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REPUBLIC OF RWANDA

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

ENTREPRENEURSHIP SYLLABUS FOR ADVANCED LEVEL


S4 - S6

Kigali, 2015
ENTREPRENEURSHIP SYLLABUS
FOR
ADVANCED SECONDARY LEVEL

(Senior 4, 5 and 6)

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© 2015 Rwanda Education Board
All rights reserved
This syllabus is the property of Rwanda Education Board. Credit must be provided to the author and source of the document when the
content is quoted.

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FOREWORD
The Rwanda Education Board is honoured to avail this Syllabus which serve as official document and guide to competency-based teaching and
learning in order to ensure consistency and coherence in the delivery of quality education across all levels of general education in Rwandan
schools.

The Rwandan education philosophy is to ensure that young people at every level of education achieve their full potential in terms of relevant
knowledge, skills and appropriate attitudes that prepare them to be well integrated in society and exploit employment opportunities.

In line with efforts to improve the quality of education, the government of Rwanda emphasizes the importance of aligning the syllabus,
teaching and learning and assessment approaches in order to ensure that the system is producing the kind of citizens the country needs.
Many factors influence what children are taught, how well they learn and the competencies they acquire, among them the relevance of the
syllabus, the quality of teachers’ pedagogical approaches, the assessment strategies and the instructional materials available. The ambition to
develop a knowledge-based society and the growth of regional and global competition in the jobs market has necessitated the shift to a
competency-based syllabus. With the help of the teachers, whose role is central to the success of the syllabus, learners will gain appropriate
skills and be able to apply what they have learned in real life situations. Hence they will make a difference not only to their own lives but also
to the success of the nation.

I wish to sincerely extend my appreciation to the people who contributed towards the development of this syllabus, particularly REB and its
staff who organized the whole process from its inception. Special appreciation goes to the development partners who supported the exercise
throughout. Any comment or contribution would be welcome for the improvement of this syllabus.

Mr. GASANA I. Janvier


Director General of REB (Rwanda Education Board)

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Acknowledgement
I wish to sincerely extend my special appreciation to the people who played a major role in development of this syllabus. It would not have
been successful without the participation of different education stakeholders and financial support from different donors that I would like to
express my deep gratitude.

My thanks first go to the Rwanda Education Board staffs who were involved in the conception and syllabus writing. I wish to extend my
appreciation to lecturers and teachers of Entrepreneurship from different educational institutions whose efforts during conception of this
syllabus are much valuable. I owe gratitude to different education partners such as UNICEF, UNFPA, DFID and Access to Finance Rwanda for
their financial and technical support.

We also value the contribution of other education partner organisations such as National EDC/Akazi Kanoze, RSB, REMA, Handicap
International, Wellspring Foundation, MINECOFIN and Local and International consultants. Their respective initiative, co- operation and
support were basically responsible for the successful production of this syllabus by Curriculum and Pedagogical Material Production
Department (CPMD).

Dr. Joyce Musabe,


Head of department,
Curriculum and pedagogical material production department.

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The list of participants who were involved in the elaboration of the syllabus

Rwanda Education Board Staff


I. Supervisor – Curriculum, Pedagogical Material Department (CPMD)
Mr. GATERA Augustin (Director of Languages and Humanities)

II. Curriculum Specialist– Curriculum, Pedagogical Material Department (REB)


Mr. Florian RUTIYOMBA (Entrepreneurship Curriculum Specialist)

III. Lecturers and Teachers


Dr. MBASSANA Elie Marvin (University of Rwanda, College of Business and Economics)
Mr. KANYIKE John Paul (New Life Christian High School)
Mr. KAMUGISHA Rogers Patrick (Cornerstone Leadership Academy, Rwanda)
Mr. TOMUSANGE Brian (FAWE Girls Secondary School, Kigali)
Mr. MUVUNYI Kiba (SOS)

IV. Resource persons


Ms. BAGIRISHYA Judith (Subject Specialist, Examination and Accreditation Department, REB)
Ms. ELIZABETH Miller Pittman (Curriculum Specialist, EDC Akazi Kanoze)
Ms. MUKARUGAMBWA Anne Marie (Project Manager, EDC Akazi Kanoze II)
Mr. MPORANZI Samuel (Director of engineering and urban planning standards unit, Rwanda Standards Board)

V. Quality assurer / editor


Ms. MUGEMANYI Lucie

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Table of Contents
FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgement......................................................................................................................................................................................................... iv
The list of participants who were involved in the elaboration of the syllabus ................................................................................................................v
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Background to entrepreneurship curriculum review............................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Rationale for teaching and learning of entrepreneurship........................................................................................................................................................ 1
1.2.1Entrepreneurship and society ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.2.2Entrepreneurship and learners ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

1.2.3Competencies ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

1.2.4Entrepreneurship and developing Competencies............................................................................................................................................................... 5

2. Pedagogical approach.................................................................................................................................................................................................6
2.1. The competency-based curriculum design philosophy............................................................................................................................................6
2.2. Link to prior learning experiences............................................................................................................................................................................6
2.3. Teaching and learning methods...............................................................................................................................................................................6
2.3.1. Role of the teacher ...........................................................................................................................................................................................7
2.3.2. The role of the Learner .....................................................................................................................................................................................7
2.4. Special needs education and inclusive approach.....................................................................................................................................................8
3. Assessment approach .................................................................................................................................................................................................9
3.1. Purpose of assessment ............................................................................................................................................................................................9
3.2. Types of assessment ................................................................................................................................................................................................9
3.3. Record keeping ......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

