as seen in e.g. Huntington’s chorea, senile
chorea, and Sydenham’s chorea). The
adjective is choreiform. circumlocution Talking around the
topic in question because the appropri-
choreiform See chorea.
ate word cannot be recalled (found to
chromophobia A phobia of colour. spectacular effect in some demented
chronic Long-lasting/long-standing. patients).
See acute. CIT critical incident technique.
chronic brain disorder Any long- civil commitment (American) The
lasting (although not congenital) committal of a patient for treatment,
disorder of mental efficiency, usually regardless of the patient’s wishes.
resulting from a long-standing cause
CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.
(e.g. malnutrition/vitamin deficiency from
a poor diet). Can produce dementia- like clang association Language disorder in
symptoms, or can ‘flare up’ relatively which the patient produces sequences
suddenly into acute confusional state. of words which sound similar – usually
the statements are nonsensical. Most
chronic brain syndrome (CBS)
often encountered in patients suffering
Long-term degeneration of brain
from schizophrenia.
tissue, resulting in severe impairment of
personality and/or intellectual func- Class A drugs Drugs, whose possession,
tioning. Largely synonymous with under UK law, carry the severest penal-
dementia. ties (i.e. long jail sentence, unlimited
fine, etc.). They include the opiates,
Chronic Pain Battery (CPB) Question-
Ecstasy, and psychedelic drugs. Class B
naire assessing the subjective discom-
drugs (amphetamines, barbiturates, and
fort of patients suffering from chronic
cannabis) carry a lesser fine, and Class C
pain, their medical history, and their
drugs (some of the milder stimulants)
general background. Formed in part
carry a smaller penalty.
from the Pain Assessment Questionnaire.
Class B drugs See Class A drugs.
chronic post-traumatic stress dis-
order See post-traumatic stress disorder class boundaries The upper and lower
(PTSD). limits of a class interval. Synonymous
with the concept of apparent and real
chronically accessible construct A self-
limits (see class interval).
concept which is very readily available.
Class C drugs See Class A drugs.
chronological age (CA) The length of
time a person has been alive. class interval width (i) See class intervals.
CI confidence interval. class intervals Groups of scores for
which any recorded score uniquely

belongs to one group. E.g. suppose that the stimulus is associated with another
a test has a maximum score of 30 and a stimulus which normally elicits the
minimum of 0, and scores are always in response. The technique was first
whole numbers. If we define ‘high’ objectively studied by the Russian
scores as between 21 and 30, ‘medium’ physiologist Ivan Pavlov, in the early
as between 10 and 20, and ‘low’ as years of the twentieth century. Dogs
between 0 and 9, then it can be seen salivate when presented with food;
that a score can only fall into one of Pavlov discovered that if a bell was
these three categories, which can thus rung (or in other experiments, a light
be defined as class intervals. Such a def- was flashed) just before the presenta-
inition would not be possible if the tion of the food, then after several days,
category boundaries overlapped (e.g. the dogs began to salivate simply on
High =19–30, Medium = 9–21, Low hearing the bell, presumably because
= 0–11). The lowest score necessary to they expected food to follow. The tech-
be within a particular class interval is nique is used in certain forms of behav-
called the lower apparent limit, whilst iour therapy – the therapist trains the
the highest score to merit inclusion in patient to associate a behaviour which
the same class interval is called the is to be encouraged with a rewarding
upper apparent limit. The upper real stimulus, and, conversely, to associate
limit (URL) is half the smallest unit of an undesirable behaviour with an
measurement being used, above the aversive stimulus. For an extreme case
upper apparent limit (e.g. if the smallest of this see Little Albert. See operant condi-
unit of measurement is whole numbers tioning.
of degrees fahrenheit and the upper
classical migraine See migraine.
apparent limit is 90 degrees, then the
upper real limit is 90.5 degrees). Simi- classical probability Theory of probabil-
larly, the lower real limit (LRL) is half ity which assumes that each possible
the smallest unit of measurement below outcome can occur with equal likeli-
the lower apparent limit (e.g. lower hood (e.g. a card drawn from a pack,
apparent limit = 80 degrees, lower real the outcome of tossing a coin, etc.).
limit = 79.5 degrees). This is to allow classical psychoanalysis psychoanalysis
for the presumed inaccuracies in the which follows fairly rigidly the pre-
measuring instruments (e.g. if the cepts of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
measure is only accurate to the nearest
degree, there there is a good chance classificatory scale nominal scale.
that any individual measure will be claustrophobia A phobia of enclosed
inaccurate by up to half a degree) – see spaces.
real limits. Class interval width (i) is the
difference between the upper real limit clerical aptitude test aptitude test of skills
and the lower real limit. The middle associated with clerical work.
value of a class interval is called the Clever Hans An example of the experi-
midpoint (e.g. in a class interval of 1–7, menter effect. Clever Hans was a nine-
the midpoint is 4). See grouped frequency teenth century circus horse who, given
distribution. a simple addition problem, could tap
classical conditioning A method of out the correct answer with his hoof.
training subjects to make a response to This was taken as evidence for equine
a stimulus which in itself would not arithmetic, until it was noted that the
normally elicit the response, because animal was responding to a slight re-
laxation in the features of the humans

watching him when he had tapped the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) A
correct number of times. checklist for assessing the level of func-
tioning of which a patient suspected of
client Term used by some therapists as a
dementia is capable on various tasks.
synonym for ‘patient’.
From this, his/her level of impairment
client-centred therapy Therapeutic and hence the severity of the dementia
technique (principally derived from can be calculated.
Roger’s self theory of personality) in which
clinical depression A rather nebulous
it is assumed that the best person to
term for a state of depression felt to be
resolve a patient’s internal conflict is
severe enough to merit professional
the patient him/herself. Accordingly,
the therapy principally consists of the
patient talking to the therapist, with the clinical interview An interview with a
therapist making minimal interjections patient to elicit details of his/her
(e.g. to amplify discreetly a key point illness. In addition to the description of
by asking the patient to go into greater the symptoms, the interviewer also
detail). The therapist holds the client in usually monitors the manner in which
unconditional positive regard – i.e. the the patient replies and his/her general
client is always right – his/her beliefs mannerisms.
and emotions are uncritically accepted
clinical method (1) Any method of
by the therapist. The technique can be
study based upon or around the treat-
mimicked by a computer programme,
ment of illness (compare with clinical
the best known example of which is
study). (2) The assessment of subjects in
Eliza. See humanistic psychology.
a naturalistic setting.
client group (1) A group of patients with
clinical psychology The treatment and
the same problem. (2) The group of
analysis of mental illness by purely psy-
patients being treated by the same ther-
chological means (i.e. usually without
apist or group of therapists.
drug therapies, unlike many branches
Clifton Assessment Procedure for the of psychiatry). Clinical psychologists
Elderly (CAPE) test battery consisting have an initial training in general psy-
of two ‘sub-batteries’ – the Cognitive chology before taking a more special-
Assessment Scale (CAS) and the Behav- ized postgraduate qualification.
iour Rating Scale (BRS), measuring
clinical study A study of the efficacy of a
intellectual skills and personality
treatment. See clinical method (definition
respectively in older subjects (particu-
larly hospital patients and the institu-
tionalized elderly). clinical theology Therapeutic regime
with a philosophical basis drawn from
climacteric menopause.
Christian belief.
Clinical Analysis Questionnaire (CAQ)
clinical trial A clinical study (often the
Measure of personality, intended pri-
term is particularly applied to the study
marily for clinical populations. Identi-
of a drug treatment).
ties personality features akin to those
of the 16PF, and also a further 12 clock drawing test A design copying test in
features characteristic of particular which the to-be-copied item is an an-
types of mental illness. alogue clock face. The test is most often
used in assessing patients suffering
Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS) Measure
from brain damage, and particularly,
of level of anxiety and associated behav-
demented patients.

clonic convulsion See convulsion. The results of the analysis are some-
times expressed as dendograms, which
clonus Rapid muscular contractions and
resemble ‘family trees’, and show the
relaxations in reaction to sudden and
stages by which progressively smaller
then sustained stretching. The condi-
and more defined groups are created.
tion is indicative of neurological
damage, and is most readily demon- cluster sampling Taking a sample of
strated by stretching the ankle, causing subjects from a confined geographical
a twitching of the calf muscle (ankle area (e.g. school, area of a town etc.) as
clonus). representative of the general population.
In multistage cluster sampling only
closed question A question for which
a sub-group of the initial sample is
there is a specific answer being looked
selected for analysis.
for and where any extra information
provided is treated as irrelevant. Com- CMMS Columbia Mental Maturity Scale
mon examples include requests for (CMMS).
basic factual information such as a per-
CNS central nervous system.
son’s name, their date of birth, where
the answer required is a simple ‘yes’ or coaction The joint working of two or
‘no’ etc. This is in contrast to an open more items or subjects.
question, in which all the information cocaine Drug which stimulates the
supplied in the answer may potentially nervous system producing intense
be of relevance. Thus, ‘do you agree euphoria and heightened sensations. It
with the Government’s policy on immi- can be addictive. Like most drugs used
gration – yes or no?’ is a closed illegally, it was originally devised for
question, but ‘please will you comment legitimate medical reasons, as a pain-
on the Government’s policy on immi- killer and an antidepressant (an early
gration?’ is an open question. enthusiast was Freud).
closed system A system unaffected by coccygeal level (of spinal cord) Lowest
external forces. level of the spinal cord. Consists of one
closure In some intelligence tests, the segment (labelled CO1 – actually formed
ability to perceive a whole shape when from several [usually three] fused
only some of its features are visible. segments).
cloze procedure Reading test method – Cochran Q test See McNemar test.
participants have to insert appropriate code test Measure of intellectual ability
words into blanks in a passage of text in which data must be receded accord-
(e.g. fill in the blank in ‘the cat sat on ing to a rule provided by the experi-
__ mat’). The term is meant to indicate menter.
a link with the gestalt concept of
‘closure’ (the hypothesized drive to codeine See opiates.
mentally fill in missing gaps in an Coding Test Sub-test of the Wechsler
image). intelligence tests, which is a digit-symbol
Cloze Reading Tests Set of reading tests substitution task.
for 8–12-year-olds, which (predict- coefficient (1) Something which acts in
ably) use the cloze procedure. conjunction with something else. (2) In
cluster analysis A statistical method of statistics, an index of measurement. The
grouping subjects or items according to term is sometimes used as an abbrevia-
their scores on a number of variables. tion of correlation coefficient. (3) In math-

ematics, a constant value by which an coefficient of variation Calculated as

item in an equation must be multiplied. the standard deviation of a sample,
divided by its mean and multiplied by
coefficient a coefficient alpha.
100 (e.g. a sample with a mean of 1 and
coefficient alpha coefficient of equiva- a standard deviation of 0.2 has a coeffi-
lence. cient of variation of 20%). The figure
coefficient of alienation random vari- can be used to compare the relative
ance. degree of variance in different samples
whose means vary in size, and accord-
coefficient of concordance Kendall’s ingly, where direct comparisons would
coefficient of concordance. be difficult.
coefficient of determination (R2) The coenaesthesia Awareness of one’s own
square of a correlation coefficient. See condition.
correlation and multiple regression.
cognition The processing and acquisi-
coefficient of dispersion coefficient of tion of knowledge.
cognitive Adjective from cognition.
coefficient of equivalence See reliabil-
ity. Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) Intelli-
gence test battery, with a chief sub-
coefficient of internal consistency division into non-verbal and verbal
See reliability. measures.
coefficient of reproducibility The Cognitive Ability Battery (CAB) test
proportion of consistent answers given battery assessing 20 basic cognitive abili-
by a subject on a test which has been ties.
scaled in difficulty/strength of opinion.
E.g. a scholastic test beginning with cognitive-analytic therapy (CAT)
‘what is 2+2?’ and ending with demands Version of cognitive therapy drawing
for the proof of the special theory of upon an eclectic mix of other therapeu-
relativity; or, a measure of opinions tic methods. Places a strong emphasis
beginning with statements such as ‘the on the patient doing ‘homework’ to
law has not always given women equal identify needs and problems.
rights’ and progressing to ‘a woman Cognitive Assessment Scale (CAS) See
should always be appointed instead of Clifton Assessment Procedure for the Elderly.
a man’. If the test is accurate, then the
cognitive behaviour assessment Any
subject should always give the ‘right’
assessment method which concentrates
answers up to the point where the test
on the expressed thoughts of the
items get too hard for him/her, or
express too extreme a view for his/her
taste. cognitive behaviour therapy Any ther-
apeutic technique combining features
coefficient of stability See reliability.
of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy.
coefficient of total determination See
cognitive-behavioural therapy cogni-
multiple regression.
tive behaviour therapy.
coefficient of validity General term for
Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ)
a measure of validity.
Measure of the degree to which a
coefficient of variability coefficient of subject misinterprets events in a mala-
variation. daptive fashion.

cognitive competence competency to therapy attempts to make patients

perform cognitive tasks. realize, through self-analysis and
various exercises, that the majority of
cognitive empiricism See cognitive
events can be explained in a rational
and non-negative manner (i.e. the
Cognitive Failures Questionnaire therapy tries to restore common sense
(CFQ) A test which asks subjects to to the patient). The process whereby
report instances of memory failure in the patient and therapist examine the
recent everyday life (e.g. forgetting to problems jointly is sometimes called
buy items when shopping, etc.). cognitive empiricism.
Assesses how forgetful people are in
cognitive triad Term devised by Beck
‘real life’ (compared with more artifi-
(author of Beck Depression Inventory) to
cial laboratory tasks).
denote the threefold maladaptive
cognitive intervention General term for thought processes of a depressed
providing training in intellectual skills patient: that s/he is a failure, that the
to people perceived as being intellectu- future can only be viewed pessimisti-
ally disadvantaged. cally, and that the world is a frustrating
Cognitive Participation Rating Scale place.
(CPRS) A measure of general intellec- Cogrehab Computerized battery of
tual functioning, designed to assess the measures and therapeutic exercises
changes in brain damaged and/or designed to identify and to help ame-
mentally retarded subjects as they liorate problems resulting from mental
progress through therapy. handicap.
cognitive rehabilitation Therapeutic Cohen’s d Measure of effect size.
process of restoring (where possible)
Cohen’s kappa Measure of inter-rater
the intellectual skills lost as a result of
brain damage.
cohort A group of people raised in the
cognitive restructuring Replacing
same environment and/or period of
‘faulty’ ideas and concepts with new
time. Almost invariably refers to a
and ‘better’ ones (e.g. replacing
group of people of similar age.
arachnophobia with more rational ideas
about spiders). cohort analysis Analysis of individuals
belonging to the same cohort, often for
cognitive strategy A strategy used to
the purpose of examining a unique
cope with a particular situation. Can
characteristic of that cohort.
refer to a maladaptive behaviour in the
onset of a stressful situation. cohort effect A difference between age
groups which is better attributed to dif-
cognitive style A problem-solving
ferences in the ways they were raised
method/method of intellectual func-
and educated than to their ages per se.
tioning consistently used by a subject.
See overlapping longitudinal study.
cognitive therapy It can be argued that
cohort sequential design overlapping
many mentally ill or behaviourally mal-
longitudinal study.
adjusted patients misinterpret events so
that they ‘feed’ the illness (e.g. a person cohort study See panel study.
afraid of rejection will take the slightest
colinearity See multiple regression.
negative comment as further ‘proof ’
that they are unlovable). Cognitive

collapsing In statistics, combining the months and 10 years. Requires no

results of a lot of groups and/or indi- spoken answers and little movement,
viduals into a single larger group or and is particularly intended for children
smaller number of larger groups in with restricted movement and/or
order to simplify the analysis. This is speech impairment.
usually only justifiable if there is a bona
column marginal See row marginal.
fide reason for putting the groups/
individuals together, and it makes coma State of unconsciousness from
logical sense to treat them as a coherent which the patient cannot be roused.
unit – it cannot simply be done to make Some reflexes may or may not be
calculations easier if there are real dif- present, and the depth of the coma can
ferences being covered over by this be graded according to this.
method. E.g. it may be reasonable to combat fatigue combat stress.
look at the performance of all the
schoolchildren in a particular school by combat stress Post-traumatic stress disorder
classifying them into age groups. specifically resulting from being
However, it would not make much caught up in military combat.
sense to collapse them into two groups commissurotomy The surgical severing
de pendent upon whether their of the corpus callosum (usually done to
surnames began with A–M or N–Z, treat certain forms of epilepsy). The
even though it would make the statisti- patient thus has left and right hemispheres
cal comparison of the groups much which have lost their principal means of
easier. communicating with each other. These
collective unconscious See Jung’s psy- split brain patients often complain that
choanalytic theory. they simultaneously experience two dif-
ferent worlds.
collinearity A high level of correlation or
relationship between independent vari- common measure A measure used by
ables in a regression calculation. This is a more than one study, enabling direct
problem because a high level of comparisons to be made between
collinearity undermines the assump- studies.
tions the analysis is based on. common metric common measure.
Colorado Childhood Temperament common migraine See migraine.
Inventory Battery of scales of aspects
of temperament/behaviour (e.g. ‘emo- common trait trait possessed by all the
tionality’, ‘reaction to foods’, etc.). population.
colour agnosia A failure to recognize commonality In multiple regression, the
colours (although note that patients can degree to which the variance of the crite-
often match up colours – i.e. they can rion variable is accounted for by each of
‘see’ them). the predictor variables individually, and
how much is due to the combined
colour anomia A failure to name colours. effects of two or more of the predictor
Coloured Progressive Matrices variables.
(CPM) See Raven’s Progressive Matrices. communality The amount of variance of
Columbia Mental Maturity Scale a measure which is accounted for by a
(CMMS) Intelligence test battery for factor or group of factors derived from
children aged between 3 years 6 factor analysis.

community care Generic phrase for any completely randomized design Exper-
system of maintaining mentally ill imental design in which groups of
people in the general community (even entirely different subjects receive differ-
if in sheltered housing) rather than ent treatments. See randomized block
keeping them in hospital (and hence design and repeated measures design.
divorced from everyday life).
completion rate (1) The rate at which a
community psychiatry Psychiatry con- task is completed. (2) The proportion
cerned with the general issue of mental of the total original sample which com-
health in the community and community pleted all the tests.
completion test Any measure in which
community psychology Nebulous term the subject must complete an item (e.g.
for studies and therapies which an incomplete sentence, a shape with a
measure/treat people in their homes, section missing, etc.).
workplaces, etc., rather than in a labora-
complex Loose term for a group of traits
which together form a guiding behav-
comorbidity The simultaneous exis- iour and/or set of beliefs (usually
tence of two or more illnesses in the maladaptive).
same patient.
compliance Obeying an order or request
compensable factors Factors of a job without necessarily believing in its
which determine the rate of compensa- wisdom.
tion (e.g. pay).
component efficiency hypothesis
compensation (1) Compensating for a Hypothesis that the decline in a skill is
weakness in a limb, organ, etc. by due to a decline in one or more of the
greater reliance on another limb, organ, ‘basic’ sub-skills governing it.
etc. (2) defence mechanism.
componential intelligence See triarchic
compensation therapy Any therapeutic theory of intelligence.
technique which trains patients to com-
composite event In probability theory, a
pensate for the absence or weakness of
sequence of simple events (e.g. in coin
a skill by placing greater reliance on the
tossing, a sequence of four successive
skills they do have.
compensatory striving See individual
composite score The overall score on a
measure. Not necessarily synonymous
competence competency. with ‘total score’, because components
of the measure might be given different
competency (1) An ability to process
information within a particular field.
(2) An appropriate level of training, comprehension test (1) A measure of
skill, and experience in a practitioner. ability to understand a passage of text.
(3) An appropriate degree of ‘normal- (2) A crystallized intelligence measure of
ity’ in a patient (e.g. in deciding if s/he knowing the correct things to do in
can be held legally responsible for his/ particular circumstances (e.g. ‘what
her actions). should you do if you cut your finger?’).
competitive aggression aggression Comprehensive Ability Battery
directed at factors preventing the (CAB) Intelligence test battery for par-
achievement of a desired goal.

ticipants aged 15 years and over. computer assisted observation (CAO)

Assesses primary mental abilities. Any system of recording behaviour in
which data are directly entered into a
Comprehensive Assessment of
computer database, and/or in which
Spoken Language (CASL) Measure
the computer ‘prompts’ the experi-
of principal aspect of spoken language
menter with instructions.
skills for age range young child to
young adult. computer assisted telephone inter-
view (CATI) Telephone interviewing
Comprehensive Behaviour Rating
technique in which the responses are
Scale For Children (CBRSC)
immediately keyed into a computer.
Measure of behaviour of schoolchil-
The programme automatically prompts
dren aged 6–14 years.
the interviewer with the next question
Comprehensive Test of Adaptive – this can be especially advantageous
Behaviour (CTAB) Measure primar- where there are a number of alternate
ily of coping and housekeeping skills question routes.
in subjects (5–60 years) with potential
Computer Generated H-T-P Clinical
Assessment Computerized version of
Comprehensive Test of Non-Verbal the House-Tree-Person Test.
Intelligence (CTONI) Measure of
Computer Programmer Aptitude
non-verbal intelligence, with no or
Battery (CRAB) aptitude test of ability
minimal linguistic skills required.
to perform computer programming.
Comprehensive Test of Phonological
computerized adaptive test adaptive test
Processing (CTOPP) Measure of
run by a computer programme.
ability of process phonological infor-
mation (loosely, ‘word sounds’). computerized axial tomography
(CAT scan) A body scan by means of a
compulsion A drive to perform an act
sequence of highly sensitive X rays,
(often with a ritualistic element), which
which display successive cross-sections
the patient cannot keep under control.
of the body.
Compulsions can be further classified
into overt compulsions (where the acts computerized transaxial tomography
are external to the person and can be (CT) computerized axial tomography.
observed by others) and covert compul-
Comrey Personality Scales Measure
sions (where the act is an internal, ritu-
yielding eight scales of personality
alized thought process).
(e.g. ‘activity versus lack of energy’,
Compulsive Activity Checklist (CAC) ‘empathy versus egocentrism’ etc.).
Measure of degree and type of compul-
conative pertaining to intention.
sive activities performed by a patient.
conceptual organization The ability to
compulsive personality disorder per-
treat items at an abstract level in order
sonality disorder characterized by a
to uncover basic rules and principles.
desire for perfection in everything
done by the patient. Not to be confused conceptual replication See replication.
with obsessive-compulsive disorder, where concomitant variable covariate.
the tasks the patient wishes to perform
perfectly are limited to a narrow range concrete intelligence See abstract intelli-
of often pointless, trivial, and ritualistic gence.

concrete thought Immature or disor- tionship between age and intelligence

dered mental abilities, in which the test score taking into account level of
subject is incapable of abstract thought, education is lower than the zero order
and is constrained to thinking about relationship when level of education is
the ‘here and now’. not accounted for.
concurrent processing Any task which conditioned aversion aversion therapy.
requires the participant to perform two
conditioned behaviour The behaviour
or more separate tasks simultaneously.
produced by conditioning.
concurrent validity See predictive
conditioned emotion An emotional
response created by conditioning (e.g.
concussion (1) A temporary confusion Little Albert).
and/or loss of memory resulting from a
conditioned response (CR) The
blow to the head. (2) Temporary un-
response to a stimulus created by condi-
consciousness following a blow to the
conditioned response learning classi-
condition The form or state of the inde-
cal conditioning.
pendent variable being administered (e.g.
a test would have two conditions if it conditioning Process whereby a subject
was available in two formats). is trained to respond to a stimulus which
previously did not elicit the reaction
condition of worth See Roger’s self theory
desired. Training a subject NOT to
of personality.
respond to a stimulus in a particular way
conditional correlation The correlation is called deconditioning, and the loss of
between variables in a conditional cros- the response itself is called extinction. See
stabulation table. classical conditioning, counterconditioning,
operant conditioning, and token economy.
conditional crosstabulation See
crosstabulation. conduct disorder (CD) Nebulous term
for serious misbehaviour by children.
conditional mean The mean of a variable
Can be divided into two sub-categories.
when other variables assume particular
Socialized conduct disorder describes
breaches of social or moral codes (e.g.
conditional positive regard See Roger’s truancy), whilst undersocialized
self theory of personality. conduct disorder describes offences
conditional probability The situation against other people or objects (e.g.
in which the probability that one event arson). The two sub-categories can be
will occur is dependent upon another further divided according to whether
event also occurring (e.g. for there to be the acts performed are violent or
a chance of a rainbow, it must first rain). non-violent.

conditional relationship A relation- conduction aphasia Aphasia character-

ship that is described in terms of the ized by an inability to repeat words,
influence of other variables. E.g. older although other aspects of language are
adults generally have lower intelligence relatively normal.
test scores than younger adults. But if conductive hearing loss Hearing loss
differences in level of education are resulting from damage or obstruction
accounted for the test score difference to the outer or middle ear. This con-
is lowered. Thus, the conditional rela- trasts with sensorineural hearing loss,

which results from damage to the inner 3 degrees, it would be difficult to

ear or nerves. Mixed hearing loss is ascribe a subsequent increase in pro-
attributable to a mixture of both of the ductivity purely to the change in tem-
above. perature.
confabulation Condition in which the confounding variable A variable which
patient makes up stories or other may distort the finding of primary
implausible explanations to cover up interest.
gaps in his/her memory or other skills.
congenital Born with. Strictly speaking,
Generally, the term is reserved for situa-
the term applies to both geneti-
tions where there is no conscious
cally-inherited effects and effects
attempt to deceive.
resulting purely from changes in the
confidence interval (CI) A range of womb (e.g. foetal alcohol syndrome).
scores within which a certain percent- However, several commentators restrict
age of all possible observations of the its use to the former category.
same variable is predicted to occur. For
congenital adrenal hyperplasia inher-
example, a 95% confidence interval
ited (but treatable) malfunction in which
describes the range of scores within
female sufferers are born with genitals
which 95% of all observations are pre-
which look like those of a male. In rare
dicted to occur. The values of the upper
cases this is undetected at birth, and the
and lower limits of the confidence
patient is raised as a boy, the error not
interval are called the confidence limits.
being discovered until puberty. Such
The measure is of importance in, inter
cases are obviously of interest to sex
alia, significance calculations.
difference researchers.
confidence limits See confidence interval.
congenital hypothyroidism cretinism.
confirmatory factor analysis Form of
congenital rubella syndrome Set of
factor analysis designed to test a hypoth-
dysfunctional symptoms and behav-
esis about the interrelationships within
iours induced by the mother of the indi-
the data being analysed. In contrast,
vidual contracting rubella (German
exploratory factor analysis attempts to
measles) during the first 4 months of
find factors without prior assumptions
pregnancy. Symptoms vary, but in
of what they will be.
a dd i t i o n t o n u m e ro u s p hy s i c a l
confluence A dysfunctional over-identifi- symptoms, may include intellectual dys-
cation with another person, idea or sit- function and poor sight and hearing.
congenital word blindness Old term
conforming personality An excessive for developmental dyslexia.
desire to behave according to the actual
congruence Complete concord between
or perceived wishes of other people.
self-image and the image projected to
confounding The simultaneous change others. Hence, more loosely, appearing
of two or more independent variables, so and being completely genuine in
that any subsequent changes in a expression. See Roger’s self theory of per-
dependent variable cannot be unambigu- sonality.
ously attributed to just one of the said
congruent validity The degree to which
independent variables. E.g. if wages are
the findings of a test concur with an
increased by 100% at the same time as
established test of the same phenome-
the workplace temperature is raised by

conjoint measure Measure of a variable constraint seeking strategy In solving a

which itself consists of two or more problem (e.g. in a ‘20 questions’ game),
sub-components. seeking answers which progressively
reduce the set size of all possible
conjoint therapy Therapy administered
to partners or to two or more patients
simultaneously. constriction See personal construct theory.
conjoint variables A set of variables construct (1) A method of interpretation.
which all play a role in determining an (2) A concept or set of concepts. See
event (e.g. personality, age, wealth, and personal construct theory.
physical appearance are some of the
construct theory personal construct theory.
conjoint variables most people would
consider in choosing a partner). construct validity The degree to which
a test measures or expresses a particular
Conners Parent Rating Scale A
theoretical stance. See validity.
measure of parental assessment of emo-
tional and social development of construction competence The ability
children aged 3–7 years. to form concepts and thought pro-
Conners Teacher Rating Scale A 40
item measure of a teacher’s assessment constructional apraxia A profound
of a pupil’s behaviour and abilities. inability to construct objects from their
component parts.
conscientiousness (C) Personality trait
(one of the ‘Big Five’) measuring the constructive alternativism See personal
degree to which the subject is organized construct theory.
and reliable. constructivism The argument that
consequent See antecedent. learning is not objective and factual but
is inevitably shaped and even biased by
consequent variable The results of an
the learner’s prior experience, the
action, often with the implication that
context in which the learning takes
the results reward or punish the subject
place, etc.
(thereby shaping future behaviour). See
SORC. constructs See personal construct theory.
conspecific Of the same species or consumer psychology The study of
group. consumer behaviour (e.g. in choosing
particular brands of washing powder,
constant A value in an equation which
can only have one value (e.g. [XX] in
the equation, circumference = 2[XX]r). contagion (1) The transmission of ideas,
See variable. and, by extension, changes in behav-
iour and attitudes resulting from this.
constant error A consistent direction of
(2) The spread of disease, particularly
error in performance.
by physical contact.
constant variable control variable.
contamination statistical contamination.
constellatory constructs See personal
content analysis (1) The codification
construct theory.
and analysis of communicative acts. (2)
constitutional types Sheldon’s personality Analysis of a test to assess its usefulness.

content criterion The minimum mark a parties x, y, or z at the last election;

subject must attain on a test to be dogs, cats, and monkeys, and their first
deemed to know the topic being tested choice of ice cream flavour from straw-
in sufficient depth. See criterion-refer- berry, vanilla, chocolate and kumquat,
enced test. etc.). The most common method of
assessment of the contingency table is
content validity The degree to which a
the chi squared statistic.
test assesses skills encountered in
‘real life’ situations. Hence, it is also a continuous biserial correlation coef-
measure of (a) the degree to which the ficient point biserial correlation coeffi-
test adequately covers all aspects of the cient.
skill in question, and (b) how much it
continuous recording Recording all of
does NOT rely upon extraneous skills
the available information within an
(the commonly-given example is that a
observation period. See interval record-
test of maths should not require an
advanced knowledge of English to
understand the questions). See validity. continuous variable quantitative variable
for which (given sufficiently accurate
contextual intelligence See triarchic
measures) a theoretically infinite
theory of intelligence.
number of scores is possible (e.g.
contingency (1) The degree to which height). This is in contrast with a discrete
the existence of an event or state is variable, a quantitative variable for
dependent upon the existence of an- which only a limited number of scores is
other event or state. (2) The conditions possible (e.g. points in a snooker game).
necessary for conditioning to occur. In reality it is impossible to measure an
infinite number of different scores.
contingency coefficient (C) Correlation
Measuring instruments have a smallest
between two variables, both of which
measure below which they cannot ‘see’,
are divided into more than two catego-
and hence measures can only fall within
ries (for analysis of correlations
the range provided by the smallest
between two dichotomous variables, see
measure which can be taken. E.g.,
tetrachoric correlation coefficient).
suppose that a rule can only accurately
contingency contracting Therapeutic measure down to a thousandth of a
method, akin to the token economy, in metre, and everyone measured is
which the patient agrees to behave in between 0 and 2 metres in height. A
a particular way (often signing a subject can only fall into one of 2000
doc-ument – a behavioural contract) in height categories. It thus follows that a
exchange for a series of rewards and/or continuous variable is always, pedanti-
avoidance of punishments adminis- cally speaking, a discrete variable. In
tered by the therapist. In self-manage- most instances, however, this distinc-
ment therapy, the patient administers tion is treated as a mathematical nicety,
the rewards/punishments him/herself. and it is assumed that to all intents and
contingency management contingency purposes, a supposed continuous
contracting. variable measures with the accuracy it
contingency table Presentation of data
in which two or more groups’ member- contra-indication to therapy A
ship of two or more mutually exclusive symptom which indicates that the
events are displayed (e.g. male and patient’s illness is better treated using
female, and whether they voted for another therapy.

contracting behaviour contracting. controlled association test Any test in

which the subject must produce a word
contraction bias The tendency for
associated with a given word in a
people to rate subjects or events in the
manner specified by the experimenter
middle of the scale, when more extreme
(e.g. antonym test).
ratings might be justified. See error of
central tendency. controlled drinking A therapeutic
method in which alcoholics are trained
contralateral On the opposite side of the
to keep their alcohol consumption
midline from the section of the body in
within prescribed limits.
question. Compare with ipsilateral.
controlling behaviour Behaviour
contrast pole See repertory grid test.
which seeks to control or otherwise
contrast sensitivity function (CSF) A limit the freedom of others.
measure of the changing ability to
controlling for General term for any
focus clearly on a fine pattern of dark
method of ensuring that a particular
and light parallel lines when the
variable does not interfere with the
relative darkness and lightness of the
running or interpretation of an experi-
lines is altered.
ment. At its simplest, this means e.g.
contre coup injury Injury which occurs controlling for extraneous noise (i.e.
on the opposite side of the body from choosing a quiet test room), but can
where the damaging blow was also mean more complex statistical
received. methods, such as the analysis of
control group Group of subjects who do covariance.
not receive a particular treatment, or convergence analysis Complex statisti-
possess a particular characteristic in cal technique combining findings from
which the experimenter is interested a variety of different methods of study
and who are measured as a comparison (e.g. of longitudinal studies and cross-sec-
with the experimental group, who tional studies) to determine a general
receive the treatment or possess a par- rule.
ticular characteristic. E.g. a control
convergent research Different methods
group might be a group of healthy
of inquiry addressing the same problem
people being compared with a group of
and arriving at the same conclusions.
patients suffering from a particular
disease. convergent thinking See divergent
control theory See reality therapy.
convergent validity The degree to
control through fear The restraint upon
which a test correlates highly with
performing an act caused by fear of
measures with which it is expected to
punishment. Contrast with control
correlate (e.g. a measure of mathemati-
through guilt.
cal ability should correlate highly with
control through guilt The restraint scores on a trigonometry test). See
upon performing an act caused by fear discriminant validity.
of the ensuing guilty feelings. Contrast
converging operations Different
with control through fear.
methods of enquiry/experimental
control variable An experimental methods, which all support the same
variable which is held constant for all conclusion/theoretical concept.
subjects (e.g. the same test room might
conversion disorder A somatoform
be used).
disorder, characterized by loss of control

over the muscles and/or senses. The core construct See personal construct
patient seems surprisingly unconcerned theory.
about their condition (la belle indiffer-
corneal reflection technique Method
ence). The term hysteria is sometimes
of measuring eye movements by
used synonymously – hence also hyster-
shining an (invisible) infra-red beam
ical blindness, etc.
onto the participant’s eyeball, and by
conversion hysteria conversion disorder. measuring the angle at which the beam
is reflected back, calculating where the
conversion neurosis conversion disorder.
participant’s eye is directed.
convulsion An involuntary muscular
corollary discharge Adjusting to
contraction, which is either a pro-
changes in posture and orientation so
longed contraction (a tonic convulsion)
that the environment appears stable
or a series of contractions and relax-
(e.g. if one moves one’s head, what one
ations (a clonic convulsion).
sees remains stable – it does not also
convulsion therapy General term for appear to have moved).
any therapeutic technique in which the
coronary prone behaviour (CPB) Any
patient is deliberately given a convulsion.
pattern of behaviour which appreciably
The most common version is electro-
raises the probability of suffering a
convulsive therapy (ECT), although
stroke, heart attack, etc.
insulin overdoses (insulin therapy) were
used in the past. corpus callosum The principal anatomi-
cal link between the left and right hemi-
convulsive therapy convulsion therapy.
spheres of the brain.
Cook’s D Cook’s distance.
correction for attenuation A method
Cook’s distance (Cook’s D) A measure of correcting for measurement error in
of the extent to which an outlier is dis- correlations.
torting results and hence whether the
correction for chance correction for
outlier should be removed from the cal-
correction for continuity A mathemat-
coping behaviour Any behaviour or act
ical adjustment to discontinuously-dis-
which reduces or negates the deleteri-
tributed data so that they approximate
ous effects of a harmful situation.
to a continuous distribution. This enables
coping skill coping behaviour. a potentially wider range of statistical
coping skills training Training in cop- tests to be used on them.
ing behaviour. correction for guessing In a multiple
coprolagnia The feeling of excitement choice test, or one requiring simple
induced by coprophilia. ‘yes-no’ answers, it is possible to get a
certain percentage correct by guessing.
coprolalia Obsessive swearing. The correction for guessing formula
coprophagia Eating faeces. calculates how many correct answers
could have been guesses, and based on
coprophilia An atypical paraphilia in this, the subject’s score is adjusted.
which the patient obtains sexual grati-
fication from faeces. correction for range restriction A
method of correcting correlations where
coprophobia A phobia of excrement. the range of scores on one or both of

the variables is stunted (the limited range variance). The value r2 is also known as
distorts the size of the correlation). the coefficient of determination. Correla-
tions can be measured in several ways,
correlated subjects design repeated
depending upon the nature of the data.
measures design.
The most common is the correlation
correlation Technically speaking, a between two continuous variables. This is
measure of how much of the variance called the product-moment correlation
in one variable can be predicted by coefficient, and when ‘correlation’ is
variance in another. In layperson’s discussed without a further qualifying
terms, a correlation describes the statement, it should be assumed that the
strength of the relationship between product-moment correlation is being
two variables, and the extent to which a referred to. Also see e.g. alienation coeffi-
change in one is met by a change in the cient, contingency coefficient, correlation
other. The symbol for a correlation is r, matrix, Fisher’s z test, Kendall partial rank
often suffixed with a letter or symbol, correlation coefficient, Kendall rank corre-
depending upon the formula used to lation coefficient, linear correlation, Pearson
calculate it. Correlations can be posi- correlation coefficient, point biserial corre-
tive (i.e. as one variable increases, so lation coefficient, semi-partial correlation,
does the other) or negative (i.e. as one Spearman rank order correlation coefficient,
variable increases, the other decreases). and tetrachoric correlation coefficient.
Correlations also vary in strength – a
correlation coefficient The mathemati-
value of 0 means that no relationship
cal expression of a correlation (i.e. the
exists between the variables, a value of
value of r).
1 indicates a perfect positive correlation
(i.e. for every increase in one variable, correlation matrix Analysis of correla-
there is proportionately the same in- tions between three or more variables.
crease in the other) and a value of -1 Usually displayed as a table (hence its
indicates a perfect negative correlation name) with the variables listed along
(i.e. every rise in one variable is met the top horizontal axis and also along
with proportionately the same fall in the left vertical axis – the correlations
the other). In ‘real life’, correlations fall between them are listed at the intersec-
somewhere between these extremes. tions.
The closer the figure is to 1 or -1
correlation ratio (N)A measure of corre-
(known as the perfect correlation), the
lation for a non-linear relationship
stronger the correlation (typically, a
between two variables.
value of 0.3 or better is taken to be a
good indicator). ‘Correlation’ is not correlational research Any research
synonmous with ‘causation’. There is method whose basic measure is correla-
no method of deciding from the sta- tion. There is usually the implication
tistic alone whether one variable is that no experimental manipulation of
causing the other to alter; in any case, the subjects or test materials has taken
both might be controlled by a third place.
party (see partial correlation). For the Corsi blocks task A test of visuo-spatial
mathematically minded: the percentage memory. Subjects are shown an array of
of the variance in one variable which blocks positioned on a table. The experi-
the other predicts can be easily calcu- menter taps on some of these blocks in
lated by squaring r and multiplying the a sequence which the subject is asked
result by 100 (e.g. variables A and B to copy. The experimenter gradually
correlate at 0.6; A predicts 36% of B’s

increases the length of sequence until practitioners, and implies that the treat-
the subject’s memory span is discovered. ment follows a systematic course.
However, ‘therapy’ can also cover
cortex cerebral cortex.
physical treatments with relatively little
cortical Pertaining to the cerebral cortex. provision of advice and with no psy-
cortical atherosclerotic dementia chological content (e.g. chemother-
(CAD) vascular dementia whose primary apy). Another difference between the
damage occurs in the cortex. terms is that ‘therapy’ usually refers
specifically to the treatment of an
cortical dementias dementias in which the illness, whilst ‘counselling’ can also
principal damage occurs in the cortex include the enhancement of a behav-
(e.g. dementia of the Alzheimer type, iour which is not necessarily causing
multi-infarct dementia). Compare with debilitating problems (e.g. leisure coun-
sub-cortical dementias. selling). Generally, within specialist
cortical evoked potential evoked poten- texts, the terms ‘counselling’ and ‘ther-
tial. apy’ are used interchangeably, and dif-
ferent individuals may call themselves
cortices Plural of cortex. ‘counsellors’ or ‘therapists’ whilst
cosmetic psychopharmacology The being identically qualified and offering
use of drug treatments to enhance a identical services. However, the reader
personality or mood, when the patient is advised to check for him/herself.
is not mentally ill. counselling psychology The study and
cotherapy conjoint therapy. practice of counselling within a psycho-
logical framework.
counselling Nebulous term – it tradi-
tionally means ‘formally giving counter-transference See transference.
advice’. Within psychology and related counterbalancing Presenting different
disciplines, the term refers more specif- subjects with the same set of treat-
ically to any method using a treatment ments, tests, etc. in different orders, so
regime whose principal component is that any observed effects cannot be
the provision of advice, be it tacit or attributed to one particular order of
explicit. The term can be misleading presentation. Also, the order of pre-
because, in addition to trained counsel- sentation by design is such that each
lors, the media have tended to apply the treatment appears equally often in each
phrase to relatively untrained individu- place in the presentation order (e.g. if
als who are described as offering ‘coun- there are three treatments, the subject
selling’, although their services are has an equal chance of receiving one of
more properly described as simply these first, second, or third). See fixed
offering advice without a systematic order presentation, Latin square, and ran-
rationale (although this does not mean domization.
that their services are necessarily poor).
The term is often prefixed with a countercathexis anticathexis.
description of the area in which coun- counterconditioning Removing an
selling is offered – ‘careers counsel- undesirable behaviour by associating it
ling’, ‘feminist counselling’, etc. The with aversive stimuli, and perhaps in
term therapy is perhaps preferable, addition conditioning the patient to
because its general usage is largely adopt a new one in response to the
confined to trained (usually full-time) same conditions. E.g. a patient with

a fetish for women’s shoes might be CPM Coloured Progressive Matrices.

presented with pictures of shoes and
CPP Wonderlic Comprehensive Personality
simultaneously administered electric
shocks. This makes the fetishistic
object no longer desirable. CPRS Cognitive Participation Rating Scale.
counterphobic Condition of a patient CR conditioned response.
who deliberately encounters a phobia- Cramer’s V Measure of correlation bet-
producing event or item to ‘prove’ that ween nominal variables.
s/he can cope with it (although the
anxiety caused by the phobia is undi- cranial Anatomical term denoting the
minished and may even be increased). ‘head end’ or front section in a quad-
ruped. However, in a bipedal animal
couple counselling/therapy General (e.g. human) the term denotes the ‘top’
term for any therapeutic method of the head. See anterior, dorsal and
treating both partners in a relationship. superior.
covariance (1) The degree to which cranial nerves nerves which enter and
change in one variable is met by changes leave the brain without the intermedi-
in another. (2) The term is also used ary of the spinal cord. The nerves are
by some commentators to denote the numbered (traditionally in Roman
degree to which two or more variables numerals) from 1 to 12: I Olfactory, II
share variance in common because of Optic, III Oculomotor, IV Trochlear, V
a shared relationship with a third Trigeminal; VI Abducens; VII Facial; VIII
variable (see the ‘foot and maths Auditory-vestibular, IX Glossopharyngeal;
example’ in analysis of covariance). X Vagus, XI Spinal Accessory, and XII
covariance matrix A matrix of covari- Hypoglossal. Often the nerves are
ances between variables arranged akin referred to by their number (e.g. the
to a correlation matrix. facial cranial nerve is the ‘seventh
nerve’). Compare with spinal nerves.
covariate variable causing covariance.
Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test
covert compulsion See compulsion.
Test of manual dexterity, involving tasks
covert modelling See modelling. similar to those of pegboard test, using
tweezers or a screwdriver to insert pegs
covert sensitization covert therapy.
into holes.
covert speech inner speech.
creative aggression therapy (CAG)
covert therapy Any therapeutic tech- Therapeutic technique in which patients
nique in which a situation, stimulus, are encouraged and trained to channel
etc., is imagined and dealt with in the aggressive thoughts and feelings into
mind, rather than in reality. The tech- more constructive acts.
nique can be more efficacious than this
creative arts therapy creative therapy.
description at first appears to imply.
creative therapy General term for any
CP cumulative proportion.
therapeutic method using artistic
CPAB Computer Programmer Aptitude expression and appreciation as a signif-
Battery. icant part of the process (e.g. art therapy,
CPB (1) Chronic Pain Battery. (2) coronary music therapy).
prone behaviour. creativity Largely synonymous with
CPI California Personality Inventory. divergent thinking. The term generally

refers to any ability to produce novel crisis clinic A clinic or other therapeutic
ideas. Note that the term has a less ‘dra- group for the administration of crisis
matic’ meaning than the layperson’s intervention.
use – i.e. it is not confined to great
crisis intervention Nebulous term for
artists, writers, etc.
treatment of a patient’s reaction to a
creativity test Any measure of ability to sudden catastrophic event, which the
produce original ideas. Usually there patient cannot adequately deal with on
are caveats that the ideas should be his/her own.
plentiful and feasible. Frequently used
criterion (1) Level of ability. (2) The
measures include the brick test, word
standard against which others must be
fluency test, ability to create narratives on
a given theme, etc. See divergent thinking.
criterion deficiency See criterion rele-
cretinism A congenital form of mental
retardation caused by an underactive
thyroid gland. If identified early criterion group Group whose members
(before 3 months of age) the illness can possess a characteristic, or set of charac-
be largely successfully treated. teristics, which separates them from the
rest of the population (e.g. patients suf-
Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD) A
fering from a particular illness, Nobel
very rare dementia (affecting circa 1
prizewinners, etc.). Other participants’
person per million per year), possibly
performance may be compared with
contracted through contact with
that of the members of this group.
infected nervous tissue. In addition to
archetypal demented symptoms of intel- criterion-keyed test Test which can
lectual and mnemonic impairment, identify members and non-members of
there are severe disturbances of gait and a criterion group.
movement. CJD can strike at any age in criterion prediction expectancy table.
adulthood, but is typically found in
middle aged and older people, pro- criterion-referenced tests attainment
bably because in most cases there is a tests in which subjects’ scores can be
long incubation period (e.g. decades). compared to a particular standard or
In recent times, CJD has been associ- criterion. The nature of this criterion is
ated with bovine spongiformence- an absolute value, independent of con-
phalopathy (BSE). siderations of e.g. age norms.
cri du chat inherited condition with criterion-related validity See predictive
physical and psychological handicaps, validity.
and characterized by the strange criterion relevance The degree to
cat-like sounds made by patients as which the criteria for judging a
babies. person’s competence at their job are
Crichton Vocabulary Scale (CVS) A actually appropriate (e.g. judging a
measure of vocabulary and crystallized typist by his/her manual dexterity is a
intelligence measure. reasonably good indicator, whilst
judging them by his/ her knowledge
criminal responsibility The degree to of algebra is not). The degree to which
which an individual can be held men- the criteria fall short of ideal is called
tally responsible for a criminal act. criterion deficiency.

