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Main objective:
To determine the metacentric height.

 Water bulb
 Metacentric height apparatus
 Scale or measuring tube

 Metacenter:
When a floating body is given a small displacement, it will rotate about a point, so the
point at which the body rotates is called as the Metacenter.
The intersection of the lines passing through the original center of buoyancy and center of
gravity of the body and the vertical line through the new center of buoyancy.

 Metacentric height:

The distance between center of gravity of a floating body and Metacenter is called as
Metacentric height.

 Why to find Metacentric height?

It is necessary for the stability of a floating body, If metacenter is above center of gravity body
will be stable because the restoring couple produced will shift the body to its original position.

 Center of buoyancy:

The point though which the force of buoyancy is supposed to pass is called as the
center of buoyancy.
The center of area of the immersed portion of a body is called its center of buoyancy.

1. First of all, I adjust the movable weight along the vertical rod at a certain position and
measured the distance of center of gravity by measuring tape.
2. Then I brought the body in the water tube and changed the horizontal moving load
distance first towards right.
3. The piston tilted and suspended rod gave the angle of head, I noted the angle for
respective displacements.
4. I did the same procedure for movable mass by changing its position towards left.
5. Then I took the body from water tube and find another center of gravity by changing the
position of vertically moving load.
6. I again brought the body in the water tube and find the angle of head by first keeping the
movable load towards right and then towards left.
7. I repeated the above procedure for another center of gravity.
8. I calculated the metacentric height by the following formula:

MH = w * d / W * tanØ

MH = Metacentric height
w = Horizontally movable mass
d = Distance of movable mass at right or left of center
W = Mass of assemble position
Ø = Respective angle of heel
Objective of the Experiment
 To demonstrate the variation of the pressure along a converging-diverging
pipe section.
Apparatus for the verification of Bernoulli’s theorem and measuring tank
with stop watch setup for measuring the actual flow rate.

The Bernoulli theorem is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation, and
is valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible. The
equation is obtained when the Euler’s equation is integrated along the streamline for a constant
density (incompressible) fluid. The constant of integration (called the Bernoulli’s constant)
varies from one streamline to another but remains constant along a streamline in
steady, friction less, incompressible flow. Despite its simplicity, it has been proven to be
a very powerful tool for fluid mechanics . Bnoulli’s equation states that the “sum of the
kinetic energy (velocity head), the pressure energy (static head) and Potential
energy (elevation head) per unit weight of the fluid at
any point remains constant” provided the flow is steady, irrotational, and frictionless and the flui
d used is incompressible. This is however, on the assumption that energy is neither
added to nor taken away by some external agency. The key approximation in the
derivation of Bernoulli’s equation is that viscous effects are negligibly small
compared to inertial, gravitational, and pressure effects.
Pressure head ()+ Velocity head ()+ Elevation (Z) = a constant Where,
P = the pressure.(N/m
₰ = density of the fluid, kg/m
V = velocity of flow, (m/s)g = acceleration due to gravity, m/s
Z = elevation from datum line, (m)
 Keep the bypass valve open and start the pump and slowly start closing valve.

 The water shall start flowing through the flow channel. The level in the
Piezometer tubes shall start rising.

 Open the valve on the delivery tank side and adjust the head in the
P i e z o m e t e r t u b e s t o steady position.

 Measure the heads at all the points and also discharge with help of
d i v e r s i o n p a n i n t h e measuring tank.

 Varying the discharge and repeat the procedure

Main objective:
To determine coefficient of discharge of rectangular notch.

1. Open the Calibration of Rectangular notch experiment and click on the next button shown at the
bottom right corner
2. Start the pump by clicking on green button and then click on the next button.
3. Click on the inlet valve to rotate it.
4. Click on hand to rotate the inlet valve and click on the next button.
5. Note the initial reading of the hook gauge and click on the hook gauge.
6. Note the head of water, theoretical discharge of rectangular notch and click the next button.
7. Note the initial reading of the hook gauge and click on the hook gauge.
8. Note the head of water, actual discharge of V-notch and click the next button.
9. Note the coefficient of discharge for rectangular notch.
10. Repeat the same procedure, after certain trials, click on the red button to stop the pump.


To determine the coefficient of discharge (Cd) of the given notch for different rates
of flow.

 Triangular notch
 Stop watch
 Hook gauge measuring tape

 select the notch plate and fit it at the notch holder.
 s i l l w a t e r i n t h e n o t c h c h a n n e l t i l l a t tends to overflow and take the still level
 using gauge Apart the inlet valve to the desired value of flow.
 flow water to flow over the notch at the maximum possible level by regulating the
inlet valve and take the reading in gauge as' cm.
 find the maximum head over the notch then the inlet valve is fully open) and divide the
value into approximately seven e6ual divisions in order to fi" the steps in the head over
notch for the seven sets of readings. just the inlet valve to get the approximate
head over notch,
 wait for few minutes for the head over notch to become constant and then note
the readings.