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3.4. Item writing in summative assessment..................................................................................................................................................................11
3.5. Structure and format of the examination ..............................................................................................................................................................12
3.6. Reporting to parents ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13
4. The syllabus structure............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
5. Resources............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
5.1. List of materials needed......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
5.2. Human resource requirements in successful teaching and learning of entrepreneurship .................................................................................................... 15
5.3. Strategies to address special education needs ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15
5.4. Adaption of teaching methods and approaches .................................................................................................................................................................... 16
4. Syllabus Units............................................................................................................................................................................................................17
6.1 Senior Four Units. .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17
6.2 Senior Five Syllabus Units ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45
6.3 Senior Six Syllabus Units......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79
5. References ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................104
6. Curricula / Syllabi ....................................................................................................................................................................................................105
7. Appendices .............................................................................................................................................................................................................106
9.1 Subjects and weekly time allocation for Advanced level ..................................................................................................................................................... 106

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1. Introduction
1.1 Background to entrepreneurship curriculum review
As Rwanda moves towards Universal Secondary Education and 12 years of basic education, it is imperative that those graduating from
secondary school are equipped with competences to ensure that they can be productive after graduation. Therefore, it on this quest
that a careful review of the Secondary School Entrepreneurship syllabus was carried out to ensure that the key transferable soft skills
that employers need are being provided to all secondary graduates, academic skills as well as communication and team-work skills.
What learners are taught and the competencies they acquire is influenced by many factors among which is the relevancy of the
syllabus, the appropriate pedagogical approach by teachers, assessment strategies and the necessary and sufficient instructional
materials.

A competence based syllabus guides the development of competencies, associated with methodologies and assessment strategies
that specify the outcomes which are consistent with personal, community and labor markets the needs. This syllabus offers learners
the opportunity to apply what they have learned to real life situations and to make a difference in their own life with the help of
teachers whose role is central to the success of the curriculum delivery.

This entrepreneurship competence based curriculum, therefore, intends to equip learners with a combination of knowledge; skills,
attitudes and values that a learner must demonstrate during and after each level of learning process that enables them to accomplish
a certain task satisfactorily, while personal characteristics such as motivation, self-confidence, and willpower are part of that context.

1.2 Rationale for teaching and learning of entrepreneurship


1.2.1 Entrepreneurship and society
The developmental process and capital formation cannot – in the long run – be achieved by the state or by donor funds alone.
While both of these must contribute, the backbone of the process should be a middle class of Rwandan entrepreneurs. Productive

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entrepreneurship must be fostered to perform its traditional role of creating wealth, employment and vital innovations through
opportunities for profit.

Entrepreneurship education is a vital part of the process to ensure society prosperity, and a driving force behind more employment,
growth and competitiveness. A successful entrepreneur is an asset to the society. He or she contributes to the wellbeing of a society
in several ways such as provision of goods and services, creating new markets, new technologies, new institutional forms, new jobs
and net increases in the real productivity that improves the living conditions of the people.

Entrepreneurship is a great enabler, which can help level the playing field between developed and developing countries and regions. It
is envisaged that with Entrepreneurship Education, Rwanda will transform from a subsistence agricultural economy to a knowledge -
based society, with a vibrant class of entrepreneurs.

1.2.2 Entrepreneurship and learners


The subject is meant to change attitudes of learners and focus more on self-employment, self reliance and raise awareness amongst
young people as well as the broader community for promotion of the potential youth enterprises. The attitude of young people is
also a driver of their productivity. Many Rwandan youth lack a culture of entrepreneurship while some youth perceive a certain
kind of jobs as jobs for second zone citizens. This further translates into a negative attitude towards learning skills related to
those perceived as blue-collar jobs.

Entrepreneurship education will ensure that the key transferable soft skills that employers need are being provided to all secondary
graduates, academic skills as well as communication and team-work skills. Entrepreneurship education will also result into reducing
skills gaps and shortages; improving productivity and business performance; increasing opportunities to boost the skills and
productivity of everyone in the sector’s workforce, including action on equal opportunities; and improving quality and relevance

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of training for employment among learners

Using this syllabus, students will have: progressively more challenging educational activities; experiences that will enable them to
develop the insight needed to discover and create entrepreneurial opportunities; and the expertise to successfully start and manage
their own businesses to take advantage of these opportunities. Education in entrepreneurship therefore, helps learners to apply the
business knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired to solve environmental, economic and social problems in their everyday lives.

1.2.3 Competencies
A competency is a combination of knowledge, skills, attitude, and values that a learner must demonstrate during and after each level
of learning process that enable him/her to accomplish a certain task satisfactorily. Basic competencies are addressed in the stated
broad subject competences and in objectives highlighted year on year basis and in each of units of learning.
The generic competencies, basic competences that must be emphasized and reflected in the learning process are briefly described
below and teachers will ensure that learners are exposed to tasks that help the learners acquire the skills.

Generic competencies
Critical and problem solving skills: The acquisition of such skills will help learners to think imaginatively, innovatively and broadly to
evaluate and find solutions to problems encountered in our surrounding.
Creativity and innovation: The acquisition of such skills will help learners to take initiatives and use imagination beyond knowledge
provided in classroom to generate new ideas and construct new concepts.
Research: This will help learners to find answers to questions based on existing information and concepts and use it explain
phenomena from gathered information.

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Communication in official languages: Teachers, irrespective of being language teachers will ensure the proper use of the language of
instruction by learners. The teachers should communicate clearly and confidently and convey ideas effectively through spoken and
written by applying appropriate language and relevant vocabulary.
Cooperation, inter personal management and life skills: This will help the learner to cooperate as a team in whatever task assigned and
to practice positive ethical moral values and while respecting rights, feelings and views of others. Perform practical activities related
to environmental conservation and protection. Advocate for personal, family and community health, hygiene and nutrition and
responding creatively to a variety of challenges encountered in life.
Lifelong learning: The acquisition of such skills will help learners to update knowledge and skills with minimum external support. The
learners will be able to cope with evolution of knowledge advances for personal fulfillment in areas that are relevant to their
improvement and development.