criterion score The minimum score nec- cross-cultural treatment Any treatment
essary to pass a test. in which the patient and those giving
the treatment are from different
criterion validity criterion-related
cross-dressing transvestism.
criterion variable (1) The variable the
value of which is to be predicted. (2) cross-over interaction See interaction
See multiple regression. (ANOVA).
critical flicker fusion (CFF) The cross partition Creating a sub-group of
slowest rate at which a flickering light a sub-group (e.g. divide the sample into
is perceived as a ‘continuous’ light. The men and women, and then divide the
rate decreases in old age (i.e. an older men into those named ‘Brian’ and those
person cannot perceive as fast a rate of not).
cross-sectional research/samples/
critical incident measurement Evalu- study The experimental method of
ating a subject by how well they testing different groups (usually differ-
perform during a key incident in which ent age groups) in the same test period.
certain skills are demanded, stretched Contrast with longitudinal research/
or called into question. samples/study. See overlapping longitu-
dinal study.
critical incident technique (CIT)
critical incident measurement. cross-sequential design overlapping lon-
gitudinal study.
critical loss Pertaining to the terminal
drop model the theory that in old age, cross-tolerance Being more resistant
declines in some intellectual abilities than average to the effects of a drug,
can be endured, but falls in others con- because of prior exposure to a related
stitute a ‘critical loss’ which heralds substance.
cross-validation Checking that a test
Critical Reasoning Tests (CRT) performs in an identical manner with
Measure of verbal and numerical skills, separate samples of the same population.
for assessing managerial level staff.
crossed design factorial design in which
Uses a mock-up of (fictional) company
the levels of one independent variable are
documents as test materials.
the same for every level of the another
critical region The area of the sampling independent variable. E.g. an analysis of
distribution within which a result must variance in which the subjects are given
fall if it is to be significant. temperature-controlling drug treat-
ments A and B (the independent vari-
critical value (CV) The value of a statis-
ables) and their effect on body temper-
tic which marks the borderline between
ature (the dependent variable) is observed.
a significant and a non-significant result.
Treatment A has three dosage levels (1,
CRMS Cambridge Research Mood Survey. 2 and 3) and treatment B has 2. Hence,
Cronbach’s a Cronbach’s Alpha. the subjects are assigned to six groups –
those receiving treatment A at dosage
Cronbach’s Alpha See reliability. level 1 and treatment B at dosage level
cross-cultural research Comparing the 1 (A1 and B1); those receiving treat-
characteristics of people of more than ment A at dosage level 1 and treatment
one race/culture. B at dosage level 2 (Al and B1); A2 and

B1, A2 and B2, A3 and B1, and A3 and during a lifetime – roughly corresponds
B2. The alternative method – the nested to the lay term ‘general knowledge’.
design – gives a different level of one
CSA child sexual abuse.
variable for every level of the other
variable. Hence, if there are three levels CSF(1) contrast sensitivity function. (2)
of treatment A, each will receive a dif- cerebrospinal fluid.
ferent level of treatment B (e.g. A1B1, CSI Caregiver Strain Index.
A2B2, A3B3 or A1B1, A1B2, A2B3,
A2B4, A3B5, A3B6 – further permuta- CSRPI Children’s Self-Report and Projective
tions are possible). Inventory.
crosstabulation Method of showing in a CSTAI Children’s State-Trait Anxiety Inven-
table how the same group of people, tory.
divided according to two independent CT computerized transaxial tomography.
categorization methods behave. E.g.
the same group of people might be CTAB Comprehensive Test of Adaptive
divided into males and females in one Behaviour.
categorization and into whether they CTONI Comprehensive Test of Non-Verbal
voted for candidate A or B in an Intelligence.
election. The crosstabulation would
reveal how many females voted for A or CTOPP Comprehensive Test of Phonological
B and how many males voted for A or Processing.
B. In a conditional crosstabulation, the cuddliness The degree to which a baby
figures show the relationship between positively responds to being cuddled
categories after a conditional relationship by its mother/caregiver – some babies
has been accounted for (e.g. males tend repel cuddles, which may indicate
to have higher incomes than females – mental illness (e.g. autism).
the data when examined in terms of
income level may reveal that high cued recall task See recall task.
income earners, whether male or cultural bias (1) A bias against subjects
female, tend to prefer one candidate, from certain sections of the population.
and the gender difference is largely (2) Using tests which presuppose a
coincidental). knowledge of a particular culture (typi-
Crown-Crisp Experiential Index cally, white middle class). Subjects from
(CCEI) Measure of general neurotic groups unfamiliar with this culture
state, including sub-scales on level and might perform badly on such tests,
types of depression, anxiety etc. simply because they do not have the
appropriate social background to
CRT (1) choice reaction time. (2) Critical understand the questions (see example
Reasoning Tests. for picture completion task). See cultural
crucial experiment Experiment which test bias.
determines which of two or more cultural drift Changes in societal values
equally plausible theories is correct. over time (usually decades at least).
crying cat syndrome cri du chat. cultural norm That which is acceptable
crystallized intelligence The amount or conventional within a particular
of factual (as opposed to autobiograph- culture. The issue becomes an issue in
ical) knowledge a person has acquired treatment of some dysfunctional
people when their ‘condition’ is

considered normal in some cultures but cumulative proportion (CP) cumulative

not others. E.g. homosexuality is con- frequency distribution.
sidered a disease in some cultures (and
cumulative scaling Guttman scaling.
in the past by many more – e.g. the
DSM used to classify it as an illness) but curvilinear correlation A non-linear cor-
not others. The antipsychiatry movement relation in which the line assumes a
argues that many types of mental ‘ill- curved shape.
ness’ are nothing of the sort and are the curvilinear regression A non-linear
product of imposing outmoded cultural regression in which the line assumes a
norms on different but valid be- curved shape.
curvilinear relationship Relationship
cultural relativism The argument that between two variables such that if a line
behaviour (and by extension, research graph is plotted to express it, the line is
findings) must be judged against the curved.
society in which they are produced and
judged relative to the requirements and Cushing’s syndrome organic affective
mores of that society. syndrome caused by an excess of corti-
sone, and characterized by a bloating of
cultural test bias The degree to which a the body and severe mood swings. The
test fails to be a culture-fair test. disease is more common in women. See
culture-bound disorder Disorder (e.g. Addison’s disease.
koro) restricted to members of a particu- cut-off score The minimum score which
lar culture. must be attained to qualify for inclusion
culture-fair test Test which is equally in the group in question (usually used
fair to all subjects, no matter what their in connection with job and other selec-
cultural background (e.g. Cattell tion tests).
Culture-Fair Test). See culture-specific test. CV (1) critical value. (2) cardiovascular (i.e.
Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory pertaining to the heart and blood
Measure of self-esteem, claiming to be a vessels).
culture-fair test. It exists in two formats: CVA cerebrovascular accident.
Form AD for adults, and Form A for
children. CVS Crichton Vocabulary Scale.
culture-free test culture-fair test. cyclothymia Personality type character-
ized by pronounced swings of mood,
culture-specific test Test which is spe- although not necessarily severe enough
cifically targeted at individuals from to merit treatment.
one (usually minority) culture. See
culture-fair test. cyclothymic disorder (1) See depression.
(2) cyclothymia.
cumulative density function (c.d.f.)
cumulative frequency distribution. cyclothymic personality cyclothymic
cumulative frequency distribution
frequency distribution in which each cyclozine A heroin antagonist.
observation is given a ‘score’ indicating cynophobia A phobia of dogs.
the number of observations which have
values equal to or below the observa- cypridophoia A phobia of sex and/or
tion in question. See percentage cumula- venereal disease.
tive frequency distribution.

D socially embarrassing opinions, etc.).

Respondents are told to answer truth-
d difficulty index. fully, but to roll a die (or select a
number or value in a similarly random
D (1) deductive reasoning. (2) drive. (3) manner) before answering. The respon-
Measure of the number of standard devi- dents are told that if they roll a certain
ations by which the mean of one group number (e.g. ‘3’), then they must tell a
exceeds (or is less than) another if all lie to the question asked. The experi-
their scores are pooled together and an menter does not know what the subject
overall mean and standard deviation has rolled, and hence cannot be certain
are calculated (in effect, a kind of z score if the subject’s answer is true or false.
for groups). Data on individual subjects is accord-
d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) A ingly rather unreliable. However, if the
psychedelic drug. average responses for a large number of
people are considered, then the experi-
d prime The pronunciation of d. menter can calculate fairly accurately
D scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person- the proportion of false answers (in the
ality Inventory. above example, one sixth will be lies),
and hence the number of people within
d’ See signal detection analysis.
a group who have committed the
DAF Draw a Family Test. various acts or hold the particular
beliefs in question. See direct pipeline
DAI Dissertation Abstracts International.
Dale Word list See Teachers’ Word Book of
data dredging (1) data mining. (2) More
30,000 Words.
specifically, a contemptuous term for a
dance therapy Disjunctive therapy tech- method of last resort when an experi-
nique in which the patients are encour- ment has failed to prove the looked-for
aged to use the postures and move- outcome. Namely, looking through the
ments of dance to explore expressions data for anything that might be of
and sensations, feelings and thoughts. interest (and publishable).
Daniels and Diack reading tests data mining Searching through a set of
Standard Reading Tests. data for a meaningful pattern. The term
DAP test draw-a-person test. is often applied to very large data sets
where statistical analysis is the only
DARD Durrell Analysis of Reading Diffi- possible means of extracting informa-
culty. tion. The term is often used in a deroga-
DAS (1) Differential Ability Scales. (2) Dys- tory sense to denote searching blindly
functional Attitudes Scale. in the hope of finding at least some-
thing meaningful. Top down data
DAT (1) dementia of the Alzheimer type. (2) mining involves examining the data
Differential Aptitude Tests. with a preset idea of what is being
data contamination technique looked for, whilst bottom up data
Method of eliciting group data on mining involves analysing the data
potentially embarrassing topics (e.g. we using statistical measures with no pre-
might want data on how many people conceived idea of what the pattern will
have committed undetected crimes, look like. See data dredging.
performed strange sexual acts, hold data point datum.

datum A single piece of data. were misled) after the experiment is

usually a moral necessity.
DDST Denver Developmental Screening Test.
decile A percentile for multiples of 10 (e.g.
de Clerembaut’s syndrome A persis-
10th percentile, 60th percentile, etc.).
tent delusion that a completely unattain-
able and famous person is in love with decision rule See significance.
the patient. The slightest actions by the
decision threshold response criterion.
famous person may be construed as a
secret signal, but the patient may also descision tree A graphical or visual
eventually experience violent feelings representation of a descision-making
against the object of their affections for process, in which the total range of
his/her ‘failure’ to return their love. options available is represented as akin
to a branching tree with the initial stage
de novo mutation A mutation in genetic
of the process as its root.
structure that occurs in the sperm or
egg (i.e. it is not a mutation already Decisionbase A computerized psychiat-
present in the parents’ genes). ric diagnosis programme.
death instinct In some versions of decompensation A failure of coping
Freudian theory (particularly Freud’s behaviour.
own later work), a drive towards deconditioning See conditioning.
decortication The removal or decay of
death preparation Preparing for the psy- all or part of the cerebral cortex or the
chological and practical impact of the outer layer of any organ.
death of oneself or of a loved one.
Usually helps to lessen the negative deductive reasoning Using a rule or
effects of the event. To some extent, principle to explain a specific example.
‘passive’ death preparation increases In contrast, inductive reasoning derives
with age, as the probability of dying a rule or principle based upon interpre-
increases. tation of a set of examples.
death wish death instinct. deep dysgraphia A profound writing
difficulty akin to deep dyslexia – patients
DEBQ Dutch Eating Behaviour Question- have great difficulty in spelling new or
naire. nonsense words, and tend to write down
debriefing (research) Informing test words which are synonyms of the
subjects of the purpose of the study in words they are supposed to be writing.
which they have participated. deep dyslexia An acquired dyslexia in
decatastrophizing The process of per- which patients cannot read new or
suading a patient that a situation s/he nonsense words (see phonological dyslexia)
is experiencing, although terrible, can and also misread words for words of
be coped with, and that ultimately, a similar meaning.
normal life is possible. deep reflex See reflex.
deception study Study in which subjects defence mechanisms (1) See Freud’s psy-
are deliberately misled by the experi- choanalytic theory. (2) Generally, patterns
menter in order to examine a hypothe- of behaviour exhibited in times of
sis. In such circumstances, dehoaxing stress/perceived danger.
(telling the subjects how and why they

Defence Mechanism Test (DMT) instead of being added, the numbers

Measure of strength of defence mecha- had to be multiplied or divided to
nisms. The subject is shown a tachisto- create a desired number, the same rule
scopic presentation of a threatening image, would apply – all but one of the
and is asked to draw it. The length of numbers in the group can have any
exposure is progressively increased on value at all – only one of them must
successive trials, and the drawings assume a particular value. If more
produced are examined. sophisticated demands are made (e.g.
the final sum must equal a set target,
defensive style The characteristic
and one of the numbers must be a prime
pattern of defence mechanisms exhibited
number), then this means that fewer
by a patient.
numbers can have any value at all (e.g. 2
deferred gratification delay of gratifica- numbers might have to assume particu-
tion. lar values in order to make the sum
Defining Issues Test Measure of moral ‘work’). Therefore, the degrees of
reasoning based on Kohlberg’s theory freedom might have to be lowered to n
of moral development. - 2, n - 3, etc. The degrees of freedom
thus represent the total number of
degrees of freedom (d.f.) At a general observations made, minus the number
level, degrees of freedom refers to the of observations which must assume
number of events which are free to vary certain values if the requirements of the
without the requirement that they mathematical operations being used are
assume particular values. For example, to be fulfilled. In statistics, this is a very
suppose that there is a requirement that important concept, which underpins
a group of 5 numbers must always add many of the subject’s key formulae.
up to 100. We can choose any values
we want for the first 4 numbers, but the dehoaxing See deception study.
value of the 5th one is constrained – it deindividuation Loss of personal
must make the series add up to 100. For identity.
example, we might choose the numbers
deinstitutionalization (-isation) (l)The
1,5,78, and 24. The 5th number must
intellectual and emotional ‘recovery’
take the value of -8 for all 5 numbers to
upon release from institutionalized care
add up to 100. Similarly, if we had
(see institutionalization). (2) The recent/
chosen 5,1,1, and 2, then the 5th
official policy of many countries of
number would have to be 91. In this
allowing many patients, who would
instance, the value of only one number
once have been institutionalized, to live
is constrained – the remainder are free
in the general community.
to assume any values. Therefore, there
are said to be (5 – 1), or 4 degrees of delay of gratification Restraining
freedom. It logically follows that we oneself from performing particular be-
could take differently sized groups, and haviour until the appropriate time (e.g.
the same constraint would apply. If we when it is socially appropriate).
insist that a group must add up to a
delayed echolalia See echolalia.
fixed value, then all but one of the
group can assume any value. Therefore, delimiting observations Deciding
we can generate the rule that for any which phenomena are to be observed
group of numbers which must add up and which are to be ignored in a study.
to a fixed value, the degrees of freedom delinquent (Usually) under-age breaker
= n - 1. It follows from this that if of the law. See hebesphalmology.

delirium A major disturbance (usually delusion of reference The delusion that

temporary) in intellect and perception (perfectly innocuous) statements and
resulting from a general deleterious events are directed against oneself.
change in the central nervous system’s
delusional jealousy A delusion that one’s
metabolism (e.g. through fever, intoxi-
partner is being unfaithful.
cation, drug overdose). Can be confused
with dementia, but its very rapid onset is Delusions-Symptoms-States Inven-
in itself a sufficiently distinguishing tory (DSSI) Measure of a wide range
feature. Occurs in three basic forms: of psychiatric symptoms. Produces
hyperactive delirium is characterized three sub-scales: anxiety and depression;
by an agitated level of behaviour; neurotic symptoms; and personality disor-
hypoactive delirium by an unusually ders.
subdued level of behaviour; and mixed demand characteristics The (usually)
delirium by a mixture of hyperactive implicit demands which the experi-
and hypoactive symptoms. Delirium ment places on the subject. Hence, the
may also occur without any ‘obvious’ attributes, goals, etc., which the subject
behavioural symptoms. thinks the experimenter is measuring in
Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia and an experiment, but which may not
other Cognitive Disorders See concur with what the experimenter
organic mental disorders. intended.
Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) A test demented The adjective from dementia.
assessing the likelihood that a patient’s demented dyslexia A condition found
symptoms indicate delirium (acute in some demented patients, who can read
confusional state) rather than an illness aloud perfectly normally, and yet have
with which it can be easily confused no understanding of what they are
(e.g. dementia). reading.
delirium tremens (DTs) See withdrawal. dementia A global deterioration of intel-
delta waves A pattern of electrical lectual function, resulting from atrophy
activity in the brain detected by EEC of the central nervous system. In some
with a frequency between 0 and 4 Hz. (older) textbooks, ‘dementia’ applies
purely to pre-senile dementia and senile
delusion A persistent misinterpretation
dementia to the over-60s. This distinc-
of information, which need not neces-
tion is now largely disregarded. The
sarily be a misperception of a real stim-
illness takes many forms (the most
ulus (as in an illusion). Also not to be
common are dementia of the Alzheimer
confused with hallucination. Often the
type and multi-infarct dementia), but in all
delusion is identified by a suffix (e.g.
cases it kills the person before the body
‘delusion of grandeur’ has entered
(see ambiguous loss). Patients in the later
everyday speech). Most are self-
stages of the disease lack any sign of
evident. However, note that delusion of
memory (and hence recognition of
control refers to the patient’s misinter-
friends and relatives), intellect, person-
pretation that s/he is being controlled,
ality, and often language. Diagnosis of
not that s/he is controlling.
the types of dementia is difficult, and
delusion of control See delusion. post-mortem studies of patients have
found that up to 70% of them have
delusion of influence delusion of control.
been misdiagnosed during life (this is
currently only of academic interest,

because there are no cures for dementia demonology The belief that a supernat-
although recent drug trials look prom- ural and malevolent spirit has invaded
ising). See acute confusional state, a person’s mind, causing him/her to
Blessed Dementia Scale, bovine spongiform become mentally ill. A commonly held
encephalopathy (BSE), chronic brain belief in many ‘primitive’ societies (e.g.
disorder, chronic brain syndrome (CBS), eighteenth century Britain).
cortical dementias, Creutzfeldt-Jakob
demonomania The delusion of being
Disease (CJD), Pick’s Disease, pseudo-
controlled or even possessed by the
dementia, pre-senile dementia, pugilistic
Devil or other evil forces.
dementia, senile dementia, sub-cortical
dementias, and Wernicke’s dementia. demophobia A phobia of crowds/large
dementia of the Alzheimer type
(DAT) The most common form of dendograms See cluster analysis.
dementia, first described by Alois denial A defence mechanism for denying
Alzheimer in the nineteenth century. the existence of an anxiety-producing
Typically, the first symptom is amnesia, or otherwise painful truth about one-
followed by aphasia, and a general loss self or an event.
of intellectual functioning. Distur-
bance of language and visuo-spatial denominator See numerator.
skills also typically occur early in the Denver Developmental Screening
course of the disease. Senile dementia of Test (DDST) test battery for detecting
the Alzheimer type (held only to afflict delayed development in infants. Based
patients aged over 60 years) was at one on the Gessell Developmental Schedules.
time felt to be qualitatively different
from the disease contracted by younger dependence addiction.
patients, but this distinction is now dependent measures Measures of a de-
largely ignored. See aluminium theory of pendent variable obtained by experimen-
dementia of the Alzheimer type. tal observation (e.g. if the dependent
dementia praecox Obsolete term for the variable is weight of newborn babies,
illness now known as schizophrenia. The then typical dependent measures might
term literally means ‘pre-senile demen- be 7 lbs, 9 lbs, 8.5 lbs, etc.).
tia’, but should not be confused with dependent personality personality type I
the condition now graced with that found in some older people – possess-
name. ors have some life satisfaction, but rely
dementia pugilistica pugilistic dementia. on others to help them. Not to be
confused with dependent personality
Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) test disorder, which is a much more severe
battery of a range of basic psychological condition.
skills, assessing the severity of the im-
pairment of a patient suffering from dependent personality disorder per-
dementia. Items on the test are presented sonality disorder characterized by an
in descending order of difficulty – if extreme and illogical willingness to let
the first couple of items are correctly other people make decisions on the
answered, then the rest of that particu- patient’s behalf.
lar section is assumed to be correct. dependent sample Sample, the selec-
dementia syndrome of depression tion of whose members is determined
(DSD) pseudodementia. by who or what has been allocated to

other groups (e.g. in a comparison of sense). In unipolar disorder, the patient

two groups trying different dieting solely exhibits depression, which is
methods, it would be a sound idea to long-lasting (e.g. a minimum of two
ensure that people of roughly equal months), and severe enough to inter-
weight were assigned to the two f ere w i t h n o rm a l f u n c t i o n i n g.
groups). Compare with independent Dysthymic disorder resembles unipolar
sample. disorder, except that the episodes of
depression last a relatively short time
dependent samples t test paired t test.
period (a couple of months at max-
dependent variable (DV) variable which imum), or last for a few days, but recur
is expected to alter because of its treat- at regular intervals. In bipolar disorder,
ment (e.g. skin rash after application of the patient swings between episodes of
ointment, reaction time after dosage of depression and mania, often with
alcohol). This is contrasted with the periods of relative normality in
independent variable, which is the between (the episodes can vary in
means by which the treatment of the length from days to months). In bipolar
dependent variable takes place (e.g. in II disorder, the patient swings between
the above examples, the independent depression and hypomania. Cyclothymic
variables are the ointment and the disorder resembles bipolar disorder, in
alcohol). More loosely, a variable that there are swings between
measured in an experiment or study. See depressed and manic states, but they are
dependent measure. relatively mild in their impact. Some
depersonalization (-isation) A loss of commentators distinguish between
feeling of personal identity (usually reactive depression (depression arising
temporary). after a distressing event) and endoge-
nous depression (depression which
depressant General term for any drug or arises for no apparent reason), but this
substance that decreases activity, par- distinction is not now universally
ticularly activity in all or part of the accepted.
nervous system. The psychological
effect is typically to induce a feeling of deprivation Removal of something or
relaxation (typically pleasant) and often someone – this contrasts with priva-
(some or total) relief from feelings of tion, which denotes never having had
pain. Uses of depressants range from contact with the thing or person. The
medically legitimate (e.g. some pain- terms are not often used accurately, and
killers) through socially-acceptable caution is therefore advised.
drugs (e.g. alcohol) through to socially- depth psychology General term for
proscribed drugs (e.g. heroin). areas of psychology or psychology
depression affective disorder characterized related topics which emphasise the role
by a profound feeling of sadness, of the unconscious (e.g. Freudian
usuall y ac c o mpanied by o ther theories).
symptoms. The commonest of these are derealization (-isation) The mispercep-
disorders of sleep, loss of energy, perse- tion that the world is unreal.
verance, and/or enthusiasm, poor
derived score See raw score.
self-image, and changes in appetite and
weight. Also, the condition must not be Derogatis Psychiatric Rating Scale
transitory (i.e. someone having one ‘off (DPRS) Measure of the symptoms, and
day’ is not depressed in the clinical in particular level of distress of a

patient. The test may be given in con- of the encounters are treated as an
junction with a self-report question- imaginary exercise (for which they
naire to see the degree to which the reserve the term ‘systematic desensiti-
patient’s perceptions of their own zation’) and treatment in which the
symptoms tally with those of a clini- patient is presented with the real
cian. phobic object or situation from the start
(in vivo desensitization). Contrast with
Derogatis Sexual Functioning Index
(DSFI) Measure of sexual dysfunction.
design copying test A test of whether a
descending pathways nerves conducting
participant can accurately copy a
impulses along the spinal cord from the
picture. The test is most often given to
brain. Compare with ascending pathways.
brain damaged patients, to test the
descriptive research Studies which seek extent of their visuo-spatial skills. See
simply to catalogue the features of an clock drawing test.
item or event, without necessarily
Design Copying Test Commercial
placing an evaluative judgement or
version of a design copying test.
linking the findings to a theoretical
stance. design matrix Generally, a matrix repre-
senting an experimental design.
descriptive statistics Calculations sum-
However, note that individual authors
marizing and describing data (e.g.
use this term with variations, so caution
mean, standard deviation, etc.), rather
in interpretation is advised.
than describing relationships between
them. See inferential statistics. desipramine A tricydic drug used in the
treatment of depression.
desensitization (-isation) The process
of conditioning patients to become detection theory signal detection theory.
unafraid of a situation or object which
deterioration index Any measure of
previously gave cause for anxiety.
declining ability (through ageing,
Because this is usually done gradually,
illness, etc.) – e.g. deterioration quotient.
the process is often called systematic
desensitization. The therapy presents deterioration quotient (DQ) Measure
the patient with very mild examples of of rate of intellectual decline associated
the threatening stimulus (e.g., in the with ageing, first devised by Wechsler.
case of an arachnophobic patient, a Sections of the WAIS (and indeed many
drawing of a spider in a case at the other intelligence test batteries) can be
other end of a room), and gradually divided into those measuring crystal-
exposes the patient to more ‘threaten- lized intelligence (held to be unaffected
ing’ examples of the phobic object (an by ageing), and those measuring fluid
anxiety hierarchy). At each stage, the intelligence (held to decline with
patient practises relaxing responses, so ageing). These can also be referred to as
that s/he comes to associate the situa- hold tests and don’t hold tests respec-
tion with neutral or even positive tively. The DQ is calculated as {[(score
feelings. In this manner, the subject on hold tests) – (score on don’t hold
gradually gains the confidence to tests)]/ (score on hold tests)} x 100. A
approach the feared item, until s/he phenomenon of the WAIS is that hold
can handle it (often literally). Some and don’t hold scores are equal in early
commentators distinguish between adulthood. Hence, the bigger the gap
desensitization in which the majority in an older person ’s hold and
don’t hold test scores, the greater the

deterioration. The DQ expresses this developmental dysgraphia A profound

change as a percentage. The term may difficulty in spelling and in learning to
also refer to other forms of deteriora- spell, with which the person appears to
tion (e.g. through illness). See efficiency have been born.
developmental dyslexia A profound
determinism Philosophical argument difficulty in reading and in learning to
that everything has a cause, and that if read, with which the person appears to
all causes of a type of event are known, have been born. Developmental dysgraphia
then the nature of future events can be almost always appears in conjunction
precisely predicted. Taken to the ex- with it. See dyseidetic dyslexia, dysphonetic
treme, this argues against free will, dyslexia, and developmental phonological
since if everything is caused by some- dyslexia. Contrast with acquired dyslexia.
thing else, then one can never have a
developmental dysphasia A profound
genuinely spontaneous thought or
language difficulty, with which the
person appears to have been born.
detoxification The removal of toxins
developmental history The ‘biogra-
from the body. These include alcohol
phy’ of a patient or subject, usually
and drugs.
paying special attention to facets of
Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude his/her life which are pertinent to the
(DTLA) Measure of general intellec- situation – e.g. in studying a person suf-
tual abilities in children through to late fering from dyslexia, his/her experi-
teenagers. The DTLA can also produce ences of education will be of central
measures of more specific abilities. A interest.
‘primary’ version for younger children
developmental phonological dyslexia
is also available.
developmental dyslexia in which the par-
developmental age Age at which a par- ticipant has unusually limited phono-
ticular set of characteristics normally logical skills.
first appears. Strictly speaking, mental
developmental quotient (DQ) Calcu-
age is a facet of this, but usually devel-
lated as for intelligence quotient, except
opmental age refers to changes other
that general physical and mental devel-
than those of the intellect.
opment, rather than purely intellectual
developmental aphasia A congenital development, is calculated.
failure of language. In its ‘pure’ form, it
developmental reading disorder devel-
refers to a condition in which the child
opmental dyslexia.
suffers delayed speech and linguistic
skills in general, which cannot be Developmental Test of Visual-Motor
attributed to e.g. hearing impairment, Integration (VMI test) Measure of
damaged vocal cords, mental retardation, visual perceptual abilities in 3–13-
autism, or environmental factors (e.g. year-olds.
having suffered extreme parental Devereaux Elementary School
neglect). However, the term is often Behaviour Rating Scale Measure of
used to denote congenital language social and emotional development in
failure, regardless of whether other 5–12-year-olds.
symptoms are present or not.
deviant case analysis The examination
developmental disorder Any disorder of similar cases or studies which have
present at birth or which first appears in yielded radically different findings, in
infancy, childhood or adolescence.

an attempt to find the source of the dis- dition. Axis III describes all other
crepancy. physical conditions the patient may
suffer from, and Axis IV rates the
deviation The degree to which an score
severity of recent events in the life of
differs from the mean.
the patient on a scale of one (none) to
deviation IQ The degree to which a six (‘catastrophic’). Axis V describes the
person’s intelligence test score deviates highest level at which the patient coped
from the norm. See intelligence quotient. in the past year, on a scale of one
Dexedrine Type of amphetamine. (serious danger of death/hurting self
or others) to 90 (practically normal
d.f. degrees of freedom. coping).
DGS DiGeorge syndrome. Diagnostic Interview for Children
diachronic Over a long period of time. and Adolescents (DICA) structured
This contrasts with synchronic, which interview format, assessing the mental
refers to a single instant in time. status of child and adolescent psychiat-
ric patients.
diagnosis Evaluation of the current state
(e.g. of the patient, what diseases s/he Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS)
is suffering from, etc.). Contrast with structured interview format, assessing the
prognosis. current status and mental health of par-
ticipants. There is also a Diagnostic
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Interview Schedule for Children
(DSM) A system of classification of (DISC), which divides into DISC-C,
mental illness, devised by the American which is administered to the child, and
Psychiatric Association. The first DSM DISC-P, which is administered to the
(DSM-I) appeared in 1952, followed child’s parents.
by DSM-II in 1968, and DSM-III in
1980, later revised (DSM-III-R 1987). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for
The current version, DSM-IV, appeared Children (DISC) See Diagnostic Inter-
in 1994. The classification system is view Schedule (DIS).
not the only one in use (see e.g.WHO Diagnostic Language Tests (DLT) test
classification of diseases) but it is the most battery of six language skills (including
widely accepted, particularly in the punctuation and written expression).
USA, and other classificatory systems Part of Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests
are usually very similar in structure series.
(indeed, the DSM-IV has sought to
increase its compatibility with the Diagnostic Mathematics test battery of
WHO system). The current version is six mathematical skills (including com-
divided into five axes. Axes I and II putation, graph skills and statistics).
describe the disease the patient is suf- Part of Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests
fering from. Axis II consists of two series.
types of mental disorder: problems in Diagnostic Reading Tests (DRT)
development (other than learning and Reading test battery assessing 11
and motor skills development disor- aspects of formally taught reading
ders, which are on Axis I) and all person- skills (letter recognition, comprehen-
ality disorders. Axis I consists of all other sion, grapheme-phoneme conversion,
mental disorders. Axes III and IV etc.). Part of Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests
provide information on factors which series.
may exacerbate or ameliorate the con-

Diagnostic Screen Batteries Comput- dichoptic stimulation Presenting dif-

erized psychiatric assessment package. ferent stimuli to the two eyes simulta-
Generates diagnoses based upon the neously.
dichotic listening task An experimen-
Diagnostic Spelling Test Spelling test tal method in which different messages
battery for participants aged 7–11 years. are presented (usually via stereo head-
Tests a variety of spelling skills – pro- phones) to the two ears. The subject
ducing spellings, ‘proof reading’, dic- may be required to follow the message
tionary use, etc. to one ear only, to report what is fed to
both ears, or one of several other per-
Diagnostic Spelling Tests Spelling test
mutations. The method is extensively
battery for participants aged 9 and over.
used in cognition, usually to assess how
Consists of several ‘Levels’, which
well a subject can attend to one message
assess increasingly complex spelling
and ignore the extraneous information
in the other, or how well s/he can inte-
diary study (1) Study of contents of a grate information from two physically
person’s diaries, for changes in writing separate sources.
style, topics of interest, etc., as the
dichotomous variable An ‘either/or’
person ages or otherwise changes. (2)
variable. I.e. it records whether some-
Method of assessing autobiographical
thing is either in one category or
memory. Participants complete a diary,
another (e.g. male or female, living or
and they are subsequently asked what
dead etc.). An artificial dichotomy is a
they can recall of particular events,
division of scores on a continuous
days, etc., which can be checked against
variable into two categories (typically,
diary entries. (3) Method used to assess
into those above and below the mean). A
a particular aspect of a person’s activity
natural dichotomy is a ‘natural’ division
for the purposes of research and/or
(e.g. male and female).
therapy (e.g. recording how much and
what type of food is eaten, etc.). Dictionary of Occupational Titles
(DOT) A compendium of over 40,000
diaschisis Alteration in psychological
job descriptions classified into various
functioning due to secondary effects of
types according to their features and
brain damage, rather than disruption at
the principal point of injury.
diencephalon A collective term for a
diastolic pressure See blood pressure.
number of key segments of the brain
diathesis innate trait. ‘sandwiched’ between the brain stem,
di at hesi s-st ress paradi gm The cerebellum and cortex. More ‘important’
argument that disease arises from an areas include the basal ganglia, thalamus,
interaction between the environment hypothalamus and hippocampus.
and the body’s predisposition to the difference score The difference in a
disease. person’s score on the same measure on
diazepam (trade name – valium) A very separate occasions.
widely prescribed minor tranquillizer. difference threshold See threshold.
DICA Diagnostic Interview for Children and Differential Ability Scales (DAS) test
Adolescents. battery of intelligence and (in appropri-
ately aged participants) educational

achievement. For children aged 2 years phrenia). velocardiofacial syndrome

6 months–18 years. (VCFS) is a very similar condition, and
commentators are undecided about the
Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) test
degree of difference between DGS and
battery of a variety of intellectual skills,
including verbal and numerical abili-
ties, mechanical reasoning and ‘clerical digit span See span.
perception’. The battery is primarily
digit-symbol substitution task A
intended to identify the careers a pupil
measure of fluid intelligence. The subject
is best suited for.
is shown letters or numbers paired with
differential deficit Phenomenon where patterns or shapes. Given a sequence of
differences between groups/subjects letters/numbers or patterns, the subject
are bigger for some measures than for must identify their matches as quickly
others. and accurately as possible.
differential diagnosis Distinguishing dilation See personal construct theory.
between two illnesses with the same
dimension A trait which is viewed as
basic symptoms.
qualitatively identical for everyone – it
differential preservation The theory is simply the strength with which the
that some intellectual skills may be pre- trait is possessed which differs. In a
served better than others in ageing and unipolar dimension, possession ranges
illness. from simply lacking the trait to possess-
ing the trait in its strongest form (i.e. the
differential psychology individual dif-
extremes of the continuum represent 0
and 100%). E.g. everybody is likely to
differential validity The ability of a be afraid of heights to some extent, but
measure to predict differences in per- some will only feel the merest frisson
formance of two or more skills. See when dangling by one hand from a
validity. cable car, others when on a ladder
difficulty index (d) Measure of diffi- mending a loose roof tile, whilst others
culty of test questions (often calculated will be afraid if asked to stand on a
as the proportion of subjects who cor- house brick. In a bipolar dimension, the
rectly answer the question). ends of the continuum represent
opposite traits, and in the middle of the
diffuse neurological disorder Disorder continuum lies a point representing no
of the nervous system in which the possession. Bipolar dimensions are
damage is relatively widespread. This often named after their extremes, with a
contrasts with a focal neurological hyphen separating them. E.g. one
disorder, where the damage is relatively might construct a bipolar trait with
localized. extremes of niceness and nastiness,
DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) Congeni- which would be called the niceness –
tal condition caused by a significant nastiness dimension. Adolf Hitler
loss of genetic material from chromo- would score at the extreme of the nasti-
some 22. Symptoms depend upon the ness dimension, St Francis of Assisi at
size of the loss, but typically include the end of the niceness dimension, and
cardiovascular and thymus gland we mere mortals somewhere between
problems, intellectual dysfunction and these two extremes (i.e. not very good,
behavioural disturbances (there is a but not very nasty either). Contrast
strong probability of developing schizo- with type, and see dimension versus type

dimension versus type debate The DIS Diagnostic Interview Schedule.

argument as to whether certain person-
disaster syndrome Adverse reaction to
ality traits and illnesses are dimensions or
experiencing a major catastrophe. Prin-
cipal symptoms are shock and anxiety.
dimensional trait dimension.
DISC Diagnostic Interview Schedule for
Diogenese syndrome A condition of Children.
extreme self-neglect found in some
DISC-C See Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
patients with dementia, characterized by
a very pronounced lack of personal DISC-P See Diagnostic Interview Schedule.
hygiene, lack of awareness of the filthy discourse analysis The analysis of
and untidy state of their surroundings, spoken and/or written communica-
etc. tions in terms of their underlying struc-
direct correlation positive correlation. ture.
direct dyslexia demented dyslexia. discrete variable See continuous variable.
Direct Oblimin See factor analysis. discriminability discriminatory power.
direct pipeline technique Method of discriminant analysis discriminant
eliciting honest responses to questions function analysis.
where the subject might prefer to lie to discriminant function analysis multiple
save face, etc. The experimenter con- regression technique in which the crite-
vinces subjects that they are to be tested rion variable is a dichotomous variable.
using a very accurate lie detector, and
that any prevarication will be detected. discriminant validity The degree to
The technique relies on the gullibility which a test correlates poorly with
of the subjects, and accordingly has measures with which it should not be
limited uses. The ethics of such a tech- expected to correlate (e.g. a test of
nique are also open to debate. See data maths skills might be expected to cor-
contamination technique. relate poorly with a test of ability at
foreign languages). See convergent
direct replication See replication. validity.
direct scaling A measure of ability to discrimination index Measure of how
detect changes in the intensity of a many subjects in different groups give
stimulus. The subject assigns a value to the correct answer to individual ques-
each stimulus encountered. Compare tions in a test (i.e. how well the items
with indirect scaling. discriminate between them).
directional hypothesis alternative discriminative facility The ability to
hypothesis in which the direction of the adjust to changing conditions.
difference is predicted. Some commen-
tators treat directional and alternative discriminatory power The degree to
hypotheses as synonyms. which a test can discriminate between
individual subjects’ abilities. E.g. if
directional test Test that only counts everyone scores 50 on a test with
results as statistically significant if they potential scores ranging from 0 to 100,
are in the predicted direction. and/or if the potential range of scores
directive therapy active therapy. is in any case small (e.g. subjects can
score l, 2, 3, 4, or 5), then the test has
‘dirty’ drug Drug which has serious or
low discriminatory power. Conversely
unpleasant side-effects.

if subjects’ scores are scattered more disordinal interaction See ordinal inter-
widely, and/or there is a wide potential action.
range of scores, then the test has high
disorganized schizophrenia See
discriminatory power. See Ferguson’s
dispersion, measures of See measures of
disease cohort A group of people suffer-
ing from the same disease. See cohort,
patient cohort. displacement Performing an activity in
lieu of the desired, but socially less
disease model of mental illness The
acceptable one (e.g. the example given
belief that mental illness has a physio-
in practically every textbook – kicking
logical cause, and can be identified by
the cat instead of hitting one’s cantan-
possession of a particular set of
kerous boss). The term originated in
symptoms. The approach can be criti-
psychoanalysis, to denote performing an
cised, because often the only method of
activity which was a sublimation of an
identifying the illness is by its
unconscious desire, but the term has
symptoms – no physical cause may
assumed a wider (and often milder)
have been identified. This leads to the
strange argument that because a person
has the symptoms, s/he must have a dissociation The phenomenon whereby
particular disease, because people with a brain-damaged patient has impaired
these symptoms are always classified as performance in one skill but not in
having this disease. Some critics have another. This probably indicates that
argued that this is as sensible as arguing the area of the brain which has been
that because a dog has a spotted coat, it damaged normally controls the
must be a dalmatian, because all dalma- damaged skill. However, it is possible
tians have spotted coats. In addition to that the skill is a difficult one, and that
the logical problem, there is the added the brain damage has simply caused a
issue that by concentrating on the general lowering of intellectual perfor-
taxonomy, clinicians can be accused of mance. Therefore, a more satisfactory
concentrating on the disease and not discovery is a double dissociation, in
on the patient. which patients with one type of brain
damage are found to perform skill A but
disguised test objective test (definition 2).
not skill B, whilst patients with a differ-
disillusionment (1) In some therapies, ent form of damage can perform skill B
the term means persuading a patient but not skill A. This indicates that the
that his/her harmf ul vie ws of damage is specifically related to a par-
him/herself are unrealistic. (2) The ticular skill, and is not due to a general
term can also be used in its everyday lowering of ability.
dissociative amnesia psychogenic
disjunctive therapy General term for amnesia. The DSM-IV prefers the term
therapeutic techniques which use treat- ‘dissociative amnesia’.
ment of the body (e.g. posture, relax-
dissociative disorder not otherwise
ation etc.) as a key part of the process.
specified (dissociative disorder
dismantling treatment procedure NOS) In DSM-IV, a culture specific
Comparing different aspects of a thera- disorder characterized by a trance-like or
peutic process to discover which are the listless state.
most efficacious.

dissociative disorder NOS dissociative distributed practice See massed practice.

disorder not otherwise specified.
distribution curve A graph plotting
dissociative disorders General term for scores against the proportion of the
a group of mental illnesses whose prin- sample attaining each score. Can be
cipal symptom is a drastic (and unreal- expressed as a histogram or a frequency
istic) change in self-perception of polygon. See kurtosis, negatively skewed dis-
identity. See fugue, multiple personality, tribution, positively skewed distribution,
and psychogenic amnesia. skew (of distribution), symmetrical distribu-
tion, and tails (of distribution).
dissociative identity disorder multiple
personality. distribution-free statistics non-parametric
dissociative pattern Pattern of abnormal
behaviour in which some mental func- disulfiram (trade name – Antabuse) Drug
tions operate independently of others. used in the treatment of alcoholism – it
makes the patient nauseous every time
dissociative reaction somatoform
s/he has an alcoholic drink.
divagation disordered speech.
distal Anatomical term. Further from a
reference point on the body than divergent thinking Ability to create
another section of the body under con- new ideas based upon a given topic.
sideration. Compare with proximal. The term is largely interchangeable
with creativity, and is assessed with the
distal effects Changes attributable to rel-
creativity test. Divergent thinking is con-
atively distant events (e.g. poor self-
trasted with convergent thinking, which
image in old age because of childhood
is the ability to find a single principle
bullying) or events which are only felt
behind a collection of information (i.e.
through intermediaries. See proximal
the former takes a single point of refer-
ence and diverges from it, whilst the
distal variable variable whose effect is latter converges several strands of
only experienced through a mediating thought into a single premise).
divided attention The ability to attend
distancing (1) Taking a decreasing to and process information from more
amount of responsibility for, and/or than one source simultaneously. See
involvement in, a particular situation. attention.
(2) Persuading a patient (usually a
dizygotic (DZ) Of two eggs. Hence,
depressed one) to perform (1), or, more
dizygotic twins are twins from separate
generally, persuading him/her to stop
eggs (i.e. non-identical twins). See
unrealistically attributing blame and
faults to him or herself, and recogniz-
ing that other factors may be involved. DLT Diagnostic Language Tests.
The process of more realistically appor-
DMT (l) draw-a-man test. (2) Defence Mech-
tioning blame and recognizing the
anism Test. (3) An hallucinogenic drug.
involvement of other causal factors is
sometimes called re-attribution. Dogmatism Scale Measure of inflexibil-
ity of beliefs.
distractibility The ease with which a
person is distracted from a task. dolorology The study of pain.

domain referenced test Test in which habitual use of the double bind situa-
performance is gauged against a crite- tion is held to be a feature of the
rion of maximum performance on the schizophrenogenicparent.
skill being assessed. See norm referenced
double blind study See blind study.
double dissociation See dissociation.
don’t hold tests See deterioration quotient
(DQ). double-sided test two-tailed test.
Doors and People Test of long-term double Y scatter plot A scatter plot in
memory, divided into four sub-sections which there are two vertical axes with
(visual and verbal recall tasks and visual different scales. This enables variables
and verbal recognition tasks). The tests with different ranges to be plotted
involve remembering pictures of doors against the same variable, aiding com-
and names of people. parisons of trends, etc.
dopamine hypothesis (1) Hypothesis Down’s Syndrome (DS) A congenital
which states that schizophrenia is caused condition, named after its nineteenth
by a surfeit of dopamine (a neurotrans- centur y discoverer, J.L. Down.
mitter). (2) Hypothesis which states that Symptoms include a characteristic flat-
Parkinsonism is caused by a deficiency of tened face, extra folds of skin on the
dopamine. eyelids, stubby fingers, unusual folds of
skin on the soles and palms, and an
Doren Diagnostic Reading Test of
overlarge tongue. Severe mental retarda-
Word Recognition Skills test battery
tion is a frequent but not inevitable
of various reading-related skills, for
symptom. Life expectancy is poor (a
participants aged 6–9 years. Concen-
maximum of 40–50 years) – in the
trates particularly on phonological
terminal stages, the Down’s Syndrome
skills and word recognition.
patient’s intellectual state may resemble
dorsal Anatomical term for the back of that of a dementia of the Alzheimer type
the body, towards the back of the body, patient (there are suggestions that the
or the section of an organ nearest the two illnesses may be genetically
back. linked). Down’s Syndrome is caused by
faulty cell division soon after fertiliza-
DOT Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
tion – about 90% of patients have an
dot chart Essentially, a bar graph in which extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21).
instead of bars, there is a thin line (or The incidence of the disease rises with
dotted line) terminating in a dot or the age of the mother – there is a fairly
spot. high (but by no means overwhelming)
double ABCX model An attempt to risk in mothers over 40.
account for the stress induced in a doxepin A tricyclic drug.
family by a major crisis befalling one of
DPI Dynamic Personality Inventory.
its older members. The letters refer to
variables expressing the seriousness of DPRS Derogatis Psychiatric Rating Scale.
the crisis, the amount of available help,
DQ (1) developmental quotient. (2) deteriora-
tion quotient.
double bind A situation in which the
dramatherapy See psychodrama.
subject is required to obey two
opposing commands; hence, whatever Draw a Family Test (DAF) projective test
s/he does, s/he will be wrong. The in which the participant draws a picture

of his/her family. See Kinetic Family DSD dementia Syndrome of depression.