 Venturi meter
 Two supply hoses
 Measuring tank

The Venturi effect is a jet effect; as with an (air) funnel, or a thumb on a garden hose, the
velocity of the fluid increases as the cross sectional area decreases, with the static pressure
correspondingly decreasing. According to the laws governing fluid dynamics ,a fluid's velocity
must increase as it passes through a constriction to satisfy the principle of continuity, while its
pressure must decrease to satisfy the principle of conservation of mechanical energy .Thus any
gain in kinetic energy a fluid may accrue due to its increased velocity through a constriction
disnegated by a drop in pressure. An equation for the drop in pressure due to the Venturi effect
may be derived from a combination of Bernoulli's principle and the continuity equation. The
limiting case of the Venturi effect is when a fluid reaches the state of choked flow, where the
fluid velocity approaches the local speed of sound. In choked flow the mass flow rate will not
increase with a further decrease in the downstream pressure environment.

- A tube is connected to each to the inlet and outlet of a Venturi meter.- The tube connected to
the outlet of the Venturi meter is connected to the measuring tank.- The adjustable screws are
adjusted to level the Venturi meter.
Fig. 1 - Venturi Meter

 -The apparatus was leveled by opening both the Bench Supply valve and the control
valve down stream of the meter to allow water to flow and clear air pockets from the
supply hose
 This was achieved by connecting the apparatus to a power supply.-
 The control valve was then gradually closed causing water to rise up in the tubes of
them manometer thereby compressing the air contained in the man fold. -
 When the water level had risen to a convenient height, the bench valve was also closed
gradually so that as both valves are finally shut off, the meter was left containing static
water at moderate pressure.-
 The adjustable screws were operated to give identical reading for all of the tubes across
the whole width of the manometer board.
 To establish the meter coefficient measurements of a set of differential heads
and flow rate Q were made.-
 The first reading was taken with the maximum possible value when

 Orifice flow meter
 Measuring tank with gauge glass, scale arrangement and drain valve
 Differential manometer
 Thermometer
 Pump
 Valves to regulate flow rate
 Drain tank
 Tubes and valves to connect the parts

The experiment entitled “Calibration of orifice plate” is
performed into different steps which are listed below.
 Fan in the duct will be started.
 Speed of the air at another end of the duct will be measured by anemometer
by traversing method.
 Pressure difference will be taken at two places by the U tube manometer as
described in Figure1. The places are before orifice plate and after orifice
 Area of the duct opening will be measured from the diameter of the duct by
measuring tape.
 The quantity of the air following through the duct will be varying by
changing the throttling devices which are place at the side of the duct where
the fan is situated into the duct.
 Five reading i.e. air velocity and pressure different will be taken by varying
air quantity with changing the throttling device.
Objective: to determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent
Hydraulic bench
Rynolds apparatus

1. Fill the water tank with water and allow it to stand for some time so that the water comes to rest.
2. Partially open the outlet valve of the glass tube and allow the flow to take place at a very low rate.
3. Allow the flow to stabilize then open the valves at the inlet of the dye injector and allow the dye to move through
the tube. Observe the nature of the filament.
4. Record the data to the table.
5. Observed the regime, then sketch the flow of the dye
.6. Measure the discharge by collecting water in the graduated cylinder for a certain interval lof time.
7. Repeat the steps 3 and 5 for different discharges
 Main objective: to demonstrate various parts of hydraulic bench
Basic concepts:

Parts of Hydraulic Bench Machine:

Its parts are given below:

 Centrifugal pump

It draws water from sump tank and supplies it for performing experiments.

 Sump Tank

It stores water for Hydraulic bench. It is located in the bottom portion of Hydraulic
bench. Water from here is transported to other parts by using a pump. It has a capacity
of 160 liters.

 Vertical pipe

It supplies water to the upper part of hydraulic bench from sump tank through a pump.

 Control valve
It is used to regulate the flow in the pipe i.e. to increase or decrease the inflow of
water in the hydraulic bench.
 Connecter

With the help of this we can attach accessories with the hydraulic bench. Special
purpose terminations may be connected to the pump supply by unscrewing connector,
no hand tools are required for doing so. It is located in the channel.

 Channel

It is used in number of experiments It provides passage for water for different


 Drain valve

It is used for emptying sump tank.

 Side channels

They are the upper sides of the channel. They are used to attach accessories on test.

 Volumetric tank

It stores water coming from channel. This tank is stepped to accommodate low or high
flow rates. It has a capacity of 46 liters.

 Stilling baffle

It decreases the turbulence of water coming from channel. It is located in the volumetric

 Scale & Tapping

A sight tube and scale is connected to a tapping in the base of the volumetric tank and
gives an instantaneous indication of water level.

 Dump valve

It is at the base of the volumetric tank. Opening the dump valve allows the entrained
water to return to the sump tank for recycling. It is used for emptying volumetric tank. It
is located in the bottom of the volumetric tank.

 Actuator

Dump valve is operated by a remote actuator, lifting actuator opens the dump valve,
when it is given a turn of 90’ it will turn the dump valve in the open position.

 Over flow

It is an opening in the upper portion of the volumetric tank. It sends the water level
above 46 lits to the sump tank.
Measuring cylinder

A measuring cylinder is provided for measuring of very small flow rate. The cylinder is
stored in the compartment housing the pump.

 Starter

It on / off the hydraulic bench