Broad entrepreneurship competences


The overall goal of entrepreneurship education is to give students the attitudes, knowledge and skills to act in an entrepreneurial
way. During and at the end of the upper secondary level, learners should be able to:
1. Use available resources properly and responsibly to create gainful activities for the present and future generation.
2. Use their creative and innovative powers to come up new products
3. Take manageable risk ventures and create employment opportunities.
4. Make rational decisions basing on one’s needs.
5. Scan and implement business opportunities from the environment;
6. Create smart goals and make viable decisions in life.
7. Save for future needs and manage finance in daily activities

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8. Develop and implement a viable business plan
9. Apply standards in business operations
10. Pay taxes in accordance to Rwanda tax law
11. Exercise their rights and responsibilities as an employee and employer
12. Demonstrate appropriate workplace behavior and attitude
13. Perform accounting for a business enterprise
14. Apply ethical behaviors in business

1.2.4 Entrepreneurship and developing Competencies


The national policy documents based on national aspirations identify some ‘basic Competencies’ alongside the ‘Generic
Competencies’’ that will develop higher order thinking skills and help student learn subject content and promote application of
acquired knowledge and skills. The basic competencies alongside the generic competencies are stated in such way that will develop
higher order thinking skills and which will help subject learning and application of what has been learnt in real life situation.
Through learning sessions such as group work discussions, presentations, debates, research work, field visits, role plays and business
simulations games, learners develop abilities and skills that are transferable to new situations such as Critical thinking, Research and
problem solving, Creativity and innovation and Communication
The above learning activities learners don’t only develop competencies but also values like appreciating diversity, determination,
involvement, tolerance, responsibility, respect, loyalty, patience, dignity and the like.

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2. Pedagogical approach
2.1. The competency-based curriculum design philosophy
A competency-based Entrepreneurship Education generally builds on active and participatory teaching methods. The change to a
competency-based curriculum is about transforming learning, ensuring that learning is deep, enjoyable and habit-forming. Its main
characteristics are the practical, project-based approach, promoting practical experience through workshops, cooperation with
different organizations and enterprises, including learning settings outside school, and last but not least the hands-on approach of
setting up and running student projects. At the same time, each learner is an individual with his/her own needs, pace of learning,
experiences and abilities. Teaching strategies must therefore be varied but flexible within well-structured sequences of lessons:.

2.2. Link to prior learning experiences


The syllabus is not introducing new contents to learners but should build on student’s learning experiences such as personal, family or
community in its delivery. Entrepreneurship is subject that has links with many other subjects such as mathematics, French,
citizenship, English, and others; therefore, it should be delivered showing the relationship with other subjects which will help bring out
the relevancy of the subject to learning process.

2.3. Teaching and learning methods


The methodological approaches used in this syllabus are based on active and participatory teaching and learning. The extent to which
a teaching method is to be used largely depends on the topic being handled, the learners’ learning or comprehension capacities, and
the resources available for use in the learning/teaching process. The activities employed are learner centered, where the learner is the
main actor and the teacher is expected to apply a series of interactive active learning.

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N.B: It is recommended that the teacher must always wrap-up every group activity with learners giving feedback or sharing through
class presentations, discussions, questions and answers to come to an agreed content summary or conclusion of the lesson

2.3.1. Role of the teacher


Since the Competency based curriculum is about learners’ active participation in the learning process, the teachers ought to stick to a
learner centered approach where the teacher plays the role of the coach/ facilitator in order to value learners’ needs and
expectations.
The teacher’s role in the delivery of this syllabus should include among others:
 Organize learners in classroom or study areas
 Designs the tasks to be performed and then works as facilitator throughout the whole process of learning
 Provide the necessary support to the challenging tasks
 Plan and design appropriate tasks that can provoke learners to think critically, be creative and innovative and be actively
involved during the learning process
 Organize and develop learning/teaching materials/resources
 Design appropriate assessment to measure the achievement of set objectives

2.3.2. The role of the Learner


A competency-based curriculum can not be successful without the learners’ full involvement in the learning process. They should be
ready and willing work with the teacher in the delivery of this syllabus.
The role of the learner therefore, in the effective delivery of the syllabus should include:

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 Regular attendance in the classroom
 Active participation in group work or activities
 Do/work on activities, assessments, and any other activity provided
 Seek for assistance and feedback from fellow students and teachers
 Imitate/apply learnt material in their school or daily life
 Respect school rules and regulations
 Search for more information through continuous Research using various sources like books, internet etc.

2.4. Special needs education and inclusive approach


All Rwandans have the right to access education regardless of their different needs. The underpinnings of this provision would
naturally hold that all citizens benefit from the same menu of educational programs. The possibility of this assumption is the focus of
special needs education. The critical issue is that we have persons/ learners who are totally different in their ways of living and
learning as opposed to the majority. The difference can either be emotional, physical, sensory and intellectual learning challenged
traditionally known as mental retardation.
These learners equally have the right to benefit from the free and compulsory basic education in the nearby ordinary/mainstream
schools. Therefore, the schools’ role is to enroll them and also set strategies to provide relevant education to them. The teacher
therefore is requested to consider each learner’s needs during teaching and learning process. Assessment strategies and conditions
should also be standardised to the needs of these learners. Detailed guidance for each category of learners with special education
needs is provided for in the guidance for teachers.

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3. Assessment approach
3.1. Purpose of assessment
Assessment is the process of evaluating the teaching and learning processes through collecting and interpreting
evidence of individual learner’s progress in learning and to make a judgment about a learner’s achievements
measured against defined standards. Assessment is an integral part of the teaching learning processes. In the new
competence-based curriculum assessment must also be competence-based, whereby a learner is given a complex
situation related to his/her everyday life and asked to try to overcome the situation by applying what he/she
learned.
Assessment will be organized at the following levels: School-based assessment, District examinations, National
assessment (LARS) and National examinations.

3.2. Types of assessment


3.2.1. Formative and continuous assessment (assessment for learning)
Continuous assessment involves formal and informal methods used by schools to check whether learning is taking
place. When a teacher is planning his/her lesson, he/she should establish criteria for performance and behavior
changes at the beginning of a unit. Then, at the of end of every unit, the teacher should ensure that all learners
have mastered the stated key unit competencies basing on the criteria stated, before going to the next unit. The
teacher will assess how well each learner masters both the subject and the generic competencies described in the
syllabus and from this, the teacher will gain a picture of the all-round progress of the learner. The teacher will use
one or a combination of the following:
a) Observation
b) Pen and paper
c) Oral questioning.