DSFI Derogatis Sexual Functioning Index.
draw-a-man test (DMT) Goodenough
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
Draw-a-Man Test. Not to be confused
with the draw-a-person test. DSM-I See Diagnostic and Statistical
draw-a-person test (DAP test) Test
requiring a subject to draw a person DSM-II See Diagnostic and Statistical
and create a story about their creation. Manual.
The test can be used to assess if unusual DSM-III/DSM-III-R See Diagnostic and
emphasis/lack of emphasis is placed on Statistical Manual.
certain features, and may be of use in
assessing some mentally ill patients. DSM-III-R On-Call Computerized
Not to be confused with the draw-a- version of the DSM-III-R.
man test or the Goodenough Draw-a- DSM-IV See Diagnostic and Statistical
Person Test. Manual.
dream analysis Therapeutic technique DSM-IV-TR The DSM-IV with a revised
in which the patient recalls his/her text, produced in 2000. Otherwise, it is
dreams, which are then analysed for essentially the same as DSM-IV.
their meanings by the therapist. The
technique is virtually confined to psy- DSSI Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory.
choanalysis, which believes that dreams DTLA Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude.
are a method of expressing otherwise
repressed beliefs and memories in DTLA-P Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude
symbolic form. – Primary.

dream interpretation dream analysis. DTREE Computerized version of the

drinamyl Type of amphetamine.
DTs delirium tremens.
drive (D) The psychological ‘force’
which motivates a subject to perform a DTVP Marianne Frostig Developmental Test
particular behaviour. Sometimes of Visual Perception.
further classified into primary drive dual diagnosis Diagnosis of two or more
(innate) and secondary drive (learnt). illnesses simultaneously.
DRS (1) Dementia Rating Scale. (2) Delirium dualism The belief that the mind and the
Rating Scale. body (including the brain) are com-
DRT Diagnostic Reading Tests. pletely distinct entities.

drug abuse substance abuse. dummy variable A recategorization of a

set of categories reducing the data to
drug addiction See addiction. membership or non-membership of a
drug induced congenital disorder single category within the set. Dummy
created by drugs prescribed or illegal variables are necessary in some types of
taken by the mother during pregnancy regression analysis. Usually, a set of cate-
(e.g. foetal alcohol syndrome). gories are reduced to a set of such
‘either/or’ categorzations. E.g. a group
drug tolerance pharmacodynamic toler- of European people may have been
ance. originally categorized according to
DS Down’s Syndrome. their nationality. A set of dummy vari-

ables would be e.g. re-categorizing into background of differently-coloured

‘French’ or ‘Not French’, ‘German’ or dots.
‘Not German’, etc.
Dyadic Adjustment Scale Measure of
Duncan’s multiple range test A t test for the state of the relationship between a
multiple comparisons and post hoc test for married or cohabiting couple.
the analysis of variance. It is derived from
dying trajectory (1) The speed with
the Newman-Keuls test.
which a person is likely to die. (2) The
Dunnett t-test Post hoc test for the analysis emotional and intellectual states associ-
of variance. ated with dying.
Durbin-Watson test Measure of auto- Dynamic Personality Inventory
correlation. (DPI) Measure of 33 personality
attributes based on psychoanalytic
Durkheim’s taxonomy of suicide
theory. Subjects rate words and phrases
Durkheim (nineteenth century sociolo-
into those they like and dislike.
gist) identified three types of suicide:
altruistic suicide – killing oneself dynamic psychology A general term
because the results of one’s death will which has been claimed by several psy-
benefit others; anomic suicide – killing chological schools, including psycho-
oneself because of a considerable analysis. The phrase denotes a study of
change in fortunes; and egoistic suicide dynamically interacting thought
– killing oneself because of a feeling of processes.
severe alienation from society. The tax-
dynamic traits traits governing degree of
onomy has been criticized.
activation, motivation, ‘personal
durophet Type of amphetamine. energy’, etc.
Durrell Analysis of Reading Diffi- dynamic visual acuity acuity for moving
culty (DARD) Reading test battery, objects.
designed to identify early and pre-
dys- As a prefix in descriptions of disabil-
readers’ areas of difficulty/ strength.
ity, the term denotes an impairment of
dustbowl empiricism Derogatory term the skill in question, (e.g. dyslexia – an
for a test which predicts or describes impairment in reading). In contrast, the
a phenomenon, but adds nothing to prefix a- denotes a complete absence of
theoretical insight. the skill (e.g. alexia – the complete
absence of reading). This useful dis-
Dutch Eating Behaviour Question-
tinction has been largely lost through
naire (DEBQ) Measure of eating
inaccurate usage, and readers are
habits, with three scales assessing
advised to interpret terms with a- and
restrained eating, eating in response to
dys- prefixes cautiously.
emotion and eating in response to
external cues. dysaesthesia An impaired sense of
DV dependent variable.
dysarthria impaired speech.
Dvorine Colour Vision Test A measure
of colour vision/colour blindness. Par- dysbasia An impaired ability to walk.
ticipants must identify numbers made
dysbulia An impaired ability to maintain
up of coloured dots printed against a
a course of action and/or line of

dyscalculia A profound difficulty with dyskinesia Impairment of voluntary

arithmetical skills. movement.
dyschiria An impaired ability to judge dyslalia An impairment of speech, for
which side of the body is being stimu- reasons other than brain damage.
dyslexia A profound reading difficulty
dyschronaxis An impaired ability to (although note that there is evidence of
judge what time it is (i.e. to the extent of some reading ability). The syndrome
not being sure, in the absence of can be inherited (developmental dyslexia)
obvious visual clues, if it is morning, or can be acquired through brain
afternoon, night, etc.). damage (acquired dyslexia). A child is
typically diagnosed as dyslexic if
dysdiadochokinesis See adiadocho-
his/her reading age is appreciably
below his/her mental age and chronologi-
dyseidetic dyslexia developmental cal age (usually this means by at least
dyslexia in which there is a profound two years). Lay persons often confuse
failure to recognize words by their the term with dysgraphia.
visual appearance – every word has to
dyslogia (1) Poor spoken articulation. (2)
be laboriously ‘sounded out’, and
Used (inaccurately) by some develop-
irregular words (such as ‘quay’ and
mental psychologists as a synonym for
‘yacht ’) are consistently mispro-
developmental aphasia in general.
nounced. Compare with dysphonetic
dyslexia. dysmentia Poor performance due to lack
of motivation, rather than lack of
dysexecutive syndrome Impairment of
the ability to organize cognitive func-
tions (e.g. into appropriate sequences of dysmetria Disorder in which movements
actions). can be initiated, but are poorly con-
trolled and executed.
dysfunctional Pertaining to a disadvan-
tageous method (of thought, behav- dysmnesia Impairment of memory. The
iour, etc.). term should often be used in lieu of
amnesia (which is, strictly speaking,
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS)
total loss of memory).
Measure of the degree to which a
subject has certain inappropriate atti- dysmorphophobia Irrational belief that
tudes held to underlie a dysfunctional one is abnormal (particularly physi-
state of mind. cally).
dysgeusia An impaired sense of taste. dysosmia Impairment of sense of smell.
dysgraphia A profound spelling diffi- dyspareunia Painful sexual intercourse.
culty (although note that there is
dysphagia An impairment of eating.
evidence of some spelling ability). The
syndrome can be inherited (developmental dysphasia (1) A partial failure of
dysgraphia) or can be acquired through language (see aphasia). (2) Used by
brain damage (acquired dysgraphia). See some commentators (inaccurately – see
amnestic dysgraphia, deep dysgraphia, dysgraphia) to denote a profound
l e x i c a l dy s g ra p h i a , p h o n o l o g i c a l spelling difficulty (although note that
dysgraphia, surface dysgraphia. Compare there is evidence of some spelling
with aphasia and dyslexia. ability).

dysphonetic dyslexia developmental Early Screening Profiles (ESP) test

dyslexia in which there is an almost total battery assessing general behavioural
failure of ability to use phonological and intellectual development in young
information – hence, recognizing children.
words by their visual shape is the only
EASI Temperament Survey test battery
feasible (if inaccurate) strategy. Com-
of aspects of temperament/behaviour.
pare with dyseidetic dyslexics.
‘EASI’ stands for emotionality (fear and
dysphonia Disorder of voice produc- anger), activity, sociability, and impul-
tion. siveness.
dysphoria sadness. EAT Eating Attitudes Test.
dyspnoea Disorder of or difficulty in Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) A self-
breathing. report questionnaire assessing the eating
habits of patients, particularly those
dyspraxia An impairment in the ability
suffering from anorexia nervosa and
to perform movements.
dyssynchronous child Child with
Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI)
learning difficulties.
Self-report questionnaire of eating
dystaxia An impairment in muscle habits and abnormalities of eating.
echolalia Condition in which the patient
dysthymic disorder See depression. only responds to verbal statements by
DZ dizygotic. repeating back what s/he has just
heard. In delayed echolalia, the repeti-
tion occurs hours or even weeks later.
echolalic aphasia transcortical motor

E aphasia.
echopathy Imitating other people
early maladaptive schema See mal- (verbally and posturally) to an ab-
adaptive schema. normal degree.
early onset schizophrenia (EOS) echophrasia echolalia.
schizophrenia arising before middle age.
echopraxia Imitating other people’s
Early School Inventory – Develop- actions to an abnormal degree.
mental (ESI-D) Test assessing general
physical and psychological develop- Eclectic Neuro Score (ENS) Computer-
ment in 4–6-year-old children. ized package which converts scores
from a variety of tests of neuropsycho-
Early School Inventory – Preliteracy logical dysfunction into T scores. This
(ESI-P) Test assessing the reading enables a profile of scores to be
readiness of 4–6-year-old children. produced.
Early Screening Inventory (ESI) eclectic therapy Therapeutic regime
Measure for administration to children which adopts techniques from several
aged 3–6 years to identify atypical distinct schools of therapy. No assump-
development requiring remedial inter- tions about the theoretical stance of the
vention. therapist are necessarily inferred (e.g.
s/he could be an ardent cognitive thera-
pist but use some Freudian techniques

because they are efficacious regardless the age group under consideration.
of his/her opinions of the theory Stage 1: 7–9 years; Stage 2: 8.5–10.5
which produced them). See multimodal years; Stage 3: 10–12.5 years; Stage 4:
therapy. 12–16 years. Each stage is a battery of
tests of different skills. These increase
ecological psychology The study of
in difficulty across the Stages, but they
psychological acts in a natural or natu-
also assess increasingly complex and
ralistic environment.
‘mature’ reading skills (e.g. there is a
ecological validity Term describing a greater emphasis on story comprehen-
study which is a realistic simulation of a sion and interpretation, rather than
real life event, and/or which tests skills simple word recognition).
used in ‘real life’. This contrasts with a
educable mentally retarded (EMR)
laboratory study, in which the skills
American term for persons of low IQ (c.
tested and the test surroundings are
50–60) but who can benefit from some
artificial and without a direct or ‘obvi-
form of very simple academic educa-
ous’ bearing on normal psychological
tion. Compare with trainable mentally
activity. E.g. asking subjects to re-
retarded (TMR).
member to buy items on a trip to the
supermarket might be classed as having education(al) age The average age at
ecological validity. Conversely, remem- which the skills a child possesses are
bering a list of nonsense syllables whilst usually learnt (i.e. measures how much
seated in a testing room might be more or less a child knows than his/her
classed as a laboratory study. peers).
ecoutism paraphilia in which the educational psychology The study of
patient’s principal sexual satisfaction is the psychology of education, and of
derived from hearing the sounds of general psychological development
sexual activity. with regard to educational needs. The
profession can be loosely divided into
Ecstasy (E) Drug inducing feelings of
two camps – those who study the theo-
intense warmth towards others, and of
retical aspects of these issues, and those
extreme energy. Illegal, and with
who perform practical assessments of
potentially lethal side-effects. See
pupils to determine their most appro-
priate schooling. In the UK, the
ECT electro-convulsive therapy. training for educational psychologists
ectomorph See Sheldon’s personality types. is (some would argue, unnecessarily)
long. Practitioners must obtain a first
EDA exploratory data analysis. degree in psychology, undertake a
EDI Eating Disorder Inventory. year’s teacher training, have two years’
teaching experience, and then a further
Edinburgh Picture Test (EPT) Test of year’s specialist training, before they
reasoning skills using pictorial are qualified.
material, for children aged 6–8 years.
education(al) quotient Akin to intelli-
Edinburgh Questionnaire Set of gence quotient, save that education age,
measures of job descriptions, satisfac- rather than intelligence test score is
tion with working environment, etc. entered into the equation. In effect, it
Edinburgh Reading Test Reading test measures how much a child has learnt
with four ‘Stages’ commensurate with in comparison with his/her peers.

educationally subnormal (ESN) UK efficiency quotient (EQ) Measure of an

term for persons of low IQ who require older person’s intellectual abilities
a simpler than normal education if they relative to the performance of young
are to benefit at all from schooling. adults, who are assumed to be at the
peak of their abilities. In basic terms, it
Edward s Per so n al Preferen ce
is the IQ which the young adult would
Schedule (EPPS) Personality test
be recorded as possessing if s/he had
measuring in terms of 15 ‘needs’ (for
the same raw score as an older subject.
autonomy, etc).
E.g. an older man has a raw test score of
Edward’s syndrome Genetic disorder 95, which is good for his age group,
characterized by stunted growth, and gives him an IQ of 130. However, a
numerous physical dysfunctions and score of 95 would be a poor score for a
intellectual dysfunction. The severity young adult, and would give him/her
of the symptoms appears related to the an IQ of 70. The older person’s EQ’s
level of genetic malfunction caused by therefore classed as 70. By comparing
trisomy of chromosome 18. In the full EQ with IQ a measure of the extent of a
form, all cells have an extra chromo- person’s age-related decline in intelli-
some; in mosaic form, some cells have gence can be calculated. However, a
an extra chromosome and in partial more useful single measure is probably
form, some cells have an extra segment the deterioration quotient.
of the chromosome. Life expectancy is
ego See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
low varying from early childhood in
the most severe cases to early adult- ego-alien An action or belief which the
hood in the less severe. participant feels is not part of his/her
‘real’ self.
EE expressed emotion.
ego analysis ego psychology.
EEC electroencephalograph.
ego control The degree to which urges
effect size (ES) (1) The difference
and compulsions are controlled.
between the mean dependent variable
scores of a control and an experimental ego-dystonic That which is anathema to
group, divided by the control group’s the ego. See ego-syntonic.
standard deviation. (2) The value of the
ego-dystonic homosexuality paraphilia
‘size’ of the difference found by a test.
in which the patient has homosexual
E.g. although Group A has significantly
proclivities, which s/he finds distress-
higher scores than Group B, this differ-
ing to the extent that s/he wishes to be
ence may be only 5%, so although the
‘cured’. A homosexual who is content
difference is reliably found, it is
with his/her orientation is said to exhi-
perhaps not of any great importance.
bit ego-syntonic homosexuality.
The effect size can be expressed as a
correlation. (3) The level of probability ego integrity versus despair See
of a significant result. See power (of a Erikson’s theory of development.
statistical test). ego psychology See neo-Freudian
efferent (neurons) Carrying signals movement.
from the central nervous system to the ego resiliency The ability to adapt to
peripheral nervous system. See afferent. different situations.
efficacy expectation How well a subject ego state (1) A characteristic pattern of
expects to do at a task. behaviour. (2) See transactional analysis.

ego-syntonic That which is acceptable rate of activity and where on the scalp it
to the ego. See ego-dystonic. occurs can give some insight into how
active and healthy an individual’s brain
ego-syntonic homosexuality See ego-
is, and which parts of the cortex are
dystonic homosexuality.
most heavily used in different mental
egoistic suicide See Durkheim’s taxonomy tasks.
of suicide.
electronarcosis The induction of relax-
eigenvalue See factor analysis. ation or sleep through the administra-
eigenvector See factor analysis. tion of a (low) electrical charge to the
Eight State Questionnaire (8SQ) A
measure of eight moods and aspects of electroretinograph (ERG) A device
personality (e.g. anxiety, extraversion, which measures eye movements from
level of arousal). electrical activity around the eyes. Has
been superseded in many instances by
8SQ Eight State Questionnaire. the corneal reflection technique.
ELA expressive language age. electroshock therapy electro-convulsive
elder abuse Abuse of the elderly, particu- therapy.
larly those who are mentally enfeebled. electrosleep therapy electronarcosis.
The abuse can be physical, but also psy-
chological or financial (e.g. extorting Eliza See client-centred therapy.
money). embedded figures test A measure of
elderspeak The use of patronizing ‘baby field dependence – subjects must find
talk’ in talking to older people. shapes hidden as part of the design of
larger shapes.
elective mutism Deliberately choosing
not to speak (usually short-lived – i.e. a embolism Caused by a blood clot
few weeks maximum), without any clear becoming detached and being sent
physiological cause (e.g. sore throat). around the blood vessels until it
Most often found in children, usually becomes ‘stuck’, causing a blockage.
with another underlying psychological EMDR eye movement desensitization and
problem. reprocessing.
electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) A emitted behaviour Behaviour which
form of convulsion therapy, in which cannot be attributed to a reaction to
electric shocks are administered to the external stimulation.
brain (the patient is usually sedated
emotional continuity, lack of See lack
whilst this is done). The technique –
of emotional continuity.
used less in recent years than in the past
– may be beneficial for some forms of emotional control The degree to which
mental illness, such as severe depression. emotional expression is controlled.
electrodermal response galvanic skin emotional deprivation Any depriva-
response. tion of emotional expressiveness
towards the subject. The term is gener-
electroencephalograph (EEG) A
ally reserved for ‘cold’, emotionally
device which measures the pattern of
constipated parenting methods or
electrical activity (the evoked potential
other relationships which should be
(EP)) on the scalp and by extrapola-
emotionally ‘warm’.
tion, of the cerebral cortex beneath. The

emotional inoculation Preparing for encephalomyelopathy General term for

an anticipated stressful or otherwise a widespread infection of the central
emotionally unpleasant event. nervous system.
emotional maturity The degree to encopresis Faecal incontinence. See
which emotional expression is appro- enuresis.
priate to the participant’s age.
encounter group Generic term for a
emotional stability See five factor model range of therapeutic techniques in
of personality. which a group of (usually unrelated)
patients encounter each other in a
empathic understanding See Roger’s self
variety of situations contrived by the
theory of personality.
therapist. These can be collective activi-
empathy The ability to experience and ties (such as touching and even
understand the feelings and needs of fighting), role plays, etc. The aim of the
others (as opposed to ‘sympathy’ which process is to increase self-awareness, to
is a feeling of sorrow but without nec- air and solve problems, etc. Some
essarily an understanding of others). versions of the therapy use the basic
empiricism (1) The belief that all knowl- techniques described, but have more
edge is based upon experience gained specific aims. See human relations training
through the senses. (2) More generally, group,personal growth group, and sensitivity
beliefs based upon observation and ex- training.
perimentation (as opposed to armchair end spurt The improvement in perfor-
theorizing). mance which is sometimes observed as
empowering Restoring or enhancing a participant realizes that s/he is near
the behavioural or other psychological the end of a task.
attributes of an individual. endocathection endocathexis.
empty chair technique Therapeutic endocathexis A psychological with-
method in which the patient is encour- drawal within oneself. The opposite (a
aged to talk to an empty chair, imagin- move to be more concerned with one’s
ing that a particular person is sitting in surroundings than with oneself ) is
it. exocathexis.
empty nest syndrome Feeling of severe endogenous Derived from internal
loss experienced by some parents causes. Contrast with exogenous. See
(usually mothers) upon their children intrapersonal.
leaving home.
endogenous depression See depression.
EMR educable mentally retarded.
endomorph See Sheldon’s personality types.
enabling empowering.
endorphin An opioid peptide.
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain,
engineering psychology General term
caused by infection.
for the study of psychological aspects
encephalomyelitis Inflammation of the of the interaction between humans and
brain and spinal cord. Caused by infec- machines.
tion or an abnormal reaction to a mild
Engineering Test Selection Battery
infection or vaccination.
(ETSB) Measure of skills pertinent to

English Picture Vocabulary Test the name implies, originates in the

(EPVT) See British Picture Vocabulary temporal lobes.
Scale (BPVS).
epileptic equivalent masked epilepsy.
enkephalin An opioid peptide.
epiloia tuberous sclerosis.
ENS Eclectic Neuro Score.
epinosic gain An indirect benefit from
ensophobia A phobia of sin. being ill (e.g. generally greater levels of
sympathy). See paranosic gain (and note
entomophobia A phobia of insects.
that the two terms are often confused).
enuresis Urinary incontinence. See
epinosis epinosic gain.
encopresis and nocturnal enuresis.
episodic amnesia An abnormally poor
environmental psychology The study
ability to recall information from
of the effects of the environment (in all
certain periods of one’s past.
senses) on psychological states.
EPPS Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.
environmental stress stress induced by
the environment. EPQ Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
EOS early onset schizophrenia. EPT Edinburgh Picture Test.
EP evoked potential. EPVT English Picture Vocabulary Test.
epidemiology The study of (strictly EQ efficiency quotient.
speaking, epidemic) diseases, particu-
equal interval scale Scale in which the
larly their causes and predisposing
interval between any two adjacent
points on the scale is the same (e.g. on a
epilepsy Periodic uncontrollable loss or metre rule, the distance between the 1
severe disturbance of consciousness. In and 2 cm marks is the same as that
petit mal epilepsy the patient simply between the 98 and 99 cm marks).
loses consciousness, for a few seconds
equally weighted means In some types
up to several minutes. In grand mal
of analysis of variance where the number
epilepsy there is a loss of consciousness
of items in each group is unequal, each
accompanied by a fit, with uncontrolla-
group carries the same ‘importance’ in
ble thrashing of the limbs. In masked
determining row and column means
epilepsy, the patient may not lose con-
(used in calculating the final results)
sciousness but may experience a feeling
regardless of how many items there are
of unreality. In psychomotor epilepsy the
in each group.
patient may not lose consciousness but
performs motor activities (including in equamax See factor analysis.
some instances assaulting people) and equimax equamax.
has no memory of the attack. Jackso-
nian epilepsy is characterized by equivalent forms Two or more versions
muscular spasms which begin in one of the same test which have the same
part of the body; the spasms then levels of reliability. Measured by the
remain confined to that area, or spread. coefficient of equivalence.
In centrencephalic epilepsy the equivalent forms reliability A measure
abnormal electrical activity is spread of the degree to which two or more
across the brain, and is synchronous. It forms of the same test are equivalent
can be attributed to a disturbance in the forms.
mid-brain. Temporal lobe epilepsy, as

erectile dysfunction Failure of a man to months). A baby learns that parents/

achieve or to maintain a penile erection. caregivers will reliably feed, comfort,
change nappies, etc., and hence can be
ERG electroretinograph.
trusted. However, the baby also learns
erg (1) A unit of energy. (2) In some that sometimes his/her needs are not
theories, the biological energy which met, leading to mistrust. Accordingly,
drives behaviour. the baby learns trust and also recog-
ergasiophobia A phobia of work and/or nizes that all needs are not automati-
of taking responsibility for one’s cally met, (ii) autonomy versus shame
actions. and doubt (18 months–3 years). The
child wishes to acquire independence,
ergonomics The study of the efficiency and to do things for him/herself. This
with which machines (or other inani- is set against the realization that these
mate objects) and their human users actions may look ridiculous to others,
‘interact’. Hence, ergonomics includes and that they might perform the same
e.g. design of control panels, ‘time and acts better, (iii) initiative versus guilt
motion’ studies, design of furniture, etc. (3–6 years). The child begins to make
See occupational psychology. plans and generally takes initiatives.
ergot poisoning Ergot is a fungus found However, this is offset against the
in mouldy flour and other poorly-kept awareness that some plans are doomed
cereal products. It is also a psychedelic to failure (e.g. in boys, the famous
drug, causing a variety of physical sym- Oedipus complex). Thus, the child must
ptoms, such as digestive disorders, and learn to curb his/her ambitions to take
a number of psychological sym- ptoms, account of reality, (iv) industry versus
including hallucinations. inferiority (6–11 years). The child must
acquire skills by dint of working hard,
Erikson’s theory of development although this can be marred if s/he is
Erik Erikson, psychoanalyst (see neo- made to feel inferior to other, brighter,
Freudian movement), and humanistic psy- children or adults, (v) identity versus
chologist. A psychoanalytical theory of role confusion (adolescence). Attempts
development, based upon Freud’s psy- to create one’s own personality and
choanalytic theory. Central to the model behavioural standards and to identify
is Erikson’s concept of eight ‘general one’s aspirations are set against the
stages’ which are conflicts between two knowledge that one is rejecting some
opposing beliefs (one positive, one of the values of one’s upbringing (and
negative) which have to be resolved at hence of family/caregivers). This
different stages of development. These general process can lead some adoles-
are also known as nuclear conflicts. The cents (such as Erikson himself ) to take a
resolution is not simply a matter of the psychological moratorium. This is a
positive and beneficial belief overcom- process of temporarily ‘dropping out’
ing the other, but rather of the individ- of society in order to ‘find’ oneself. A
ual coming to appreciate the uses of connected issue is the fear of identity
both; ultimately, however, the more foreclosure, or accepting/creating an
positive belief must be dominant, identity too soon, (vi) intimacy versus
giving the individual the drive to isolation (early adulthood). Assuming
advance, with the darker, more negative that marriage is the prime desirable
value adding a degree of necessary cyn- state, intimacy is a prime consideration.
icism and caution. The eight stages are: However, this cannot be developed
(i) basic trust versus mistrust (0–18 until the partners ‘know themselves’ –

marrying before this state is achieved ES effect size.

means that they will be absorbed in dis-
escape conditioning See avoidance con-
covering themselves rather than their
partners, and this, according to
Erikson, is a recipe for disaster, (vii) escape hatch Any means by which a
generativity versus stagnation (adult- patient can escape from commitments
hood). There is a need for individuals (including therapy) – e.g. illness,
to be productive – producing and suc- suicide.
cessfully raising children and/or ESI Early Screening Inventory.
creating a better world for the next
generation to live in. A failure to do this ESI-D Early School Inventory – Developmen-
results in a feeling of stagnation, (viii) tal.
ego integrity versus despair (old age). ESI-P Early School Inventory – Preliteracy.
The conflict between whether to come
to terms with one’s past, or to feel that ESN educationally subnormal.
past events cannot be amended. ESP (1) extrasensory perception (2) Early
Erikson’s theory has fallen victim to the Screening Profiles.
usual criticisms of psychoanalysis, and
also of the vague arguments sometimes essential hypertension See blood
used. pressure.

erogenous zone See Freud’s psychoana- eta (n) correlation ratio.

lytic theory. eta squared (n2) A post hoc measure of an
eros In later works of Freud, the concept analysis of variance, which assesses the
which occupied the same slot as libido percentage of the total variance of a
in earlier versions of his work. sample which can be attributed to a
particular between groups measure. It is
error bars In presenting mean results on a computed as
graph, displaying the size of the
standard deviation or standard error by S.S. for the between groups
thin T-shaped lines extending above total S.S. × 100
and below the mean (this is in the case
of a line graph; for a frequency polygon (see ANOVA table). E.g. suppose that an
and histogram, the magnitude of the ANOVA compared two groups on a
standard deviation/error is shown as a test, and the S.S. for the groups was
T-shaped line extending from the top 200, whilst the total S.S. was 400. This
of the bar). Whether a standard devia- means that 50% of the variance is
tion or error is signified should be indi- attributable to the differences between
cated in the rubric accompanying the the groups.
ethnocentricity A bias (conscious or
error of central tendency contraction otherwise) towards adopting a view-
bias. point and values based on one’s own
error of measurement measurement error. cultural and ethnic background.

error score Measure of deviation. ethnographic research Research whose

principal focus is on societal culture.
error variance The proportion of
variance in a measure attributable to ethnospecific disorder Illness princi-
chance error. pally or solely confined to a particular
cultural or geographical group.
erythrophobia A phobia of blushing
and/or of red things. ethogram A record of behaviour (usually
of animals in their natural habitat).

ethology The study of animals in their a range a leniency set, and too central a
natural habitat, as opposed to in the ‘ar- range a central tendency set.
tificial’ confines of a laboratory. Study
‘Eve White’ Pseudonym of a patient in a
may be by observation alone, or the
classic account of multiple personality
experimenters may introduce ‘artificial’
(made into the film ‘The Three Faces of
stimuli (e.g. playing a tape recording of
a mating call) to see how the animals
react. Typically (although by no means event recording Recording the state of
exclusively), study has been of the person and/or situation when a
non-human animals. particular event (e.g. a target behaviour)
etiological validity aetiological validity.
evoked potential (EP) See electroenceph-
etiology aetiology.
ETSB Engineering Test Selection Battery.
evoked response evoked potential.
eugenics The study of selective breeding
EVT Expressive Vocabulary Test.
to improve the health or particular
characteristics of a population. The ex post facto test post hoc test.
area is relatively uncontentious when exceptional children Collective term
concerned with animal breeding, but for any children who are out-of-the-
has raised considerable ire when ordinary (principally gifted children and
humans have been the target of ‘im- children with mental retardation). As there
provement’. E.g. in the first half of the is little in common between many of the
twentieth century, some of the more sub-groups, the term provides only a
vociferous supporters of eugenics were specious unity.
responsible for the passing of laws per-
mitting the compulsory sterilization of excitatory (neurons) An excitatory
thousands of ‘mentally defective’ indi- neuron. (1) Causes (almost invariably in
viduals lest they ‘contaminate’ the pop- combination with other excitatory
ulation by having children (not just in neurons) another neuron to become
Nazi Germany, but also in the USA and active and/or (2) makes a neuron which
other western nations). is already active send signals at a faster
rate. Compare with inhibitory (neurons).
evaluation apprehension ‘Exam
nerves’. More generally, a layperson’s executive functions General term for
nervousness about being tested and mental processes involved in planning
measured by a doctor, psychologist, etc. and organizing behaviour and intellec-
(see subject role). tual tasks.
evaluation research Assessing a system exhibitionism paraphilia in which the
or practice to determine its efficacy patient’s principal form of sexual grati-
and/or efficency. fication is exhibiting him/herself
sexually in an unsolicited manner to
evaluative dimension See semantic dif- (usually) strangers.
ferential technique.
existential anxiety The anxiety felt due
evaluative set A bias towards evaluating to the perception that one is answerable
subjects or items using a band of scores for one’s actions. See existential neurosis.
which is too narrow. Using too low a
range is termed a strictness set, too high existential neurosis Rather nebulous
term indicating gross dissatisfaction

and malaise created by an inability to experiential intelligence See triarchic

experience free will, the realization that theory of intelligence.
ultimately one has no choice but to die,
experiential therapy General term for
etc. Contrast with existential anxiety.
therapeutic methods which treat the
existential psychology (1) Title recounting and exploration of the
bestowed on the work of some of the patient’s experiences as the focal point
early experimental psychologists of the treatment.
(Titchener et al.), which concentrated
experimental epilepsy epilepsy-like
on introspective examination of
attack deliberately induced by drugs,
thought processes. (2) More recently, a
electrical stimulation, etc.
school of psychology loosely based on
existentialism – the philosophical experimental group See control group.
doctrine that, when confronted with experimental neurosis (1) neurotic state
choices, the individual is free to choose, induced by being given a series of tasks
and need not let the past determine the which are impossible to solve or are
future (very loosely, ‘life is what you beyond the skill of the subject. (2)
make it’). It follows that therapists of Neurosis-like symptoms deliberately
this school stress the importance of induced by drugs, etc.
treating the symptoms of mental illness
(i.e. what is), and place less emphasis on experimental psychosis Deliberate
what caused the problem in the first creation of a psychosis-like state by the
place (i.e. what was). administration of drugs or other treat-
existential therapy General term for
therapeutic methods based upon exis- experimental realism Used as a loose
tential psychology (definition 2). synonym of ecological validity, the term
also refers to efforts to ensure that a
exocathection exocathexis. participant’s performance is true to life,
exocathexis See endocathexis. even if the experimental surroundings
are not.
exogenous Derived from external causes.
Contrast with endogenous. experimental research Studies which
assess the effects of different treatments
exogenous depression reactive depres-
on the same group or on matched
groups. Usually there is the implication
expectancies anticipated outcomes. that the experimenter has a high level
of control over the whole of the test sit-
expectancy table A calculation of the
uation, and that the situation is fairly
probability of subjects reaching a par-
unrealistic. See ecological validity and
ticular criterion at the end of an assess-
correlational research.
ment, given their current scores. The
margin of error in this prediction is experimenter bias experimenter effect.
measured by the standard error of the
experimenter effect A (conscious or
estimate of the predicted scores (approxi-
unconscious) manipulation of partici-
mately 95% of actual scores will fall
pants’ performance by the expectations
with 2 standard errors).
of the experimenter. See Clever Hans.
expected value (p,) See sampling distribu-
experimenter expectancy effect exper-
imenter effect.
experiencing ego See observing ego.
experimentum crucis crucial experiment.

explained variance variance accounted extension of the median test See

for by a particular statistical technique. median test.
explanatory research Research which external control (1) The degree to
seeks to explain why something which events are beyond the control of
occurred. This contrasts with predictive the participant. (2) The participant’s
research, in which the researcher perception of the same. See internal
attempts to create a formula or other control.
method of predicting the value of one
external locus of control external
variable given the value of another (or
others) or to predict when a particular
event is likely to occur. external reward extrinsic reward.
exploratory data analysis (EDA) Set of external speech See inner speech.
methods for presenting data in visual external validity The degree to which
form so that the researcher can gain findings from a study can be applied to
insights into the data’s structure (e.g. the general population.
box and whisker plot).
exteroceptors Sensory receptors located
exploratory factor analysis See confir- in the skin.
matory factor analysis.
extinction Loss of a previously learnt
explosive disorder Personality disorder response because it is no longer
in which the patient is subject to rewarded.
sporadic acts of intense destructiveness
and violence. extradural Pertaining to the area lying
between the interior of the skull and
explosive personality explosive disorder. the dura (the protective layer surround-
expressed emotion (EE) Label given to ing the brain).
the level of criticism and statements of extrasensory perception (ESP) The
emotional state uttered by a person or ability to perceive beyond the bounds
group (often a family). A high level of accepted as feasible by conventional
expressed emotion within a family has science (e.g. clairvoyance).
been cited as a cause of schizophrenia.
extraversion (E) A trait expressing the
expressional fluency A nebulous term degree to which a person is outgoing,
for the ability to produce a lengthy, sociable, etc. This contrasts with intro-
coherent argument and/or description. version, which is the degree to which a
expressive aphasia See aphasia. person is shy and retiring. I.e., the terms
have the same meanings as in general
expressive language age age norm for
parlance (although not quite the same
which the level of expressive language
spellings). The area between the
would be appropriate.
extremes is known as ambiversion. The
Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT) terms were first used by Jung (see Jung’s
Measure of expressive vocabulary in psychoanalytic theory), who conceived
young children. them as personality types. Subsequently,
Hans Eysenck, amongst others, has
extendure A period in one’s life defined
argued that they are personality dimen-
by a particular fact (e.g. schooldays,
sions (see Eysenck’s model of personality).
time spent in a particular job).
See Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

extraversion-introversion scale See sion simply describes the degree to

Eysenck’s model of personality. which a person is extroverted or intro-
verted. Most people have a score around
extrinsic motivation See intrinsic moti-
the midpoint of the scale (i.e. either
mildly introverted or mildly extra-
extrinsic reward In conditioning, a verted). The neuroticism scale measures
reward which does not relate to the level of emotional stability. Scores in
behaviour being shaped (e.g. being one direction indicate a person who is
given sweets for not wetting the bed). completely emotionally stable, easygo-
This contrasts with an intrinsic reward, ing, etc., whilst a score at the opposite
which is related (e.g. feeling pleasantly end of the dimension indicates
dry). By extension, an extrinsic reward someone who is very ‘touchy’, easily
is a tangible gain, whilst an intrinsic worried, etc. (again, most people score
reward purely creates a positive psy- in between). The psychoticism scale
chological response. measures the degree to which a person
extrinsic test bias Discriminating is emotionally cold and divorced from
between subjects on the basis of their everyday proprieties. By testing
scores on unbiased tests. See bias. subjects on the three measures (using
the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire),
extroversion extroversion. their scores on the three dimensions
eye movement desensitization and can be calculated and combined to
reprocessing (EMDR) Therapeutic form an overall profile. Dealing only
technique in which the patient is with the extraversion and neuroticism
trained in eye movement exercises scales, Eysenck has argued that combi-
whilst thinking about items presented nations on these scales reproduce the
by the therapist. ancient concept of the four ‘humours’ –
choleric (neurotic and extraverted);
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire melancholic (neurotic and introverted);
(EPQ) Personality test, named after its phlegmatic (introverted and emotion-
inventor, Hans Eysenck. The EPQ ally stable); and sanguine (emotionally
consists of four measures: extrover- stable and extraverted). The three
sion-introversion, psychoticism, neuroticism, dimensions are held to be underpinned
and lying (L). The final scale is used to by physiological factors. E.g. Eysenck
identify certain pathological condi- has argued that differently ‘tuned’
tions, and to adjust over-rosy reports by nervous systems make extraverts hard
subjects anxious to impress on the and introverts easy to condition under
other three scales. The test is also avail- most circumstances. The neuroticism
able in a children’s version. See Eysenck’s scale measures the ease with which a
model of personality. person can become aroused, very
Eysenck’s model of personality Hans neurotic people being the easiest to
Eysenck (1916– ), psychologist, for arouse. It was originally proposed that
many years Professor of Psychology at the three dimensions were independent
the Maudsley Hospital (the Institute of of each other, but subsequent research
Psychiatry), London. Eysenck argues has argued that there is some correla-
that personality can be ‘mapped out’ tion between them.
using three bipolar dimensions. These are
extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-
emotional stability, and psychoticism.
The extraversion—introversion dimen-

F and second, s/he becomes more aware

of methods of communication.
F (1) F ratio. (2) Feeling. facial cranial nerve cranial nerve number
F1 See F ratio. VII. Concerned with facial muscles and
taste (along with glossopharyngeal cranial
F2 See F ratio. nerve).
F’ See F ratio. facility value The proportion of partici-
F distribution A sampling distribution for pants who responded to a particular
the F ratio. Used to decide if the differ- item in the desired manner.
ence in the variance of two measures is factitious disorder Feigning an illness
significant. or other problem in order to elicit
F-R Friedman-Ranks ANOVA. sympathy. Unlike straightforward
malingering, however, the desire to
F-R ANOVA Friedman-Ranks ANOVA. feign the illness is beyond the control
F ratio (F) parametric measure determin- of the patient, and may not confer an
ing if the populations from which two obvious advantage.
samples are drawn have the same factor A variable directly manipulated by
variance. The measure plays an impor- the experimenter.
tant role in assessing significance in
many statistical tests (e.g. analysis of factor analysis (i) Broad definition:
variance). The F1 ratio measures between general term for a set of statistical tech-
groups, F2 ratio measures within groups, niques for determining if the correla-
and F’ measures interactions. tions between a large number of vari-
ables can be attributed to a simpler trend
F scale (1) California F Scale. (2) A or small set of trends. A correlation
sub-scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic matrix of the variables is created. It is
Personality Inventory. then calculated whether some of the
F-to-enter test See multiple regression. variables correlate more strongly with
each other than with the other vari-
F-to-remove test See multiple regression. ables. Such groupings are called ‘fac-
face validity The degree to which a test tors’. The analysis can take two major
subjectively appears to measure the forms (known as methods of factor
skill, knowledge, attitudes, etc. it claims rotation). In orthogonal factor analysis,
to assess (e.g. a test of psychotic tenden- each factor calculated has no shared
cies which measured colour preferences variance (i.e. each factor is independent
would have a low face validity). Note of the others). In oblique factor analysis,
that a low face validity does not auto- the factors can have shared variance
matically mean that the test does not (i.e. the factors correlate with each
measure what it claims. See validity. other). Factor analysis is extensively
used in studies of personality and intel-
facial affect therapy Therapeutic tech-
ligence (e.g. g was discovered using it).
nique in which patients are trained to
It is very complex, and although some
be aware of their facial expressions and
basic ‘user friendly ’ computing
to alter them to more appropriate ones.
packages are available, the mathematics
The therapeutic effects are in two prin-
bar all but a few specialist psychologists
cipal domains – first, the patient sends
from using it effectively. Some types of
out more appropriate signals to others,
factor analysis can be criticized because

they produce a range of equally valid researchers seek a simple structure, in

solutions, and it is up to the researcher which variables only correlate with one
to subjectively decide which one s/he factor (the general factor), and always
will select as the ‘right’ answer. (ii) positively (i.e. each variable is ‘ex-
Specific notes: different stages in the plained’ by only one factor, and that
factor analysis can be performed in a factor always has a positive influence).
variety of ways. The method of creating A factor which only correlates with one
factors is called the initial factoring variable is known as a specific factor. A
procedure, or factor extraction method. factor which correlates with several
There are a variety of these. The most variables is called a group factor. A
commonly used is the principal compo- guide to the simplicity of the structure
nents analysis, which is also a statistical is the variable complexity measure. If a
procedure in its own right. If this variable is only loaded on one factor,
method is employed, then the proce- then it will have a variable complexity
dure is sometimes called principal com- value of 1. The further it is from 1, the
ponent factor analysis. This works from less simple the structure. Individual
the original correlation matrix. Other subjects can be given a factor score –
methods manipulate the matrix before that is, the level to which they ‘possess’
performing their analyses. These each factor. The basic factor matrix is
include Bartlett’s method, Direct known as the unrotated factor matrix,
Oblimin, Harris image analysis, iterated which some researchers elect as the fin-
principal axis, Kaiser image analysis, ishing point of their analysis. Others
Little Jiffy, maximum likelihood perform an orthogonal or oblique
analysis, principal factor analysis, and factor analysis (known collectively as
Procrustes rotation. In calculating the transformation methods) as described
initial factors, eigenvalues (or character- above (the factors at this stage are also
istic roots), and eigenvectors are known as factor axes). The factors so
produced. These are mathematical calculated are known as primary factors
expressions of properties of mathemati- (first-order factors). These in turn can
cal matrices which are created during be analysed, to find secondary factors
the calculations. They are important in (second-order factors). The second-
determining how many factors will be order factors are factors derived from
extracted from the equation. There are the correlations between the primary
several ways of doing this – e.g. the factors (i.e. a ‘factor analysis’ on the
experimenter determines whether factors). It is possible to find tertiary
factors will be extracted if their corre- factors (third-order factors), and further
sponding eigenvalues are less than 1 levels of factors by performing a similar
(the Kaiser criterion), calculations are analysis on second order factors, etc.
stopped when the eigenvalues account There are a number of ways of perform-
for > x% of the variance, when the ing the orthogonal analysis. The com-
graphical plot of factor number against monest is the varimax solution, with
eigenvalues begins to show a character- equamax and quartamax also being
istic slope (scree analysis), etc. The frequent options in computer packages.
degrees to which the original test Equamax attempts to make the amount
scores correlate with the factors are of variance ‘explained’ by each factor
called factor loadings, and these can be roughly equal, whilst quartamax places
shown in tabular form as a factor as much of the accountable variance as
matrix. This gives an indication of possible onto the first factor extracted
what each factor represents. Many (in most analyses, the first factor

extracted has the biggest factor Fake Bad Scale (FBS) Addition to the
loadings). Varimax is a ‘compromise’ revised Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
between equamax and quartamax, and Inventory which detects reporting of
whilst giving greater weight to the first implausible symptoms.
factor, attempts a reasonable share of
fallible score The score a participant
the variance between the other factors.
obtains on a test. It is deemed to be ‘fal-
Kaiser’s normalization manipulates the
lible’ because it contains a margin of
factor loadings by normalizing them
measurement error which makes it
before they are further processed. This
deviate from his/her true score.
often improves the predictability of the
procedure. See Q factor analysis. false alarm false positive.
factor axes See factor analysis. false memory A ‘memory’ of an event
which never occurred. May be symp-
factor extraction method See factor
tomatic of a serious problem (such as a
delusion) or may be an erroneous recon-
factor loading See factor analysis. struction of faint real memories taken
out of context. See false memory
factor matrix See factor analysis.
factor rotation See factor analysis.
false memory syndrome (FMS) See
factor score See factor analysis. recovered memory.
factorial (!) The instruction in a formula false negative (1) See true positive. (2)
to multiply the number preceding it by Inaccurately discounting the presence
every whole number down to and of an illness.
including 1. E.g. 5! = 5x4x3x2x1. 0! is
false positive (1) See true positive. (2)
defined as equalling 1.
Inaccurately diagnosing the presence
factorial design Experimental/statisti- of an illness.
cal design in which all levels of variable
falsifiability A concept which has
of all independent variables have been
gained popularity through the work of
examined in all possible combinations.
Karl Popper (twentieth century philos-
Often the number of independent vari-
opher), which argues that a theory or
ables and their levels are denoted by a
finding cannot satisfactorily prove
‘y x y’ shorthand. Thus, a ‘2 x 3 facto-
anything unless it can potentially be
rial design’ has two independent vari-
falsified. E.g. one could make the state-
ables, one with 2 and one with 3 levels,
ment that the world was spontaneously
a ‘2 x 3 x 5 factorial design’ has three
created three seconds ago. This theory
independent variables, with 2, 3, and 5
cannot be disproved (since any
measures one might make to ‘prove’ it
factorial validity The correlation would be part of the process of sponta-
between scores on different tests neous creation). Accordingly, the
claiming to measure the same thing. At theory is untestable, since it can neither
a more complex level, the term refers to be proved nor disproved. On the other
correlations between items within tests hand, a theory that china vases break if
which represent particular factors (see dropped from 100 ft buildings onto
factor analysis). concrete pavements could potentially
FAD familial Alzheimer’s disease. be falsified – if an ample proportion of
the vases bounced, then the theory
would be falsified.

familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) those names which they can remember
Relatively rare form of dementia of the being in the news at some point in the
Alzheimer type which invariably has its past. Included in the list are some ficti-
onset before old age, and where the tious names, to prevent participants
patient has close older relatives who confabulating and saying ‘yes’ to every
also had the condition. Children of a name on the list. The test also includes a
FAD patient usually have a 50 % chance set of very famous names (Margaret
of contracting the disease themselves. Thatcher, Winston Churchill, etc.) who
See sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. have been famous for appreciable
periods of time. These names are
family-centred therapy Any therapeu-
always recognized by normal individu-
tic technique in which the whole of a
als, but may cause problems for some
family, or at least its key members, are
patients suffering from certain types of
treated. This can be because the
amnesia or dementia.
problem lies within the family as a
whole (e.g. members have difficulty Fan’s tables item analysis method.
coping with each other), or because
FAS foetal alcohol syndrome.
one or a few members are experiencing
problems, about which the rest of the FAS test A word fluency test – the subject is
family must be counselled. required to produce words beginning
with F, A, and S in turn.
family history See history.
FAST model Model by Reisberg et al.
family method Method used in aetiology
which describes seven stages of pro-
– members of the patient’s family are
gressively worsening intellectual dete-
examined to see how many of the
rioration found in patients suffering
symptoms they share in common with
from dementia of the Alzheimer type.
him/her, and the extent to which the
illness can be attributed to genetic faulty information processing In some
factors. therapies (particularly cognitive therapy),
a distortion or misinterpretation of
Family Relations Test (FRT) projective
events due to faulty logical processes.
test using a set of model figures of
members of a family. The test is avail- FBS Fake Bad Scale.
able in different formats for younger FCC Functional Capacities Checklist.
children (3–7 years), older children
(7–15 years) and adults. Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE)
Measure of the degree to which a
family therapy family-centred therapy. person fears being perceived negatively
familywise error rate The probability by other people.
of making a Type I error in a set of com- fear of success Hypothesized drive to
parisons (this contrasts with a per-com- ‘explain’ why people (and women in
parison error rate, which is the proba- particular) shun chances to advance up
bility of making a Type I error in an the career ladder, attain further educa-
individual comparison). See Bonferroni tional qualifications, etc.
Fear Survey Schedule (FSS) Measure of
Famous Names Test (FNT) A measure types and range of events which create
of remote memory. Participants are pre- fear in a subject. There is a version for
sented with a list of names of people children (FSS-C).
famous for brief periods of time since
the 1920s, and are asked to identify febriphobia phobia of having a fever.

feeble-minded See mental retardation. which can have a recognizable sexual

element (e.g. lingerie, stockings, etc.),
Feeling (F) See Myers-Briggs Type Indica-
but can also be non-sexual by societal
standards (e.g. prams and car exhaust
feeling personality See Jung’s psychoana- pipes).
lytic theory.
fetus foetus.
feeling therapy Therapeutic technique
field dependence A measure of how far
in which the patient is taught to recog-
a person can analyse a visual item in
nize and fully express his/her feelings,
isolation from its surroundings. A
which are motivated by true wishes,
common measure requires a participant
and not arising from past problems.
to align a rod perpendicular to the
Feldenkrais Procedure Therapeutic ground, the rod being surrounded by a
technique, the principal features of slanted frame (the rod and frame test).
which are bodily manipulation and Persons who align correctly are said to
breathing exercises. be field independent, those who align to
feline spongiform encephalopathy match the frame are field dependent.
(FSE) See bovine spongiform encephalo- Most people fall between these
pathy. extremes. See also embedded figures test
and rotating room test.
feminine identity The degree to which
an individual identifies with femininity field dependent See field dependence.
traits. field independent See field dependence.
femininity See masculinity. field study naturalistic research (definition
feminist therapy General term for any 2).
therapeutic method which is shaped 50th percentile median. Also, see percen-
and guided by principles of feminist tile.
fifty minute hour The time allocated to
Ferguson’s delta A measure of discrimi- teaching, therapy, etc., within an hour’s
natory power (a score of 1 indicates timetabled slot. The remaining ten
maximum discriminatory power). minutes allows for introductory con-
Ferguson’s 5 Ferguson’s delta. versation, time to prepare for the next
class, patient, etc.
fetish That which is possessed in fetishism.
filial regression See regression towards the
fetishism Type of paraphilia in which the mean.
patient has profound difficulty in
attaining sexual gratification other fine motor skills See motor skills.
than from an inanimate object or f i n ge r ag n o s i a A f a i l u re to
specific bodily area (some patients can name/identify the fingers.
have sexual relations with a partner, but
finite population See population.
only provided s/he wears the fetishistic
item, or it is present in the room; or, FIRO-B Fundamental Interpersonal Rela-
if the fetishistic item is a part of the tions Orientation-Behavior.
body, grossly unnatural and prolonged
first-order factor See factor analysis.
attention is paid to it or to pictures
of it). Typically the patient is sexually first order regression line See polyno-
attracted to only one type of item, mial regression.

first rank symptoms Symptoms which ‘neuroticism’ as emotional stability and

are particularly indicative of schizophre- ‘openness’ as intellect.
fixation In Freudian theory, the ‘freezing’
FISH test fluorescent in situ hybridization of psychosexual development at an ‘im-
test. mature’ stage.
Fisher exact probability test non-para- fixation hysteria somatoform disorder in
metric measure of whether the propor- which the afflicted area has suffered
tion of members of two groups who genuine injury in the past.
belong to two mutually exclusive events
fixed effects See fixed factor.
are significantly different. E.g. whether
different proportions of men and fixed effects factor fixed factor.
women are for or against capital pun- f ixed effects fallacy Mistakenly
ishment. In certain calculations, the assuming that the results of a narrow
probability calculated may not reach range of observations are applicable to
significance, but more extreme variants the population as a whole.
of the same data, with the same sum
totals, do reach significance. In these fixed factor A variable which can only
instances, Tocher’s modification is assume a limited range of values (e.g.
employed. 12 months of the year, seven days of
the week, etc.). Measures of the effects
Fisher’s PLSD test post hoc test for the of fixed factors are called fixed effects.
analysis of variance. ‘PLSD’ stands for
‘Protected Least Significant Differ- fixed order presentation Presenting
ence’. different treatments, tests, etc., in the
same order to every subject. This is
Fisher’s z test A test of significance for done because the order of presentation
product-moment correlation coefficients. is in itself designed to have an effect.
Fisher’s z transformation A method of See counterbalancing.
transforming product-moment correlation fixed role therapy Therapeutic tech-
coefficients into z scores. This in turn nique in which the patient assumes the
enables one to judge if the measure is role of a person other than him/herself,
statistically significant. to give him/her insight into other (and
fishing trip research shotgun research – better) behavioural options.
curious how researchers choose images FJA functional job analysis.
of killing things for such terms.
flashback Involuntary recurrence of a
fissure A fold or crease in the wrinkled (usually vivid and unpleasant) memory.
surface of the cortex. See also sulcus. Encountered in post-traumatic stress
five factor model of personality A disorder and use of psychedelic drugs.
model which argues that personality is flat affect Showing little or no emotion.
composed of five traits – openness, con-
scientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness flexibilitas cerea catatoma.
and neuroticism. The model is some- flight into health The spontaneous
times referred to by the acronym recovery from mental illness. In psy-
OCEAN (after the initial letters of the choanalytic theory, this recovery is held
traits). Note that not all commentators to be illusory and an elaborate scheme
agree on these label names – some to avoid deeper and more threatening
describe ‘extraversion’ as surgency, analysis.

flight of ideas In conversation, the rapid fluoxetine (brand name: Prozac) An

switching between different concepts, antidepressant drug (member of the selec-
which are often only tangentially tive serotonin re-uptake inhibitors group)
linked at best. Can be symptomatic of which has gained considerable media
mania and other disorders. attention. The drug appears to be
highly effective for many patients, but
flooding A therapeutic technique in
for a (relatively small) proportion it is
which the patient is exposed and
alleged that the drug makes the patients
immersed in exposure to a phobic object
feel worse.
or other anxiety-producing event. The
exposure continues until the anxiety is fmri Functional magnetic resonance imaging
reduced (loosely, until the patient – scanning technique that assesses
realises that the event is not harmful). structure and activity within the body
This is a traumatic experience, but it simultaneously.
can be effective in some circumstances.
FMS false memory syndrome.
A variant of the technique is implosion,
in which the patient is made to imagine FNE Fear of Negative Evaluation.
the event or object. Contrast with FNT Famous Names Test.
focal epilepsy Jacksonian epilepsy.
floor effect Effect achieved by giving a
group a test which is too difficult – an focal neurological disorder See diffuse
undesirably large proportion of the neurological disorder.
group members score zero or nearly focal therapy Therapy which treats the
zero marks, making discrimination symptoms rather than the underlying
between them impossible. See ceiling cause.
foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) mental
fluency The ease with which information retardation (and often slight physical
can be produced. Nearly always short- deformity, particularly of the face)
hand for verbal fluency. resulting from the mother’s alcohol
fluent aphasia Synonym for Wernicke’s abuse during her pregnancy.
aphasia, and more generally, of any foetus Unborn infant. Usually refers to
receptive aphasia. infant 12 weeks after conception up to
fluid intelligence The ability to solve birth.
problems for which there are no solu- folie a deux Condition in which two
tions derivable from formal training or patients hold the same paranoia and its
cultural practices. There is usually an attendant beliefs. Cases of more than
added assumption that to have a high two patients sharing the same delusion
level of fluid intelligence, a person must have been recorded (folie a trois, etc.).
solve the said problems quickly. Fluid
intelligence roughly corresponds to a follow-up session booster session.
layperson’s concept of ‘wit’. FOME Fuld Object Memory Evaluation.
fluorescent in situ hybridization test footcandle A measure of lighting inten-
(FISH test) Test for detecting genetic sity.
abnormalities. The test is commonly
used to identify several types of geneti- forced choice recognition task See rec-
cally-inherited illnesses. ognition task.

forced choice scale Rating scale in FPR Functional Performance Record.

which a series of questions require the
Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA) Scale
respondent to choose between two or
measuring attitudes to ageing, and
more answers.
yielding three measures: antilocution
forced choice test Multiple choice test (speaking negatively about older
with no option of a ‘don’t know’ adults), avoidance (avoiding contact
answer. with older people), and discrimination
(feeling that older adults are inferior).
forced distribution ranking See
The FSA consists of a set of 29 state-
ments – for each one the respondent
forced multiple regression See multiple indicates his or her strength of agree-
regression. ment/disagreement.
forensic psychiatry Branch of psychiatry fractile General term for a fraction on a
concerned with the study and treat- scale using equally-sized divisions of
ment of criminal behaviour. measurements (e.g. decile, percentile).
forensic psychology The study of psy- fragile person A person who is signifi-
chological aspects of criminal behav- cantly more vulnerable than a typical
iour, and, more generally, the workings adult. The phrase is often used in con-
of the legal system. nection with the ethical problems of
forensic psychotherapy Branch of psy- testing or treating children, older people
chotherapy concerned with the study and people with intellectual and/or
and treatment of criminal behaviour. behavioural problems.

formboard test General term for any test fragile X syndrome Genetic disorder
in which the participant is required with physical characteristics including
to insert shapes into holes in a board atypically large ears and jaw. Psycho-
with the same outline. The test assesses logical symptoms include autistic type
visuo-spatial and psychomotor skills. behaviour and hyperactivity.

formication The illusion of ants or other free association Therapeutic technique

small insects crawling over one’s skin. in which the patient lets his/her
The sensation can be experienced as thoughts wander, without attempting
threatening in several mental illnesses to control them. This is believed to help
and forms of drug addiction. the patient release thoughts and
feelings which are otherwise sup-
47,XXY Klinefelter’s syndrome. pressed. The technique is most often
foster child fantasy The mistaken belief used in some forms of psychoanalysis.
that one is adopted. free child See transactional analysis.
Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) free entry multiple regression See multi-
test battery for participants aged 16 years ple regression.
and over. Assesses basic literacy,
numeracy and problem-solving skills. free-floating anxiety generalized anxiety.

fourfold-point correlation phi correla- free recall A memory task in which items
tion coefficient. can be recalled in any order (i.e. the
order in which they were originally
fourth force psychology transpersonal presented does not have to be repro-
psychology. duced). Compare with ordered recall.

free response question Question where has to be released in the form of an

the participant is free to provide any appropriate action (e.g. if the drive is to
answer s/he wishes. See limited response eat, then eating is an appropriate
question. release). The pleasure principle states
that there will be an attempt to do this
frequency The number of occasions the
as soon as possible, but the reality prin-
same score is found in the same sample.
ciple attempts to ensure that the release
frequency distribution A measure only occurs in a socially appropriate
(usually plotted as a graph) of how often form (e.g. a frustrated employee may
each value of a measure has occurred have an urge to hit his/her boss, but the
(e.g. how many of the sample scored 0, drive may be channelled into being
how many 1, how many 2, etc.). See nasty to an office junior – not com-
cumulative frequency distribution, grouped mendable, but preferable in terms of
frequency distrib ution, percentage social survival). The psychic energy
cumulative frequency distribution and drives three forces. The id is a primitive
relative frequency distribution. collection of urges with which a baby
frequency polygon See histogram. begins life. It is capable of projecting
some basic thoughts of desirable goals
frequency table Table expressing the (primary process thought). In order to
frequency with which something or a cope more efficiently, the ego develops.
set of things has occurred. E.g. a table This loosely corresponds to rational
showing a list of football teams and the thought (secondary process thought); it
number of times each team has won decides on appropriate goals, and
each of several competitions. attempts to keep a check on the id and
Freudian Pertaining to Freud’s psychoana- the superego. The latter arises in later
lytic theory. The term is also often used childhood, and is a collection of (often
to denote ideas arising from the over-harsh) ideals. It acts like an inter-
neo-Freudian movement. nalized set of moralistic parents. If the
ego feels threatened by the id and the
Freudian slip ‘Slip of the tongue’ or superego, then various defence mecha-
other unintentional action held to nisms are available. E.g. the famous
reveal an unconscious wish or thought repression, where an unpleasant
which the participant was trying to thought is blocked by the unconscious
conceal (deliberately or otherwise). (in extreme cases by e.g. hysterical
The term is often used (not entirely deafness – see also suppression). Freud
accurately) in lay parlance for an unwit- argued that the id, ego, and superego
ting double entendre. develop as a consequence of several
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory psychosexual stages of development.
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), the Each is centred on an erogenous zone –
founder of psychoanalysis, created a very an area of the body providing sensual
rich theory of human psychological (and not necessarily exclusively sexual)
behaviour, which, although not part of satisfaction. Oral stage (0–l year) –
mains t ream ps ych ology, ha d a sensual satisfaction primarily through
profound influence on its early devel- the mouth. Anal stage (1–3 years) –
opment (even if only in the formation sensual satisfaction primarily through
of theories opposed to it, as in behaviour the retention and expulsion of faeces.
therapy). At the heart of the theory is the Phallic stage (3–5 years) – according to
belief that the human personality is Freud, a boy in this stage realizes that
empowered with psychic energy, which he has a penis, and desires his mother

(the Oedipus complex). However, he Friedman analysis of variance

fears that this desire will cause his Friedman-Ranks ANOVA.
father to punish him by castration. This
Friedman-Ranks ANOVA (F-R
leads him to cease desiring his mother,
ANOVA) A non-parametric test of the
and to identify more with his father. A
same group’s differences on 3 or more
girl at this stage discovers that she lacks
measures. The test bases its calculations
a penis, but desires one (penis envy). She
on the order in which the scores on the
feels that she once had one, but that it
different tests are ranked within each
has been cut off as a punishment. She
subject. The test can be regarded as the
blames her mother for this loss, weak-
non-parametric equivalent of a within
ening her identification with her, and
groups ANOVA. See Kruskal-Wallis one
increasing her liking for her father.
way ANOVA by ranks.
Latency period (5 years – adolescence)
– energy is channelled into non-sexual frigidity Outmoded (and possibly offen-
development of intellectual and social sive) term for female inhibited sexual
skills. Genital stage (adolescence excitement.
onwards) – the individual now aims for frontal eye field Eye movements (con-
‘mature’ sexual satisfaction with a per- trolled by the frontal lobes) involved in
manent partner of the opposite sex. scanning.
However, ‘faulty’ development prior to
this stage will lead an individual to frontal leucotomy A leucotomy to the
choose a particular type of partner (e.g. frontal lobes. A controversial psycho-
the archetypal case of the man with the surgical technique, designed to alleviate
unresolved Oedipus complex who some of the more disruptive symptoms
chooses a partner just like his mother). of a number of serious mental illnesses.
‘Faulty’ development affects more than It was popular in the 1940s and 1950s
choice of partner, however. For (with surgeons – patients’ views were
example, a baby in the oral stage who often different), but has since fallen out
bites at the nipple will develop a of favour.
‘biting’ and sarcastic sense of humour frontal lobe dementia dementia whose
in later life. The above is a very simplis- origin and primary focus is the frontal
tic account of a very rich theory, which lobes. The principal form is Pick’s Disease.
has influenced a large number of
researchers as well as other fields frontal lobes The front section of the
(notably surrealist artists and stream of cerebral cortex extending back to the
consciousness novelists). Freud ’s temples. Primaril y involved in
theories have been very heavily criti- planning and controlling actions and
cized for, amongst other things, being thoughts (e.g. by getting words in the
post hoc and untestable explanations, right order when speaking, producing
as well as being sexist (e.g. women are socially appropriate behaviour).
portrayed as having ‘naturally’ weaker frontal lobotomy Severance of (some or
personalities). Freud’s place in the all) neural connections to the frontal
history of psychology is assured, but lobes (typically, the prefrontal section).
whether he will be ultimately remem- The surgical procedure was frequently
bered as more than a founding father used in the past as a treatment for
(in the same manner as alchemists are various psychiatric conditions, with
honoured in chemistry) is open to varying degrees of success.

fronto-temporal dementia dementia be expressed in terms of another vari-

originating in the frontal lobes and/or able or variables.
the temporal lobes. In practice, the term is
functional analysis In conditioning
used interchangeably with frontal lobe
studies, examining the relationship
between the treatment regime and the
Frostig Developmental Test of Visual corresponding changes in behaviour.
Perception Marianne Frostig Develop-
functional autonomy See Allport’s
mental Test of Visual Perception.
theory of personality development.
frottage The act of committing frotteurism.
Functional Capacities Checklist
frotteurism atypical paraphilia in which (FCC) Self-report questionnaire on
the patient gains his/her principal how patients view their physical capac-
sexual gratification solely from rubbing ities.
him/herself against another person
functional disorder A disorder with no
(who may not even be aware of this
apparent physical cause. See functional
occurring – e.g. in a packed bus).
mental disorder.
FRT Family Relations Test.
functional fixedness Having a limited
FSA (1) Foundation Skills Assessment (2) (and usually highly conventional) per-
Fraboni Scale of Ageism. ception of the uses to which an item or
situation can be put (e.g. only seeing a
FSE feline spongiform encephalopathy.
house brick in terms of a building
FSS Fear Survey Schedule. material, rather than e.g. as a source of
FSS-C See Fear Survey Schedule. rouge). The concept is of considerable
importance in creativity research.
fugue dissociative disorder which, in the
most extreme state, involves the patient functional imaging See neuroimaging.
assuming a totally new identity, even to functional job analysis (FJA) A method
the extent of moving to a new area of of job analysis.
the country. In less extreme cases, the
functional literacy The basic level of
patient takes a shorter journey away
reading skills required for a particular
from familiar surroundings, before
occupation or lifestyle. E.g. for most
returning, often with limited or no
unskilled jobs, a reading age of 11 is the
memory of the episode.
maximum required. See functional reading.
Fuld Object Memory Evaluation
functional mental disorder Any
(FOME) Memory and naming test for
mental disorder for which a physical
older participants, who are given
cause cannot be identified. See organic
objects to recognize, first by touch, and
mental disorders.
then by sight. Participants must then
recall the items several times over, inter- Functional Performance Record (FPR)
spersed with a verbal fluency task. Wide-ranging measure of 26 different
behavioural, physical and psychological
fully-loaded cost The total cost of an
skills. The test is intended for parti-
action, including all incidental effects.
cipants with mental and/or physical
function variable whose value is depend- handicap, to determine their functional
ent upon that of another variable or abilities.
variables, and/or a variable which can

functional reading The ability to read galactosaemia Genetic disorder

basic instructional materials at the characterized by a failure to metabolize
barest level of proficiency expected by galactose (a sugar found in milk).
the society in which the participant is Failure to treat the condition results in
living. See functional literacy. severe intellectual dysfunction, but
earl y intervention (principall y,
functional relationship Relationship
adopting a rigidly lactose-free diet)
between two or more variables, such
should avoid this.
that a change in one affects the other(s).
galeophobia A phobia of cats.
Fundamental Interpersonal Rela-
t i o n s Or i e n t at i o n - B e h av i o r galvanic skin response (GSR) The ease
(FIRO-B) Measure of participants’ with which the skin conducts an elec-
levels of behaviour in the context of trical current. As people become
belonging to a group, and the degree to aroused, they sweat, and this changes
which they expect the same behaviours the GSR. This phenomenon can be
in others. used to test people’s level of arousal
when confronted with stimuli (it
fundamental lexical hypothesis The
should be noted that both the degree of
belief that the key facets of human
sweating and the electrical currents
behaviour have been encapsulated in
used are very slight, and unnoticed by
single terms in language.
the participant). Since people can also
fundamental symptoms primary symp- become aroused when they are lying,
toms. the GSR has been used (not without
future shock Anxiety induced by living controversy) as a lie detector test,
in a modern, rapidly changing indus- although usually in conjunction with
trial society. other physical measures (see polygraph).
GAMA General Ability Measure for Adults.
gambler’s fallacy The mistaken belief
that because there has been a long
G string of one type of mutually exclusive
event, another type of event ‘must’ occur
g General intellectual capacity – a term soon. E.g. because there have been 10
devised by Charles Spearman (early ‘heads’ tossed in a row, ‘tails’ must come
twentieth century) to describe an up next. This is fallacious, because on
ability he felt underpinned all intellec- each toss of the coin, the odds of
tual skills. Today often used more ‘heads’ and ‘tails’ are even – the coin is
loosely to denote participants’ general not influenced by what has gone
level of intelligence. See G g. before. The debunking of the gambler’s
G g American writers tend to use the fallacy often leaves people with the
upper case letter, British writers the equally erroneous impression that a
lower case. long sequence of one type of event (e.g.
tossing ‘heads’ 10 times in a row) is not
G index Specialized correlation measure unusual; it is unusual, in that a mixture
used in some forms of factor analysis. of heads and tails is far more probable.
GAF Global Assessment of Functioning. This does not contradict the argument
that ‘tails’ can just as easily be thrown
gain score difference score. after a sequence of TTTTTTTTTT as

game (1) In transactional analysis, the exception of ‘R’, which also measures
maladaptive situation of being in an letter recognition and ability to recog-
inappropriate ego state and therefore nize letter sounds).
acting out an encounter as if it were a
gateway drugs ‘Soft’ illegal drugs (mari-
game rather than expressing one’s true
juana, etc.) which are often the first
intentions. (2) Generally, in therapies,
illegal substances used by drug users
playing a set role rather than listening
who subsequently ‘graduate’ to taking
to one’s real wishes.
‘hard’ drugs (heroin, etc.). The general
‘Games People Play’ See transactional theory of this progression is also
analysis. known as the stepping stone theory. It
should be noted that the majority of
gamma (1) effect size. (2) Measure of corre-
‘soft’ drug users do not follow this
lation between ordinal variables.
gamophobia A phobia of marriage.
gatophobia ailurophobia.
GAMT Graded Arithmetic-Mathematics Test
Gaussian curve bell-shaped curve.
ganglia Plural of ganglion.
Gaussian distribution normal distribu-
ganglion A group of neurons. tion.
ganglioside Drug whose ef fects gc/Gc Symbol for crystallized intelligence.
included the enhanced release of acetyl-
GCS Glasgow Coma Scale.
choline (see cholinergic hypothesis). Has
been cited as a possible treatment for GDS (1) Gessell Development Schedules. (2)
patients suffering from dementia. See Geriatric Depression Scale.
ondansetron and tacrine.
gedanken experiment thought experi-
Ganser syndrome A factitious disorder in ment.
which the ‘illness’ is a psychological
gegenhalten An involuntary resistance
by the limbs to being moved by
GAP Reading Comprehension Test another. Symptomatic of damage to the
Reading test for 7–12-year-olds. Uses motor cortex.
cloze procedure.
gender dysphoria transsexualism.
GAPADOL Reading Comprehension
gender identity disorder Group term
Test Reading test for 7–16-year-olds.
for psychosexual disorders whose princi-
Uses cloze procedure.
pal characteristic is that the patient feels
GARS Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. that s/he is the wrong gender. See
gender identity disorder of childhood,
GAS general adaptation syndrome.
gynemimesis, and transsexualism. Also see
GAT General Abilities Test. transvestism.
GATB General Aptitude Test Battery. gender identity disorder of child-
Gates-Macginitie Reading Test hood gender identity disorder exhibited
Reading test consisting of several in childhood, in which the patient
‘Levels’, commensurate with the age of behaves like a highly stereotypical
the subjects: R: 5–7 years; A: 5–7; B: example of the opposite gender (e.g. a
7–8; C: 8–9; D: 9–12; E: 13–16; F: girl who is very ‘tomboyish’). Given
16–18. All measure size of vocabulary that the diagnosis relies on accepting
and comprehension abilities, (with the societal sex stereotypes, it is not
without its limitations.

General Abilities Test (GAT) Battery of general trait trait which occurs in many
measures of verbal, non-verbal, numer- aspects of the person’s life. Contrast
ical and spatial abilities, intended to with specific trait.
evaluate and help in selection proce-
generality of results The degree to
dures of staff ‘below’ the level of
which the findings of a study are likely
middle management.
to be replicable when different subjects,
General Ability Measure for Adults situations, etc. are used.
(GAMA) Measure of general intellec-
generalizability theory Complex
tual abilities in adults.
theory, devised by Cronbach and col-
general adaptation syndrome (GAS) leagues, exploring the relationship
Hypothesized sequence of reactions to between reliability and validity and the
prolonged stress. The participant’s body application to test design and evalua-
initially enters into a shock phase, tion.
which is counteracted by increased
generalization (-isation) The degree to
hormonal activity. If the stress contin-
which a conditioned response to one
ues too long, the protective system
stimulus is given to similar responses.
deteriorates, making the participant
Accordingly, a measure of the success
more prone to illness.
of transfer.
General Aptitude Test Battery (GATE)
generalized anxiety One of the anxiety
test battery (devised by American
states. A chronic state of feeling anxious
Employment Service) assessing basic
for no logical reason. The patient often
intellectual and motor skills.
has physical symptoms, such as persis-
general factor See factor analysis. tent minor physical ailments, the sensa-
tion of a pounding heart, tightness in
General Health Questionnaire
the chest, etc.
(GHQ) A quickly-administered check-
list of recent symptoms and behaviour generalized mental ability g.
designed to elicit the general psychiat-
generational effect cohort effect.
ric state of a patient. Available in 3
forms, containing 60, 30, or 28 ques- generationally biased stimuli Stimuli
tions (GHQ60, GHQ30 and GHQ28 (or other test materials) which will only
respectively). be recognized by, or be most familiar
to, a particular age cohort.
general intelligence g.
generativity versus stagnation See
general learning skill General ability to
Erikson’s theory of development.
learn skills. The concept can be used to
compare individuals or species. genital stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic
Compare with specific learning skill. theory.
general linear model (GLM) Term for genuineness congruence.
statistical methods such as analysis of geometric mean Calculated as the nth
variance, correlation and regression, which root of all the scores multiplied
in essence assume that one or more vari- together (or alternatively, the mean of all
ables can be used to predict the value of their logarithms added together),
another variable. where n = the total number of scores.
general paralysis of the insane (GPI) The geometric mean is rarely used in
syphilitic dementia. psychology.
general paresis See paresis.

geotaxis Making a movement in response feelings of euphoria. Accordingly, it

to gravitational forces. has found popularity as an ‘illegal
geotropism geotaxis.
GHQ General Health Questionnaire.
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) A
‘yes/no’ questionnaire measuring the Gibson Spiral Maze A test of psycho-
level of depression in the respondent. motor skill, in which the participant
The questions are geared to match the is required to trace a pencil line around
symptoms and lifestyles typically a spiral shaped path as quickly as
found in depressed older people. possible.
Geriatric Mental State (GMS) A stan- gifted children Children with excep-
dardized interview package for assess- tional talents. Often used ‘merely’ to
ing the mental state of older patients. denote children with high IQs, rather
than the truly exceptionally gifted.
geriatrics Medical treatment and study
of ageing. See gerontology. Gilles de la Tourette disorder Tourette’s
gerontology The study of old age. The
term is usually restricted to psychologi- Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS)
cal and sociological aspects of ageing. Test assessing the presence of autism
and its severity in children.
Gerstmann syndrome A simultaneous
affliction of acalculia, agraphia, finger Gilmore Oral Reading Test Reading
agnosia, and confusion of left and right. test for 6–14-year-olds.
Whether the syndrome (when found)
GLA Group Literacy Assessment.
has a single root cause, is debatable.
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) A measure
of the depth of unconsciousness dis-
syndrome (GSS) (Rare) degenerative
played by a patient after brain injury.
brain disease.
Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) A
Gessell Development Schedules
measure of the degree of recovery made
(GDS) test battery measuring develop-
by a patient after brain injury.
ment in infancy and early childhood –
largely requires observation of child’s glass ceiling Metaphor to describe the
behaviour and physical measurement, unacknowledged barrier blocking the
rather than more conventional psycho- job promotion and advancement of
logical tests. women. The term is likely to spread to
describing the blocking of minority
Gessell Preschool Schedules (GPS)
groups in general.
Gessell Development Schedules.
glial cells Supporting cells, supplying
Gestalt psychology A humanistic psychol-
nutrients and ‘building materials’ to
ogy which stresses the ‘whole’ of the
patient, and encourages him/her to
reclaim suppressed aspects of his/her GLM general linear model.
psyche, and hence his/her suppressed global In reference to brain damage – an
creative potential. impairment across all aspects of the
Gf/gf Symbol for fluid intelligence. skill affected.
GHB Gamma hydroxy butyrate – a legal global aphasia See aphasia.
sedative which, if misused, can produce

Global Assessment of Functioning GNT Graded Naming Test.

(GAF) Scale from 0–100 indicating
goal The target/end result of an action,
level of functioning (the higher the
and hence, by implication, something
score, the better the function). A low
which is desired.
score indicates a need for treatment
and/or specialist care. goal setting Establishing behavioural or
other targets for a patient undergoing
Global Gordon’s Personal
Profile-Inventory (Global GPP-I)
Measure of nine aspects of personality Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation
(e.g. self-esteem, sociability) pertinent to Measure of ability in children and
the business environment. young adults to articulate consonants.
Global GPP-I Global Gordon’s Personal Goldstein-Scheerer tests Neurological
Profile-Inventory. measures of the degree of impairment
in abstract thought and concept forma-
globus hystericus A somatoform disorder
in which the patient is convinced there
is a lump in his/her throat. Gollin Incomplete Figures Test A test
of memory/visuo-spatial skills. The
glossolalia Unintelligible or garbled
participant is shown an incomplete line
speech – usually refers particularly to
drawing of a figure, and then gradually
speech of people in a trance (e.g. reli-
more complete drawings of the same
gious ‘speaking in tongues’) and suffer-
object, until s/he can identify it. The
ing from some mental disorders (e.g.
participant is shown the figures on sub-
sequent occasions, and the process is
glossopharyngeal cranial nerve cranial repeated. With the repeated exposures,
nerve number IX. Concerned with the participant should require progres-
throat and taste (along with facial sively fewer complete drawings before
cranial nerve). s/he successfully identifies the object.
glove anaesthesia The phenomenon Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital
whereby the patient complains that State (GRIMS) Measure of the state of
his/her hands feel numb, but not the relationship between a married/
his/her arms. This is anatomically cohabiting couple.
impossible – the nerves concerned
Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual
supply the hands and also the arms, and
Satisfaction (GRISS) A measure of
dysfunction in one should cause dys-
satisfaction in sexual activity, and
function in the other. This indicates
sexual dysfunction.
that glove anaesthesia must be a psycho-
somatic complaint. A similar phenome- good breast-bad breast See Kleinian
non is stocking anaesthesia, where the theory.
patient complains of numbness in the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test Test
whole of the foot and the leg. for children aged up to 12 years. The
glue sniffing solvent abuse. subject is required to draw a picture of a
man or woman, which is marked for
GMA Graduate and Managerial Assessment.
detail, accuracy, etc. The measure gives
GMS Geriatric Mental State. a rough indication of IQ . See
Goodenough Draw-a-Person Test.
GMT Group Mathematics Test.
GNS growth need strength.

Goodenough Draw-a-Person Test GPS Gessell Preschool Schedules.

Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test with a
GRA Group Reading Assessment.
non-sexist title. Do not confuse with
the draw-a-person test. graceful degradation The phenomenon
whereby the cell loss which accompa-
Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test
nies ageing is reflected in a gentle loss
Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test.
of memories and level of skill (rather
Goodman and Kruskall’s tau Meaure than a wholesale and absolute loss).
of correlation between nominal variables.
grade equivalent score American
goodness of fit test Any test which measure expressing the school grade
measures how well a sample’s variance level at which an average pupil can
corresponds to that of a particular popu- perform the task in question.
lation. Hence, the degree to which data
Graded Arithmetic-Mathematics Test
fulfil expectations.
(GAMT) Standardized test of mathe-
Gordon Musical Aptitude Profile A matical and arithmetical skills for
measure of basic musical skills (e.g. subjects aged 6–18 years. Has two
ability to spot similarities and differ- forms – Junior (6–12) and Senior
ences in pieces of music). (11–18).
Gordon Personal Inventory self-report Graded Naming Test (GNT) Standard-
questionnaire yielding measures of ized test of ability to name a series of
dynamism of thought and outlook. objects, which become increasingly
harder to name as the test progresses.
Gordon Personal Profile self-report
The test is used in the diagnosis of
questionnaire yielding measures of emo-
certain forms of brain damage.
tional and social skills.
graded task (1) Task which is broken
Gordon’s Survey of Interpersonal
down into components because it is too
Values (SIV) See Gordon’s Survey of
difficult for the person to grasp in its
Personal Values (SIV).
entirety at the first attempt. (2) graded
Gordon’s Survey of Personal Values test.
(SPY) Measure of how the participant
graded test Test which consists of several
deals with situations. This contrasts
progressively more difficult levels.
with Gordon’s Survey of Interpersonal
Values (SIV), which is a measure of the Graded Word Spelling Test (GWST)
participant’s style of interaction with Standardized spelling test for subjects
other people. aged 6–16 years.
Gorham test A test of knowledge of Graduate and Managerial Assessment
meanings of well-known proverbs. (GMA) Battery of tests of verbal,
numerical and abstract reasoning,
GORT Gray Oral Reading Test.
intended to aid the selection of mana-
GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale. gerial staff.
Gottschaldt figures Simple figures gramophone syndrome stereotypy of
embedded in more complex figures. speech.
Used in tests of visuo-spatial ability –
grand mal epilepsy See epilepsy.
the subject must locate the simple
figures. grandiose self An unrealistic and
inflated idea of one’s self-worth.
GPI general paralysis of the insane.

grandiosity An exaggerated view of GRISS Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual

one’s own worth. Satisfaction.
granulovacuolar degenerations Mal- gross motor skills See motor skills.
formed and usually dead neurons which
grounded theory A qualitative research
(under a microscope) look like dense
method for the generation of a theoret-
ical model from data. The researcher
graphic rating Any method in which the begins as a blank slate – e.g. prior
participant rates an item in a diagram- expectations of how the data may fit a
matic form without recourse to a pre-conceived model are prohibited. A
numbered scale (e.g. shading in a box key feature of grounded theory is that
to the extent with which they agree the conclusions drawn should be true
with a statement). to the data collected (i.e. ‘grounded’ in
the data), rather than be a general idea
graphology The study of handwriting.
applied to a specific local situation.
The term has become increasingly
Note that grounded theory tends to
applied to a (controversial) specializa-
arouse polarized opinions amongst
tion within this general field – namely,
the calculation of a person’s personality
from a sample of their handwriting. group cohesiveness The degree to
which members of a group feel that
graphomania An obsessive urge to
they have a common bond.
group factor See factor analysis.
graphophobia A phobia of writing.
group interval class interval.
graphorrhea Lengthy and completely
meaningless pieces of writing. Group Literacy Assessment (GLA)
Reading and spelling test for partici-
Graves’ disease hyperthyroidism.
pants aged 7–14 years. Requires partic-
Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT) ipant to identify misspellings in a prose
achievement test, using oral reading passage and to provide the correct
measures. spelling. Also contains a cloze procedure
Greenhouse-Geisser correction See test, in which the first letter of the
sphericity test. to-be-found word is provided.

grey matter The cell bodies, synapses, Group Mathematics Test (GMT) Test
etc., of nerve cells of the central nervous of mathematical abilities (divided into
system, responsible for neural process- orally presented and computational
ing. Contrast with white matter, which sub-sections) for participants aged 6–7
is principally composed of the parts of years (and also for less able older
the cells responsible for transmitting children).
the information. Group Reading Assessment (GRA)
Griffith Scale of Mental Develop- Reading test for participants aged 7–9
ment (GSMD) Invented by Griffith, years (specifically, children in their first
this is a test battery, primarily of motor, year at UK junior school). Requires par-
social, auditory and aural abilities in ticipant to identify a word spoken by
infants and young children. the tester, to find the word best suited
to a given sentence, and to find homo-
GRIMS Golombok Rust Inventory of phones (same sounding but differently
Marital State. spelt words) of a given word.
GZTS / 129

Group Reading Test (GRT) Reading GSR galvanic skin response.

test for participants aged 6–12 years.
GSS Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker
Requires participant to choose a word
from various alternatives to match a
picture, and to complete sentences, guessing bias Habitually answering in a
given a list of alternatives. particular manner if the true answer is
not known.
group test Test which can be adminis-
tered to a group of people simulta- guidance A rather nebulous term – some
neously. commentators treat it as synonymous
with counselling, whilst others reserve it
group therapy General name for any
for counselling in which the participant
therapeutic method in which several
is presented with options for future
patients meet together for simultaneous
action and advice, without the implica-
treatment by the same therapist. Much
tion that the participant needs to be
of the therapeutic effect is derived from
the patients’ interactions with each
other – the therapist’s role after the guided discovery The process of
initial stages is often to guide rather guiding (although not leading or
than to order directly. shaping) a patient towards discovering
things about events in his/her life
grouped frequency distribution A
which have significantly influenced
measure (usually plotted as a graph) of
his/her behaviour.
how often different ranges of values of
a measure have occurred (e.g. what per- guided participation modelling (particu-
centage of the sample scored between 0 larly treatment of phobias).
and 5, how many scored between 6 and guiding fiction An idealized self-concept,
10, how many scored between 11 and which can cause problems if it strays
15, etc.). This grouping of scores, such too far from reality.
that a score can only fall within one
group, is called the class intervals system. Guilford Zimmerman Temperament
The number of class intervals within a Survey (GZTS) Measure of ten per-
grouped frequency distribution is given sonality attributes (e.g. sociability, emo-
the symbol k. See frequency distribution. tional stability).
grouping error (1) Generally, the Guttman scaling Method of construct-
innacurate categorization of subjects, ing an attitude scale, in which statements
data, etc. (2) Grouping data so that the are ranked in order of ‘strength’. It is
data within an individual group are assumed that if a subject agrees with a
abnormally distributed given the strong statement, then weaker expres-
assumptions of the analysis (typically, sions of the same arguments would also
the data within a group are not be agreed with.
normally distributed, and a parametric GWST Graded Word Spelling Test.
test is being used).
gynemimesis gender identity disorder, akin
growth need strength (GNS) The level to transsexualism in its symptoms, but
of need a person feels for growth, without the desire to be surgically
personal fulfilment, etc. changed to the opposite sex.
GRT Group Reading Test. gynophobia A phobia of women.
GSMD Griffith Scale of Mental Develop- GZTS Guilford Zimmerman Temperament
ment. Survey.

H enough to merit full hospitalization.

The institution attempts to replicate
h precision. (2) leverage statistic. normal community living, whilst under
professional supervision.
H2 heritability ratio.
hallucination A severe misperception
H heritability ratio. (rather than a mistaken belief, as in a
Hi alternative hypothesis. delusion), to the extent of perceiving
stimuli which cannot possibly be there
Ho null hypothesis. (e.g. hearing entire conversations from
habit regression Replacing a new habit ‘voices in the head’ in schizophrenia).
with an old one. See illusion.
habitual response Response/type of hallucinogen Any drug capable of pro-
behaviour which is characteristically ducing hallucinations. Largely synony-
used by a participant, and is a typical mous with psychedelic drug.
exemplar of a particular trait. hallucinosis Mental illness in which the
habituation (1) Becoming used to a form patient, whilst fully conscious, suffers
of stimulation (e.g. a drug or a signal), frequent hallucinations.
often with the added implication that it halo effect The tendency to allow early
no longer has the power it initially had. (and possibly inaccurate) judgements of
(2) The process of becoming addicted. a person or event to shape later evalua-
habituation training Training a patient tions. Alternatively, to allow one ‘good’
to bring a thought or idea to mind and feature of a person to cloud judgement
to keep it there by concentrating on it. of the rest of his/her character or abili-
The aim is to make the patient concen- ties.
trate upon thoughts of a situation halo error halo effect.
which produces maladaptive or
abnormal responses so that they haloperidol Form of antipsychotic drug.
become habituated to it, thereby Halsted–Reitan Neuropsychological
robbing it of its potency for provoking Battery (HRNB) A battery of
responses. neuropsychological tests, assessing
Hachinski Ischaemic Score (IS) A abstract reasoning and linguistic,
diagnostic technique for distinguishing sensory, visuo-spatial and motor skills.
dementias of cardiovascular origin, and Hamilton Rating Scale (HRS) observer
specifically, multi-infarct dementia. scale for rating the severity of depres-
Patients are scored on the number of sion.
symptoms they display (and some more
indicative symptoms are weighted). Hand test protective personality test for
participants aged 6 years and over.
HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression
Scale. Hand-Tool Dexterity Test Test of
manual dexterity and tool use. Primar-
haematophobia A phobia of blood. ily designed as a personnel screening test
half-way house An institution for for mechanical/engineering jobs.
patients who are too mentally ill for handedness The hand which is predom-
complete integration into ‘normal inantly used.
society’, but who are not disturbed

handicap An impairment sufficiently Harrington-O’Shea Career Decision-

pronounced to create an atypical state. Making System (CDM) Measure of
The DSM-IV grades mental dysfunc- interests and skills to assist school pupils
tion according to level of IQ: 0–19 in choosing a career.
(profound handicap); 20–34 (severe);
Harris image analysis See factor analysis.
35–49 (moderate); and 50–70 (mild).
Harrison-Stroud Reading Readiness
Hanfmann-Kasanin Concept Forma-
Test Test of how much a child already
tion Test A measure of concept forma-
knows about reading (what it is, what it
tion abilities (or of handicap of same).
is used for, etc.) and hence how
The test requires subjects to arrange
prepared s/he is for learning to read.
blocks of different colours, shapes and
sizes into categories. hashish See cannabis.
haphalgesia An abnormal perception of Hassles and Uplifts Scale Therapeutic
pain on being touched. questionnaire identifying sources of
stress and their possible solutions.
haphephobia A phobia of being touched.
hat value leverage statistic.
haptephobia haphephobia.
Hawthorne effect The phenomenon
haptic Pertaining to touch.
whereby there is likely to be an
Haptic Visual Matching Test (HVM improvement in performance if there is
Test) Assesses children’s ability to any change in the workplace, school, or
match visual and haptic (touch) percep- other institution, whether the change is
tions, and the degree of impulsiveness deliberately designed to be beneficial
with which this is done. The child feels or not.
(but cannot see) a shape, and is then
Hd scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
asked to pick the target by sight from a
sonality Inventory.
range of alternatives. The time taken to
make the response, as well as accuracy, hebephrenia disorganized schizophrenia.
is recorded. hebephrenic schizophrenia disorga-
haptometer Any device for measuring nized schizophrenia.
sensitivity of touch. hebesphalmology The study of delin-
hard data Data based on objective obser- quency.
vations. hedonic calculus In some forms of
hardiness Ability to withstand stress. therapy, judging the pros and cons of
an action.
Hare Psychopathy Test (PCL) Measure
of presence and strength of psychopathy. heliophobia A phobia of light or of the
harmonic mean Calculated by convert-
ing scores into their reciprocals (i.e. ‘Hello-Goodbye’ effect Phenomenon
divided into 1 – the reciprocal of 2 is whereby patients may exaggerate the
0.5, of 10 is 0.1, etc.), finding their severity of symptoms at the start of
mean, and then finding the reciprocal of treatment and play down their extent at
this mean. The measure is rarely used in the end of treatment.
psychology. Help-Assert Computerized assertiveness
harria Cattell’s term for a personality trait training programme.
corresponding to tough-mindedness.