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3.2.2. Summative assessment (assessment of learning)
When assessment is used to record a judgment of a competence or performance of the learner, it serves a
summative purpose. Summative assessment gives a picture of a learner’s competence or progress at any specific
moment. The main purpose of summative assessment is to evaluate whether learning objectives have been
achieved and to use the results for the ranking or grading of learners, for deciding on progression, for selection
into the next level of education and for certification. This assessment should have an integrative aspect whereby a
student must be able to show mastery of all competencies.
It can be internal school based assessment or external assessment in the form of national examinations. School
based summative assessment should take place once at the end of each term and once at the end of the year.
School summative assessment average scores for each subject will be weighted and included in the final national
examinations grade. School based assessment average grade will contribute a certain percentage as teachers gain
more experience and confidence in assessment techniques and in the third year of the implementation of the new
curriculum it will contribute 10% of the final grade, but will be progressively increased. Districts will be supported
to continue their initiative to organize a common test per class for all the schools to evaluate the performance and
the achievement level of learners in individual schools. External summative assessment will be done at the end of
S.6.

3.3. Record keeping


This is gathering of facts and evidence from assessment instruments and using them to judge the student’s
performance by assigning an indicator against the set criteria or standard. Whatever assessment procedures used
shall generate data in the form of scores which will be carefully be recorded and stored in a portfolio because they
will contribute for remedial actions, for alternative instructional strategy and feed back to the learner and to the
parents to check the learning progress and to advice accordingly or to the final assessment of the students.

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This portfolio is a folder (or binder or even a digital collection) containing the student’s work as well as the
student’s evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the work. Portfolios reflect not only work produced (such
as papers and assignments), but also it is a record of the activities undertaken over time as part of student
learning. The portfolio output (formative assessment) will be considered only as enough for three years of
Advanced level. Besides, it will serve as a verification tool for each learner that he/she attended the whole learning
before he/she undergoes the summative assessment for the subject. The results from the portfolio will contribute
50% on summative assessment of each year.

3.4. Item writing in summative assessment


Before developing a question paper, a plan or specification of what is to be tested or examined must be elaborated
to show the units or topics to be tested on, the number of questions in each level of Bloom’s taxonomy and the
marks allocation for each question. In a competency based curriculum, questions from higher levels of Bloom’s
taxonomy should be given more weight than those from knowledge and comprehension level.
Before developing a question paper, the item writer must ensure that the test or examination questions are
tailored towards competency based assessment by doing the following:
 Identify topic areas to be tested on from the subject syllabus.
 Outline subject-matter content to be considered as the basis for the test.
 Identify learning outcomes to be measured by the test.
 Prepare a table of specifications.
 Ensure that the verbs used in the formulation of questions do not require memorization or recall answers
only but testing broad competencies as stated in the syllabus.

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3.5. Structure and format of the examination
Two papers of three (3) hours each will be set. Each examination paper will consist two sections, “A” and “B

Paper 1
This will test the level of knowledge, understanding and comprehension of the subject matter as well as attitudes and values

Section A
All questions in section “A” will be compulsory and will require clear and brief answers. It will carry 55 marks. The questions will be set to give
candidates the opportunity to read extensively and express informed, critical, innovative and creative and relevant responses to issues relating to
the overall learners` level of knowledge, understanding and comprehension of syllabus topics and objectives. It should test learners’ ability to
explain briefly, define, state, identify, name, outline, classify, give examples, etc. using inferences from knowledge learned.

Section B
This section will be general in nature and require candidates to draw on their knowledge from across the syllabus while demonstrating ability to
explain, discuss, examine, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, describe and show support for significant issues related to entrepreneurial activities. This
section will carry 45 marks and students will answer a given number of questions as per the instructions. The ability to convey a sustained and well
thought–out argument will be credited.

Paper 2
This paper will test ability to apply learnt material to different situations in business and life

Section A
All questions in section “A” will be compulsory and will require clear and brief answers. It will carry 55 marks. The questions will be set to give
candidates the opportunity to read extensively and express informed, critical, innovative and creative and relevant responses to issues relating to

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the overall learners` level of knowledge, understanding and comprehension of syllabus topics and objectives. It should test learners’ ability to
explain briefly, define, state, identify, name, outline, classify, give examples, etc. using inferences from knowledge learned

Section B
This section will be specific in nature and require candidates to draw on their knowledge from across the syllabus while demonstrating ability to
design, invent, produce, devise, develop, propose, generate, reconstruct, plan, and apply significant issues related to entrepreneurial activities.
This section will carry 45 marks and students will answer a given number of questions as per the instructions.

Questions will not necessarily be set on every topic or be in any particular order of this syllabus but should cover aspects of the subject from
senior four through senior six putting into consideration the competency levels of knowledge and understanding, skills and attitudes and values.
Rwanda Education Board will evaluate students who will have studied using this syllabus with effect from 2016. Thus, the National examination
will be set basing on this syllabus with effect from 2018.

3.6. Reporting to parents


The wider range of learning in the new curriculum means that it is necessary to think again about how to share
learners’ progress with parents. A single mark is not sufficient to convey the different expectations of learning
which are in the learning objectives. The most helpful reporting is to share what students are doing well and where
they need to improve.

4. The syllabus structure


This Syllabus is divided into five (5) topic areas, sixteen (16) sub-topic areas and thirty three (34) units. Topic areas are divided into
sub-topic areas which in turn are subdivided into several units. Every unit provides the expected number of lessons to achieve the key
topic competency whose accomplishment is pursued by the proposed teaching and learning activities that guide the teacher and
learners.

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Every unit key competency also is equally broken down into the learning objectives in form of knowledge and understanding, skills and
attitudes and values. Knowledge and understanding serves as lower order of thinking which is the foundation of skills required to
move into higher order thinking requiring skills, change of attitudes and values involving the learning of complex judgmental skills such
as critical thinking and problem solving.