Help-Esteem Computerized programme heroin See opiates.

intended to boost self-esteem in people
heroin antagonist Drug which prevents
lacking it.
a feeling of euphoria upon taking heroin
Help-Stress Computerized programme (thereby reducing the drive to take it).
intended to reduce stress levels of
heroin substitute A drug used to treat
heroin addiction. It stimulates the same
helplessness learned helplessness. opiate receptors as heroin (hence
blocking the physical craving for it),
hemi-inattention See sensory neglect.
but produces less euphoria.
h e m i b al l i smus An invo luntar y
heterogeneous group Group whose
movement of the limbs.
members have nothing in common. See
hemiparesis hemiplegia. homogeneous group.
hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the heteroscedacity See scedacity.
body. In contrast, paraplegia is paraly-
heuristic Problem-solving method.
sis of the legs, and is paralysis of the
Often applied to a method which
legs and arms. These are produced by
might not be entirely accurate, but will
damage to the spinal cord (the higher
be ‘close enough’ and will save mental
‘up’ the spine the damage occurs, the
effort (e.g. treating pi as 22/7).
greater the paralysis).
Hicomp Preschool Curriculum Com-
hemispheres (cortex) The cerebral cortex
mercial education curriculum planner.
is divided into two equally sized halves
along a vertical axis running from the hidden observer Rather nebulous term
front to the back of the head. These two for the experience of monitoring one’s
halves are known as the hemispheres, own behaviour and thoughts.
and are called the right hemisphere and
hierarchical multiple regression
the left hemisphere. In most individu-
ordered multiple regression.
als, the left hemisphere is principally
responsible for linguistic skills and the hierarchical sums of squares Type I
right for visuo-spatial skills (although sums of squares.
in some individuals, particularly left hierarchy of needs Maslow’s hierarchy of
handers, this is reversed, and other, needs.
rarer, people have no simple left–right
distinction). The hemispheres are high frequency words Words which
linked by several pathways, of which occur very often in common usage.
the most important is the corpus high functioning When the term
callosum. precedes the name of a condition (e.g.
hemispheric differences Differences ‘high functioning autism’) it means that
between the functions of the right and the patient concerned performs atypi-
left hemispheres. cally well on psychological and/or
physical tasks for someone with their
hemophobia haematophohia. condition. The term can be misleading
hemp Plant, one form of which is – it may additionally imply that the
cannabis. patient performs well when compared
with someone without the condition,
heritability ratio (H, h2)The proportion
or it may not. Accordingly, caution in
of variance in behaviour attributable to
interpretation is advised. Low function-
innate factors.

ing indicates that the patient performs Hirano body A crystalline structure
atypically badly for someone with their found in some brain cells in older
condition. people. The incidence of these
increases greatly in some demented
high risk students Students whose
(mis)perception of previous academic
failings may lower their motivation, Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning
and increase the probability that they Aptitude Non-verbal intelligence test
will ‘drop out’. battery designed for deaf or
hard-of-hearing children.
high-risk subjects at-risk subjects.
histogram A graph for visually express-
higher brain centres Nebulous term for
ing frequency distributions. The X axis
areas of the brain responsible for the
expresses the class intervals the data are
(also nebulously defined) higher mental
divided into, and the Y axis the fre-
quency of each category’s occurrence.
higher functions In neurology, gait, The data are expressed as a series of
speech and cognitive processes. bars of equal width, with no space
higher mental processes Nebulous between adjoining bars. The height of
term for mental operations which are the bar indicates the frequency with
regarded as ‘intellectual’ (i.e. which which a particular class interval has
require conscious attention to operate occurred. The histogram is, strictly
efficiently, and which can be signifi- speaking, not synonymous with the bar
cantly improved through practice, graph (which is used for discrete vari-
learning, etc.). ables), although the two terms are often
interchanged. The frequency polygon is
higher order factor primary factor. plotted in a similar manner to the histo-
higher order interaction An interaction gram, save that a continuous line is
with more than two variables. plotted instead of a series of bars.
Where the class interval represents
higher-order motive Motive whose ful- more than one number per interval, the
filment does not involve physiological line is plotted against the midpoint of
drives. the interval. The frequency polygon
hindsight bias In recalling a memory, should not be confused with the line
exaggerating the prevalence and/or graph. See distribution curve.
magnitude of a particular event, history The factors that have led to the
because it subsequently proved to be current state of affairs and which illus-
more important than it appeared at the trate the nature of the problems faced.
time. Thus, patient history is a collection of
hippocampus sub-cortical section of the information about the patient’s life
brain whose principal function is in which may be relevant to the case (e.g.
memory, and particularly in transfer- previous symptoms, behavioural
ring information from short- to problems, etc). Psychiatric history and
long-term memory. Damage to the hip- psychological history refer respectively
pocampus leads to an extremely debili- to specific psychiatric and psychologi-
tating amnesia, with patients unable to cal factors in the patient’s life. Family
remember practically all new informa- history is information on the family life
tion. of the patient relevant to the case and
usually includes information on any

genetic relatives with similar symptoms Home Observation for Measurement

(thus indicating a genetic link). of the Environment (HOME) Mea-
surement scale of influences likely to
histrionic personality disorder person-
influence mental development. Uses a
ality disorder characterized by extreme
combination of tester observation and
and over-dramatic expressions of mood
and reactions to events.
homeostasis The maintenance of an
hit true positive.
equilibrium (often used of physiologi-
HIT Holtzman Inkblot Technique. cal functions – e.g. regulating the
HIV-associated dementia AIDS dementia body’s temperature).
complex. homogeneity of variance Identical or
Holborn Reading Scale Reading test nearly identical patterns of variance in
for participants aged 5–13 years. Con- two or more sets of data.
sists of sentences which increase in dif- homogeneous group Group of individ-
ficulty as the test progresses. The test uals with an attribute or attributes in
terminates when the participant has common. See heterogeneous group.
made a set number of errors. The Salford
homophobia A phobia of homosexuals
Sentence Reading Test has a similar format.
and homosexuality.
hold tests See deterioration quotient (DQ).
homoscedacity See scedacity.
holding Term sometimes used in therapy
honesty test integrity test.
to denote the therapist’s aid to the
patient whilst the patient comes to Hopelessness Scale Beck Hopelessness
terms with his/her problem. Scale (BHS).
holergasia An illness which affects all hormone therapy Therapeutic method
aspects of psychological functioning. in which the patient is administered
extra hormones (e.g. in older women to
holistic research Research which attempts
replace those lost during the meno-
to measure all aspects of a phenomenon,
rather than concentrating on isolated
aspects. Hospital Anxiety and Depression
Scale (HADS) A questionnaire provid-
holistic therapy General term for thera-
ing a measure of levels of anxiety and
peutic techniques which consider the
whole person rather than just one
aspect of his/her psychological profile. hospitalism (1) reactive attachment disorder
of infancy. (2) The term has been used
Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT)
(not entirely accurately) by some authors
projective personality test in which partici-
as a synonym for institutionalization.
pants (age 5 years and over) describe
impressions formed by a series of ink- hostility personality Personality type
blots. Has a tighter construction and found in some older people – those
constraints on administration than the possessing it (illogically) blame others
Rorschach Inkblot Test (e.g. set number of for their present misfortunes.
answers permitted for each inkblot).
hot-seat technique Therapeutic tech-
HOME Home Observation for Measurement nique in which other members of a
of the Environment. therapy group tell an individual patient
exactly what they think of him/her.

Hotelling-Lawley trace Significance recognize the growth of the individual,

test for multivariate analysis of variance. rather than seeking to make everyone
develop in one ‘correct’ manner, as in
Hotelling’s T2 test A refinement of the
some of the more rigid forms of psycho-
test, in which two groups are compared
analysis. Most popular manifestation is
on several variables, and assessed on
probably Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
whether there is a significant difference
in the overall trend of scores, regardless Hunter-Grundin Literacy Profiles
of differences/similarities on individ- Reading test, which assesses several
ual variables. related reading and linguistic skills,
including: cloze procedure; spelling;
House-Tree-Person Test (H-T-P) A
creative writing; ability verbally to
projective personality test – the subject is
describe a pictorial scene; and motiva-
asked to draw the three objects of the
tion to read. Consists of four ‘Levels’,
title and then talk about them.
commensurate with the age of the
‘How I Feel’ Test Children’s State-Trait subjects: Level 1: 6–8 years; Level 2:
Anxiety Inventory. 7–9 years; Level 3: 8–10 years; and
Hoyt’s analysis of variance Statistical Level 4: 10 years and over.
assessment of reliability, utilizing the Huntington’s Chorea Older term for
analysis of variance formulae. Huntington’s Disease.
HRNB Halsted–Reitan Neuropsychological Huntington’s Disease An illness of
Battery. neural decay with the principal charac-
HRS Hamilton Rating Scale. teristics of disturbed gait and move-
ments. Some patients develop demented
H-T-P House-Tree-Person Test. symptoms. Ultimately fatal, the illness
human engineering (1) ergonomics, with can strike at any age, from childhood
particular emphasis on the design of through to old age. Strong genetic
machine controls. (2) Any method of component.
attempting to manipulate learning and Hutchison-Gilford syndrome progeria.
attitudes using psychological tech-
niques. Huynh-Feldt correction See sphericity
human factors American term for ergo-
nomics. HVM Test Haptic Visual Matching Test.

human potential movement General Hy scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-

term for a wide range of theories ality Inventory.
(perhaps most notably Roger’s self theory hydrocephalus Accumulation of fluid in
of personality) which have the growth of the skull, causing damaging pressure
the self as a prime objective. on the brain, which, if not treated, can
human relations training group (T lead to serious and permanent damage,
group) encounter group whose primary or even death. Symptoms may include
aim is usually to increase awareness of dementia-like behaviour.
the self and others in social interaction. hydrophobia A phobia of water.
humanistic psychology General term hygiene factors In occupational psychol-
for therapies (particularly client-centred ogy, the physical and contractual
therapy and Gestalt psychology) and working conditions of an employee.
theories of human development which

hyp- As a prefix, it conveys the same hyperlexia (1) Reading accurately but
meanings as hypo-. with no evidence of comprehension of
what is being read. See demented
hypacusia Poor hearing – not to be con-
dyslexia. (2) Reading at a precociously
fused with hyperacusia.
early age.
hypalgesia Abnormally high pain
hyperlogia hyperphasia.
threshold. The reverse (an abnormally
low pain threshold) is hyperalgesia. hypermania Abnormally high levels of
hyper- As a prefix: good, above, or exces-
sive. Compare with hypo-. hypermetamorphosis The compulsive
urge to touch everything.
hyperactive delirium See delirium.
hypermnesia Abnormally good memory.
hyperactivity An inappropriately high
level of activity, which cannot be vol- hypermotility hyperkinesis.
untarily controlled. Many adults with
hyperorality The urge to put everything
the condition are better at covering up
seen into the mouth.
their problem than are children, who
are the most conspicuous sufferers. The hyperorexia over-eating.
definition of hyperactivity is rather hyperosmia An abnormally good sense
over-inclusive, and covers a variety of of smell.
conditions from ‘spoilt brat’ through to
individuals with genuinely serious hyperparaesthesia Abnormally sensi-
problems. See attentional deficit disorder. tive touch/sense of being touched on
the skin.
hyperacusia Abnormally good hearing.
Not to be confused with hypacusia. hyperphagia over-eating.
hyperaesthesia (1) extreme sensitivity to hyperphasia Talking incoherently and
sensory stimulation (if it is one sense in quickly.
particular, this is indicated in a prefix – hyperphrasia hyperphasia.
e.g. visual hyperaesthesia). (2)
hyperparaesthesia. hyperphrenia Excessive (and usually
incoherent) thinking/mental activity.
hyperalgesia See hypalgesia.
hyperpiesia hypertension.
hyperalgia hyperalgesia.
hyperprosessis hyperprosexia.
hypergasia manic activity.
hyperprosexia compulsively paying atten-
hypergeusia Abnormally good taste (re: tion to an item or train of thought,
eating and drinking). usually for an excessively long time.
hypergraphia Excessive writing. hyperRESEARCH A commercial
hyperkinesia (1) attentional deficit computer programme used for a variety
disorder. (2) Generally, excessive activity of qualitative research techniques.
and restlessness. hypersomnia Sleeping for abnormally
hyperkinesis Over-activity reaching long periods.
manic/hyperactive levels. hypertension See blood pressure.
hyperkinesthesia Abnormally high sen- hyperthymia Abnormally grandiose
sitivity to movement. expressions of emotion.
hyperkinetic syndrome attentional
deficit disorder.

hyperthyroidism (Graves’ disease) that they will feel sick if they put a ciga-
organic affective syndrome caused by an rette in their mouth. The technique is
over-active thyroid gland, and resulting also open to potential abuse – e.g. by
in extremely energetic behaviour, bor- persuading a patient to do something
dering on mania. Hallucinations are ethically wrong. Hypnosis, by blocking
sometimes present. out normally present ‘filters’, may also
help a participant recall a memory more
hyperventilation Very rapid breathing,
clearly – the technique has been used
usually triggered by an attack of
by e.g. police forces to see if it improves
anxiety. The condition can cause the
a witness’s recall of an event. However,
subject to faint.
because a hypnotized person is prone
hypnagogic Pertaining to sleep. to suggestion, the questions must be
hypnagogic hallucination hypnagogic carefully posed by the therapist to
image. avoid the danger of leading the witness.
Another use of hypnosis is to enable
hypnagogic image A ‘dream’ had whilst patients with repressed memories and
drowsy, rather than when fully asleep. emotions to ‘liberate’ them under the
A phenomenon which seems only to be loosened constraints of the hypnotic
experienced by a fraction of the popu- state. This is efficacious, because it
lation. The experience can be a strange enables the patient to confront the
one, in that often one is simultaneously problem. An early example of this was
aware that one is dreaming. the patient Anna O, treated by the nine-
hypnogenic sleep-inducing. teenth century physician Josef Breuer.
It should be noted that all aspects of
hypnosis The induction of a deeply hypnosis have been criticized – the
relaxed state. This is usually done by technique is open to abuse (although
encouraging the patient to relax, whilst responsible therapists are at pains to
aiding him/her in this process with e.g. avoid this, and have a self-imposed
a series of relaxing verbal images, code of conduct). In addition, although
asking him/her to concentrate on a the majority of people can be hypno-
repetitive and calming movement, etc. tized, the depth of a hypnotic state
The state is unlike normal relaxation, in varies considerably between individu-
that the patient is willing to lower (but als. See mesmerism.
rarely completely abandon) normal
levels of disbelief, and accept what the hypnotic susceptibility The ease with
hypnotist suggests. In some cases, which an individual succumbs to
patients can be persuaded to ‘shut out’ hypnosis.
feelings of pain, and major surgery has hypo- As a prefix: below, lesser, smaller.
been successfully carried out on some Compare with hyper-.
hypnotized patients. Because of the
lowering of reality control, some hypoactive delirium See delirium.
patients can be persuaded to accept hypoacusia hypacusia.
commands to perform certain deeds
hypobulia abulia.
when they are awoken from their trance
(post-hypnotic suggestion) – commands hypochondria A somatoform disorder,
which they would, if conscious, characterized by the erroneous and
probably resist. This can be used as a persistent belief that one is ill, and/or
therapy – e.g. to persuade people to that mild symptoms are indicative of a
stop smoking by implanting the idea serious illness. Note that the term in its

lay use refers to a milder form which drawn, and tested. E.g. one might
would probably not merit professional develop the hypothesis that all children
treatment. called Alistair will prefer chocolate
from a range of flavoured ice creams.
hypochondriasis hypochondria.
The hypothesis can be easily tested by
hypoergasia An abnormally low level of getting a group of Alistairs and giving
activity, as found in many patients suf- them a choice of ice creams.
fering from depression.
hypothesis testing The process of estab-
hypogeusia Impaired sense of taste (re: lishing whether the null hypothesis or the
eating and drinking). alternative hypothesis is to be accepted.
hypoglossal cranial nerve cranial nerve hypothetical construct construct.
number XII. Concerned with muscular
hypothymia Abnormally low level of
control of the tongue.
emotional expression.
hypokinaesthesia An abnormally low
hypothyroidism (myxoedema) Illness
awareness of/sensitivity to movement.
caused by an under-active thyroid
hypokinesis Abnormally low level of gland, resulting in ‘sluggish’ thought
movement. and behaviour.
hypolexia dyslexia. hypotrophy atrophy.
hypologia Abnormally poor linguistic hypoxaemia Abnormally low levels of
ability. Usually the term refers to dis- oxygen in the blood.
ability resulting from general mental
hysteria Older term for conversion
impairment, rather than to specific
brain damage. See aphasia.
hysterical When the term prefixes the
hypomania See mania.
name of an illness, the term denotes
hypomnesia An abnormally poor that the illness is not due to physical
memory. causes, but to a somatoform disorder. See
hypophagia under-eating. e.g. hysterical blindness.

hypophrasia bradylalia. hysterical ataxia Somatoform disorder in

which the principal symptom is ataxia.
hypophrenia mental retardation.
hysterical blindness somatoform disorder
hypoprosessis hypoprosexia. in which the patient claims to be blind,
hypoprosexia Abnormally poor atten- although there is no physical damage
tion. to the eyes or visual pathways.
hyposmia Abnormally poor sense of hysterical deafness somatoform disorder
smell. in which the patient claims to be deaf,
though there is no physical damage to
hyposomnia Sleeping abnormally little. the ears or auditory pathways.
hyposthenia physical weakness. hysterical neurosis Old term for
hypothalamus sub-cortical section of the somatoform disorder.
brain, whose primary task is to control hysterical personality histrionic personal-
bodily drives (e.g. hunger and satiety, ity disorder.
sex, anger).
hysteriform Pertaining to, or resem-
hypothesis A model of a phenomenon bling, hysteria.
from which predictions about it can be
IDS / 139

I identification The acquisition of per-

sonality and behavioural characteristics
i class interval width. which are seen as ‘copying’ from other
people (e.g. parents, teachers etc.).
I (1) inductive reasoning. (2) Introversion.
identity crisis (1) identity disorder. (2) The
I-E measure internal-external measure. process of deciding what one’s adult
IARS Intellectual Achievement Responsibility persona will be.
Scale. identity disorder Profound distress and
iatrogenic Prescribed by a doctor. loss of function created by a feeling of a
lack of personal identity, of having
iatrogenic poisoning Illness arising chosen the wrong lifestyle, career, etc.
from an adverse reaction to legally-pre- See depersonalizdtion and dissociative dis-
scribed drugs. orders.
Ibogaine A hallucinogen. identity foreclosure See Erikson’s theory
IBR Infant Behaviour Record. of development.
ICC item characteristic curve. identity versus role confusion See
Erikson’s theory of development.
ICD WHO classification of diseases.
ideokinetic apraxia An inability to
ICL Occupational Interest Checklist.
perform sequences of actions (although
ictal emotion A sudden feeling of individual actions within a sequence
emotion without apparent cause. can be adequately performed).
icthyophobia A phobia of fish. ideomotor apraxia Inability to perform
a complex movement on command.
ictus stroke.
ideophobia A phobia of ideas.
id See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
ideoplasty Thought control by means of
ideal self The self the patient would most
like to be. See e.g. Roger’s self theory of
personality. idiographic That which is unique to the
individual. See nomothetic.
ideas of influence delusion of control.
idiographic research Research based
ideas of reference delusion of reference.
upon individual case studies.
ideation Formation of ideas.
idiot See mental retardation.
ideational agnosia An agnosia for
idiots savants (from the French) Individ-
uals with severe mental retardation who
ideational apraxia An inability to perform are surprisingly adept at an isolated
the correct functions associated with an intellectual skill (an islet of intelligence).
object. E.g. there are some autistic children who
ideational fluency Fluency at produc- are (by any standards) extraordinarily
ing names of items belonging to a talented at a facet of arithmetic or draw-
given category (e.g. types of neurologi- ing, yet who otherwise have a very low
cal disease, animals, etc.). IQ.

idée fixe A pathological obsession with IDPS Irlen Differential Perceptual Scale.
an idea or concept. IDS Inventory for Depressive Symptoma-

IIP Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. impulsivity impulse disorder.

illusion The misidentification of a in-basket exercise situational exercise in
stimulus. Compare with delusion. which the participant (a white collar
worker) is presented with a workload
imaginal exposure Imagining encoun-
(in the ‘in basket’) which s/he must
tering a particular situation or stimulus.
work through. Typically, the prime
The technique is used in some forms of
areas of interest are in what and how
therapy to train patients to cope with
much the participant delegates to
situations which have produced
others and how much time s/he allo-
maladaptive or abnormal responses.
cates to each job.
See imaginal flooding.
in vitro study laboratory study.
imaginal flooding implosion.
in vivo desensitization (-isation) See
imbecile See mental retardation.
imipramine Form of antidepressant.
in vivo study naturalistic research (defini-
impermeable constructs See personal tion 2).
construct theory.
inappropriate affect Having an inap-
implicit personality An extrapolation propriate emotional reaction to a piece
of what a person’s total personality of information.
‘must’ be like, from a brief sample of it.
incomplete case Subject who has not
imploding implosion. been tested on all the measures which
implosion See flooding. the rest of his/her group has received.

implosive therapy Therapeutic tech- incomplete pictures test Any test

nique using implosion as its principal which follows the same general proce-
tool. dure as the Gollin Incomplete Figures Test.

impotence A man’s inability to produce incomplete sentence test sentence com-

an erection in the appropriate circum- pletion test.
stances. In primary impotence, the incremental validity The degree to
patient has never produced an erection. which the predictive power of a test is
In secondary impotence, the patient has improved by removing certain items
produced erections intermittently, or from the test.
has produced them consistently in the
independent sample Sample, the selec-
past. Some commentators have
tion of whose members does not influ-
replaced the terms with the general
ence the selection of members of other
description of male inhibited sexual
samples within the same study (e.g. as
in the random allocation of subjects to
impression management Shaping two or more groups). Compare with
one’s image to improve other people’s dependent sample.
perceptions of oneself.
independent variable See dependent
impulse control disorder impulse variable.
index case proband.
impulse disorder A failure to control an
index of variability measures of disper-
activity. The commonest examples are
kleptomania, pathological gambling, and
pyromania. indirect correlation negative correlation.

indirect scaling A measure of ability to induced schizophrenia Copying

detect changes in the intensity of a schizophrenic symptoms from a genu-
stimulus by ranking the size of stimula- inely schizophrenic patient.
tions necessary to produce just noticeable
inductive reasoning (I) See deductive
differences. See direct scaling.
individual coping strategies A thera-
inductive statistics inferential statistics.
peutic regime tailored to the needs of
an individual person. Often produced industrial psychology occupational psy-
to cope with stress. See organizational chology.
coping strategy. industry versus inferiority See Erikson’s
individual differences The study of theory of development.
how and why people differ psychologi- Infant Behaviour Record (IBR) Scale
cally (particularly in intelligence and within the Bayley Scales of Infant Devel-
personality). opment, which measures the infant’s
individual psychology Theory and temperament.
resultant therapeutic method devel- infant intelligence tests Misleading
oped by Alfred Adler (1870–1937). At shorthand for tests assessing mental
its heart is the theory of the inferiority development in babies. Such tests can
complex – i.e. people usually feel only detect fairly gross levels of func-
inferior in some respect and so develop tioning, and beyond very broad gener-
strategies and behaviour to compensate alizations (e.g. there is evidence of
for this (compensatory strivings). E.g. at mental retardation or there is not), it is
the most literal, a person with a weak impossible to give a precise indication
voice may take vocal training and of future IQ. Indeed, many authors of
become a singer. The root of inferiority these measures explicitly reject the idea
feelings lies in childhood, and the that they have produced intelligence
theory emphasized how upbringing tests.
can create feelings of being on the
wrong end of a power relationship or infantile autism autism (definition 2).
of having weaknesses (Adler rejected infantile neurosis The theory (princi-
the prevailing Freudian notion of sexual pally in psychoanalysis) that adult
drive as the root cause of problems). neuroses are attributable to maladaptive
The general striving for superiority can practices in infancy.
be healthy if properly channelled, but
can become maladaptive if directed infantile perversion The theory (prin-
towards inappropriate goals (e.g. a cipally in psychoanalysis) that oddities in
too-great attempt to compensate, adult sexual behaviour are attributable
resulting in only superficial feelings of to maladaptive practices in infancy.
power and control is known as a supe- infantilism Using behaviours more
riority complex). appropriate for someone far younger.
individual test Test which must be infarct A ‘miniature stroke’, causing the
a d m i n i s t e re d t o o n e p a r t i c i- death of a tiny proportion of brain
pant/patient at a time. tissue. Infarcts occur in most older
individual therapy Therapy which must people’s brains, but on too small a scale
be administered to one patient at a time. to cause serious damage. However, in
multi-infarct dementia, the number of
induced psychotic disorder folie a deux. infarcts is considerably greater than
normal. See stroke.

inferential statistics Calculations of inhibited sexual excitement Inability

how representative a sample is of the to produce a physical sexual response.
population from which it is drawn (e.g.
inhibition deficit A failure to inhibit
gauging the likely efficacy of a ’flu
unwanted thoughts or items from
vaccine from how it affects a group of
volunteers). Typically, assesses the sta-
tistical significance of differences and inhibitory (neurons) An inhibitory
relationships. See descriptive statistics. neuron (in combination with many
other inhibitory neurons) which (i)
inferior In anatomy, a body section is
stops a previously active neuron from
inferior if it is located below another
transmitting signals and/or (ii) slows
section (which is termed the superior).
the rate of transmission. Compare with
There is no implication that the inferior
excitatory (neurons).
section has a less important function.
initial factoring procedure See factor
inferiority complex (1) See individual
psychology. (2) Dependent personality
disorder. initial letter priming Providing partici-
pants with the initial letters of words in
inferred number right (INR) score
a list the participant is trying to recall.
Traditional scoring system for a
multiple choice test, in which the first initiative versus guilt See Erikson’s
answer given is the only one accepted. theory of development.
See answer until correct (AUC) score. injunction In some therapeutic theories,
infinite population See population. a commandment (usually following the
general command ‘do not do x because
informal reading inventory Reading
x is wrong’) acquired in childhood
measure in which the child reads from a
which may cause sub sequent
variety of books (rather than taking a
maladaptive behaviour.
more formal reading test).
innate inherited.
informed consent Ethical principle that
a participant/patient is aware of the inner dialogue A conversation ‘in the
purpose of all tests/therapies s/he head’ which most individuals can sub-
takes part in, and has given his/her jectively report.
consent to their administration. See inner speech The inner thoughts – e.g.
blind study and placebo study. internal monologues, or the ‘voice in
Inglis Paired Associate Learning the head’ which most people experi-
(IPAL) Test Test assessing paired asso- ence when reading. This contrasts with
ciate learning (and hence mnemonic external speech, which is speech for
/cognitive efficiency) in older psychi- communicating with other people.
atric patients. INR score inferred number right (INR)
inherited Characteristics which are the score.
result of genetic transmission. Compare insectophobia entomophobia.
with congenital.
insight therapy Any therapeutic tech-
inhibited orgasm Condition in which nique in which the patient is encour-
the person feels sexual excitement and age d t o at t a i n i n s i g h t s ab o u t
can produce all appropriate responses him/herself.
except orgasm itself.

insomnia A profound inability to sleep. intellectualization (-isation) (1)

Types of insomnia include sleep onset Talking about a problem as a means of
insomnia (problems with falling avoiding tackling it. (2) Treating a
asleep), sleep maintenance insomnia problem in a detached manner as an
(being incapable of staying asleep for intellectual puzzle.
satisfactorily lengthy periods) and
intelligence The level of ease with
terminal insomnia (waking up too
which a subject can accurately respond
to intellectual tasks. Since the range of
instantia crucis crucial experiment. tasks which have an intellectual com-
ponent is vast, it is unlikely that pre-
instigation therapy Any therapeutic
cisely the same skill underlies all of
technique in which the patient is
them. Equally, it is unlikely that a dif-
encouraged to adopt certain behav-
ferent type of skill is required for each
iours/attitudes at the behest of the
and every different task. However,
researchers have made claims for both
institutionalized behaviour institutiona- these extremes and practically every
lization. permutation in between. See fluid intelli-
institutionalization (-isation) The gence and crystallized intelligence.
general intellectual and emotional deg- intelligence quotient (IQ) Often (erro-
radation experienced by man y neously) used as a synonym for ‘intelli-
long-term patients in institutions such gence’. The intelligence quotient is
as hospitals, retirement homes, etc. See used to denote how intelligent a person
deinstitutionalization. is, in comparison with the rest of his or
instrumental learning operant condition- her age cohort (also known as the devia-
ing. tion IQ). Traditionally, a score of 100
has denoted a person of average intelli-
instrumental value See terminal value. gence for his/her age cohort – i.e. 50%
instrumentation errors Errors in mea- of the group are cleverer, 50% are less
surement due to faults in the test equip- clever then this person. A score of more
ment (NB in this instance, some com- than 130 indicates someone who is
mentators classify human experiment- exceptionally bright for the group (i.e.
ers as ‘equipment’). there are few people in the age group
with better scores) and a score of 70 or
insulin therapy See convulsion therapy. below indicates someone who is unusu-
insult injury. ally intellectually disadvantaged. The
older method of measuring IQ in
integer A whole number. children was by the formula of mental
integrity test Measure of honesty/trust- age divided by chronological age, multi-
worthiness. plied by 100. (The problem with this
method is that it is useless for partici-
intellect See five factor model of personality. pants aged over 18 years, because
Intellectual Achievement Responsi- mental age is relatively stable in adult-
bility Scale (IARS) Questionnaire hood up to about 60 years of age. This
examining the degree to which a pupil means that the formula will cause their
attributes his/her academic achieve- IQs to decrease as they age.) See educa-
ments to him/herself, and how much tional quotient.
s/he attributes to parents, teachers, etc.

intelligence test Any test which claims B), only what is relatively harder within
to measure intelligence. Typically, the a group. Interactions larger than
test will yield a single measure of general two-way are hard to interpret. E.g. a
intelligence, which is usually expressed three-way interaction might be found
in terms of an IQ score. between measures of time of day when
tested, membership of group A or B,
intention tremor A trembling of the
and a test with two formats X and Y. It
muscles, which occurs when the subject
might show that for group A, scores are
is making a movement s/he intends,
higher in the morning for format X,
but not during involuntary movements.
and higher in the afternoon for format
Generally, the trembling worsens the
Y, but overall, group A performs better
closer the patient is to his/her goal (e.g.
in the afternoon; whilst group B find Y
reaching for and picking up an object).
easier in the morning and X easier in
It is often associated with damage to
the afternoon, but overall, group B
the cerebellum.
performs better in the morning.
inter-rater reliability The degree to Four-way interactions and beyond are
which two or more observers agree in virtually impossible to understand in
their ratings of a subject or event (often one conceptual unit. An absence of an
expressed as a correlation between their interaction (also called an additive
scores). interaction) indicates that all groups are
inter-stimulus interval (ISI) The time responding in a qualitatively identical
interval between one test item appear- fashion. A significant interaction is
ing and the next one appearing (or, sometimes called a non-additive inter-
between the first disappearing and the action. A two-way interaction, in which
next appearing – other definitions are group A is better than group B on
also possible). measure x, but is worse on measure y, is
called a cross-over interaction (because
interaction (ANOVA) In an analysis of the graph of the results looks like
variance, a measure of how different cross).
groups may perform in a qualitatively
different manner on the same measures. interaction variance The proportion of
The analysis indicates only whether an the total variance attributable to interac-
interaction is significant or not – the tions.
pattern of the interaction has to be interactional psychology interactionism.
gleaned by looking at the data them-
interactionism The view that psycho-
selves. The interaction is normally
logical growth is attained through the
prefixed with the phrase ‘x-way’,
interaction between the environment
where x is the number of measures
and an individual’s innate characteris-
involved. E.g., a two-way interaction
might describe how two groups
perform qualitatively differently on a interbrain diencephalon.
measure with two levels (e.g. group A
intercept of the regression line See
may be comparatively better on test X
than on test Y, whilst the reverse pattern
may hold for group B). Note that the interest inventory A catalogue of a par-
interaction does not state which group ticipant’s hobbies, likings, etc. The
has the higher scores (e.g. in the measure has obvious uses in careers
previous example, group A might be guidance, therapy, etc., but may also be
significantly better at test Y than group used as a general measure of lifestyle.

interference task Task which is interpolated task interference task.

designed to interfere with the process-
interpretative phenomenological
ing/memory of information (e.g. as in
analysis (IPA) A qualitative research
the Brown–Peterson task). Performance
method concerned with the analysis of
on the interference task itself is usually
people’s understanding and response
not of central importance.
to events or states, rather than an objec-
interictal Between seizures. tive account of the events or states
themselves. A key consideration is the
internal consistency See reliability.
input of the researcher in their interpre-
internal control (1) The degree to tation of the data.
which a participant’s own behaviour
interquartile range (IQR) See range.
can shape events. (2) The participant’s
perception of the same. See external interrupted time series study See time
control. series study.
internal-external measure (I-E interval censoring See left censoring.
measure) Any measure of the degree
interval estimate Given the mean or
to which a person feels s/he is con-
other measure of a sample, the range of
trolled by external circumstances,
values within which the population
versus internal motivations and wishes.
mean or other measure is likely to lie.
For a more specific definition, see
internal-external scale. interval of uncertainty See threshold.
internal-external scale See causal attri- interval recording Recording a
bution theory. participant’s behaviour at set time
intervals. This is usually done because
internal locus of control internal
recording all of the participant’s behav-
iour would create an unmanageably
internal reward intrinsic reward. large amount of data. See continuous
recording and time sampling.
internal validity The degree to which
findings from a study have been sub- interval scale Scale in which units of
jected to unplanned contamination by measurement are spaced apart equally,
external factors. and in which the value of zero is arbi-
trary (e.g. temperature measured on the
internalization (-isation) The assimila-
Fahrenheit scale – the value of zero
tion of ideas and opinions into one’s
degrees does not mean that there is no
own set of values. See introjection.
temperature). See nominal scale, ordinal
International Classif ication of scale and, especially, the ratio scale.
Diseases WHO classification of diseases
interval schedule The timing schedule
of rewards/punishments to be admin-
interpersonal Between people – see istered in a conditioning study.
intervening variable An experimental
Interpersonal Styles Inventory (ISI) A variable which is not directly measured,
measure of how well a participant but which is presumed to intervene
interacts with others. The test consists between an independent variable and a
of a set of statements with which the dependent variable. E.g. if the independ-
participant indicates agreement/dis- ent variable is number of hours of food
agreement. deprivation, and the dependent

variable is the amount eaten when food (2) In reading, inserting a word which
is presented, then the intervening is not in the to-be-read material.
variable is hunger.
Intuition (N) See Myers-Brings Type Indi-
intimacy versus isolation See Erikson’s cator.
theory of development.
intuitive personality see Jung’s psychoan-
intraclass correlation The strength of alytic theory.
relationship between two variables.
inventory In the context of psychologi-
intrapersonal Within a person. See cal testing, a ‘checklist’ of attributes
endogenous, and interpersonal. against which the participant is
measured (e.g. how often they cry, how
intrapsychic Within the mind.
often they lose their car keys, etc.). The
intrapsychic ataxia mental ataxia. inventory is either completed by the
intrapsychic conflict A hypothesized experimenter interviewing the partici-
conflict between different parts or pant, by people who know the partici-
aspects of the mind. pant well, or by the participant filling
in the inventory him/herself (often
intrapsychic disease model Any model known as the self-report questionnaire).
which concentrates upon a mental
illness as an endogenous process, Inventory for Depressive Symptom-
largely to the exclusion of exogenous atology (IDS) A measure of the
factors. severity of depressive symptoms.

intrauterine experience The experi- Inventory of Interpersonal Problems

ence of the foetus. Some psychoanalytic (IIP) Measure of the degree to which a
theories argue that this shapes subse- patient can (or cannot) interact with
quent personality. other people (e.g. form friendships,
assert him/herself, etc.).
intrinsic drive Being impelled to do
something for its own sake. Inventory of Suicide Orientation-30
(ISO-30) Thirty item questionnaire
intrinsic motivation A drive to perform designed for teenagers assessing their
an act because of an internal need, level of suicidal behaviour.
without any material reward. This con-
trasts with extrinsic motivation, where inverse correlation negative correlation.
there is a tangible goal. inverse factor analysis Q factor analysis.
intrinsic reward see extrinsic reward. inverse J curve See J curve.
intrinsic test bias test bias: see extrinsic test inverse J distribution inverse J curve.
inverted-U curve A curve which looks
intrinsic validity a priori validity. like an upside-down ‘U’. Such curves
introjection Term used in psychoanalysis are often found when e.g. plotting per-
to denote internalization, particularly of formance ability on the Y axis against
deeply-held moral values (e.g. those of arousal level of the X axis. As arousal
parents). increases, performance at first improves,
but above a certain level of arousal, per-
introversion (I) See extraversion. formance declines.
intrusion error (1) In memory tasks, ‘re- involutional depression involutional
calling’ an item which was not present. psychotic reaction.

involutional melancholia involutional Irlen Differential Perceptual Scale

psychotic reaction. (IDPS) Measure of various visual per-
ceptual abilities designed to identify
involutional psychotic reaction A
the presence or absence of scotopic
profoundly negative reaction to the
sensitivity, a perceptual problem result-
onset of middle age. See mid-life crisis.
ing from an unbalanced perception of
I/O Psychology Industrial/occupa- the spectrum. It is argued by some that
tional psychology –s synonym of occu- this is a cause of developmental dyslexia,
pational psychology. and that dyslexic readers should wear
iophobia A phobia of poisoning. tinted spectacles to redress the spectral
balance and so remove scotopic sensi-
IPA interpretative phenomenological analysis. tivity. Some also advocate their use in
IPAL Test Inglis Paired Associate Learning managing autistic sensory problems.
(IPAL) Test. The efficacy of these Irlen lenses has
been disputed.
ipsative Measured against the self.
Irlen lenses See Irlen Differential Percep-
ipsative behaviour Behaviour judged tual Scale.
against the participant’s normal stan-
dards. irregular spelling A word whose logical
pronunciation differs from the way it is
ipsative questionnaire Any question- supposed to be pronounced. Examples
naire in which the participant makes of irregular spelling abound in English
judgements gauged against his/her – ‘quay’, ‘misled’, etc.
own values.
irrelevant variable See relevant variable.
ipsative scale (1) Any scale of measure-
ment in which the participant bases irresistible impulse criterion The
his/her judgements against his/her (now largely outmoded) American
own values. (2) A scale on which items legal principal that a person cannot be
must be put in order and no items may judged guilty of an offence committed
share a ‘joint equal’ ranking. because of an irresistible impulse forced
on him/her through mental illness.
ipsative score Score relative to the par-
ticipant’s own mean. IRT item response theory.
ipsative test Measure of an individual’s IS Hachinski Ischaemic Score.
abilities in which their strengths and ischaemic cascade Series of events
weaknesses are compared with each leading to cell death after cessation of
other (i.e. as opposed to being blood supply (e.g. in a stroke).
compared with other people’s).
Ischaemic Rating Scale Hachinski
ipsatization (-isation) The creation of Ischaemic Score.
ipsative scores.
ISI (1) Interpersonal Styles Inventory. (2)
ipsilateral On the same side of the body inter-stimulus interval.
(see midline) as the section of the body
in question. Compare with contralateral. islets of intelligence See idiots savants.

IQ intelligence quotient. ISO-30 Inventory of Suicide Orientation.

IQR interquartile range. isocarboxazid Type of monoamine oxidase


isokurtic lacking skew. this would appear much steeper. See

Rasch scaling.
isolation The removal or suppression of
the association of a negative emotion item difficulty The proportion of parti-
with a particular memory or action. cipants correctly answering a question
on a test.
isolation syndrome transcortical sensory
aphasia. item discrimination item reliability.
It Scale for Children Test in which item facility The proportion of partici-
child expresses preferences for toys and pants who get a particular test item
objects with a strong ‘sex bias’ (e.g. wrong (a score of 1 = everyone gets it
dolls, prams, etc.). Designed to test wrong, and 0 = everyone gets it right).
strength and direction of stereotypical
item reliability The correlation between
sex roles in children.
scores on items within a test and the
item (tests) a question. total test score.
item analysis Assessing whether indi- item-remainder reliability item reliabil-
vidual items in a test are worthy of inclu- ity.
sion. There are a number of methods of
item response theory (IRT) Theory of
assessing this, the best known of which
test performance based on the item char-
are the Kuder-Richardson formulae.
acteristic curve.
item bias Test item which favours some
item universe All the questions devised
groups of subjects more than others
for a test or series of tests.
(e.g. in the UK, a question requiring
calculations in pre-decimal money item validity The degree to which per-
would be unfair to any participant aged formance on items from a test predicts
under 30). performance on another measure.
item characteristic curve (ICC) A iterated principal axis see factor analysis.
mathematical function describing how iterative Repeating.
the probability of answering a test
question in a particular manner is IV independent variable.
related to the strength with which a
participant possesses a particular trait.
E.g. the probability of correctly an-
swering an easy question on an intelli-
gence test might be 70% for a not very J
bright participant. This probability J Judging.
figure might gradually increase, the
brighter the participant being consid- J coefficient The correlation between a
ered, until a top value of 99% might be test predicting ability at a particular
reached for a very bright participant. If task or job, and actual performance of
a curve was drawn of this, it would the job.
appear relatively flat. However, suppose J curve A curve shaped approximately
we consider a very difficult question like a ‘J’. Low values on the X axis are
from the same test. Here, there might met with low values on the Y axis, but a
be only a 5% probability that a dull par- slight further increase in the value of x
ticipant will get it right, and this figure is met with a meteoric increase in the
might rise to e.g. 80% for the very value of y. The inverse J curve has the
brightest participant. A curve drawn of inverted shape – low values of x are

matched by high values of y, but a job families Occupations and tasks

further increase in x creates a drastic fall which demand similar skills and tasks.
in the value of y.
job satisfaction The degree to which a
J distribution J curve. job is found to be emotionally reward-
jacksonian epilepsy See epilepsy.
John Henry effect In some experimental
jamais vu A feeling that a familiar place
designs, an experimental group may
or event is entirely novel.
receive treatment which the control
JAQ Job Analysis Questionnaire. group may see as being preferential.
jargon aphasia Syntactically garbled Accordingly, the control group
speech (often containing parapbasias members may work ‘artificially’ harder
and neologisms) which is characteristic at the tasks set them to demonstrate
of many aphasias. that they can do just as well without
receiving beneficial treatment. This
JAS Jenkins Activity Survey. mars the accuracy of the study.
Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) Ques- joint probability probability of two or
tionnaire which assesses the degree to more events occurring simultaneously.
which a subject has a Type A personality.
Judging (J) See Myers-Briggs Type Indica-
Jesness Behaviour Checklist Test for tor.
adolescents, measuring 14 bipolar
dimensions of personality. Assessment Jungian archetype See Jung’s psychoana-
can be by self-report or by the partici- lytic theory.
pants’ teachers. Jungian theory See Jung’s psychoanalytic
JIIG-CAL A computerized career theory.
guidance package. The acronym stands Jung’s psychoanalytic theory Carl
for Job Ideas and Information Genera- Jung (1875–1961), initially a disciple
tor-Computer Assisted Learning. of Freud, who later founded his own,
JND just noticeable difference. highly influential theory ( Jungian
theory) of psychoanalysis. Although
JNND just not noticeable difference. based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory,
job analysis The analysis of a job or task Jung believed that several drives for
into the component skills required to self-fulfilment motivated people, and
execute it effectively, the equipment de-emphasized the role of psychosexual
used, etc. development. Also, Jung argued that in
addition to the unconscious as con-
Job Analysis Questionnaire (JAQ) ceived by Freud, there is a collective
Questionnaire designed to perform job unconscious. This is a set of inherited
analysis by asking participants how images (archetypes) of God, of heroes,
often they perform a range of activities etc., which have the power to shape
as part of their work routine. development, but of which the person
job characteristics The tasks and is not consciously aware (although they
responsibilities required of the holder may appear in the guise of art, folk
of a particular job. tales, etc.). Jung identified four methods
of perceiving the world: the feeling per-
job evaluation The calculation of the sonality (the emotional impact is of
financial worth of a job to the organiza- principal importance); the intuitive
tion. personality (the world is judged on

hunches and intuitions); the sensing K-SNAP Kaufman Short Neuropsychological

personality (the direct perception of the Assessment Procedure.
world as it appears through the senses);
K-TEA Kaufman Test of Educational
and the thinking personality (the
primary emphasis is on abstract
thought). Jung also conceived of indi- K-W test Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA
viduals being primarily extraverted or by ranks.
introverted, and being a mixture of KAI Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inven-
active and ‘masculine ’ elements tory.
(animus), and passive and ‘feminine’
elements (anima). Jung’s theory appear Kaiser criterion factor analysis.
gentler and more spiritual than Freud’s, Kaiser image analysis See factor analysis.
and his concept of the collective
unconscious attracted the attention of a Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin value (KMO
wide audience. However, the general value) In conducting a factor analysis,
criticisms which can be levelled against variables being considered for entry
Freud’s theories can just as heavily be into the equation can be assessed for
laid against Jung’s. See neo-Freudian suitability and given a KMO value. A
movement. value of < 0.50 is deemed unacceptable
(i.e. the variable should not be entered).
just noticeable difference (JND) See KMO values > 0.50 are graded into
threshold. increasingly more ‘acceptable’ groups
just not noticeable difference (JNND) up to a top group with values > 0.90.
See threshold. Kaiser’s normalization (-isation) See
juvenile delinquency delinquency. factor analysis.
KAIT Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelli-
gence Test.
Kanner’s syndrome autism – some com-
K mentators particularly apply the phrase
to cases of the illness in which the
k (1) See grouped frequency distribution. (2) symptoms clearly display themselves
In some theories, spatial ability. early in infancy.
K coefficient of alienation. kappa Cohen’s kappa.
K-ABC Kaufman Assessment Battery for Kaufman Adolescent and Adult
Children. Intelligence Test (KAIT) Intelligence
K-BIT Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. test based on measures of fluid and
crystallized intelligence.
K-FAST Kaufman Functional Academic
Skills Test. Kaufman Assessment Battery for
Children (K-ABC) test battery for
K-R formula See reliability.
children aged 2–12 years. The battery
K-R 20 See reliability. is heavily influenced by the theories of
K-R 21 See reliability. the Russian neuropsychologist Luria,
and, under his categorization scheme,
K-SADS-P See Schedule of Affective Disor- measures the ability to perform sequen-
ders and Schizophrenia. tial tasks and successive tasks. The
K scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person- measures are heavily biased towards
ality Inventory. non-verbal skills.

Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test version (1972) of the Kendrick Cognitive

(K-BIT) Intelligence test measuring Tests for the Elderly.
both fluid intelligence and crystallized
Kendrick Cognitive Tests for the
Elderly test battery for identifying
Kaufman Functional Academic Skills dementia in participants aged 55 years
Test (K-FAST) Measure of reading and over. Consists of two tests. The
and mathematical skills in adults. Kendrick Object Learning Test (KOLT)
is a memory test for arrays of pictures in
Kaufman Short Neuropsychological
varying numbers, and the time over
Assessment Procedure (K-SNAP)
which the memories must be retained.
Measure of basic memory, perceptual
The Kendrick Digit Copying Test
and intellectual skills in older children
(KDCT) measures the speed at which
and adults.
the participant copies a set of 100
Kaufman Test o f Educational numbers.
Achievement (K-TEA) A battery of
Ken d r i c k D i g i t Co p y i n g Tes t
achievement tests, assessing mathematical,
(KDCT) See Kendrick Cognitive Tests for
reading and spelling skills.
the Elderly.
KDCT Kendrick Digit Copying Test.
Kendrick Object Learning Test
Kelly’s personal construct theory (KOLT) See Kendrick Cognitive Tests for
personal construct theory. the Elderly.
Kendall coefficient of concordance keraunophobia A phobia of lightning.
(W) A non-parametric measure of the
Kernicterus Brain damage induced by
degree to which two or more sets of
excessive jaundice.
ranks are in agreement. Scores vary
between 1 (full agreement) and 0 (no key informant In interview studies, an
agreement). interviewee who provides information
of a significantly higher than average
Kendall partial rank correlation coef-
ficient (TXYS) See Kendall rank corre-
lation coefficient. KeyMath test achievement test of mathe-
matical skills.
Kendall rank correlation coefficient
(t) Like the Spearman rank order correla- KFD Kinetic Family Drawing.
tion coefficient, a measure of correlation KGIS Kuder General Interest Survey.
between two variables measured on
ordinal scales. Unlike the Spearman khat Fibrous tropical plant – chewing it
measure, however, the Kendall method induces (relatively mild) feelings of
can calculate a partial correlations, in the euphoria. At the time of writing, it is
form of the Kendall partial rank correla- still legal in Britain.
tion coefficient. See Kendall coefficient of kindling The increased susceptibility of
concordance. neurons to activation resulting from
Kendall’s tau Kendall rank correlation coef- repeated stimulation. The phenomenon
ficient. is often linked to epilepsy-like attacks.
Kendall’s I Kendall rank correlation coeffi- Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) projec-
cient. tive test in which the participant draws a
picture of his/her family ‘doing some-
Kendrick Battery for the Detection thing’.
of Dementia in the Elderly Early

Kinetic School Drawing (KSD) projec- hyperorality, bulimia, visual agnosia,

tive test in which the child participant hypermetamorphosis, and loss of affect.
draws a picture of him/herself per- There may also be a grossly heightened
forming an act at school. sexual appetite, particularly in younger
kinetic tremor action tremor.
KMO value See Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin
Kirton Adaptation-Innovation
Inventory (KAI) Measure of creativity
and problem-solving, which also knowledge-based test Measure of how
assesses the style in which these skills much a participant knows or what s/he
are executed. has an aptitude for. By contrast, a
person-based test is a measure of the par-
Kleinian theory neo-Freudian model
ticipant him/herself (e.g. their person-
devised by Melanie Klein, which
ality, emotional state, etc.).
emphasizes the importance of early
infancy. The theory is complex, but an Knox Cubes Test A measure of
often cited tenet of the theory is the visuo-spatial memory – the subject is
internal conflict the infant has to required to tap cubes in a pattern
resolve between perceived good and provided by the experimenter.
bad attributes of the same object. E.g.
Kohn Problem Checklist (KPC)
the breast can be seen separately as
Measure of social and emotional func-
good breast-bad breast because it
tioning/dysfunctioning in children
provides sustenance but is not always
aged 3–5 years.
available immediately on demand. The
infant has to learn that these attributes Kohn Social Competence Scale (KSC)
belong to the same object. Resolving Measure of social skills and emotional
the conflict leads into a more mature expression in children aged 3–6 years.
state in which hostile feelings towards Kohs block design test block design test.
the bad aspects of things are restrained.
Failure adequately to resolve these KOIS Kuder Occupational Interest Survey.
stages is alleged to lead to problems in Kolmogrov-Smirnov one sample test
later life. As with other psychoanalytic A non-parametric measure of whether the
models, it is ingenious but untestable. cumulative frequency distribution of a
kleptolagnia Pleasure from theft. sample significantly differs from a
hypothesized population distribution
kleptomania An impulse disorder – the (i.e. whether the distribution might be
patient has an irresistible urge to steal, expected by chance). Thus it is a
even though the stolen items may be of goodness of fit test. The test has greater
no value to him/her. power than the chi squared one sample test.
kleptophobia A phobia of crime (either Kolmogrov-Smirnov two sample test
suffering it or of being accused of non-parametric measure of whether two
being a criminal). groups are derived from populations
Klinefelter’s syndrome Possession of with the same cumulative frequency distri-
two X chromosomes and one Y, result- bution (and hence, it is assumed, the
ing in incomplete sexual development same population). Cumulative fre-
and mental retardation. quency distributions of the two groups
are compared to see if they have the
Kluver-Bucy syndrome A collection of
same pattern. Sufficiently similar
abnormal behaviours, including
patterns indicate a non-significant differ-
L SCALE / 153

ence. Different formulae are employed group B the middle ranks and group C
for small and large samples, and also the low ranks) is calculated. The K-W
depending upon whether a one-tailed test is thus the non-parametric equiva-
test or a two-tailed test is desired. lent of the one-way between groups
analysis of variance.
KOLT Kendrick Object Learning Test.
Kruskal-Wallis test Kruskal-Wallis
koro A mental illness peculiar to those
one-way ANOVA by ranks.
raised in a Chinese culture – the belief
(particularly among males) that one’s KSC Kohn Social Competence Scale.
genitals will be absorbed into the body,
KSD Kinetic School Drawing.
leading to death.
Kucera and Francis word list Teachers’
Korsakoff ’s amnestic syndrome
Word Book of 30,000 Words.
Korsakoff ’s syndrome.
Kuder General Interest Survey (KGIS)
Korsakoff ’s psychosis Korsakoff ’s
American test of general areas of
interest (e.g. outdoor, scientific, etc.) for
Korsakoff ’s syndrome Profound use in preliminary careers counselling
anterograde amnesia, usually coupled in children in grades 6–12.
with confabulation. Results from
Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
long-term vitamin deficiency, and is
(KOIS) American measure of careers
most often encountered in alcoholic
interests for use in careers counselling
patients. The condition is often found
for pupils and participants in grades 10
in patients with Wernicke’s dementia
to adult.
(Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome).
Kuder-Richardson formula See reli-
KPC Kohn Problem Checklist.
Krathwohl’s chain of reasoning
Kuhlman-Anderson Tests test battery of
model Model of reasoning/research
scholastic aptitude tests.
design by Krathwohl. The model
emphasizes that the design and execu- kurtosis The ‘pointedness’ of the shape
tion of research or other forms of of a frequency distribution. Gives an indi-
enquiry is essentially linear, and that cation of how widely spread the results
any stage in its execution is only as are around the mean.
sound as the stages which preceded it. kymograph Any mechanical method of
Kreutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt- recording performance as a graph.
Jakob Disease.
Kruskal-Shepard scaling test A multidi-
mensional scaling technique for use on
subjects’ ratings of similarities between
L data Data from naturalistic research (defi-
Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA by nition 2).
ranks (K-W test) non-parametric test for
comparing three or more groups of LAC Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization
subjects on the same measure. Scores Test.
for all groups are pooled and ranked, L scale (1) See Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
and whether different groups tend to sonality Inventory. (2) See Eysenck Person-
possess different ranks (e.g. group A ality Questionnaire (EPQ).
has most of the high ranked scores,

L1 first language. lambda Measure of correlation between

dichotomous and/or nominal variables.
L2 second language.
Landolt C A measure of acuity – the par-
la belle indifference See conversion
ticipant is shown upper case ‘C’s in
which the ‘arms’ of the letter are very
labile variable. close together (i.e. nearly forming an
laboratory study See ecological validity. ‘O’). The participant must judge if
he/she can see a gap.
labyrinth Pertaining to the structure of
the inner ear. language centres Areas of the brain
responsible for language comprehen-
lack of emotional continuity See sion and production.
Allport’s theory of personality development.
language delay In children, a delay in
lacunar amnesia episodic amnesia. acquiring language or in progressing to
lacunar deficits The phenomenon, an age-appropriate stage of linguistic
sometimes en count e re d in development.
brain-damaged patients, whereby some large n design A study with many par-
intellectual functions are almost com- ticipants (usually this means thou-
pletely destroyed, whilst others remain sands). There is also the implication
relatively intact. that some of the more complex statisti-
lacunar dementia (LD) Some (although cal tests will be used to analyse the data.
not all) commentators argue that LARR Test Linguistic Awareness in Reading
patients suffering from multi-infarct Readiness Test.
dementia, and who exhibit lacunar
deficits, should be reclassified as suffer- latah Mental illness, principally found in
ing from lacunar dementia. the Far East, characterized by echolalia
and complete subservience.
laddering In personal construct therapy, a
technique of getting the patient to late adult transition The period around
provide basic constructs which are retirement.
explored to encourage the patient to late life psychosis Any psychosis (any
produce more general constructs, etc, mental illness characterized by a severe
until the superordinate constructs under- loss of contact with reality in the
l ying the other constructs are absence of dementia or delirium; princi-
produced. In pyramiding, the opposite pally the term describes schizophrenia)
technique is used – the patient begins which manifests itself in later life. The
with a superordinate construct, and condition can appear in tandem with
then ‘works down’ until s/he has iden- dementing symptoms, but need not do.
tified the basic constructs s/he uses in
late onset schizophrenia (LOS) schizo-
everyday life.
phrenia arising in middle age or later
lalling infantilism of speech. life. Whether the illness spontaneously
lalopathy Any disorder of speech. develops at this age is debatable. LOS
patients may have atypical behav-
lalophobia A phobia of speaking. iours/lifestyles prior to onset, typically
laloplegia Paralysis of the vocal chords. protected either consciously or tacitly
by p a ren t s o r f r i e n d s. O f t e n ,
lalorrhea hyperphasia. death/incapacitation of a caregiver

precipitates more pronounced schizo- ments. A y x y matrix is drawn (where y

phrenic symptoms. is the number of treatments) and where
each treatment appears once in each
late paraphrenia Mental disorder of
column. For example, in the case of
later life, characterized by symptoms of
three treatments, the Latin square
feelings of persecution and elaborate
might look like:
fantasies of the same. Commoner in
women. Can have a variety of causes, 1st 2nd 3rd
including cardiovascular problems and
previous episodes of mental illness.
latency period See Freud’s psychoanalytic
theory. B C A
latent See manifest. Some experimenters elect to give the
first participant the treatments in the
latent schizophrenia schizotypal person- order specified in row 1, subject 2 row
ality disorder. 2, subject 3 row 3, subject 4 row 1,
latent trait modelling item response subject 5, row 2, etc. Others would
theory. devise a new set of permutations for the
each block of three subjects. In a
latent variable See structural equation balanced Latin square, each treatment
modelling. equally often precedes and follows the
latent variable structural modelling other treatments.
structural equation modelling. law of averages The belief that unusu-
lateral Anatomical term. Further away ally extreme measures will tend to
from the midline than another section of cancel each other out in an analysis,
the body under consideration. Compare because unusually large measures will
with medial. be compensated for by unusually small
lateral fissure A fissure which marks the
boundary between the frontal lobe and law of filial regression filial regression.
the temporal lobe. law of large numbers (1) See signifi-
lateral hypothalamic syndrome cance. (2) The larger the sample, the
Combined adipsia and aphagia, caused more likely it is to be an accurate repre-
by damage to the lateral area of the sentation of the population from which
hypothalamus. it is derived.
laterality The degree to which one side LAWSEQ Questionnaire measuring
of the body/brain is favoured over the self-esteem.
other in performing a task. LCU life change unit.
lateralization (-isation) In neuropsycho- LD (1) learning disabilities. (2) lacunar
logy, the term is used to describe the dementia.
extent to which the left and right hemi-
spheres share control of certain skills. learned helplessness Theory that some
Typically, the left controls most verbal mental illnesses (e.g. anxiety disorders,
skills, and the right, most visuo-spatial depression) result from the patient’s erro-
skills. neous belief that s/he cannot control
his/her own fate.
Latin square design A method of coun-
terbalancing the presentation of treat- learning curve The rate at which infor-
mation about a topic is learnt. Typically

(although not universally), this is a case sented for treatment by a doctor can be
of diminishing returns – a lot is learnt easily determined, it is notoriously dif-
early in the study period, but progres- ficult to determine when the first
sively less new information is acquired symptoms of the illness began, since
the longer the person studies. they may have been too subtle to be
noticed. Right censoring refers to lack
learning disabilities (LD) specific
of information about a feature of
learning difficulties.
interest after the study has ended. E.g. a
Learning Potential Assessment study of recurrence of symptoms of
Device (LPAD) Intelligence test in mental illness over the period of a study
which the child performs a culture-fair is uninformative about what happened
test, followed by training on problem- in the years following the study’s end.
-solving methods relevant to the test, Interval censoring refers to a lack of
followed by retesting. information before and after a period of
Learning Process Questionnaire observation (i.e. both left and right cen-
(LPQ) Questionnaire measuring study soring). See censored observations.
skills and motivation in secondary left dominant thinking left brain skills.
school pupils. See Study Process Question-
legasthenia A profound inability to join
letters into words (reading and
learning theory General term for any writing).
theory which argues that people are
leisure counselling Advising people on
best taught by conditioning or which
how to spend their free time.
assesses learning in terms of condition-
ing. See behaviourism. Leiter International Performance
Scale Non-verbal intelligence measure
least significant difference test Fisher’s
for children.
PLSD test.
leniency error leniency set.
least squares regression A common
method of calculating regression. The leniency set See evaluative set.
regression line is constructed so that the
leptokurtic distribution frequency distri-
squares of the distances between the
bution with a very peaked shape. See
points of the graph and the line are
mesokurtic distribution, and platykurtic
left (anatomy) The ‘left’ refers to what
lesion Damage to a defined area of the
the patient would describe as the left
body (as opposed to widespread
hand side of their body.
general decay).
left brain skills Loose term for skills
letter strings Groups of letters which
associated with the left hemisphere –
may or may not form real words.
chiefly linguistic and logical skills. This
contrasts with right brain skills, which leucotomy lobotomy.
are said to be concerned with artistic leukotomy leucotomy.
and creative matters.
level of measurement The level of
left censoring Lack of information information contained in the measure-
about a feature of interest to an experi- ment scale (i.e. whether interval scale,
menter that occurred before the study nominal scale, ordinal scale, or ratio scale).
began. E.g. in cases of dementia,
although the date a patient first pre- level of significance significance level.

level (of spinal cord) See spinal cord. subjects do not have to judge what a
discovered real word ‘says’.
levelling cognitive style in which there is a
tendency to assimilate new information lexical dysgraphia surface dysgraphia.
into existing patterns of knowledge.
Leyton Obsessional Inventory
This contrasts with sharpening, in
Measure of obsessional behaviour and
which there is a tendency to see new
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
information as being distinct from the
old. libido In Freudian theory, the energy
fuelling sexual drive. See Eros.
levels (of variable) The number of
values the variable has in a particular lie scale A set of questions interspersed
experiment (e.g. if the variable is a drug, within some forms of personality test,
it might have three levels, correspond- which measure the degree to which a
ing to three intensities of dosages, such subject is lying, or is ‘guilty’ of social
as one, three, or 10 mgs). Typically, the desirability responding. Questions on a lie
experimenter chooses how many levels scale typically ask the subject if s/he is
a variable can have. impossibly virtuous (e.g. ‘have you
never told a lie?’). The lie scale score
leverage statistic (h) A measure of in
can be used to reject extreme subjects,
effect the distorting effect of individual
or to weight their scores appropriately.
cases in a regression equation. Generally,
In some tests, the lie scale score can in
a case with a leverage > 0.5 is removed
itself form part of the personality
from the calculation.
levophobia A phobia of anything on
life change unit (LCU) A measure of the
one’s left hand side.
extent to which life events affect a
Lewis Counselling Inventory Test person’s lifestyle.
assessing the kind of therapy/counsel-
life event Any event which is likely to
ling the (adolescent) participant
have long-term influences on a person’s
behaviour and lifestyle (e.g. getting
Lewy body A form of damage found in married, death of a parent, etc.). The
the brain cells of some demented patients term is often used purely to refer to
(particularly those suffering from Par- negative influences.
kinson’s disease). Under a microscope, the
life review Process of reviewing one’s
Lewy body is a round body comprised
past. Usually the term refers to planned
of a dense packet surrounded by looser
part of a therapeutic process.
life space Concept invented by Kurt
lewy body disease A proposed (but not
Lewin (1890-1947), that a person’s
as yet universally accepted) category of
behaviour is determined by a combina-
dementia attributable to the presence of
tion of environmental and internal
Lewy bodies.
factors which are immediately ‘at hand’
lexical decision task A very heavily and noticed by the person, and are
used cognitive psychological experi- known collectively as the life space.
mental method. Subjects are shown
likelihood ratio (LR) (1) The ratio of
letter strings and asked to judge as
the probability of something occurring
quickly as possible whether or not the
under one condition against the proba-
strings form real words. Note that the
bility of the same thing occurring
under another condition. (2) Hence, by

extension from (1), in signal detection linear regression regression calculation

analysis, the ratio of hits to false alarms. which produces a straight regression line.
(3) Hence, also by extension from (1), a See non-linear regression.
concept used in statistics when
linear relationship A relationship
deciding whether a sample is derived
between two or more variables, in
from a particular population.
which, if the scores on one variable are
likelihood ratio chi square Alternative plotted on a graph against the scores on
method of calculating the chi squared the other variable(s), a straight line is
test. found (or at least, a straight line will fit
the data best). In a non-linear relation-
Likert scale attitude scale in which
ship, the line is anything other than
subjects respond on a five point scale
straight (e.g. a curve). A special version
(strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree,
of this is the step function. Here, a
strongly disagree). See Thurstone scale.
variable does not change gradually, but
limbic lobe Section of brain at the in ‘jumps’ with little or no change
junction of the hemispheres and the brain between them (e.g. when y = any value
stem. Involved in sexual behaviour, between 0 and 10, x=l; y=11–20,
emotion and memory. x=2; y=21–30, x=3, etc.). The rela-
limited response question Question tionship, if shown on a graph, looks
where the participant provides his/her like a side view of some steps.
own answer, within limitations linear systematic sampling Selecting
provided by the experimenter. See free every nth member of a larger sample to
response question. act as an experimental subject.
Lindamood Auditory Conceptualiza- linear transformation Mathematically
tion Test (LAC) Measure of ability of adjusting data so that, when the
chi l d ren an d a d o l e s c e n t s t o original and the transformed data are
conceptualize word sounds in a visual plotted against each other as a graph,
format. The measure assessed the devel- they take the form of a straight line.
opment of linguistic skills. The transformation also retains the
line graph A graph in which the X axis features of the original distribution,
represents an independent variable and barring a change in the values of the
the Y axis the dependent variable. The mean and the standard deviation. By
data plotted by a line drawn between extension, a non-linear transformation
the points. The line graph should not alters the data so that an old-trans-
be confused with the frequency polygon formed data plot forms a curved line.
(which is a measure of frequency occur- linguistic awareness The conscious
rence of a single variable). awareness of one’s linguistic skills, and
linear combination Creating a new of how language is structured.
variable by adding together several Linguistic Awareness in Reading
other variables. The variables being Readiness Test (LARR Test) Test of
added up can be weighted. linguistic awareness, for beginning
linear correlation correlation whose readers (i.e. tests ability to recognize
graphical expression is a straight line what reading looks like, what it is used
(this is the ‘conventional’ correlation). for, and awareness of the structure of
In contrast, a non-linear correlation language). Held by the test’s authors
assumes a shape other than a straight to be a crucial determinant of whether

the participant is ready to be taught to lobotomy Severance of (some or all)

read. neural connections to a lobe. Often used
as shorthand for frontal lobotomy.
linguistic bias test bias in which some
participants are unfairly discriminated localization (-isation) See neuro-
against because of linguistic problems psychology.
rather than through substance of the
Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment
test itself (e.g. participants from immi-
Scale Measure of the state of the rela-
grant groups, culturally deprived back-
tionship between a married or cohabit-
grounds, etc., may fail test questions
ing couple.
not because of the problem itself, but
because they cannot understand the locomotor ataxia tabes dorsalis.
instructions). locomotor map following task
Liquid Ecstasy GHB. Weinstein maps.
LISREL Form of structural equation model- locus of control The degree to which a
ling. The name is a rather contrived participant feels in control of his/her
acronym of ‘Analysis Of Linear Struc- own life.
tural Relationships’. locus of evaluation The point(s) of ref-
lithium carbonate Drug used in the erence an individual uses in making a
treatment of bipolar disorders. judgement.
Little Albert John Watson (1878– log-linear analysis Method of compar-
1958), psychologist, applied classical ing three or more categorical variables. In
conditioning techniques to a child – essence, it is the multivariate version of
‘Little Albert’ – who was conditioned the chi squared test.
into fearing a white rat by a loud fright- log(arithm) transformation See nor-
ening noise being sounded every time malization.
he was shown the rat. Albert subse-
quently feared not only the rat but logistic regression regression calculation
many other white furry things. Albert where the predicted variable is a dichoto-
was an orphan, and was adopted and mous variable.
moved away before deconditioning could logoclonia Persistent repetition of a
take place. Not one of behaviour therapy’s syllable or other word segment.
greater achievements.
logorrhea hyperphasia.
Little Jiffy see factor analysis.
logotherapy form of existential therapy
living will Signed and witnessed decla- devised by Viktor Frankl. A central
ration by a person that in the event of feature of the method is the use of para-
their becoming severely mentally doxical intention. Like other existential
and/or physically incapacitated, no therapies, it encourages the patient to
effort will be made to prolong survival come to terms with the demands and
artificially. choices placed on him/her by their
lobe A segment of the cortex. The four existence.
lobes are the frontal lobe, occipital lobe, London Reading Test Reading test for
parietal lobe and temporal lobe. participants aged 10–12 years. Consists
lobectomy Removal of a lobe (note that of cloze procedure and comprehension
the term may refer to removal of a tests.
section of lung, also called a lobe).

l o n g - t e rm p s yc h o t h e rap y See thoracic level. Has five segments, labelled

short-term psychotherapy. LI to L5 (LI being the highest).
long-term span See span. Luria-Nebraska test battery Battery of
neuropsychological tests, assessing 11
longitudinal fissure The fissure running
major aspects of functioning (e.g. lin-
between the left and right hemispheres.
guistic skills, motor skills, etc.). Discov-
longitudinal research/samples/ eries of dysfunction can help identify
study The experimental method of which part of the patient’s brain is
testing the same group of people at dif- damaged.
ferent ages. Contrast with cross-sectional
Luscher colour test Personality test
research/samples/study. See overlapping
based upon the person’s order of pref-
longitudinal study, sequential research design
erence for a group of colours.
and time-lag comparison.
lying (L) scale lie scale.
loose association In communicating,
veering off the point and starting
another topic, either tangentially asso-
ciated with the previous one, or recall-
ing a completely different earlier topic.
The phenomenon can be indicative of a
thought disorder. M-MAC McDermott Multidimensional
Assessment of Children.
LOS late onset schizophrenia.
MA mental age.
loudness recruitment A physical com-
plaint in which sounds in a particular Ma scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Per-
frequency band (usually high) are sonality Inventory.
(mis)interpreted as being louder than machiavellianism The degree to which
usual, sometimes to the point of being an individual feels that the end justifies
painful. the means (regardless of the moral
low frequency words Words which worth of the latter). Named after
occur very rarely in common usage. Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli
(1469–1527), statesman and author,
low functioning See high functioning. who advocated an often extreme
lower apparent limit See class intervals. version of such an approach, and set the
tone for the British stereotype of conti-
lower real limit (LRL) See class intervals.
nental politics.
loxapine Form of antipsychotic drug.
machismo The stereotypical masculine
LPAD Learning Potential Assessment Device. attributes of being tough, resourceful,
LPQ Learning Process Questionnaire. etc. With changing attitudes to gender
roles, the term has become somewhat
LR likelihood ratio. derogatory, denoting the stereotypical
LRL lower real limit. accompaniments of lack of sensitivity,
pig-headedness, etc.
LSD d-lysergic acid diethylamide.
macho The adjective derived from
LSD test Fisher’s PLSD test. machismo.
lumbar level (spinal cord) level of the MACI Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory.
spinal cord, below the cervical level and

macro (research) Pertaining to the maieusiphobia A phobia of childbirth.

whole or the combined effects of
main effects (ANOVA) See analysis of
several smaller systems. Hence, the
study of a whole system. By contrast,
micro refers to the study of parts of the mainstreaming (1) American term for
system in greater detail. placement of children with physical
handicaps and/or mental retardation in
macropsia A disorder of visual percep-
normal schools. (2) Generally, the
tion, in which items are seen as too
placing of patients from institutions or
with appreciable psychological or
mad cow disease bovine spongiform physical problems in the community.
maintainance variables Behaviours
magical thinking Mistaken belief that and aspects of the person’s environ-
one’s thoughts alone can have a ment which help maintain him/her in a
physical effect. particular state.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) A maintaining cause An item, event,
method of scanning an organ (e.g. the person, etc., which causes one to
brain) to produce three-dimensional maintain a particular form of behav-
images. It involves placing the body in iour.
a strong magnetic field, then switching
major affective disorder A nebulous
the field off. This causes the cells to
term describing any disorder of affect
release radio waves which can be read
which is severely incapacitating.
and interpreted by the MRI scanner.
major depression unipolar disorder.
magnification In therapeutic situations,
the patient’s maladaptive exaggeration major depressive episode Period of
of what they perceive to be the signifi- depression which lasts for an appreciable,
cance of events (e.g. claiming that uninterrupted period.
non-threatening events are dangerous major tranquillizer Drug which
or that dangerous events are harmless removes or reduces the severity of
or even beneficial). many symptoms in psychotic and partic-
magnitude estimation A form of direct ularly schizophrenic patients. It effec-
scaling. A stimulus is given an arbitrary tively calms the patient, without
value (typically, 100), and the partici- inducing feelings of drowsiness. There
pant is asked to grade other stimuli a re o f t en un p l easan t p hy si c al
relative to this value (e.g. if the partici- side-effects, however (e.g. see lardive
pant perceives a light to be half as dyskinesia).
bright as the reference stimulus, then Make A Picture Story Test (MAPS
s/he grades it as ‘50’). See method of test) projective personality test, in which
halving. the participant creates a story from a set
Mahalanobis D Mahalanobis distance. of pictures.
Mahalanobis distance A measure of the maladaptive schema A maladaptive
degree to which an individual value in a pattern of thought habitually (and erro-
regression calculation is aberrant and neously) applied in a situation so that
should thus be excluded from the cal- the patient gains an inaccurate and
culation because, in effect, it is distort- damaging self-perception. E.g. a
ing results. person may seek proof that another

person s/he meets finds him or her Mann-Whitney U test non-parametric

boring. An early maladaptive schema is test of two unmatched groups’ differ-
one which has been present since child- ences on the same dependent variable
hood. (which must be on an ordinal scale). The
test can be regarded as the non-para-
mandrax Type of barbiturate.
metric equivalent of the unpaired t test.
mania affective disorder in which the
MANOVA multivariate analysis of variance.
patient experiences an extremely elated
mood, usually coupled with extreme MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
levels of activity and energy. The
MAP test Miller Assessment for Preschoolers.
patient often has unrealistically opti-
mistic thoughts and grandiose MAPI Millon Adolescent Personality Inven-
schemes. The condition can be found in tory.
isolation, but is more often encoun- MAPS test Make A Picture Story Test.
tered as a symptom of bipolar disorder.
The same symptoms, in a relatively marathon therapy Intensive therapeutic
mild form, are classified as hypomania. session (usually group therapy) lasting
for 24 hours or more (usually, therapeu-
manic-depression bipolar disorder. tic sessions last 1-2 hours).
manic-depressive psychosis bipolar marche a petit pas ‘Walking with little
disorder. steps’ – a rapid shuffling movement,
Manic State Scale (MSS) observer scale of sometimes encountered in patients
level of manic behaviour in patients. with damage to the motor area.
manifest That which is presented, as Marfan syndrome Genetic disorder
opposed to latent (that which is characterized by atypical tallness and
hidden). The terms are used in many thin, ‘spidery’ build. In some instances,
therapies to denote what the patient hyperactivity is reported.
says, as opposed to the underlying marginal mean Where there are two
motives for saying it, which are held to factors in an analysis, the mean of one
be consciously or unconsciously sup- factor averaged across all levels of the
pressed. other factor.
Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) Measure marginal significance borderline signifi-
of anxiety, formed from test items from cance.
the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory. Marianne Frostig Developmental
Test of Visual Perception Test of per-
manifest variable See structural equation ceptual skills presumed to underlie
modelling. reading (e.g. hand-eye coordination,
manifestation A way in which a particu- geometric figure identification, etc.).
lar psychological characteristic can Designed for participants aged 3–10
m a ke i t s e l f ap p a ren t t h ro u g h years. Can be used as part of reading
behaviour. readiness measures or as a diagnostic
tool in assessing poor readers.
manikin test Any test in which the par-
ticipant must fit together the pieces of a marijuana See cannabis.
model of a human body. Marital Interaction Coding System
manipulated variable independent Measure (by therapist or other
variable. observer) of the quality of interaction

between married or cohabiting couples about sexist stereotyping. See androgy-

as they discuss a problem set for them. nous personality.
Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI) masculinity-femininity scale See mas-
A measure of marital satisfaction, and culinity.
causes of dissatisfaction. The scale can
MASI Multilevel Academic Skills Inventory.
be used to identify potential problems
for either spouse separately. masked epilepsy See epilepsy.
marital therapy Any therapeutic Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) A
method in which partners (usually measure of the degree of actual or
married, or otherwise long-term potential burnout experienced by indi-
cohabiters) are aided in resolving viduals.
problems in their relationship. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory
Markov chain A representation of a by Maslow that humans have a hierar-
sequence of events in which there are chy of needs, which can be symboli-
alternative pathways at each stage of cally represented as a pyramid. At the
the sequence, and the probability of ‘base’ are physiological needs for food,
taking each pathway is calculated. The shelter, etc. Above these are safety
key feature is that the probability of a needs, followed by social needs (e.g. to
particular choice being taken is held to form friendships, to fit into the social
be dependent only upon the preceding world, etc.). Above these are self-esteem,
event – how that event was reached will and at the top of the pyramid lies
not influence the subsequent choice. self-actualization (i.e. searching for and
E.g., in a chain of 99 events, the choice achieving ‘higher’ goals and fulfilling
of event number 99 is only dependent one’s potential). Maslow argues that
upon what choice number 98 was – these stages are acquired through
choices 0–97 have no influence. development, and the complete struc-
ture will take 30 years or more to
marriage guidance marital therapy.
complete. Therapies based on the
MAS Manifest Anxiety Scale. theory attempt to lead participants
through the various stages, and to put
masculine identity The degree to which
them back ‘on course’ if they have
an individual identifies with masculinity
strayed. Commonly this occurs when a
participant attempts to follow other
masculinity Nebulous term for a collec- people’s self-actualization plans rather
tion of traits epitomizing aggression, than his/her own. See humanistic psy-
forthrightness, etc., and everything chology.
which belongs to the stereotypical
masochism paraphilia in which the
man. More generally, a collection of
patient’s principal source of sexual
assertive and competitive attributes.
gratification is in being physically hurt
This is contrasted with femininity, a
or otherwise punished. See sadism.
collection of more passive, nurturing
(traditional ‘motherly’) qualities. Often mass behaviour mass contagion.
the traits are presented together as a
mass contagion The spread of an idea,
bipolar dimension (i.e. masculinity-femi-
behaviour, etc., through a group or
ninity scale) as if they are opposites.
Although the descriptions might be
descriptive rather than prescriptive, the mass hysteria Form of mass contagion, in
issue can very easily slide into a debate which an irrational belief or behaviour

grips a group or community (e.g. caregiver goes to work) or occasional

tarantism). (e.g. hospital visits). If adequate substi-
tute care is given, it is not usually
massed practice Training session in
serious. The latter is where the
which repetitions of the same act are
mother/caregiver is present all the
placed closely together. This contrasts
time, but inadequately looks after the
with distributed practice, in which the
repetitions are relatively further apart.
mathematics anxiety (Irrational) anxiety
MAST Multilevel Academic Survey Tests.
created by fear of studying or working
MAT Motivation Analysis Test. on mathematical or arithmetical topics.
matched subjects See matching. matrilineal Inherited through females.
matching Experimental procedure by Matrix Analogies Test A measure of
which participants in one group are non-verbal intelligence for 5–17-
chosen so that they share the same year-olds.
characteristic(s) as participants in other
maturation Physical ageing changes,
groups (e.g. they have all had the same
coupled with acquisition of knowl-
level of education). Such participants
edge, experiences, etc.
are called matched subjects. In this
manner, any differences found between maturational crisis Severe negative sen-
the groups cannot be attributed to the sations produced by ‘moving’ from one
matching factors (e.g. the superiority of developmental stage to another (e.g.
group A over group B on a maths test mid-life crisis).
cannot be due to superior education
Mauchly’s test of sphericity A
levels if the two groups are matched for
commonly-used sphericity test. If the test
educational levels). A further refine-
results are not significant then the data
ment of this is the paired samples
are acceptable as they stand.
Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive
Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF
Inventory Measure of the level of
Test) Assesses children’s visual skills
obsessive-compulsive behaviour exhibited
and the degree of their impulsiveness in
by a patient.
making responses. The child has to find
the drawing identical to the target from Maudsley Personality Questionnaire
a range of very similar alternatives. The Older version of the Eysenck Personality
accuracy and speed of response are Questionnaire.
both recorded. maximum likelihood analysis See
matching questions Questions in which factor analysis.
the participant is required to identify MBD minimal brain dysfunction.
which items in one list match up with
items in other lists. MBI Maslach Burnout Inventory.
maternal deprivation Lack of adequate MBMD Millon Behavioral Medicine Diag-
care by the mother or other caregiver. nostic.
Can be considered in terms of ‘separa- MBTI Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
tion’ and ‘deprivation of maternal care’.
The former is any separation of McCall-Crabbs Standard Test Lessons
mother/caregiver and child whether in Reading Standard Test Lessons in
on a regular basis (e.g. the mother/ Reading.

McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abili- who said they would vote for party X
ties (MSCA) test battery of motor and before the debate, now say they will
intellectual development in children vote for party Y. Similarly, a proportion
aged 3 years 6 months – 8 years 6 of erstwhile party Y supporters now
months. Comprises 18 subtests, back party X. Is this change signifi-
yielding five scales of verbal, percep- cant? The Cochran Q test is essentially
tual-performance, quantitative, the McNemar test applied to three or
memory, and motor skills. more groups.
McCarthy Screening Test Measures of MCT Minnesota Clerical Test.
potential learning difficulties, drawn
MDI (1) MultiscoreDepression Inventory. (2)
from McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abili-
Mental Development Index.
MDMA Acronym of the chemical combi-
M c D e rm o t t M u l t i d i m e n s i o n al
n at i o n o f Ecstasy. S t a n d s f o r
Assessment of Children (M-MAC)
Computerized assessment programme.
Comprises: Classification (interpreta- Mdn median.
tion of intellectual and academic abili- MDQ Menstrual Distress Questionnaire.
ties, and social skills and milieu); and
Programme Design (creation of appro- MDS multi-dimensional scaling.
priate remedial regimes/goal setting). mean Arithmetical average – a measure
McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) of central tendency. See geometric mean and
Measure of perception of pain resulting harmonic mean.
from illness – its location, nature, mean deviation average deviation.
severity, etc.
mean square (1) See ANOVA table. (2)
McGill Picture Anomalies Test A variance.
measure of ability to attend carefully to
a visual stimulus/basic visual percep- measurement error Errors in measure-
tion. The participant is shown a picture ment created by chance variability.
in which a detail is wrong. The partici- measures of central tendency summary
pant’s task is to identify the anomaly. statistics which divide the data into two
MCI mild cognitive impairment. halves (i.e. half of the data fall below
the figure produced, half above). This is
MCMI Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inven- an exact division in the case of the
tory. median, but can be more approximate
McNaghten rule Nineteenth century for the mean and mode.
UK legal ruling that a person was measures of dispersion summary statis-
insane at the time of the illegal act, if tics which measure how spread out the
they did not know what they were distribution of the variable in question
doing, or they did not know that it was is. Measures include range and variance.
Mechanical Ability Test aptitude test
McNemar test non-parametric measure of used in personnel screening for mechani-
the extent to which two groups change cal/engineering jobs.
category membership after treatment.
The test might be applied to a problem mechanophobia A phobia of anything
such as the following. After attending a mechanical.
political debate, a proportion of those

medial Anatomical term. Closer to the megavitamin therapy orthomolecular

midline than another section of the psychiatry.
body under consideration. Compare
melodic intonation therapy Many
with lateral.
patients suffering from aphasia retain
median A measure of central tendency – half the ability to sing. It is therefore
the values in the distribution are greater possible to train them to ‘sing’ (intone)
than the median, half are less. words, and hence allow a modicum of
communicative skill.
median test non-parametric measure of
whether two groups are derived from a memoing The process of working
population with the same median. If the through the possible structures a theo-
test demonstrates that they are, then it retical model might assume.
is assumed that the samples are from the
memory span span.
same population, and hence, there is no
significant difference, between them. meningitis Inflammation of the meninges
The extension of the median test is a (the tissue surrounding the brain and
similar measure for comparing three or spinal cord). The illness can cause per-
more groups. manent brain damage.
mediating variable intervening variable. Menstrual Distress Questionnaire
(MDQ) Self-report questionnaire of
Medicaid American health care scheme
negative symptoms attributable to the
for the poor.
menstrual cycle.
medical model of mental illness disease
mental age (MA) The level of mental
model of mental illness.
skills which is average for a particular
medical psychology The study of any age group. The measure is only reveal-
psychological aspect of medicine, ing when other age measures are taken
although the term is usually restricted into consideration (e.g. a 12–year-old
to the study of psychological changes with a mental age of 12 is average,
produced by illness, and the doctor – whereas one with a mental age of 16 is
patient relationship. advanced). See dyslexia and intelligence
Medicare American health care scheme
for older people. mental ataxia An incongruity between
expressed emotions and genuine
meditation A prolonged and deliberate
internal state.
period of relaxation, aided and abetted
by concentration on a specific thought mental deficiency mental retardation.
or mind exercise (i.e. not simply day
Mental Development Index (MDI)
dreaming). The technique is an integral
Measure of mental development derived
part of some types of religious worship
from the Bayley Scales of Infant Develop-
(and is central to transcendental medita-
ment. Mental age can be extrapolated
tion) and is also used in several forms of
from it, if so desired.
therapy. Relaxation therapy produces
similar results, but requires the partici- Mental Measurement Yearbook
pant to concentrate on the responses of (MMY) Publication listing details of
the body, rather than those of the mind. the principal psychological tests cur-
rently available.
medulla oblongata Area of brain stem –
the junction of the brain and the spinal mental retardation Intelligence level
cord. well below normal, which is congenital,

or becomes apparent in childhood/ is most often used synonymously with

adolescence. Definitions vary, but most mental retardation.
refer to IQs of 80 or less at maximum.
Merrill Palmer Test Intelligence test
The DSM classifies it as occurring
battery for pre-school children.
when IQ is less than 70 (i.e. more than
two standard deviations below average mescaline A psychedelic drug.
on most IQ tests). According to the mesmerism/Mesmerism Old-fash-
AAMD classification, there are several ioned term for hypnosis. The term
grades of retardation – profound mental derives from one of its early practitio-
retardation (IQ 25 or less), severe ners – the eighteenth century physi-
mental retardation (25–39), moderate cian, Anton Mesmer. Mesmer used the
mental retardation (40–54), and mild technique as part of a general therapy
mental retardation (55–69). The DSM deriving from the belief that mental
has the same terms, and similar IQ illness was due to an imbalance in the
values (less than 20, 20–34, 35–49, body’s magnetic field (hence the term
and 50–70 respectively). An earlier ‘animal magnetism’).
(and now offensive) terminology classi-
fied retarded people into idiots (less mesokurtic distribution A frequency dis-
than 30), imbeciles (30–50), and tribution with moderate shape, between
morons (American) or feeble-minded the extremes of the leptokurtic distribu-
(UK) persons (50–70). tion and the platykurtic distribution.
Accordingly, sometimes used to
mental rotation task Any task in which describe the shape of the normal
the participant must judge whether a distribution.
figure shown in an unusual orientation
represents a particular target (e.g. mesomorph See Sheldon’s personality types.
whether an ‘A’ printed upside down is meta-analysis (1) Method of assessing a
really an ‘A’). To do this, the participant trend in a corpus of studies. The mean
must mentally rotate the image. effect size of the studies in question is
Mental Status Examination (MSE) A calculated. (2) More generally, any
test battery assessing the patient’s overview of a body of research.
general mental and physical state upon metamorphosia A disorder of visual
first presentation. perception, in which items are seen as
Mental Status Questionnaire (MSQ) A undulating in shape.
simple assessment of a (usually metathesis The transposition of
demented) patient’s intellectual status phonemes or syllables within a word.
and degree of functional independ-
ence. See Blessed Dementia Scale. methadone A heroin substitute.
mentally gifted Nebulous definition, methadyl acetate A heroin substitute.
but typically refers to individuals with methedrine Type of amphetamine.
IQs of at least 125 (many commenta-
tors would place a higher figure of 140 method of bisection See method of
and over). halving.

mentally handicapped Nebulous term method of halving Experimental

denoting appreciably lowered psycho- method used in perception studies. The
logical abilities in some or many fields, participant is told to alter a stimulus so
resulting from brain damage. The term that it appears half as intense. This
yields a measure of perception of

magnitude. This contrasts with the microcephaly Atypically small head and
method of bisection, in which the partic- brain. People with the condition can
ipant must adjust the intensity so that it have a wide range of symptoms,
falls half-way between two other ranging from relatively mild learning
stimuli. See magnitude estimation. difficulties to severe intellectual retar-
dation and impairment of movement.
method of limits Technique for discov-
ering a participant’s perceptual thresh- Microcog – Assessment of Cognitive
old. A stimulus or difference is pre- Functioning (ACF) Computerized
sented at increasingly strong or weak adult test battery assessing severity of
intensities until the participant per- cases of relatively mild cognitive
ceives it/can no longer perceive it. A impairment. Test include measures of
variant of this is the staircase method, in reactivity, memory, perception, atten-
which the participant is presented with tion, abstract reasoning and mental
a weaker intensity if s/he can perceive calculation.
the stimulus or difference, and a
microphobia A phobia of small things.
stronger one if s/he cannot. This is a
faster method. micropsia A disorder of visual percep-
tion, in which items are seen as too
method of minimal change method of
microsomatognosia The misperception
metonymy Using a word which is incor-
that all or part of one’s body is abnor-
rect, but which is related to the word
mally small.
which should have been used (e.g. ‘biro’
instead of ‘pencil’). microtome A device for producing thin
slices from a tissue sample (e.g. a brain).
Metropolitan Diagnostic Tests Series
The slices are so thin that they are
of tests of scholastic attainment. See
semi-transparent, enabling them to be
Diagnostic Language Tests, Diagnostic
examined under a microscope.
Mathematics and Diagnostic Reading Tests.
M.I.D. multi-infarct dementia.
Mf scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person-
ality Inventory. middle category responding Habitu-
ally choosing a moderate opinion
MFF Test Matching Familiar Figures Test.
(‘sitting on the fence’).
MHV Test Mill Hill Vocabulary Test.
mid-life crisis Loose term for a set of
Michigan Picture Test – Revised negative feelings in some middle-aged
(MPT-R) projective personality test for people, stemming from the realization
participants aged 7–15 years. that they are at the peak of their careers
and affluence, and that ageing will
micro (research) See macro.
result (in their eyes) in a decline. See
microanalytic research (1) Research involutional psychotic reaction.
which concentrates on specific inci-
mid-life transitions Changes occurring
dents, rather than generalizations of
in middle age (e.g. children leaving
sets of occurrences. (2) In Bandura’s
home, preparing for retirement, etc.).
theory of social learning, the term refers to
Negative changes can in some instances
participants’ ratings of how well they
create a mid-life crisis. See empty nest
think they can perform in specific situa-

midline Anatomical term. An imaginary milieu therapy A deliberate alteration of

vertical line which runs through the the patient’s environment (e.g. sur-
body, dividing it in half. roundings, lifestyle, etc.) for therapeu-
tic reasons.
midpoint See class intervals.
Mill Hill Vocabulary Test (MHV Test)
midrange The value which is halfway
A measure of vocabulary, the test
between the lowest and highest values
requires participants to provide defini-
for the variable in question.
tions of words, whose obscurity
Mignon delusion A version of the foster increases as the test progresses (there is
child fantasy, in which the child is also no time limit). Commonly used crystal-
convinced that his/her ‘real’ parents lized intelligence measure. Available in 2
are wealthy, famous, etc. formats: Junior (for children over 6
migraine An extremely severe headache, years and adults) and Senior (for
which begins on one side of the head children over 14 years and adults; espe-
(and may remain solely on one side). It cially individuals and groups likely to
is accompanied by other complaints. be of above-average ability).
The commonest are: a severe lowering Miller Analogies Test Intelligence test
of cognitive and/or linguistic function- using analogy test measures.
ing, a sensation of flashing lights or
Miller Assessment for Preschoolers
other forms of visual disturbance, and
(MAP) test battery for children aged 2–6
nausea (see aura). Migraine attacks in
years. Primarily intended to identify
which there are disturbances of vision
are sometimes called classical migraine,
and attacks without these are termed Miller Behavioral Style Scale Test of
common migraine. personality, in which participants are
measured on which of a range of
mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
options they would adopt in stressful
Currently rather nebulous term for
intellectual impairment associated with
ageing, less than that experienced in Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory
dementia, though of greater severity (MACI) Measure of psychological dys-
than the relatively gentle intellectual function in adolescents.
loss normally found in old age (normal
Millon Adolescent Personality
cognitive ageing (NCA)). Some com-
Inventory (MAPI) Measure of per-
mentators include impairment which
sonality and behaviour patterns in ado-
others would classify as early stages of
Millon Behavioral Medicine Diag-
mild learning difficulty (MLD)
nostic (MBMD) Measure of psycho-
Nebulous term for a condition whose
logical factors impinging on a chroni-
possessors usually have an IQ level
cally ill patient’s treatment.
commensurate with mild mental retarda-
tion, who are unlikely to thrive by con- Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
ventional academic standards, but who (MCMI) Measure of personality disor-
are at the same time not completely ders.
ineducable. Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical
mild mental retardation See mental Inventory (MPACI) Measure of psy-
retardation. chological dysfunction in children
aged 9–12 years.