Equally, the unit provides prompts of contents to be taught as well as suggesting learning activities that interactively engages learners
in teaching and learning process (learner centered and participatory approach), and these activities should be geared towards
achievement of the key competence for each unit.

Finally, the unit shows how it link to other subjects, the assessment criteria and the recommended materials or resources to be used
in the teaching and learning process of entrepreneurship.

5. Resources
The learner centered approach in the entrepreneurship syllabus delivery emphasize the need to use a variety of teaching learning
resources including those improvised or collected by the teacher and the learners from the surrounding environment. This section
suggests some of the necessary requirements for the successful implementation of entrepreneurship syllabus.

5.1. List of materials needed


These are materials that teacher will have to aid the learning process and include but not limited to the following;
 Reference books like textbooks, learners’ and teachers’ guides, entrepreneurship journals, magazines.
 Case study materials and scenarios.
 Computer and Internet connection
 Projectors

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 Audio visual study and video materials
 Entrepreneurship incubation facilities
 Successful business resourceful persons
 Business simulations
 Individual and group business projects
 Data analysis software such as Micro-soft Excel
 Business incubators
 Accounting software such as QuickBook, Sage, Pastel, Tally, Peachtree etc.
 Raspberry pi software

5.2. Human resource requirements in successful teaching and learning of entrepreneurship


A competent teacher of A’ Level Entrepreneurship must have at least the following minimum qualifications; Bachelor’s Degree with
Education in entrepreneurship, business studies, business administration, economics, management, finance , professional certificates
like ACCA and CPA or other closely related fields.

5.3. Strategies to address special education needs


All learners have the right to access education regardless of their different impairments and this implies that all citizens benefit the
same menu of education programs. This is meant to focus on special needs education since we have learners who are totally different
in their ways of living and learning and the difference can either be emotional, physical, sensory and mental. Therefore both teachers
and schools’ role is to enroll them and also set strategies to provide relevant education to them.

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Parents and teachers should communicate on cases relating to learners special education needs and difficulties so that they can jointly
help. Parents are requested to collaborate with school administration and teachers towards the academic progress and achievement
of their children.

5.4. Adaption of teaching methods and approaches


Teachers should have positive attitude towards all categories of learners and use teaching and assessment approaches appropriate to
meet each individual learners special needs for example learners with hearing and visual impairment depend on more on sign
language and using of concrete objects such as models, diagrams, samples respectively. The examination therefore should be
standardized to meet different categories of learners with special education needs and the interpretation of results and decisions
should be are fair.

The teacher will aim to use the following strategies if he/she is to cater for students with special needs.
 Use cooperative learning for instance through group works and discussions.
 Mix students with special needs with the rest so as to be helped.
 Tape-record portions of textbooks, trade books, and other printed materials so students can listen (with earphones) to an oral
presentation of necessary material.
 Providing written or pictorial directions to those with hearing problems.
 Special programs and follow up to keep track of their learning
 Providing special needs students with frequent progress checks.
 Using of concrete objects such as models, diagrams, samples, and the like to those with hearing problems so as to
demonstrate what you are saying by using touchable items.
 For students with hearing problems, visual aids, sign languages would be appropriate

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4. Syllabus Units
6.1 Senior Four Units.
Key competencies at the end of S.4
At the end of senior four, the learner should be able to:

 Exhibit behavioral qualities of an entrepreneur

 Make rational career choices in daily life

 Make plans to reach their personal goals

 Evaluate the need for laws in business operation

 Analyze the role of standards in business

 Examine key components of a market and the role of market research

 Analyze the importance of management in a business organization

 Evaluate short and long term capital for future investment

 Evaluate the services/ products offered by financial institutions

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Topic Area: Entrepreneurial Culture Sub-topic Area: Entrepreneurship as a career
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 1: Initiation to Entrepreneurship No. of lessons: 22
Key Topic Competency: Be able to exhibit the desirable behavioral qualities of an entrepreneur
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the Classify the various Exhibit desirable Meaning of: Referring to knowledge of
concept of types of qualities of an - Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship in O’ Level, brainstorm
Entrepreneurship entrepreneurs entrepreneur - An entrepreneur, the meaning of entrepreneurship, an
- Intrapreneur, entrepreneur, intrapreneur and manager;
Differentiate an Identify real Encourage creative - Manager then in small groups learners discuss the
entrepreneur, individuals who and innovative stages of entrepreneurship process
manager and show positive practices in their Stages of entrepreneurship process
intrapreneur entrepreneurial communities - Discovery, In small groups, learners discuss the
qualities - Concept development, distinctions between an entrepreneur,
Describe the Think creatively in - Resourcing, intrapreneur and manager citing examples
qualities of an Describe personal overcoming challenges - Actualization, from their community/school
entrepreneur changes he or she in the community - Harvesting
would have to make
Differentiate in order to become Distinction between Entrepreneur, Basing on the knowledge of
creativity, a successful Intrapreneur and Manager entrepreneurship, learners discuss in small
innovation and entrepreneur. groups the qualities of entrepreneurs;
invention Qualities of an entrepreneur various types of entrepreneurs giving
Explain how existing - Self-confidence, examples from their locality
Explain the types of work can - Hardworking,
meanings of be carried out with - Risk taking, Brainstorm the distinction between
entrepreneurship creativity and/or - Persistent, etc. creativity, innovation and invention; in
based on creativity initiative groups learners give examples of products
and/or Types of entrepreneurs as result of creativity, innovation and

18
innovativeness Suggest innovate - Innovative, invention
ideas for - Imitative,
challenges/problem - Drone, In a group activity, learners are provided
s identified in the - Fabian, etc. with a variety of products such as bottle
community tops, spoon, etc. and have to come up with
Types, Benefits, Challenges of: new and different products of their own;
- Creativity, then brainstorm on what limits people
- Innovation and Invention from being creative; benefits and
challenges of creativity and innovation
Relationship between Creativity,
Innovation and Invention Field visits to identify various types of
entrepreneurs