Mind Prober Computerized personality paranoia (Pa), psychasthenia (Pt), psycho-

assessment programme. pathic deviate (Pd), schizophrenia (Sc),
and social introversion (Si). The test also
mind, theory of (autism) Theory that
has three further scales. The F scale
the principal deficit of autistic patients is
checks against social desirability respond-
a lack of a concept of mind. This in turn
ing. The K scale checks against subjects
leads to a failure to perceive the inde-
responding sloppily and carelessly (i.e.
pendence of other people’s minds and
not bothering to give an accurate
thoughts. See autism.
picture of themselves). The L scale is a
mindblindness Failure to perceive that lie scale. The test is primarily aimed at a
others may think differently from clinical population, though it is appli-
oneself. The term is often used to cable to normal subjects. See California
describe one of the principal cognitive Personality Inventory and Fake Bad Scale
dysfunctions in autism and Asperger’s (FBS).
Minnesota Satisfaction Question-
Mini Mental State Examination naire (MSQ) A measure of job satisfac-
(MMS) Quickly-administered test of tion.
intellectual abilities of older subjects
Minnesota Test for the Differential
(particularly those suspected of being
Diagnosis of Aphasia (MTDDA)
in the early stages of dementia).
Test of major aspects of aphasia
Measures basic competence at everyday
(includes disorders of writing and
skills, level of wakefulness, ability to
reading as well as speech and speech
follow and remember simple instruc-
tions, perform elementary calculations,
etc. minor tranquillizer Drug with a mildly
sedating effect. Most often used in
minimal brain damage Old term for
treating anxiety.
minimal brain dysfunction.
mirror drawing task Task in which a
minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)
participant must draw a design whilst
Old term for attentional deficit disorder.
only able to see the results of his/her
minimal competence criterion. efforts through a mirror.
minimization (-isation) Unrealistically miscue An error (particularly applied to
playing down the implications of children’s reading errors).
(usually) positive information.
misologia Avoiding speaking.
Minnesota Clerical Test (MCT)
missing data The term can simply mean
Measure of skill associated with clerical
data of any description that are missing.
work (checking that word and number
However, it often specifically means
pairs are identical).
where only some data are missing
Minnesota method Therapeutic resulting in an incomplete record (e.g. a
method for treating alcoholism. participant answers some but not all
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality questions).
Inventory (MMPI) Personality test, mixed ANOVA analysis of variance in
yielding scores on ten scales, which are which the measures are a mixture of
indices of: depression (D), hypochon- within groups and between groups measures.
driasis (Hd), hypomania (Ma), hysteria
mixed delirium See delirium.
(Hy), masculinity-femininity (Mf ),

mixed design An experiment in which modelling (1) Training a patient to

both between-subjects and within subjects change an aspect of their behaviour by
measures have been used. copying the desired behaviour from
someone else (e.g. in the case of a
mixed hearing loss See conductive
arachnophobic patient, making them
hearing loss.
watch a film of someone handling a
mixed schizophrenia undifferentiated spider). In covert modelling, the patient
schizophrenia. imagines someone performing the
mixed transcortical aphasia aphasia in behaviour. (2) The learning of behav-
which virtually all linguistic abilities iour by copying others – see Bandura’s
have been lost, barring the ability to theory of social learning.
repeat single words. moderate mental retardation See
MLD mild learning difficulty. mental retardation.

MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality moderator variable variable which

Inventory. exerts a greater influence in some
sections (e.g. sub-groups) of a sample
MMR vaccine A single-shot vaccine than in others. If the moderator variable
given to young children to inoculate is statistically controlled for, then this
against measles, mumps and rubella. Its may create a more accurate picture of
use was linked to an increase in cases of the situation under review.
autistic spectrum disorder but subsequent
research has largely rejected this Modern Occupational Skills Test
theory. (MOST) Battery of tests of basic
administrative and clerical skills.
MMS Mini Mental State Examination.
molar (research) macro.
MMTIC Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator
for Children. molecular (research) micro.

MMY Mental Measurements Yearbook. molysmophobia A phobia of infection.

Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia Mongolism Outmoded and racist term

Measure of the degree to which for Down’s Syndrome (Down felt that
patients suffering from agoraphobia are European Down’s Syndrome patients
able to move about, and their strategies were ‘arrested’ at a ‘Mongolic’ stage of
for avoiding open spaces. development because of a supposed
physical resemblance).
modal Pertaining to the mode.
monitoring See blunting.
mode A measure of central tendency. The
mode is the value within a sample for monoamine oxidase inhibitors
which there are the highest number of (MAOI) General term for a group of
observations (i.e. it is the most popular antidepressant drugs.
score within the sample). In a monoideism An abnormal preoccupa-
multimodal distribution, there are two tion with an idea.
or more modes (i.e. there is no one
monophobia autophobia.
score which is the most popular).
monotonic Always going in the same
model A representation of a thought
direction. Hence, a monotonic relation-
process and/or behaviour, usually in
ship is one between two variables in
symbolic terms.
which an increase in one is always met

by an increase OR a decrease in the morbidity risk The probability that a

other (i.e. the direction of the change person will develop an illness.
must be constant).
Morgan Russell Assessment Schedule
monotonic relationship See monotonic. (MRAS) Measure of the symptoms of
anorexia nervosa.
monozygotic (MZ) Of one egg. Hence,
monozygotic twins are twins from the moron See mental retardation.
same egg (i.e. identical twins). See
morphine See opiates.
Morrisby Profile (MP) A test which
monozygotic twins See monozygotic.
assesses a person’s personality and
Monte Carlo method (1) Any statistical work-related abilities within the same
method which employs the generation overall profile.
of random numbers. E.g. in considering
Mosaic Test A projective personality test –
a set of data, it may be desirable to
the participant is required to make
generate random numbers to see how
patterns out of wooden shapes.
often a more extreme set of data is
produced by chance. (2) Method of Moses test of extreme reactions
simulating a model based on a stochastic non-parametric measure which measures
sequence. whether one group has more extreme
scores than another. This contrasts with
Montgomery-Asberg Scale Measure of
most other tests of differences, which
the effectiveness of treatment for depres-
simply examine if there is a difference
between groups.
mood measure A measure of imperma-
MOST Modern Occupational Skills Test.
nent but appreciable feeling (e.g. grief
upon bereavement). See state measure. motherese Term for the language used
by a parent in talking to pre-talking
mood stabilizer Drug which attempts to
infants. Characterized by its simple
remove extremes of mood (as in e.g.
structure, high pitched delivery, repeti-
bipolar disorder).
tion, and exaggerated intonation.
Mooney Problem Check List Test for
motivated forgetting Depending upon
participants aged 12 years and over
which commentator one is reading –
(there are different forms for different
either suppression or repression.
age groups). Presents participants with
a list of problems, and asks them to motivation A drive to sustain a particular
identify which they suffer from. behaviour and/or aim for a particular
Measures problems with social life, goal.
relationship formation, etc. Motivation Analysis Test (MAT)
Moray House Tests Battery of tests Measure of motivation: the participant is
assessing English, mathematical and given a variety of measures (e.g. forced
verbal reasoning skills (for age ranges choice test) to select the more preferable
10–12 years, 10–12 years and 8–18 of two actions.
years respectively). motor (neurons) Carrying signals from
morbid Pertaining to disease. the central nervous system to skeletal
muscle, and hence movement-related.
morbidity (1) The presence of an illness.
Sometimes inaccurately used to denote
(2) Preoccupation with thoughts of
all signals emanating from the central
illness and/or death.

nervous system (however, see autonomic MPT-R Michigan Picture Test – Revised.
nervous system).
MRAS Morgan Russell Assessment Schedule.
motor amusia A profound inability to
MRI magnetic resonance imaging.
play even the simplest tune, beat the
simplest rhythms, etc. M.S. mean square.
motor aphasia (1) ataxic aphasia. (2) MSCA McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abili-
Broca’s aphasia. ties.
motor apraxia Inability to perform MSE Mental Status Examination.
planned actions (as opposed to sponta- MSI Marital Satisfactory Inventory.
neous ones).
MSQ (1) Mental Status Questionnaire. (2)
motor area An area of the frontal lobe Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.
(lying in a thin strip immediately
adjacent to the central sulcus) involved in MSS Manic State Scale.
movement control. MTDDA Minnesota Test for the Differential
motor cortex motor area. Diagnosis of Aphasia.
motor neurosis Any mental illness in multi-axial classification Classification
which the principal (or at least, most of an item, illness, etc., on the basis of
noticeable) symptom is an abnormal several distinct scales of measurement.
pattern of movement, ranging from The Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor
mania through to a nervous tic. Questionnaire and the DSM are
examples of this.
motor skills General term for any skills
which involve movement and muscular multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) ( 1 )
action. Often divided into fine motor Name for a range of statistical tech-
skills (relatively delicate movements, niques for converting a large quantity
such as finger movements, writing, etc.) of data (often ratings) into a small set of
and gross motor skills (relatively ‘big’ scales. (2) In graphical representations,
movements such as walking, jumping, using the physical space between
etc.). points to denote the strength of the sta-
tistical relationship between the vari-
Movement ABC Movement Assessment ables represented.
Battery for Children.
multi-infarct dementia (MID) A form
Movement Assessment Battery for of dementia, caused by the brain suffer-
Children (ABC) test battery assessing ing a large number of infants (‘miniature
movement problems in children. Incor- strokes’). Patients typically suffer a
porates a revised version of the Test of step-wise rather than gradual pattern of
Motor Impairment. decline, and often have a history of car-
movement therapy Often a synonym diovascular problems.
for dance therapy – may refer more gen- multicollinearity collinearity.
erally to disjunctive therapy.
multidimensional Consisting of many
MP Morrisby Profile. dimensions. The term is sometimes
MPACI Millon Pre-Adolescent Clinical applied to complex statistical analyses
Inventory. (e.g. factor analysis) and to psychological
tests (e.g. personality measures) where
MPQ McGill Pain Questionnaire.
the results are expressed as a pattern of

scores on several subtests, rather than a score above a minimum criterion on all
single test score (the latter being the scales. In a similar technique – the
referred to as unidimensional). multiple hurdle model – the candidates
are evaluated on a sequence of measures,
Multidimensional Personality Evalu-
with those failing to reach criterion at
ation Test of personality, consisting of
each ‘hurdle’ being eliminated.
200 multiple choice question, yielding
measures on 18 scales. Primarily multiple discriminant analysis multiple
intended for the layperson. regression technique in which the crite-
rion variable is a categorical variable with
mul t i d i m e n si o n al scal e See
more than two categories.
unidimensional scale.
multiple hurdle model See multiple
Multilevel Academic Skills Inventory
cutoff model.
(MASI) Measure of performance.
multiple personality Ver y rare
Multilevel Academic Survey Tests
dissociative disorder in which the patient
(MAST) Measure of the performance
can assume several, often radically dif-
of pupils with specific educational
ferent, personalities and identities, and
may only be aware of whichever
multimodal distribution See mode. persona s/he is at the particular time
multimodal therapy Therapeutic tech- (i.e. when s/he thinks s/he is person X,
nique in which the different problems s/he has no memory of being person Y,
of the patient are treated with different etc.). Where there are only two person-
methods (following the argument that alities, then the term alternating person-
different techniques may be optimal in ality is also used. Often confused (par-
solving different problems). Compare ticularly by the popular media) with
with eclectic therapy. schizophrenia.

multiple act criterion Combination of multiple regression A regression tech-

behaviours related to a single trait. nique which calculates how much of
the performance of one variable (the cri-
multiple baseline technique Experi- terion variable) is predicted by perfor-
mental method in which participants; mance on other variables (the predictor
are measured on two or more variables. variables). The technique can be used to
before treatment, where the variables: gain a better prediction of the criterion
are known to be closely linked to a variable than is afforded by a ‘conven-
common cause (e.g. swearing and tional’ regression, where only one pre-
muscular tics in Tourette’s syndrome). One dictor variable is used. The technique is
or more variables are treated, but it is also used to compare the relative pre-
the effect on the untreated variables dictive powers of the predictor vari-
which is of primary interest. ables in question. In a free entry
multiple censoring See single censoring. multiple regression (step-wise regres-
sion) the analysis calculates which pre-
multiple correlation coefficient See dictor variable has the strongest rela-
multiple regression. tionship with the criterion variable.
multiple cutoff model Method of per- The ‘second best’ predictor is selected
sonnel screening in which applicants are because it, in tandem with the
scored on a variety of scales pertaining first-entered variable, increases the
to different aspects of the job. In order ability to predict the criterion variable
to be accepted, the candidate must by the greatest amount. This procedure

is repeated for all the other predictor another predictor variable into the
variables being considered. The equation is called the R2 increment. The
purpose of the analysis is to see not total variance accounted for by all of
only how well the predictor variables the predictor variables is known as the
acting together can predict the crite- coefficient of total determination. The
rion variable, but also if some of the relationship between the predictor
predictor variables are significantly variables and the criterion variable can
better predictors than others, once be expressed as an equation: Y= a +
mutually shared variance has been taken b1x1+ b2x2.-.bnxn; where Y is the cri-
into consideration. Usually, the analysis terion variable, x the predictor vari-
is stopped when the entry of the next ables, a is a constant, and b is known as
predictor variable does not signifi- the regression weight. The formula is
cantly improve the predictive power of essentially the same as the regression
the regression equation (this is equation, but with more values of x.
measured using the F-to-enter test). In Regression weights are sometimes con-
some versions of the procedure, predic- verted to beta weights, which are the
tor variables are entered into the weights expressed as standard scores.
equation, and then later removed, if The multiple regression technique
other combinations of predictor vari- shares a lot in common with the analysis
ables prove to be better predictors, and of variance (including the measure of
m a ke t h e c o n t r i but i o n o f t h e significance). See canonical regression,
variable-to-be-removed unnecessary discriminant function analysis, polynomial
(removal is determined by the regression, and residuals.
F-to-remove test). In an ordered multiple
Multiscore Depression Inventory
regression (forced multiple regression) a
(MDI) A measure of level of depression.
predictor variable is deliberately
The ‘score’ can be divided into 10
entered at a particular-position into the
equation. Usually it is entered last, to
see if it is still significantly related to multistage cluster sampling See cluster
the criterion variable, even after all the sampling.
shared variance from the other predic- multivariate analysis of variance
tor variables has been taken care of. (MA-NOVA) analysis of variance for
This seems a rather odd technique, but which there are two or more dependent
it can be impressive if a predictor variables. Several significance tests are
variable can still uniquely account for available – the Hotelling-Lawley trace,
some of the variance even after other the Pillai-Bartlett trace and Wilk’s lambda.
predictor variables have taken their Which test is best depends heavily
share. The degree to which two predic- upon very specific requirements (con-
tor variables correlate with each other sultation with an advanced textbook is
is known as collinearity. The correla- strongly advised), although with large
tion of the predictor variable(s) with samples, there is probably little differ-
the criterion variable is called the ence between them.
multiple correlation coefficient (R). By
squaring the value of R, the proportion multivariate correlation correlation
of the criterion variable’s variance between more than two variables.
which has been accounted for can be multivariate normality A situation in
calculated. This is known as the coeffi- which all the variables and all combina-
cient of determination (R 2 ). The tions of variables are normally distrib-
increase in R 2 created by adding uted.

multivariate statistics Analysis of more psychoanalytic theory. Participants are

than two dependent variables. Often the classified on four ‘either/or’ scales. E.g.
term is confined to mathematically in the first of these, a participant is clas-
complex analyses, such as factor analysis, sified as possessing either extraversion
structural equation modelling, etc. See (E) or introversion (I). The second
univariate statistics. measure is of Sensing (S) versus Intu-
ition (N). The former is characterized
Munchausen syndrome The feigning
by a predominant interest in the present
of medical illnesses in order to gain the
situation, the latter by a predominant
attention of medical personnel.
interest in more abstract concepts and
Munchausen syndrome by proxy A the potential of the situation. The third
rare permutation of Munchausen measure is of Thinking (T) versus
syndrome, in which the patient feigns ill- Feeling (F), which measures the relative
nesses in another person (or even reliance on objective, logical thought
inflicts injury to the extent of murder- versus a more subjective, emotional
ing his/her victim) in order to gain the approach. The final distinction is
attention of medical personnel. Usually between Judging (J) and Perception
the patient and victim are a mother and (P). This is essentially a contrast
her young child, although in one noto- between a wish to organize and a wish
rious case in Britain, the patient (a to observe events. Participants can be
nurse) murdered and permanently classified into 16 types according to
maimed babies in her care. their predominant scores on each scale
Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator (e.g. 1STJ, ENTJ, etc.), and each
for Children (MMTIC) Version of grouping is provided with a descrip-
the Myers-Bnggs Type Indicator for tion of likely strengths and weaknesses.
children. myotatic reflex spinal reflex – if a tendon
music therapy Any therapeutic tech- is briefly stretched, the muscles con-
nique in which listening to music forms nected to it briefly contract. The most
part of the treatment. The term has familiar demonstration of this is the
been particularly applied to the use of knee jerk reflex. The purpose of the
music to stimulate people suffering reflex in everyday life is to maintain
from severe mental retardation, who may balance. Usually sudden tendon
be incapable of comprehending con- stretching indicates that there is a
ventional language. potential imbalance, and the muscle
contraction rectifies this.
mutation analysis targeted mutation
analysis. mysophobia A phobia of dirt.

mutually exclusive event Event whose myxedema myxoedema.

outcome excludes the occurrence of myxoedema bypothyroidism.
another event (e.g. if a coin lands
MZ monozygotic.
‘heads’, then this excludes ‘tails’ –
hence ‘heads’ and ‘tails’ are mutually MZ twins monozygotic twins.
exclusive events).
MZa twins monozygotic twins who were
mutually independent event mutually brought up independently of each
exclusive event. other.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) MZt twins monozygotic twins who were
A personality measure, based on Jung’s brought up in the same household.

N nounce). The more words correctly

pronounced, the higher the test score.
n Number of members of a sample. national competency tests Tests
N (1) neuroticism. (2) Intuition. (usually government-run) used to assess
academic achievement across the
n-Ach need for achievement. country.
NA negative ajfectivity. natural category See category.
NABC Normative Adaptive Behaviour natural dichotomy See dichotomous
Checklist. variable.
nAff affiliation need. natural experiment An event or series of
naive subject Test participant who has events which occur in ‘the real world’
no knowledge of the devices used by (as opposed to a contrived laboratory
an experimenter. Compare with test wise environment) without the experi-
subject. menter’s actions, but which in effect act
as an experiment which can be studied
naloxone A heroin antagonist. and analysed. E.g. the classic study of
NAPI test Neurobehavioural Assessment of people’s reactions in the USA to Orson
the Preterm Infant. Welle’s famous radio dramatization of
‘War of the Worlds’.
narcissistic personality disorder per-
sonality disorder characterized by naturalistic research (1) A rather
extreme levels of self-interest and nebulous term, describing research
self-preoccupation. which emphasizes the study of the
individual as a whole. This is in contrast
narcissistic rage aggression directed at
to the ‘traditional’ scientific viewpoint
factors affecting self-esteem.
of analysing a group of individuals to
narcoanalysis Any therapeutic method extract a common formula usually con-
in which the patient is sedated prior to cerning a specific attribute. (2) More
treatment. generally and usually, a study of partici-
pants in their natural surroundings. See
narrative recording Noting events of
participant observation.
apparent importance (e.g. in an inter-
view or therapeutic session). NBAS Neonatal Behavioural Assessment
narratophilia A paraphilia characterized
by an abnormal reliance on porno- NBAS-K Neonatal Behavioural Assessment
graphic stories for sexual gratification. Scale with Kansas Supplements.
narremic substitution Misreading a NCA normal cognitive ageing.
word but maintaining the narrative
Neale Analysis of Reading Ability
thread of the text.
Reading test for participants aged
narrow categorizing See broad categoriz- 7–11 years. Consists of passages of
ing. text which the participant reads
aloud. S/he is marked for number of
NART National Adult Reading Test.
mistakes, reading speed and compre-
National Adult Reading Test (NART) hension of the passage. Additional
A list of words, most with very irregular diagnostic tests can be used to assess
spellings, which the participant is knowledge of grapheme-to-phoneme
required to read out loud (i.e. to pro-

correspondence rules, ability to distin- negative affectivity (NA) An emotional

guish different word sounds, etc. state in which one’s perceptions and
thoughts (often unrealistically) take a
necessary condition A factor which
gloomy/negative view of events.
must be present for a particular state to
exist. This contrasts with a sufficient negative correlation See correlation.
condition, which is in itself enough for
negative goal gradient The phenome-
a particular state to exist, but is not nec-
non whereby the further one is from an
essarily the only condition which can
aversive stimulus, the weaker the drive
cause the state. E.g. a necessary condi-
to increase the distance still further.
tion for ice to form is that the tempera-
ture must be low enough. However this negative reinforcement Learning to
is not a sufficient condition – water perform an action because it removes
must also be present. Shooting an aversive stimulus.
someone in the heart is a sufficient con- negative relationship A relationship in
dition to kill them, but it is not a neces- which the rise in size of one variable is
sary condition (e.g. strangling, poison- met with a decrease in size of another
ing, etc., would be just as effective). It is variable.
possible to have permutations of the
two conditions (e.g. necessary but not negative result Result which fails to find
sufficient, sufficient but not necessary, evidence for the hypothesis in
etc.). question. Depending upon the circum-
stances, this can be good (e.g. negative
necraudia The sound of death. results of a test for a deadly disease) or
necromania An abnormal interest in bad (a lengthy and expensive experi-
death. ment not finding any statistically signifi-
cant results). A positive result indicates
necrophilia atypical paraphilia in which
the opposite – namely, evidence that
the patient gains principal sexual grati-
the hypothesis is correct.
fication from sexual activity with a
corpse. negative symptom A profound lack of a
normal behaviour (e.g. flat affect). This
necrophobia A phobia of death or dying.
contrasts with a positive symptom,
necrosmia The smell of death. which is an over-exaggerated behav-
iour (e.g. a delusion).
need A drive to fulfil a particular want,
because the participant perceives that negatively skewed distribution distri-
s/he has a lack of the desired object in bution curve in which there is a long ‘tail’
question. on the left (i.e. nearer to the junction of
the X axis and Y axis), rising to a pro-
need for achievement (n-Ach) A need
nounced ‘hump’ to the right. A posi-
to succeed.
tively skewed distribution is the
need for affiliation A need to be opposite (i.e. the ‘hump’ is on the left,
accepted and liked by others. the ‘tail’ on the right).
need for positive regard According to neglect (1) Failure to attend. (2) The
Roger’s self theory of personality, a person’s abnegation of care (e.g. child neglect
drive for unconditional positive regard. etc.). (3) A literal inability to detect
need for power A need for power, and to what would be very obvious to a
attain control over others. normal individual, usually resulting
from brain damage (e.g. sensory neglect,
spatial neglect).

neo-Freudian movement Psychoana- neoplasm A new growth/tumour.

lysts, who, whilst accepting some of
neopsychoanalytic neo-Freudian
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, have
amended it in significant areas. One of
the principal characteristics has been a nerve Strictly speaking, a pathway and
lessening of the emphasis on the id, and collection of neurons in the peripheral
a greater concentration on the ego nervous system, all with the same
(hence the movement is often known as function, and bonded together by con-
ego psychology). The most often cited nective tissue. However, the terms
examples of psychoanalysis after Freud ‘neuron’ and ‘nerve’ are often used syn-
are Erikson’s theory of development and onymously by psychologists. Compare
Jung’s psychoanalytic theory. with tract.
NEO Personality Inventory Personal- nervous breakdown A nebulous,
ity measure yielding five principal scales layperson’s term for any mental illness
of measurement (agreeableness, ‘consci- severe enough to incapacitate. Usually
entiousness’, extroversion, neuroticism, it is reserved for cases of neurosis.
and ‘openness to experience’), and a nested design See crossed design.
further 23 sub-scales.
neural Adjective derived from neuron,
n e o b e h av i o u r i sm Rev i s i o n o f hence a term describing anything per-
behaviourism which acknowledges the taining to the nervous system.
need to include considerations of
mental processes. neuritic plaques senile plaques.
neolalia Language containing an abnor- Neurobehavioural Assessment of the
mally high proportion of neologisms. Preterm Infant (NAPI) test battery
measuring the developmental maturity
neologism A made-up word. Character- of preterm (premature) infants.
istic of some children learning to speak,
some mentally ill patients (particularly neurodermatitis psychophysiological
schizophrenics) and most cognitive psy- disorder – the physical symptom is a
chologists. skin rash.
Neonatal Behavioural Assessment neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) Clumps
Scale (NBAS) Brazelton Scale. of dead central nervous system neurons
which (under a microscope) look like
Neonatal Behavioural Assessment knotted string. Caused by abnormal
Scale with Kansas Supplements protein metabolism.
(NBAS-K) See Brazelton Scale.
neurof ibromatosis (Nf ) Genetic
neonate Infant aged between 0 and 1 disorder causing growths or tumours
month. on nerves. Symptoms are variable, but
neophasia A language composed of in some instances may result in short
words and even grammar invented by attention span and hyperactivity.
the speaker. The phenomenon is neuroglia glial cells.
encountered (in a pronounced form,
very rarely) in some children learning neuroimaging Any method of provid-
to speak, and in some types of schizo- ing information on the structure
phrenia. and/or functions of the nervous
system. structual imaging provides
neophobia A phobia of new things. information on the physical structure of

the nervous system (particularly the neuropsychiatry Branch of medicine

brain) and functional imaging provides concerned with the effects of nervous
information on its activities. system (dys)function and structure on
mental health.
neuroleptic drug major tranquillizer.
neuropsychological testing Testing
neurolinguistic programming (NLP)
brain-damaged patients to assess the
Therapeutic method which is a combi-
degree to which the physical damage
nation of several disparate strands of
has affected psychological functioning.
thought, including linguistic research,
Also, calculating from measures of psy-
information processing and main-
chological dysfunction which areas of
stream therapeutic techniques. In
the brain have been damaged.
essence, NLP seeks to train people to
‘reprogramme’ their brains to remove neuropsychology The study of psycho-
maladaptive behaviours. NLP has been logical processes in direct relationship
heavily criticized by some researchers to the workings of the nervous system
and therapists for what they claim is a (e.g. how physical brain damage affects
lack of verifiable support and vague psychological performance). This is
theoretical stance, whilst it is supported sometimes expressed in the concept of
vociferously by others. localization – the theory that psycho-
logical functions can be attributed to
neurolinguistics The study of the rela-
specific areas of the brain.
tionship between neural functioning
and linguistic skills. neurosciences General term for any
branch of study concerned with the sci-
neurological correlation A link
entific examination of the structure and
between damage to a specific area of
function of the nervous system.
the brain and a specific change in
behaviour. neurosis Nebulous term for any mental
illness in which the patient still has a
Neurological Impairment Scale (NIS)
grasp of all or most of reality (unlike
A measure of symptoms of neurological
psychosis), but whose behaviour/beliefs
are sufficiently abnormal to merit treat-
neurology The study of the structure, ment. In addition, the complaint
function and diseases of the nervous cannot be attributed solely to mental
system. retardation, and probably causes serious
neuron/neurone An individual compo- negative emotions, in the patient
nent of a nerve or (very loosely) ‘nerve and/or people who come into contact
cell’. Used by many psychologists as a with him/her. A large collection of
synonym for ‘nerve’. The basic unit of fairly disparate illnesses (i.e. practically
transmission in the nervous system. all, the major exceptions being mental
retardation, schizophrenia, and bipolar
neuronal neural. disorder) have been classified as ‘neuro-
neuropathology The study of disorders ses’ (principally for the historical
of structure and functioning of the reason that psychoanalysis classified
nervous system. them all as stemming from anxiety,
although note that this theory is now
neurophysiology The study of the largely discredited). It should be noted
physiology of the nervous system. The that some classification systems (e.g.
term is often used synonymously with some earlier versions of the DSM) do
neurology. not recognize ‘neurosis’ as a valid cate-

gorization. In the DSM-HI the majority neutral stimulus Any stimulus which is
of what used to be termed ‘neuroses’ intrinsically unlikely to either attract or
were re-classified as types of anxiety repel the subject.
New Adult Reading Test Name given
neurosurgery Any surgical procedure to an early version of the National Adult
intended to treat a dysfunction of the Reading Test.
nervous system (including the brain).
new learning deficit Relative difficulty
neurosyphilis A degeneration of the in learning new information, in com-
nervous system due to the syphilis parison with older information and/or
virus. Syphilis is a venereal disease another group of people. Used by some
which passes through two relatively commentators to describe the relative
innocuous phases, before lying appar- weakness of older people in learning a
ently dormant for several months or new piece of information and/or task.
(more usually) years. The disease then
New Sucher-Allred Reading Place-
enters a third and final stage (tertiary
ment Inventory Reading test for
syphilis), in which there is damage to the
cardiovascular system and/or the
nervous system (neurosyphilis). The New Technology Tests (NTT) aptitude
symptoms include blindness, syphilitic test of ability to work with computers.
dementia, and tabes dosalis. Newman-Keuls test A t test for multiple
neurotic The adjective derived from comparisons and post hoc test for the
neurosis. analysis of variance.
neurotic disorder neurosis. Nf neurofibromatosis.
neurotic process (1) In some theories, NFER Reading Tests A, AD and BD
the conflict between the (impossibly Reading tests which require partici-
perfect) self-image and the real self, pants to complete unfinished sentences.
which is held to cause neurosis. (2) ‘A’ is designed for participants aged
neurosis. 6–8 years, ‘AD’, 8–10 years, ‘BD’,
7–10 years.
neurotic solution Removing a neurosis
by suppressing it from one’s conscious- NFER Reading Tests EH A battery of
ness. three reading tests for participants aged
11–16: EH 1 measures sentence comple-
neuroticism (N) See Eysenck’s model of
tion, EH2 comprehension and EH3
reading rate.
neuroticism-emotional stability scale
NFER Reading Tests SR-A and SR-B
See Eysenck’s model of personality.
Reading tests, designed for participants
neurotoxin Any substance or infection aged 7–12. Both consist of sentence com-
which is capable of damaging nerves pletion problems.
and/or their functioning.
NFT, neurofibrillary tangles.
neurotransmitters Chemicals transmit-
nicotine The active constituent in
ted between neurons – the method by
tobacco. Produces feelings of relax-
which neurons communicate with each
ation and mild euphoria, and is addic-
other. The chemicals can also be
released from neurons onto muscles or
glands, affecting their functioning. nictophilia An abnormal preference for

nictophobia achluophobia. 2 = female). See interval scale, ordinal

scale, and ratio scale.
Niemann-Pick disease Inherited failure
to metabolize fat. Symptoms include nominal variable Variable measured on a
mental retardation. nominal scale.
nihilism The belief that there is no nomological validity construct validity,
meaning to life. This can be either a although note that some commentators
philosophical creed or a symptom of use the phrase to denote how well the
mental illness. In more severe manifes- test corresponds to wider theoretical
tations of the latter, the patient believes considerations, rather than those
that s/he and/or others have no real purely assessed within the test.
nomothetic That which individuals
NINCDS-ADRDA criteria A set of have in common. Compare with
criteria for evaluating the probability idiographic.
that a patient is suffering from dementia
non-additive interaction See interac-
of the Alzheimer type. The initials refer to
the ‘National Institute of Neurological
and Communicative Disorders and non-directional hypothesis Any
Stroke’ and the ‘Alzheimer’s Disease hypothesis in which a difference is pre-
and Related Disorders Association of dicted, but not the direction in which it
America’, the two bodies who jointly will fall. See two-tailed test.
devised the scheme. It provides a diag- non-directional significance A signifi-
nosis of ‘probable’, ‘possible’ or cant effect where its direction is unim-
‘definite’. portant (e.g. group A can have an
NIS Neurological Impairment Scale. average score which is significantly
lower or higher than group B, provided
NLP neurolinguistic programming.
that the difference is significant).
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance.
non-directive therapy client-centred
no-trial learning See Bandura’s theory of therapy.
social learning.
non-equivalent control group control
nocebo A placebo which, the recipient is group of participants who are selected
informed, has negative effects or side- completely separately from the experi-
effects. This can result in the recipient mental group. Because the two groups
reporting unpleasant sensations. were not assigned randomly from the
same population, this makes inferences
nocturnal enuresis bed-wetting. See
about their performance difficult to
make (e.g. differences between them
noise (1) Unwanted sound. (2) Random could be due to factors beyond the
neural activity which can be confused experimenter’s control, such as differ-
with a genuine signal (see signal detection ences in upbringing).
non-fluent aphasia Broca’s aphasia, or
nominal aphasia anomic aphasia. more generally, any expressive aphasia.
nominal scale Scale in which each value non-linear correlation See linear corre-
represents a category, rather than a pro- lation.
gression of values changing in size (e.g.
non-linear regression regression in
an arbitrary grading in which 1 = male,
which there is a non-linear relationship

between two variables. Calculations language, but extends further to deliber-

usually assume that the relationship ate acts of communication (e.g. physical
will instead be a curved one. See polyno- gestures).
mial regression.
non-verbal intelligence Any aspect of
non-linear relationship See linear rela- intelligence that does not overtly
tionship. require linguistic skills in its perfor-
non-linear transformation See linear
transformation. non-zero sum game A game in which
the gains of one player are not necessar-
non-parametric statistics Statistical
ily reflected in a loss by the other player
techniques which make no presump-
(e.g. golfers can play together and get
tions about the nature of the distribu-
the same score). This contrasts with a
tions of the populations from which the
zero sum game, in which the gain of one
data are derived. Contrast with paramet-
player means a loss for the other.
ric statistics.
nonsense syllable Any syllable which
non-projective personality test
does not form a real word. Memorizing
Measure of personality in which the
lists of nonsense syllables is sometimes
participant answers a set of limited
(somewhat erroneously) used as a test
response questions which are scored using
of ‘pure’ memory, because the syllables
a standardized scale. Compare with pro-
supposedly have no associations which
jective personality test.
could be used as ‘aides memoires’.
nonrandom measurement error See
nonsense words Words which either are
random measurement error.
not recognizably part of the language
non-reactive measure See reactive when spoken or written, or are not rec-
measure. ognizable when written, but when
Non-Reading Intelligence Tests spoken aloud, sound like a real word
(NRIT) Set of three standardized tests (e.g. ‘phrock’). Such words can only be
(Level 1 for ages 6:4 months–8:3 read by ‘sounding them out’.
months, Level 2, 7:4–9:3; Level 3, Noonan syndrome Genetic disorder
8:4–10.11) presented orally, and characterized by stunted stature,
assessing linguistic and cognitive abili- widely spaced, sloping eyes, and atypi-
ties. cally low ears. There may be numerous
non-recursive mode See path analysis. other atypical physical features. Indi-
viduals with the syndrome typically
non-response (NR) Simply, not have relatively mild intellectual impair-
responding to a stimulus. The term is ments and problems with hearing and
sometimes used of an (allegedly) char- speech.
acteristic phase of children’s reading
skills, in which the majority of errors noradrenergic system Network of
take the form of non-responses, rather neurons using noradrenaline as their
than misreadings of words, etc. neurotransmitter. Primarily used in the
control of smooth muscle.
non-verbal behaviour non-verbal com-
munication. norm The typical standard(s) of a group
or population.
non-verbal communication (NVC)
Information conveyed by means other norm group standardization sample.
than language. The term includes body

norm referenced test Test for which the data so that it assumes a normal distribu-
average scores for the population are tion (and hence can be analysed by
known (and hence which may serve as a parametric tests). Common methods
guide to the quality of the participants’ include taking the logarithms of the
performance). See domain referenced test. data (log transformation), the recipro-
cals (reciprocal transformation), the
normal (1) State of being considered
square (square transformation) and the
unexceptional on any attribute when
square roots (square roots transformation).
compared with the standard of the
Which procedure is adopted very much
population. (2) Not possessing the
depends on the nature of the individual
problem faced by a patient group being
data set. E.g. severe positive skew is cor-
cited as a comparison (e.g. in observing
rected using a negative reciprocal root,
patients with schizophrenia, a control
a moderate positive skew using a log
group may be a collection of individuals
transformation or the square root,
who are not diagnosed as mentally ill).
moderate negative skew by squaring the
The term is a convenient shorthand, but
values and severe negative skew by
should not be taken as a value judge-
cubing the values.
normative (1) That which defines what
normal cognitive ageing (NCA) See
is normal. E.g. ‘normative data’ describe
mild cognitive impairment.
the types of data readings one would
normal curve The shape of the normal normally expect to find. (2) That which
distribution when plotted as a graph. determines the correct or appropriate
normal curve equivalent Expression of standards.
a test score in terms of its position on a Normative Adaptive Behaviour
distribution curve of standardized test Checklist (NABC) Measure of
scores (i.e. where the scorer is placed adaptive skills, both intellectual and
relative to the rest of the population). housekeeping, for subjects aged 0–21
normal distribution A frequency distribu- years.
tion with the following characteristics: normative test Any measure that enables
(1) it is symmetrical and bell-shaped, the scores of different individuals to be
with its ‘peak’ pointing away from the compared.
X axis; (2) the mean, median, and mode are
NOS not otherwise specified.
equal. Because the frequency distribu-
tion of a great many continuous variables nosological Pertaining to the classifica-
(e.g. height, weight, IQ , etc.) assume tion of disease.
this pattern, it has been accepted as the
nosology The classification of diseases.
norm (hence its name). However, this
does not mean that other shapes of dis- nosophobia pathophobia.
tributions are somehow ‘aberrant’. See not otherwise specified (NOS) As a
standard deviation. suffix to a description of a disorder or
normal pressure hydrocephalus an illness – a condition in which the
Caused by the failure of cerebrospinal patient’s symptoms identify his/her
fluid to drain away, leading to a destruc- illness as belonging within a general
tive pressure on brain tissue. The com- category but not as matching named
plaint can lead to demented symptoms. diseases within that category.
normalization (-isation) In statistics, N ow i c ki - S t r i c kl a n d L o c u s o f
mathematically manipulating a set of Control Scale Measure of concept of

self-assurance, designed for children

and young adults. O
NR non-response. O openness.
NRIT Non-Reading Intelligence Tests. object assembly test A sub-test of the
Wechsler intelligence tests, and a generic
NTT New Technology Tests. name for similar measures. The partici-
nuchal rigidity Unnaturally tense neck pant is given ‘jigsaw’-like pieces which
muscles. It can be a symptom of menin- have to be assembled to form a picture.
gitis. object blindness agnosia.
nuclear conflict See Erikson’s theory of Object Memory Evaluation (OME)
development. Measure of memory for objects. The
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) A participant is presented with a set of
method of scanning an organ (e.g. the everyday objects, and is asked to recall
brain), producing three-dimensional them at short (30 or 60 seconds) and
images. The section of the body in long (5 minutes) intervals. Five learning
question is stimulated with a magnetic trials are given, and measures are taken
field, and the resultant changes in the of which items are recalled on which
magnetic orientation of the cells are trial (and which are not).
recorded. object relations The relationship
nuclear schizophrenia process schizo- between the internal mental world and
phrenia. external reality, how significant others
have shaped the formation of this
null hypothesis (Ho) The assumption internal world, and how this in turn
that there will be no difference and/or affects relationships with the real
relationship discovered in the statistical (external) world. The theory has been
test which is to be conducted. See alter- developed particularly in psychoanalysis.
native hypothesis and significance.
Object Relations Technique (ORT)
number completion test A completion protective test in which the participant
test in which the subject must supply the interprets a series of ambiguous
number missing from a numerical pictures.
sequence. The test is a measure of
numerical and logical abilities, and objective test (1) Test whose questions
more generally, fluid intelligence. have definite right and wrong answers.
(2) Test which, in its marking, is not
numerator In a fraction, the numerator is reliant on subjective interpretation.
the number above the line, and the Some commentators add the additional
denominator is the one below it. E.g. in caveat that the participants must not be
the fraction 1/2 – ‘1’ is the numerator, able to discern the purpose of the test
and ‘2’ the denominator. (hence preventing biased responses, in
NVC non-verbal communication. an attempt to create a favourable
impression). See open-ended test.
nymphomania A grossly excessive
desire by a woman for sexual activity. objectivity (of test) The degree to
Despite the sexist jokes on the subject, which a test is immune to the subjective
the condition is not a happy one, not biases of the person administering it.
least because, by implication, the oblique factor analysis See factor
patient is never fulfilled by her encoun- analysis.
ters. See satyriasis.

oblique solution The solution derived severe form, the term is synonymous
from an oblique factor analysis. with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
observational learning modelling. obsessive-compulsive disorder One of
the anxiety states. The patient is ‘cap-
observational research Research in
tured’ by recurrent thoughts s/he
which participants or items are
cannot ‘get out of his/her head’ and/or
observed without any attempt to
feels compelled constantly to repeat the
interact with and/or alter the behav-
same act (e.g. repeatedly washing one’s
iour of the participants/items.
hands, having to go through a set
observed score raw score. routine before going out of the house).
observed variable dependent variable. obtained score raw score.
observer bias The tendency of observers obtrusive observation Study in which
to make judgements (usually uncon- the participants are aware that they are
sciously) in favour of a preferred being observed. This contrasts with
outcome. unobtrusive observation, in which they
observer drift The tendency of two or are unaware.
more observers to become more in O’Connor Finger Dexterity Test See
agreement in subjective judgements the pegboard task.
longer they work together.
Occam’s razor parsimony principle.
observer scale Any measure which is
occipital lobes The region of the cerebral
formed from observations by a person
cortex roughly in the region of the
of someone else (e.g. by a doctor of a
‘back of the head’. Their principal
patient). The term often carries the
function is in visual perception.
implication that a behaviour checklist is
involved. occupational drinking The ‘require-
ment’ to drink large quantities of alco-
observing ego In some psychoanalytic
holic beverages as part of one’s job (e.g.
theories, the aspect of the ego involved
a business person entertaining clients).
in rationally interpreting the therapeu-
tic process, whilst the experiencing ego Occupational Interest Checklist
is the ‘part’ of the ego which undergoes (ICL) Questionnaire used in careers
the therapeutic transformation. guidance. The participants list their
interests and general ambitions, which
Observing Pupils and Teachers in
are matched against the typical profiles
Classrooms (OPTIC) An observation
of members of various occupational
schedule for assessing the positivity
and/or negativity of teachers’
responses to pupils (Section A), and the occupational neurosis neurosis induced
degree to which pupils are attending to by the patient ’s occupation (e.g.
the lesson’s set tasks (Section B). because it is stressful, or because the
person is not suited to the job, etc.).
obsession A recurrent set of ideas which
the patient cannot ‘get out of his/her Occupational Personality Question-
head’, and which are often irrational. naires (OPQ). Measure of a person’s
skills and personality used to assess
obsessional personality A rather
suitability for a variety of occupations.
nebulous term for a character type
prone to obsessions, and pedantry. In a occupational psychology The study of
psychology of the workplace, and the

use of psychological methods to odd man out test See Assessing Reading
change the workplace (e.g. selection of Difficulties.
personnel through psychological tests,
oddity task odd man out question.
and the use of ergonomics to improve
working practices). The related disci- oedema The excessive accumulation of
pline of the examination and improve- fluid in tissues. Following a stroke, such
ments of relationships within a accumulation in the brain can occur,
working environment (e.g. methods of causing death of brain cells in the
communication between management afflicted area with a concomitant loss of
and workers) is sometimes called ‘occu- psychological functioning.
pational psychology’, but is better clas- Oedipus complex See Freud’s psychoana-
sified as organizational psychology. lytic theory.
Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) offloading (Mis)using therapeutic situa-
Measure of level of stress being experi- tions as an excuse simply to talk to
enced by an employee, and its likely relieve tension.
effects on the employee and the organi-
zation. olfactory cranial nerve cranial nerve
number I, primarily concerned with
occupational therapy The use of practi- smell.
cal or creative tasks for a therapeutic
purpose. E.g. to provide long-term olfactory evoked potential evoked
patients with tangible goals (thereby potential created by administering a
providing a sense of purpose and coun- smell to the subject.
teracting boredom) and to help injured oligoencephaly mental retardation result-
patients learn to recover function in ing from an abnormally small brain.
injured limbs, etc.
ombrophobia A phobia of rain.
OCEAN five factor model of personality.
OME Object Memory Evaluation.
ochlophobia demophobia.
omission training The removal of a
Ockham’s razor Occam’s razor. reward if an undesirable behaviour is
oculomotor cranial nerve cranial nerve exhibited (i.e. the participant does not
number III. Concerned, along with the have to do anything to get the reward,
abducens cranial nerve and the trochlear other than simply not do a particular
cranial nerve with the muscular move- act).
ments of the eye (compare with optic ondansetron Drug whose effects
cranial nerve). include the enhanced release of acetyl-
ODD oppositional defiant disorder. choline (see cholinergic hypothesis) and
thus a potentially beneficial treatment
odd-even technique split-half correla- of some forms of dementia. See
tion, in which the odd-numbered items ganglioside and tacrine.
on a test are correlated with the
even-numbered items. one sample runs test non-parametric
measure of whether a sequence of
odd man out question Common events with onl y two possible
question in intelligence (particularly outcomes significantly deviates from
fluid intelligence) tests. Participants must chance. The test is used on mutually
select an item which does not belong to exclusive events with only two possible
the same category as the rest of the outcomes (e.g. coin tosses, possession
items displayed.

or lack of a particular attribute, etc.). open question See closed question.