Brainstorm/ and in groups generate


creative/innovate ideas to solve identified
problems in the community
Links to other subjects: theory of production in Economics
Assessment criteria: Can be able to explain the concept of entrepreneurship, types of entrepreneurs and their qualities
Materials: Internet access, computers, resource persons, sample products, field visits

19
Topic Area: Entrepreneurial Culture Sub-topic Area: Entrepreneurship as a career
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 2: Career opportunities No. of lessons: 21
Key Topic Competency: Be able to make rational career choices
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values
Identify some of their Choose careers Career Concept Learners make and review the list of types of work
Identify work own and their based on self Meaning that are done in their community or other
they are classmates’ assessment communities, and identify a number of types of work
interested in particular talents and Choosing work to do that are interesting to them personally, writing in their
doing and give interests Develop plans for Fields of career opportunities: notebook why they are interested in that type of
reasons for future careers - Education work.
their choices. Identify careers - Health
based on own - Security forces
characteristics - Law Brainstorm in small groups the types of skills and
- Media talents needed for a range of different types of work.
Identify some Use various sources - Hotel and tourism Also learners mention some of the main skills and
of the main in order to get career - Commercial and talents they have noticed in their classmates within
sources of information and manufacturing the small group; and then the learners help each
information guidance. - Media other identify at least three different types of work
that can help - Construction, etc. they will be good at.
them choose Prepare a career plan - Sources of career
what kind of the work they are information
future work to interested in. - Schools, Discuss in detail as a class or in small groups how
prepare for - Media, (Newspapers, radios) people prepare to start doing each type of work the
Distinguish with - Potential workplace, etc learners have chosen (the necessary education and
examples the types practical preparations), what represents high and low
Explain the of work or careers levels of skill and knowledge for each occupation, and
Career trajectory or path
meaning of a that are involved in how people progress from being beginners to having a
- Assess your self

20
career being employed and - Make a list of potential high level of skill in each one. Use these ideas to
trajectory self-employed occupations introduce the concept of a career trajectory.
- Explore the options
Assess the various - Narrow down your list
employment options - Set goal In small groups, learners discuss sources of career
- Create a career action plan information; then learners use the Internet and other
Analyze the benefits - Obtain training sources available (e.g. newspapers, books, or the
and challenges radio), to learn more about the types of work they are
associated with Obtaining a career guidance interested in.
Explain the being an Meaning of a career guidance
benefits and entrepreneur
challenges of Sources In class learners develop a set of questions that they
being - Teachers can ask their parents, teachers, career guidance
employed and - Parents counsellors, or skilled workers in order to learn more
self- - Career guidance counsellors about certain types of work.
employment - Skilled workers, etc

Employment options
- Self-employment and
- Being Employed
-
Entrepreneurship: benefits and
challenges
In small groups, learners investigate what they can
Benefits learn about the types of work they are interested in,
- Higher social status using at least two of these different sources. Then
- Self-employment and job they make a presentation of the results, including
security what sources they have used, what they have learned,
- Higher incomes and how they have learned it; and also include a
- Provision of employment personal evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks of

21
opportunities each type of work.
- Contribution to welfare
programs
- Boosting household incomes
- Exploitation of resources, etc

Challenges: In small groups learners discuss different employment


- Risk of losing invested options using examples from the communities; then
resources learners debate on the benefits and challenges of self-
- Skills and knowledge employment and being an employee
- Raising capital
- Uncertain income
- Work long hours In small groups, learners develop a set of interview
- Lack of capital questions, and meet a person who runs his/her own
- Limited level of technology business. They should ask the business person about
- Poor entrepreneurial skill the good and bad experiences s/he has had with the
- Lack of business and business; why s/he has chosen to run a business,
technical skills, etc. rather than other types of work. Learners then share
their results and then create a list together of some of
the commonly-experienced benefits and challenges of
an entrepreneur.

In small groups, learners analyze case studies on self


and paid employment; identify and discuss the
benefits and challenges involved in each employment
type
Links to other subjects: Employment in Economics and General Studies; Entrepreneurship in General Studies
Assessment criteria: Can show capacities in choosing appropriate future careers
Materials: Resource person (successful entrepreneur), case studies

22
Topic Area: Work Readiness Sub-topic Area: Personal Development
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 3: Setting Personal Goals No. of lessons: 21
Key Topic Competency: To be able to make plans to reach their personal goals
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Identify values and skills Identify their Recognize that values Identifying values and skills Group work to explore:
that employers want. values, skills and are important in Desirable personal values, skills and
personal family, society and Personal qualities; strengths; and then discuss the common
strengths and employment Friendliness, respect; values, skills and strengths in relation to
Explain characteristics of a areas for intelligence, caring, self- the family/friends, entrepreneurs and
Treat others with
goal (specific, measureable, improvement reliance, accomplishment, towards employers.
respect as one would
realistic and timeframe) commitment, loyalty,
Link personal do in the work place.
honesty; dignity; integrity, With a help of an entrepreneurial self-
values to their
Advocate for values prudence/economic well assessment sheets, learners perform a self-
daily lives
Identify steps to setting a desirable in family, being assessment of values, skills and qualities in
goal and creating a plan Identify types of society and relation to Entrepreneurship, personal
jobs that are employment Personal qualities in relation to: development, engagement with society,
Describe the various related to Entrepreneurship, work in school and beyond; including
learning styles Realize that while Creativity, Determination, identifying areas for development – how
particular
there are similarities decision making, etc. might I be more successful…? What might I
Identify various strategies skills/qualities
and differences do to become an entrepreneur?
to better learning Develop long amongst everyone, Personal development,
term and short we are all unique Goal setting, responsibility, With reference to Setting goals in O’ Level,
term goals individuals commitment, etc. brainstorm on the characteristics of a well
Create a plan on Develop self worth written goal (SMART) and steps of setting
how to achieve Engagement with society, reaching the goals; then learners set and
Set goals and make Respect, Involvement, review own SMART goals related to their
their goals
plans in daily life. Tolerance, etc. careers

23
Identify how they Work in school Using a sample of “a plan to reach a goal”
like to learn and Attentiveness, provided, learners make a plan of reaching
strategies they communication, loyalty, etc their own goals set above
can us to learn
new skills Workplace In groups of four (4), learners learn how to
Cooperation, Respect, Ethics, perform a given activity based on the
etc. criteria given such as: group 1 will learn by
listening to someone explaining the activity;
Uniqueness and diversity group 2 will not be given instructions but
will figure it on their own; group 3 will be
Skills and qualities assessment given written instructions and group 4 will
watch the person perform the activity and
Setting goals and making plans try it. Using debriefing questions, learners
relating to career discuss the various learning styles

Concept of SMART goal


SMART goal: (Specific,
Measurable, Achievable,
Realistic, Time bound)

Have learners fill in the learning style


Setting long term and short term
assessment by putting check marks next to
goals
the items that apply to them such as:
Steps, time frame and resources Listening (I like to people talk about
needed in setting SMART goals: things)
- Identify priorities, Observing (I get pictures in my head when
- Start and end points, I read)…etc.
- Skills,
- Opportunities,
- Strategies,
- Obstacles

24
Learning new skills
Learning styles
- Listening
- Observing/seeing
- Doing
- Writing
- Reading
- Speaking

Learning strategies
- Ask people to explain things In small groups, learners analyze a work
when you don’t understand related scenario and identify strategies
- Watch other people perform related their different learning styles
a task you need to learn
- Choose a job that lets you
work your hands and move
around
- Take notes when listening to
instructions
- Read instructions
Links to other subjects: General Studies and Effective communication
Assessment criteria: Can write SMART goals and make plans to reach their personal goals
Materials: Work readiness training program (trainer manual: 1.1: examples of Values, beliefs, & desirable qualities; 1.2: skills and qualities
assessment; 1.3: Setting and Achieving Goals; 1.5: Learning My Way)

25
Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Business laws and contracts
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 4: Laws in business operations No. of lessons: 20
Key Topic Competency: To be able to evaluate the need for laws in business operations
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the meaning of laws Examine different Recognize the need for Legal systems in Rwanda Brainstorm and discuss rules and
and business laws business laws laws in business regulations at school and at their
operations Laws and the business homes and highlight their
Discuss the importance of Assess the Meaning of: importance in the society and
laws in business importance of laws Advocate for legal - Laws then make a connection to laws
in business practices while - Business law and Business laws in the country
Identify various laws related carrying out business
to business Register businesses activities Importance of business Laws: In small groups learners research
- Helps to instill discipline in business about the different laws related
Identify different legal Appreciate the need operations to business in Rwanda stating
institutions related to for registering a - Conformity with government the importance of such laws
business in Rwanda business expectations, when carrying out business
- Protection of the consumers , activities
Identify the various forms of environment
business ownership - It provides guidelines and directions In small groups, learners
in every area of the business research and discuss the
Explain the benefits of functions of the different legal
registering a business Laws related to business: institutions related to business
Land act, food and drugs law, consumer in Rwanda
Describe the consequences protection law, national environmental
of not registering a business law. In small groups, research on:
Legal forms of business in
Legal institutions related to businesses: Rwanda; characteristics,

26
- Commercial courts, advantages and
- Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA), disadvantages; basing on the
- Rwanda Development Boards (RDB), results, learners debate on
- Rwanda Utilities Regulatory which form of business is a
Authority (URA) better choice

Legal forms of business Ownership In small groups, learners visit the


(Characteristics, advantages and Rwanda Development Board or
disadvantages) on websites, and find out;
- Sole trade business, Requirements for starting a
- Partnership, business
- Joint stock companies (public and Where and how one can
private limited and unlimited register a business
companies), and Institutions involved with
- Co-operatives in Rwanda starting and developing a
business
Business Formation and registration
according to form: Learners meet a local
- Registering a sole trade business entrepreneur or even a resource
- Registering a domestic company person from any legal institution
- Registering a foreign company related to business to share
- Registering a partnership information concerning business
- Registering a co-operative. formation and registration

Benefits of registering a business Learners analyze case studies


- Obtaining licenses and permits involving the process of starting
- Legal liability protection and operating various forms of
- To be versatile businesses; and discuss the
- Have continuity entity benefits of registering and
- Safeguarding business name consequences of not registering.
- Protecting product brand

27
Consequences of not registering a
business
- Being fined
- Suspension of operation
- Inability to issue official invoices
- Operating outside official system
- Limitation to financial services
Links to other subjects: Laws and reasons for laws in Citizenship
Assessment criteria: Can evaluate the need for laws in business operations, identify the legal forms of business ownership in Rwanda describe the
benefits of registering a business
Materials to be used: Case studies, research materials/Reference books, resource persons, research materials, RDB website

Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Standardization culture


S.4: Entrepreneurship Unit 5: Role of standards in business No. of lessons: 20

Key Topic Competency: To be able to analyze the role of standards in business


Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities

Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values


understanding

Explain the meaning Use government Show responsibility Meaning of standards in Group research on standards for business on: Why
and necessity of standards to towards business are standards necessary? How are they enforced?
standards in business assess business standardization What does a consumer do if they have a
practices and practices as a Standard and substandard complaint? What can the entrepreneur do to

28
Describe the process of identify sub- consumer products ensure compliance and minimize complaints?
standardization standard products
Exercise their rights Importance of standards Using audio visual aid, learners watch clips on
Discuss the importance Make right and as consumers to: standardization process reflecting how
of standards to the independent towards - Consumers standards are developed internationally,
Government, judgment with substandard - Government; regionally and nationally. In small groups,
Entrepreneur and regards to products - Industry; learners are given a list of principles to find out
consumers in the purchasing - Society where they are applicable.
process of exercising decisions Show concern for In small groups learners discuss what may
their rights and substandard The process of make a product substandard giving examples;
obligations Complain about products standardization in then they role-play the effect of substandard
substandard Rwanda products on consumers, government, industry
goods Recognize the need and society.
for standards and
regulation to Visit Rwanda Standards Boards website to see
protect the how they work
consumer and
ensure high
standards in
business
Links to other subjects:
Assessment criteria: Can Analyze the role of standards in business and differentiate standardized from substandard products