Different formulae and tables are used
open system Any system which is
depending on whether the size of the
affected by external forces.
run is greater or lower than 20 events.
openness (O) Personality trait (one of the
one sample t statistic parametric test
‘Big Five’) measuring the degree to
estimating the mean and parameters of
which the participant is prepared to
the population from which a sample is
seek out and cope with the unfamiliar.
operant behaviour (1) Voluntary
one sample t test A measure to deter-
behaviour performed in order to attain
mine if a sample of normally distributed
a reward. (2) emitted behaviour.
data is drawn from a particular popula-
tion. operant conditioning Broadly, the
training of a participant to perform a
one sample test Statistical measure to
particular act by rewarding him/her
determine whether a sample is derived
for doing it or to stop an act by punish-
from a particular population.
ing him/her. The basis of much of
one-tailed test See two-tailed test. behaviour therapy.
onomatomania Disorder in which the operational definition A description of
patient is unable to stop thinking about a process, providing details of materials
a particular word or set of words. and how they must be used (i.e. a
onomatophobia A phobia of a particular
word or phrase. o p e rat o r-m a c h i n e sy st e m An y
working process in which a human
onset The time or time period when an
operator uses a machine.
illness first manifested itself.
opiate receptors See opiates.
ontogenesis Can be synonym for
ontogeny, but can also refer to growth of opiates Group of drugs derived from or
a particular aspect or part of the indi- similar in structure to opium. Principal
vidual. amongst these are opium (extracted
from the juice of the opium poppy);
ontogeny The growth of the individual.
morphine (synthesized from opium),
See ontogenesis and phylogeny.
codeine and heroin (both synthesized
open coding Coding data without from morphine). All are taken up by
restricting coding to a limited set (e.g. opiate receptors in the brain. The drugs
not just paying attention to data that have excellent pain-killing properties
are instances of a specific concept). and induce euphoria (hence their legal
open-ended test Test whose answers use for patients in extremes of pain), but
cannot be totally objectively classified they are also addictive. The body also
as definitely right, or definitely wrong. produces its own opiates (though their
E.g. a question such as ‘what is the effects are milder) called opioid
capital of the United Kingdom?’ has peptides.
only one correct answer. However, a opioid peptides See opiates.
question such as ‘how can one solve the
opium See opiates.
ills of the British economy?’ is
open-ended, because there is a practi- opportunistic sampling Gathering a
cally infinite range of answers. Contrast sample of participants from a particular
with objective test. population by taking whoever is avail-

able at the time. This does not necessar- may be lowered because of fatigue. (3)
ily result in a biased sample, but in most Practice effect.
student reports, the term is a euphe-
order of magnitude (1) An arrangement
mism for ‘I got my friends to act as
of values in order of their size. (2) Ten
times bigger or smaller.
opposites test Any measure in which the
order statistics Any statistical method
participant must either supply the
which analyses data arranged on an
opposite of a word presented by the
ordinal scale.
experimenter, or must identify pairs of
opposites from a list of alternatives. ordered multiple regression See
multiple regression.
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
Atypically pronounced defiant and ordered recall A memory task in which
aggressive behaviour. items have to be recalled in exactly the
order in which they were originally
OPQ Occupational Personality Question-
presented. Compare with free recall.
ordinal interaction Form of interaction
OPTIC Observing Pupils and Teachers in
in which a graph of the results displays
lines which do not cross over. In a
optic aphasia A profound difficulty in disordinal interaction, the lines cross
naming objects which have only been over.
ordinal scale Scale in which items are
optic cranial nerve cranial nerve number ranked according to a characteristic
II. Concerned with vision, particularly (e.g. order of finishing in a race), but in
information from the retina. which the magnitude of the difference
between the items is not recorded (e.g.
oral fluency The ability to speak fluently
the gap between first and second place
on a given topic.
could just as easily be two seconds as
oral personality According to Freud’s two hours). See interval scale, nominal
psychoanalytic theory, personality type scale, and ratio scale.
caused by a fixation at the oral stage.
ordinal variable Variable measured on an
oral reading Reading aloud (e.g. pupil ordinal scale.
reading to the teacher, experimenter,
ordinate Y axis.
orectic Pertaining to emotion.
oral stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
organic affective syndrome organic
orbital cortex Area of frontal lobe respon-
mental disorder (or, by the DSM’s
sible for controlling social behaviour,
criteria, an organic brain syndrome) char-
observing proprieties, etc.
acterized by a profound alteration of
order (of regression) See first order mood.
regression, second order regression etc.
organic brain syndrome See organic
order effect (1) A biasing of results mental disorder.
resulting from a particular order of pre-
organic delusional state Organic mental
sentation of test items. See counterbal-
disorder (or, by the DSM’s criteria, an
ancing and fixed order presentation. (2)
organic brain syndrome) characterized by
The phenomenon whereby in a long
delusions resulting from brain damage.
test session performance of later tests

organic hallucinosis Organic mental organism In some therapies, the word

disorder (or, by the DSM’s criteria, an has a special meaning. See Roger’s self
organic brain syndrome) characterized by theory of personality.
hallucinations resulting from brain
organismic endogenous.
organizational coping strategy A ther-
organic mental disorders (1) General
apeutic regime designed to reduce stress
term for a group of mental illnesses
or other deleterious psychological
whose cause can be linked to physical
effects in groups (usually of employ-
damage or impairment to the brain (see
ees). See individual coping strategy.
functional mental disorder). The damage
can be of any nature – common sources organizational psychology See occupa-
are physical blows to the head, tional psychology.
tumours, and poisoning by an excess of orgone therapy Therapeutic technique
hormones or drugs. (2) The DSM devised by Wilhelm Reich (psychother-
system uses a rather tighter definition apist). The methodology revolved
of organic mental disorders (NB in around the theory of the ‘orgone’, a
DSM-IV they are given the unwieldy particle of ‘life force’, which was accu-
title of Delirium, Dementia, Amnesia mulated and then released through sex.
and other Cognitive Disorders), reserv- Mental health problems were held to
ing the term for illnesses which can be occur because not enough orgones
linked to a specific cause, and contrasts were accumulated, and/or they weren’t
this with organic brain syndrome, released properly. The therapy con-
where the illness can be linked to brain sisted of various rituals of massage, etc.,
damage, although using existing tech- and of the ‘orgone accumulator’ – a
nology, measures record, at the most, metal lined box which supposedly
only slight physical damage. By the accumulated orgones, and in which the
DSM-III’s criteria, organic mental dis- orgone-deprived patient sat. The
orders include most of the dementias therapy is reminiscent of some of the
(notably dementia of the Alzheimer type wilder excesses of the South Sea Bubble
and multi-infarct dementia), and disorders (although in fairness, some successes
resulting from substance abuse; whilst were claimed for the technique) and
organic brain syndrome encompasses since Reich’s death in the 1950s, has
e.g. acute confusional state, Addison’s been largely abandoned.
disease, amnestic syndrome, Cushing’s
syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroid- orgonomy orgone therapy.
ism, Korsakoff ’s syndrome, organic affective Orleans-Hanna test Test of potential
syndrome, organic delusional syndrome, ability at algebra – the test measures
organic hallucinosis, organic personality ability to process symbolic representa-
syndrome, and Wernicke’s dementia. tions.
organic personality syndrome organic ORT Object Relations Technique.
mental disorder (or, by the DSM’s
criteria, an organic brain syndrome) char- orthogonal Unrelated.
acterized by a severe personality orthogonal factor analysis See factor
change, resulting from brain damage. analysis.
organic therapy Any physical method orthogonal solution The solution
of treatment. derived from an orthogonal factor

orthomolecular psychiatry The school overanxious disorder An anxiety

of thought, founded by Linus Pauling, disorder restricted to children. Principal
that mental illness can be attributed to symptoms include generalized anxiety
problems in the chemical balance of the (the DSM-IV classifies overanxious
body and the brain. Therapy includes disorder as a sub-set of generalized
taking enormous quantities of vitamins anxiety), and an abnormal concern
(hence its other, less serious, name of about scholastic performance and the
megavitamin therapy). In spite of the late future in general.
Professor Pauling’s undoubted abilities
Overcoming Depression Computer-
(he was twice a Nobel Prize-winner),
ized programme designed to help
the theory has not met with universal
lower depression levels in patients using
orthopsychiatry The study of preven-
overcontrolled behaviour Behavioural
tion of mental illness.
problem (particularly in children), in
OSI Occupational Stress Indicator. which apprehension about an event,
person, etc., controls their lives to the
osmophobia A phobia of smells.
point of creating anxiety and/or depres-
Othello syndrome delusional jealousy. sion.
outcome research Assessing the effec- overcorrection Therapeutic method of
tiveness of a treatment. counteracting the wrong behaviour
outlier Participant whose scores differ pattern by following it with intensive
appreciably from those of the rest of practice of the correct method.
his/her group. This may indicate that overinclusive language Using too wide
something went wrong with his/her a range of references in speech, rather
testing and/or the scoring procedure. than sticking to the main point. The
Accordingly, there may be grounds for disorder is found in schizophrenia.
excluding the participant from the
overlapping longitudinal study An
analysis. However, exclusion of outliers
attempt to overcome the pitfalls of the
should not take place solely because
cross-sectional research and longitudinal
they mar an otherwise conveniently
research methods. Different age groups
neat set of findings.
o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a re t e s t e d an d
outlying case outlier. compared, and then retested some time
outplacement counselling The provi- (usually years) later. At each testing, the
sion of counselling to individuals or different age groups can be compared,
groups faced with redundancy. It is as in a cross-sectional study (e.g. a group
usually a combination of helping to of 40-year-old participants can be
cope with the emotional blow and compared with a group of 60-year-old
assisting with finding a new job. participants). Also, however, the same
age cohort’s scores can be compared
overachievement Performing apprecia- across test periods (e.g. and the scores
bly better at a (usually scholastic) task of a group of participants who were 40
than would be predicted from aptitude on the first test session and 60 on the
tests. In contrast, underachievement is per- next can be compared). This enables
forming far worse than would be pre- researchers to keep a check on possible
dicted. cohort effects. E.g. suppose that on retest-
ing, the 40-year-old participants have

s c o re s 2 0 % h i g h e r t h a n t h e with children or teenagers under the

60-year-old participants. This might age of consent (most often the desired
seem to indicate an age decline. individuals are pre-pubertal).
However, suppose it is found that the
Pain Assessment Questionnaire
scores of the 60-year-old group, when
(PAQ) Questionnaire measuring the
they were 40, were only 5% higher.
degree to which chronic pain sufferers
This indicates that a principal cause of
experience subjective discomfort.
the difference is not ageing per se, but
rather that the two age groups have Pain Patient Profile (P-3) Measure of
been reared differently. Finally, a factors relevant to a patient’s experi-
time-lag comparison is possible (i.e. each ence of chronic pain.
age cohort’s scores can be compared as paired associate learning Remember-
they reach the same age). ing which item was previously pre-
overt behaviour Aspects of behaviour sented with which (e.g. the participant
which can be measured; the way the sees the words ‘cat’ and ‘briefcase’ pre-
participant presents him/herself to the sented together, and later when shown
rest of the world. ‘cat’ must recall ‘briefcase’).
overt compulsion See compulsion. paired comparison (1) Statistical test
examining dif f erences between
OWLS tests Set of measures of various
members of paired samples. (2) Psycho-
aspects of linguistic skills in younger
logical measure, in which the partici-
pant compares every item in a set of
own-control research ABA design. stimuli with every other item in the set
(e.g. for brightness, aesthetic value,
paired comparison ranking See
P ranking.

p (1) probability. (2) significance/signifi- paired sample Form of matching, in

cance level. which participants are matched, so that
the scores of one participant are
P (1) Psychotism. (2) Perception. directly compared with those of the
P-3 Pain Patient Profile. other. Participants matched in this way
must be very similar indeed to justify
P technique A factor analysis method for this one-to-one comparison. A
e x a m i n i n g ho w c o n s i s t e n t l y a common use of the method is in com-
participant’s pattern of behaviour is paring the same participant at two dif-
maintained across different testing ferent times (e.g. before and after treat-
conditions. ment).
Pa scale See Minnesota Multiphasic Person- paired t test See t test.
ality Inventory.
palilalia Disordered speech character-
Padua Inventory Measure of obses- ized by the persistent repetition of the
sive-compulsive behaviour. same information.
paedolalia infantile speech. palinopsia A disorder of visual percep-
paedophilia paraphilia in which the tion, in which items are seen as
(adult) patient has a desire to have sex

remaining after they have actually dis- choices can be made and acted upon.
appeared from view. E.g. a (probably apocryphal) story
concerns a man shy of looking people
palsy (1) Now largely superseded term
in the eye who was instructed to enter a
for paralysis. (2) Paralysis accompanied
pharmacy, look the assistant in the eye,
by hand tremors.
and ask if the shop stocked smaller
panel study (1) Study of a group (a condoms because the normal ones were
panel) of participants, usually over a too big for him.
period of time. Participants may share a
paraesthesia Subjective impression of
particular characteristic (in which case
sensations on the skin (e.g. burning,
it is more accurately called a cohort
tickling, etc.) although no physical
study), but more usually, they are
alteration of the skin has occurred. The
selected simply because they are able
sensation has several causes, including
and willing to come to the test sessions.
drug side-effects, and conversion
(2) Not necessarily at odds with defini-
disorder. When the condition is coupled
tion (1), the term is also often applied to
with epilepsy, it is known as sensory
a body of participants who are willing
to experience fairly aversive test proce-
dures (e.g. injections, drug treatments, parageusia An illusory or abnormally
etc.). distorted sense of taste.
panic attack See panic disorder. paragnosia clairvoyance.
panic disorder One of the anxiety states. paralalia The persistent substitution of
Characterized by frequent panic attacks sounds within a word.
– in addition to feelings of severe
paralexia (1) A misreading of words. (2)
apprehension, there are sensations of
A form of dyslexia where there is a high
not being in control, and physical
frequency of such errors.
symptoms of shallowness of breath,
dizziness, chest pains, etc. parallel forms (of a test) Different
versions of the same test, with equal
panophobia A phobia of everything.
predictive powers (see alternate form reli-
pantophobia panophobia. ability). They are employed because, if a
participant needs to be repeatedly
PAQ (1) Pain Assessment Questionnaire. (2)
tested on the same skill, using different
Position Analysis Questionnaire.
versions of the same measure mini-
paradigm (1) An experimental method mizes the practice effect.
usually employed to demonstrate or
parallel forms reliability alternate form
investigate a particular concept or phe-
nomenon. (2) A theoretical model.
Parallel Spelling Tests (PST) Spelling
paradoxical injunction paradoxical
test for children aged 6–13 years. The
test uses blocks of sentences drawn
paradoxical intention Therapeutic from a large set, and by using different
technique employed most notably in combinations, a wide variety of test
logotherapy. The patient is placed in a blocks can be created.
(usually exaggerated form of a) situa-
paralog A nonsense word of two syllables.
tion of which s/he is afraid or embar-
rassed, and by going through with it, paralogia Illogical language.
comes to terms with the fact that
paralysis agitans Parkinson’s disease.

paralytic dementia paresis. paraphemia Habitual misuse of words

and/or phonemes.
parametric statistics Statistical methods
which presume that the data being paraphilia A group of psychosexual disor-
analysed come from populations with ders, in which the patient solely or prin-
particular sets of characteristics (param- cipally gains sexual gratification from
eters). Typically (but not invariably), it activities and items either forbidden by
is assumed that the data are continuous societal conventions, or which would
variables, and come from populations not elicit such extreme responses in an
with a normal distribution. Examining average person. See atypical paraphilia,
data which are derived from popula- ecoutism, exhibitionism, fetishism, masoch-
tions with the ‘wrong’ characteristics ism, paedophilia, sadism, transvestism, and
for the test in question will produce voyeurism.
spurious significance values, because,
paraphobia See phobia.
inter alia, the sampling distributions will
be inappropriate. See non-parametric paraphonia Abnormal voice production.
statistics. paraphrasia paraphasia.
paramimia An impaired ability to paraphrenia paranoid schizophrenia.
perform gestures.
paraphrenic schizophrenia paranoid
paramnesia An incorrect or entirely false schizophrenia.
memory. Sometimes applied to a déjà
vu experience. paraphresia parosmia.
paranoia Irrational feelings of persecu- paraplegia See hemiplegia.
tion and/or of self-importance. parapraxis A minor slip of the tongue or
paranoid disorder Irrational suspicion pen, or moment of absent-mindedness.
of persecution or of being deceived by parapsychology The study of psycho-
others. logical phenomena falling outside the
paranoid personality disorder person- confines of conventional scientific
ality disorder characterized by an irratio- theory and experience (e.g. extrasensory
nal suspicion of other people’s motives, perception, psychokinesis). There is a body
leading to a secretive and unemotional of respectable and rigorously executed
personality. research in this area, but, unfortunately,
it is overshadowed by a mass of ‘pop
paranoid pseudocommunity A group psychology’ with little or no experi-
of people who believe the arguments of mental rigour. Perhaps because of this,
a patient suffering from paranoia. in the popular imagination the field is
paranoid schizophrenia See schizophre- often (unfairly) associated with people
nia. who also have interesting ideas about
the Loch Ness Monster and the where-
paranosic gain A direct benefit from
abouts of Elvis Presley.
being ill (e.g. avoiding work). See
epinosic gain. parasexuality Any form of sexual
activity or predilection considered
paranosis paranosic gain.
abnormal by the society in which it is
paraparesis Weakness in the legs, result- practised.
ing from neural damage.
parasomnia A disorder of sleep, or
paraphasia A profound misuse of words. disorder which occurs during sleep.

parasuicide Attempted (but unsuccess- fering from many of the dementias.

ful) suicide; self-inflicted but not fatal Causes of the illness are several, but a
harm. lack of dopamine in the substantia nigra
within the brain has been cited as a key
parataxis Lack of integration of thoughts
and/or emotions.
parmia Cattell’s term for a personality
parathymia inappropriate affect.
trait corresponding to degree of adven-
paratypic Caused by the environment. turousness.
parent distribution The population dis- parosmia Impaired sense of smell.
parosphresia parosmia.
parent ego state See transactional analysis.
paroxetine Type of selective serotonin
Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Measure re-uptake inhibitor drug.
of parenting abilities of parents with
parsimony principle The general prin-
children aged under 10 years. The test
ciple that in explaining an experimen-
identifies aspects of parenting which
tal finding, the simplest explanation
are under stress, and of potential
should be preferred.
problems which might result.
part correlation semi-partial correlation.
paresis Neurological disorder, character-
ized by partial paralysis or complete partial correlation A technique for
paralysis (general paresis) and dementia. assessing how much of the correlation
between two variables is due to the coin-
paresthesia paraesthesia.
cidental effect of a third variable. E.g.
parietal lobes The region of the cerebral suppose that a high correlation is found
cortex which occupies an area contigu- between children’s feet sizes and their
ous with a hairband across the head. maths ability. This could be taken to
Their role is hard to concisely define, mean that being good at maths makes
but they can be said to be involved in your feet grow (or vice versa). However,
maintaining an awareness of the body’s a more plausible explanation is that the
state and location, and in interpreting relationship is due to a coincidental
symbols (e.g. object recognition and factor – namely, that older children
some aspects of reading). tend both to have bigger feet and to be
Parkinsonism (1) A set of symptoms better at maths tests than younger
strongly akin to those of Parkinson’s children. In order to demonstrate this, a
disease, although they are present in partial correlation would calculate how
other disorders of psychological much of the correlation between feet
and/or neurological functioning. (2) size and maths score was due to this
Parkinson’s disease. third variable of age, and demonstrate
the extent to which feet and maths were
Parkinson’s disease (PD) organic mental still related once the coincidental effect
disorder, characterized by severe of age had been accounted for. The
muscular trembling in resting muscles, technique has certain similarities with
and akinesia. In later stages walking is analysis of covariance. The difference lies
reduced to a characteristic shuffle. in the fact that analysis of covariance
Patients are often depressed, and a assesses whether differences between
sizeable proportion are also intellectu- groups remain after allowing for a third
ally impaired. Symptoms of Parkin- variable, whilst partial correlation
son’s disease are found in patients suf- assesses whether any relationship

between them is still present. See corre- passive therapy See active therapy.
lation and semi-partial correlation.
Patau’s syndrome Genetic disorder
partialled out The process whereby the characterized by intellectual dysfunc-
coincidental effect of a third variable is tion (may vary from relatively mild to
mathematically removed from the corre- severe in individual cases).
lation between two variables. See partial
path analysis Complex technique for
correlation and correlation.
analysing causal links from correlations
participant A person who participates in between variables, both directly, and
an experiment. In many statistical texts indirectly through other variables. The
and older psychological writings, the variables can be single measures, or
term subject is used instead. Generally, several measures grouped together (e.g.
psychology journal and book editors a ‘mathematical skills’ variable could
now prefer ‘participant’ because it is simply be a score on a single mental
thought to be more neutral sounding arithmetic test, or alternatively, a
and thus less offensive, but often ‘sub- battery of tests of different maths
ject’ is still used when referring to sta- skills). The experimental hypothesizes
tistical analyses. is that links between variables fall in
particular directions – in a recursive
participant observation Experimental
model, all influences fall in one direc-
method in which the experimenter ‘dis-
tion only (e.g. A can affect B, but B
guises’ him/herself as one of the group
cannot affect A). In a non-recursive
of participants to be studied in order to
model, the influences can be mutual
gain greater insight, closer observa-
(though not necessarily equally strong
tions, etc. See action research and natural-
in both directions). The relationships
istic research (definition 2).
between variables are traditionally
partile A division of a sample into equal expressed with a diagram, in which the
sizes (e.g. quartiles). names of the variables are linked by
parturiphobia A phobia of childbirth. arrows, and the strength of the rela-
tionship is expressed as a path coeffi-
passing stranger effect The phenome- cient (expressed as a correlation coeffi-
non whereby some people are willing cient, or as the number of standard devia-
to talk about their problems with tions by which one variable alters when
complete strangers whom they meet for the other variable changes by 1
a brief while, and know they will never standard deviation) printed above the
meet again, whilst they would never do arrow. The direction of the arrow indi-
this with closer associates, therapists, cates the direction of the relationship
etc. (e.g. AÕB indicates that A influences B,
passive-aggressive personality but not vice versa). A straight arrow
disorder personality disorder character- means that the experimenter has identi-
ized by avoiding obeying other fied the nature of the causal link. A
people’s requests (the avoidance is felt curved double-headed arrow indicates
by some theorists to be a substitute for that a link has been identified, but the
being aggressive and refusing alto- direction of its causality is as yet uncer-
gether). Note that the DSM-IV has tain. It should also be noted that the
removed the definition from its list. technique requires a degree of subjec-
tive judgement in deciding which
passive-dependent personality measures should be grouped together
disorder dependent personality disorder. as variables.

path coefficient See path analysis. PDDNOS pervasive developmental disorder

not otherwise specified.
pathognomonic symptoms Symptoms
which are typical of a particular disease. PDS Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale.
pathological gambling An impulse Pd scale See Minnesota Multiphasic-
disorder – the patient has an irresistible Personality Inventory.
urge to gamble.
p.d.f. probability density function.
pathomimicry Imitation of illness
PDI Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview.
(either deliberately malingering or
unconsciously through mental illness PE probable error.
such as factitious disorder). Peabody Individual Achievement
pathoneurosis Excessive reaction to Test (PIAT) achievement test principally
illness. assessing mathematics, reading and
spelling skills.
pathophobia A phobia of illness.
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scale See
Pathways to Independence A behav-
British Picture Vocabulary Scale.
ioural checklist measuring the degree to
which a patient is capable of independ- peak experience A highly emotion-
ent living. ally-charged experience.
patient cohort A group of people with Pearson correlation coefficient (r) A
not only illness in common, but also a measure of correlation when both vari-
set of attitudes (e.g. feeling ‘un- ables are measured on interval scales or
healthy’). Compare with cohort and ratio scales.
disease cohort. PEC scale A measure of level of conser-
patient history See history. vatism of political and economic atti-
patrilineal Inherited through males.
peccatophobia A phobia of being sinful.
pattern variable A value on a nominal
scale where each score on the scale rep- pedophilia paedophilia.
resents a unique combination of attrib- pegboard task There are several variants
utes (e.g. 1 = males who like ice cream; of this test of psychomotor skills, but
2 = males who hate ice cream; 3 = the central feature of all of them is that
females who like ice cream; 4 = females the participant is required to put pegs
who hate ice cream). into holes as quickly as possible. One
PC (1) politically correct. (2) personal commercial version of the test is the
computer. (3) percentage correct. O’Connor Finger Dexterity Test.
PCA principal components analysis. penetrance The proportion of people
with a genetic makeup known to cause
PCC Portage Classroom Curriculum.
a particular condition who actually have
PCL Hare Psychopathy Test. the condition. Complete penetrance
occurs when all affected individuals
PCP phencyclidine – the initials are an
have the condition, and incomplete
acronym for the drug’s chemical
penetrance occurs when only some have
it. Incomplete penetrance indicates that
PD Parkinson’s disease. another factor is required (typically an
PDD pervasive developmental disorder.

environmental one) before the condi- percentile norm A norm expressed in

tion will manifest itself. terms of the percentile of the group
recording certain scores.
penile plesthymograph Device mea-
suring the size of the male sexual organ, percentile rank percentile.
and accordingly, changes in the level of
Perception (P) See Myers-Briggs Type
sexual arousal.
penis envy See Freud’s psychoanalytic
Perception of Relationships Test
(PORT) Measure of the degree of
People Pieces Test analogy test using emotional closeness a child feels
schematic figures, rather than words. towards their parents and the ways in
whi ch t h e s e rel at i o n s h i p s a re
per-comparison error rate See familywise
error rate.
perceptual defence Raising the threshold
Perceived Competence Scale for
for recognizing items which are emo-
Children Measure of children’s assess-
tionally disturbing/embarrassing, etc.
ment of their own abilities at intellec-
tual, social and physical skills, plus a perfect correlation See correlation.
measure of general self-esteem.
performance anxiety anxiety induced
percentage cumulative frequency by fear of performing an act which
curve Graphical representation of a others will judge. The term has been
percentage cumulative frequency distribu- applied not only to performing before a
tion. large audience (public performance
anxiety), but to worries about how one
percentage cumulative frequency dis-
will ‘perform’ (e.g. sexually) with a
tribution frequency distribution in which
partner, in an examination (test
each observation is given a ‘score’ indi-
anxiety), etc. See performance neurosis.
cating the percentage of total observa-
tions which have values equal to or performance asymmetry Consistently
below the observation in question. E.g. preferring to perform an act in a partic-
the highest recorded mark on a test ular way (e.g. opening a boiled egg at
might be 40. Therefore, in a cumulative the peaked rather than the rounded
frequency distribution, 40 would be end).
given a score of 100 (since 100% of
performance neurosis A neurosis
scores are equal to or below 40). Simi-
induced by fear of performing an act
larly, a score of 50 would indicate that
which others will judge. See performance
half of the sample scores are at or below
this point. These points are often called
percentiles. E.g. ‘90th percentile’ indi- Performance scales (WAIS) See
cates that 90% of the sample have lower Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
scores. (Note, however, that some com- performance test A non-verbal test
mentators apply the reverse of this – i.e. (usually of non-verbal intelligence).
‘90th percentile’ would mean that 90%
of the sample have better scores.) The period effect cohort effect.
50th percentile is also referred to as the periodicity Pertaining to something
median. See cumulative frequency distribu- which occurs at periodic intervals.
peripheral construct See personal con-
percentile See percentage cumulative fre- struct theory.
quency distribution. Also, see quartiles.

peripheral nervous system (PNS) Col- ferently, based upon their own unique
lective term for neurons not of the set of knowledge and beliefs (construc-
central nervous system. tive alternativism). Several types of
constructs are proposed: many are basic
permeable constructs See personal con-
building blocks (subordinate con-
struct theory.
structs), which can be combined in a
perseveration A failure to stop repeating variety of ways to form superordinate
an action or statements. The phenome- constructs. Others (e.g. a strong stance
non is characteristic of patients with on a particular issue) can only exist by
damage to their frontal lobes, and certain themselves (preemptive constructs).
types of schizophrenia. constellatory constructs are prejudices
persistent vegetative state (PVS) See which shape how other constructs are
vegetative state. designed. Permeable constructs will
permit additions to their structure,
person-based test See knowledge-based whilst impermeable constructs will not.
test. The process of expanding a construct is
person-centred therapy client-centred known as dilation, whilst narrowing it
therapy. is known as constriction. Core con-
structs cannot be removed without
person-situation debate The debate altering a fundamental feature of per-
over whether the state of the individual sonality (in contrast, peripheral con-
or the effect of the environment upon structs can). The therapeutic regime
him/her should be the central concern derived from the theory essentially
of research. seeks to get patients to change inaccu-
persona A mode of behaviour adopted to rate or inappropriate constructs for
fulfil a particular societal role. Note that ones which are more suitable: why the
an individual’s personal needs and person formed the constructs in the
feelings need not concur with this. Too first place, or why s/he is motivated to
large a disparity between the personal do so are not of central importance. A
and public role is held by many theo- method often employed is role play
rists to result in behavioural and other therapy. A person may not be able
problems. verbally to explain all his/her con-
structs, since many are not stored in a
personal construct See personal construct verbal form. To allow a person to
theory. identify many of their constructs, Kelly
personal construct theory George Kelly developed two major measures – the
(1905–1967) argued that people view Role Construct Repertory Test (REP Test)
the world through constructs, which are and the repertory grid test. See laddering.
collections of ideas and opinions, and personal construct therapy Therapeu-
that in order to perceive a person’s tic method based on personal construct
personality, his/her personal constructs theory.
have to be determined, rather than mea-
suring how s/he scores on common traits personal equation Adjustment to scores
(i.e. seeing how their traits compare to allow for individual differences in
with the rest of the population). The ratings of an item, when attempting to
theory has a certain intuitive appeal: gain an accurate rating of the item
it is a commonplace observation that (e.g. one might wish to adjust for indi-
everyone views the same situation dif- vidual differences in reaction times in

attempts to time exactly when an event pally using in-depth analyses of rela-
occurred). tively small numbers of subjects.
personal growth group encounter group persuasive therapy Any therapeutic
aimed at promoting personal growth. technique in which the therapist gives
direct advice to the patient.
personal-universal scale internal-
external scale. PERT Programme Evaluation and Review
personality A person’s set of behaviours,
attitudes and experiences which define pervasive developmental disorder
his/her responses to others and to the (PDD) Group term for a set of condi-
environment. tions originating before three years of
age, and characterized by profound
personality dimension A dimension
problems with communication and
which measures a personality trait.
interacting with others. PDD com-
personality disorders General term for prises five separate conditions: autism,
a group of illnesses whose principal Rett’s disorder, childhood disintegrative
symptom is a personality trait which is disorder (CDD), Asperger’s syndrome, and
sufficiently extreme and at odds with pervasive developmental disorder not other-
societal norms to cause distress, either wise specified (PDDNOS).
to the patient or to those whom s/he
pervasive developmental disorder
comes into contact with. These include:
not otherwise specified (PDDNOS)
antisocial personality disorder, avoidant per-
A severe impairment, originating in
sonality disorder, borderline personality
early childhood, of communication
disorder, compulsive personality disorder,
and/or social skills, stereotyped
dependent personality disorder, histrionic
patterns of behaviour and/or interests.
personality disorder, narcissistic personality
The symptoms of the condition
disorder, paranoid personality disorder,
resemble, but are not adequately similar
passive-aggressive personality disorder,
to those of other pervasive developmental
schizoid personality disorder, and
disorders (PDD). The degree to which
schizotypal personality disorder.
PDDNOS is a separate entity or a
personality inventory Questionnaire failure to diagnose other forms of PDD
test of personality. is debated.
personality test Any test which seeks to PET scan positron emission tomography.
codify a person’s personality (see e.g.
pet therapy See animal assisted therapy.
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire).
petit mal epilepsy See epilepsy.
personality type See type.
PFQ Positive Feelings Questionnaire.
personalization (-isation) The
misperception that remarks and events PGR psychogalvanic skin response.
are directed against oneself.
phagophobia A phobia of eating/swal-
personnel screening Assessing the lowing.
information about job applicants.
phallic stage See Freud’s psychoanalytic
personology A biosocial movement, theory.
centred around Henry Murray, and
phantom limb Phenomenon experi-
most active in the 1940s and 1950s.
enced by some amputees that the
Concentrated on personality, princi-
missing limb(s) feels as if it is still there.

pharmacodynamic tolerance The less- phobia (phobic disorder) A type of

ening of the effectiveness of a drug anxiety disorder – an irrational and
through repeated dosages. extreme fear of an item or event which
cannot be reasonably considered to be
pharmacokinetic tolerance The less-
denoted by a prefix (usually Greek in
ening of the effectiveness of a drug
the case of a single source of anxiety,
because less of it reaches the target (e.g.
and English if it is a set of things or a
because it is metabolized increasingly
general situation). Among the better
known are fear of enclosed spaces
pharmacophobia A phobia of drugs. (claustrophobia), fear of open spaces
phencyclidine (PCP) psychedelic drug – (agoraph obi a), f ear of spiders
in relatively low doses, it creates a (arachnophobia) and fear of heights
feeling of euphoria. (acrophobia). Other phobias can be
more general, such as social phobia (fear
phenomenal Pertaining to that which is of mixing and dealing with people). A
perceived. phobia held in a mild (i.e. not incapaci-
phenomenological experience The tating) form is known as a paraphobia.
participants’ awareness of his/her own Treatments for phobia have included
perceptions, thoughts and feelings. systematic desensitization and flooding.
phenomenological therapies Group phobic disorder phobia.
term for therapies which emphasize the phobic object The object producing the
patient’s own experiences and interpre- phobia (e.g. a spider in the case of an
tations. Best-known examples are arachnophobic patient).
client-centred therapy and therapies
derived from personal construct theory. phobophobia A phobia of fear.

phenomenology The doctrine that the phonemic dyslexia phonological dyslexia

principal focus of interest is the phonological dysgraphia An inability
contents of the mind and/or experi- to spell words using phonological
ence, rather than behaviour. skills. E.g. patients can spell real words,
phenothiazines A group of antipsychotic but cannot spell nonsense words dictated
drugs. to them. See phonological dyslexia.

phenylketonuria (PKU) Genetically phonological dyslexia An acquired

inherited metabolic disorder, resulting dyslexia – the patient is incapable of
in failure to process phenylalanine, a reading nonsense words, indicating a
chemical found in many foodstuffs – failure to translate letters into their oral
unless given a diet which omits this representations.
substance, mental retardation results. phonophobia A phobia of sound.
phi correlation coefficient (r§) See photophobia An extreme physical sen-
tetrachoric correlation coefficient. sitivity to light (i.e. so that ‘normal’
Phillips scale Questionnaire assessing lighting levels may be painful). The
the premorbid adjustment of a schizo- term bears no connotations normally
phrenic patient. associated with the suffix of phobia.

phinothiazines Group of major tranquil- phrenaesthesia mental retardation.

lizers. phrenology The inference of personal-
ity type from the contours of the skull

(i.e. reading ‘bumps on the head’). Picture Arrangement Task Sub-test

Popular in the nineteenth century, but on the Weschler intelligence tests. The
now discredited. participant is shown a set of pictures
which must be placed in a sequence so
phylogenesis phylogeny.
that a cartoon-like story is told.
phylogeny The growth and develop-
picture completion task A measure of
ment (in evolutionary terms) of the
intelligence. The participant is shown a
species. Contrast with ontogeny.
picture from which something is
physical therapy organic therapy. missing (e.g. a door without a handle).
physiological addiction See addiction. The participant’s task is to identify the
missing piece. The test can be prone to
physiological age biological age. cultural bias (e.g. showing a picture of a
physiological correlates The physio- Porsche’s dashboard might not be
logical processes which are linked with readily accessible to most of the popu-
a particular psychological act. lation).
PIAT Peabody Individual Achievement Test. picture frustration test A projective test,
in which the participant is required to
piblokto A mental illness restricted to judge how s/he would behave in the
E s ki m o p e o p l e. The p r i n c i p a l frustrating scenes shown on a series of
symptoms are running uncontrollably, pictures.
screaming and crying.
Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept
pica A mental illness characterized by the Scale Measure of children’s self-esteem.
habitual eating of non-food substances.
Pillai-Bartlett trace significance test for
PICA Porch Index of Communicative Abili- multivariate analysis of variance.
pilot study Small scale study which is a
Pick’s bodies Damaged neurons, found in ‘dress rehearsal’ for a proposed larger,
the brains of Pick’s Disease patients, but identically structured study. It is
which under a microscope have a char- used to practise running tests and
acteristic swollen appearance. ironing out problems which could not
Pick’s Disease Named after its discov- be foreseen at the planning stage. Also
erer, a form of dementia characterized by it can be used to evaluate whether a
a progressive deterioration of brain larger (and costlier) study is worth
tissue commencing in the ‘front’ of the running at all.
brain (more accurately, the frontal lobes) pineal gland Located adjacent to the
and progressing backwards. Psycho- thalamus. Involved in regulation of the
logically, there are often disturbances ‘body clock’.
in personality before any intellectual
changes manifest themselves (unlike PIP Developmental Charts behaviour
other dementias, memory loss is usually checklist assessing the key developmen-
one of the last symptoms to appear). tal ‘milestone’ of pre-school children.
picture anomalies test Any test in PIPS Preschool Interpersonal Problem
which the participant must identify Solving Test.
what is ‘wrong’ with a series of pictures pituitary gland Located adjacent to (and
(e.g. a dog with chicken’s legs, a car principally controlled by) the hypothal-
with square wheels, etc.). amus. Secretes hormones into the blood

Pk The percentile. The value assumed by k play therapy Therapeutic technique in

indicates its value. E.g. P20 = 20th per- which the patient (usually a child) is
centile, etc. allowed to play with various toys and
materials. The manner in which s/he
PKU phenylketonuria.
plays forms part of the diagnosis, and
placebo A treatment which whilst amending some of the ways in which
appearing to be real, in fact contains s/he plays forms part or all of the treat-
nothing of real value. However, the ment (e.g. by treating the toys as substi-
recipient of the treatment is convinced tutes for real-life people and situations).
that s/he is receiving the genuine
pleasure principle See Freud’s psychoana-
thing. Usually the treatment consists of
lytic theory.
a ‘drug’, but the term can also be
applied to e.g. types of therapy. See PLSD test Fisher’s PLSD test.
pluralism (1) Belief that things can have
placebo effect Improvement resulting many causes. (2) The belief that there is
from administration of a placebo. Since more than one ‘ultimate principle’
the placebo does not contain anything (moral, logical, etc.). (3) The belief that
of real worth, the improvement must be more than one belief system or theory
from purely psychological factors (e.g. can c o-exist within t he same
feeling better because of the attention society/field of study.
being received). It follows from this
PMAS primary mental abilities.
that even when given a genuine treat-
ment, part of the improvement in the PMA Test Primary Mental Abilities (PMA)
participant must be due purely to the Test.
placebo effect. One way of assessing PMPQ Professional and Managerial Position
whether an improvement following a Questionnaire.
treatment is due to expectation or to a
real effect is to run a placebo study, in PMS (1) premenstrual syndrome. (2) Profile
which one group receives a placebo of Mood States.
and another the real treatment. One PMT (1) premenstrual tension. (2) Porteus
would expect both groups to display mazes test.
some improvement, but to be of any
value, the treatment must score signifi- PN Test projective personality test, akin to
cantly higher marks than the placebo. the Blacky Test. ‘PN’ is a pig, shown in
The placebo study can be criticized for pictures of a variety of situations
providing a bad service to those receiv- designed to assess aspects of develop-
ing the placebo, if the genuine treat- ment according to Freudian theory.
ment yields appreciably better results. pneumoencephalograph X-ray image
See nocebo. of the brain after air has been injected
placebo study See placebo effect. into it via the spinal cord. The tech-
nique reveals distortions in the brain’s
planned comparison Experimental shape.
design in which the experimenter
intended to perform the comparison PNS peripheral nervous system.
performed. See unplanned comparison. pogonophobia A phobia of beards.
platykurtic distribution frequency distri- point biserial correlation coefficient
bution with a very flattened shape. See (rpb) A measure of correlation between
leptokurttc distribution and mesokurtic dis- a dichotomous variable and a variable
tribution. measured on an interval scale or a ratio

scale. The dichotomous variable must x (a third order regression line) yields a
have ‘natural’ categories (e.g. male and curved line with two ‘bends’. (A first
female) – if it is an artificial dichotomy, order regression line simply predicts y
then the analysis required is a biserial from x, and is the procedure used in
correlation coefficient. If the groups linear regression).
being compared score at opposite
polyopsia A disorder of visual percep-
extremes of a measurement scale, then a
tion, in which items are seen as
widespread biserial correlation coefficient is
polyphagia over-eating.
point estimate A figure that is an
estimate of the value for the population. ponophobia (1) A phobia of pain. (2) A
The degree to which it is accurate may phobia of being over-worked.
be gauged by including the confidence pons Part of brain stem. Functions include
interval as well. relaying information between the spinal
pointedness of distribution kurtosis. cord and the brain.
Poisson distribution Special form of Pool Reflections Test A measure of
the binomial distribution in which one of visuo-spatial skills. The participant is
the mutually exclusive events has a lower required to identify (from a multiple
probability of occurrence than the cho i c e) a f i g ure whi ch i s t he
other. mirror-image of a given figure.
politically correct (PC) The degree to pop psychology (1) Derogatory term for
which an item conforms to currently over-simplified (often to the point of
acceptable moral standards. The term is being inaccurate) works on a psycho-
in principle useful, but has become a logical theme devised for the popular
contentious one because of the debate media. (2) Everyday explanations of
(largely media-fuelled) over who psychological processes offered by
decides what is acceptable. non-psychologists, usually based on an
interpretation (and often further sim-
polydipsia Over-drinking (any fluids).
plification) of media interpretations of
polydrug abuse See substance abuse. psychology.
polygraph A machine measuring heart Popper’s theory of science See
and breathing rates, galvanic skin falsifiability.
response, blood pressure, etc., to monitor a
population The total set of subjects,
participant’s physical responses to
items, or data possessing a particular
questions. The most familiar use for the
characteristic (e.g. one could consider
machine is as a ‘lie detector’.
populations of students, crested newts,
polynomial regression non-linear regres- humans, coal scuttles, etc.). A finite pop-
sion in which a curved, rather than ulation has a limited number of
straight regression line is calculated. The members (e.g. cars made in 1968),
line is calculated by predicting y from x whilst an infinite population has no size
plus x to any number of powers speci- constraints (e.g. numbers). It is often
fied by the experimenter. For example, obviously impossible to measure every
a line calculated by predicting y from member of a population, and therefore,
values of x and x (a second order regression its characteristics have to be inferred
line) yields a curved line with one from a sample from it (inferential statis-
‘bend’). A line calculated from x, x , and tics).

population mean The mean of the popu- positive reinforcement Rewarding a

lation. Unless the values of every single participant for performing the behav-
member of the population are taken iour which s/he is being taught.
into account (which is usually impracti-
positive result See negative result.
cal) then this has to be estimated from
the sample mean. positive symptom See negative symptom.
population validity The degree to positively skewed distribution See
which a sample represents the popula- negatively skewed distribution.
tion from which it is drawn. positivism Philosophical doctrine that
population variance The mean of the only that which can be observed and
sum of the squared raw score deviations of objectively measured is fit for study.
the sample. positron emission tomography (PET
Porch Index of Communicative Abil- scan) Body scan in which the patient is
ities (PICA) test battery used in the given a mildly radioactive tracer (e.g.
assessment and classification of injection of radioactive glucose) whose
aphasia. passage in the blood stream is then
charted. The PET scan can thus
poriomania A compulsion to walk
measure, inter alia: abnormal metabo-
around aimlessly.
lism, thereby indicating atrophy or
PORT Perception of Relationships Test. abnormally functioning cells (e.g. in a
tumour); blood flow; energy use by dif-
Portage Classroom Curriculum
ferent areas of the brain (and hence
(PCC) Behaviour checklist for assessing
how areas change activity levels
the psychological and motor develop-
depending on the nature of the psycho-
ment of children aged 2–6 years.
logical task being prevented).
Porteus mazes A set of paper and pencil
post hoc comparison post hoc test.
mazes, designed to assess visuo-spatial
intelligence. They are also used to post hoc reasoning Explaining events
assess patients with some forms of brain with the gift of hindsight.
post hoc test Any method of investigat-
Position Analysis Questionnaire ing an unplanned comparison (contrast
(PAQ) A job analysis questionnaire with a priori test).
yielding ratings on six categories
post-hypnotic suggestion See hypnosis.
appropriate to commonly sought-after
jobs (e.g. extent to which job requires post-natal depression State of depression
use of machinery, physical skills, etc.). which occurs in some mothers shortly
after giving birth. Symptoms include
positive asset search See asset search.
feelings of inadequacy and hopeless-
positive correlation See correlation. ness.
Positive Feelings Questionnaire post-test Assessing the effect of a treat-
Measure of level of a person’s positive ment – this is usually compared with
feelings for his/her partner. the results of a pre-test, which measured
the state prior to treatment.
positive psychology The study of
leading a happy and fulfilling exis- Post-traumatic Stress Diagnostic
tence. Scale (PDS) Diagnostic test of post-
traumatic stress.

post-traumatic stress disorder cally weak test have the same power as a
(PTSD) Feelings of anxiety, depression, stronger one. This is calculated as 100 x
and an emotional numbing and dis- (sample size of test A yielding power
tancing from once-liked events and size p / sample size of test B yielding
people, resulting from being subjected power size p), where B is the weaker
to a catastrophic experience (e.g. test. E.g. if test B has power p when it
hijacking, war, etc.) which have lasted has 20 participants, whilst test A attains
for 1–3 months (acute post-traumatic the same power with 10 participants,
stress disorder) or over 3 months then B has 50% of A’s power. The
(chronic post-traumatic stress disorder). power-efficiency measure is used to
Acute stress disorder has similar compare the relative powers of statisti-
symptoms but is shorter-lasting (the cal tests, especially comparisons of
DSM-IV specifies that it must arise non-parametric and parametric tests
within 4 weeks of the event and last less (usually the former are weaker).
than 4 weeks).
power test Any measure in which the
posterior Anatomical term. In a quadru- acc