Materials: Internet, case studies, audio-visual materials, published standards by the government,

29
Topic Area: Business growth and sustainable development Sub-topic Area: Business Market research
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 6: Market Research No. of lessons: 22
Key Topic Competency: Be able to identify key components of a market, how they inter-relate and importance of market research
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Attitudes and
understanding Skills values
Explain the meaning Analyze the Appreciate the role Notion of marketing in a commercial Brainstorm the meaning of market, marketing and
of market, relationship of conducting a activity market research; then by research task, the
marketing, and 4p’s involved in market research Meaning of: learners identify the 4 variables of marketing ("4
market research business. for a business - Market, Ps") and discuss their importance in a commercial
- Marketing activity
Explain the Describe how - Market research
components (4ps) of customers are In groups, Learners come up with something they
marketing in a the backbone Components of marketing/4Ps: want to sell, then describe how they will sell it
commercial activity of any business - Price using the 4ps
- Place
Identify various Use survey - Product Using local businesses as examples indicate who
marketing strategies tools to gather - Promotion the main customers of these businesses are. For
that can be used in information on example in a shop, who are the main customers?
commercial activities customers, Importance of the four "P" of For a petrol station, who are the main customers?
competitors marketing in a commercial activity Then learners give examples of why they might
Explain the and suppliers want to gather information from customers; what
importance of market Marketing strategies: kinds of information would they want to get? And
research in Analyze the - Select customers to serve, How could they get it? Then learners discuss their
commercial activities collected - Segmentation, findings
information to - Targeting,
Identify the tools of regarding - Decide on the value proposition, Learners visit another school and compare its
market research customers, - Differentiation, Positioning canteen, library, teachers, curriculum, school fees,
competition etc. with those in their own school. Based on this

30
and suppliers Market surveys discussion, learners make a set of suggestions for
Meaning of market surveys how their own school could attract more learners
Develop a linking with competitor surveys
marketing plan Importance of market surveys
- Identify customer needs In small groups, learners analyze several examples
- Identify nature of demand of locally-produced products (e.g. chapattis,
- Identify nature and size of tomatoes, eggs, mandazi, etc) to see whether they
completion, etc are good quality products or not, and in what
respect. If they notice quality defects, they should
Elements of market surveys analyze the steps that have been gone through to
Customers survey produce the product and try to suggest how to
Meaning of customers survey guarantee better quality at each step.
Types of customers (loyal,
Impulsive, etc) In groups, Learners go to a nearby market, shop, or
Importance of customers to a canteen and interview the owner about the criteria
business they use to select their suppliers. Based on this
information, learners write a set of questions on
Customer data collection which they would evaluate suppliers for their own
Factors (nature of information, business idea
cost, etc)
Methods (Telephone surveys, Half of the learners assume the role of the owners
focus groups) of the school, and the other half its customers. The
owners are interested in knowing what their
Importance of customer surveys customers (clearly describe who these customers
- Maximizing sales and profits are) think about their school (what they are happy
- Retaining customers about and what they are not happy about). In small
- Maximize customer value, etc groups, the “owners” enumerate the various ways
in which they can get this information (examples:
Competitor survey observation, survey, records, focus group/
Meaning meetings, suggestion box), and role play those
methods to get the opinion of the “customers”

31
Sources of competitor information about the things they would like the school
- Identifying competitors administration to improve on to provide a better
- Competitor product features service. Together, they make a plan for how to
- Competitor strengths and improve the school based on the information
weaknesses collected.
- Competitor intelligence
- Competitor profiling In small groups, learners develop a marketing plan
- Importance of competitor analysis for an identified product

Product/Service Analysis and Quality Basing on the activities above, learners in groups
Control discuss the importance carrying a market research
- Meaning of product analysis and in a business
Quality
- Product Evaluation (features and
benefits)

Quality management
- Meaning
- Quality control (advantages and
disadvantages)
- Quality Assurance (advantages
and disadvantages)
- Total quality management

Suppliers survey
Meaning of suppliers survey
- Supply chain (raw materials-
transporters-warehouse-
manufacturers-wholesalers-
retailers-customers)
- Types of suppliers (Agents,

32
manufacturers, etc)
- Finding potential suppliers
(sources)
- Choosing the right suppliers
(considerations)

Developing a marketing Plan:


- Product description,
- Customer description,
Demand/need for the product,
Competition,
- Current production,
- Price,
- Sales forecast for next 12 months,
- Business location,
- Promotion
Links to other subjects: General studies and effective communication, economics (price theory)
Assessment criteria: Can be able to identify the key components of market and importance of research in business
Materials: Resource persons, survey guides, documentary resources, sample products

33
Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Business organization and management
S.4: Entrepreneurship Unit 7: Business organization and No. of lessons: 22
management
Key Topic Competency: To be able to describe the importance of management in a business organization
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the Acknowledge that Business Organization and Learners analyze and discuss the example of the
meaning of various forms of Management family in order to understand what an
Design an business Business organization
business organization is, including purpose, structure and
organizational organizations Meaning and
organization and components (people).
structure/chart for a require different Forms of business
management
business organization organization organization
structures
In small groups, learners visit (or research if they
Identify various According to size: can’t visit) various business enterprises in their
Recognize the Micro businesses, small
forms of business importance of community to investigate their forms according to
organizations scale enterprises, medium size, activities, lifespan, and ownership
personnel
and large scale businesses)
management in a
business
Explain the According to Learners analyze and discuss case studies on
meaning of an Advocate for better products/activities organizational structure of different enterprises to
human resource - Manufacturing businesses
organization understand how they are organized and operate.
management for - Agribusiness
structure and chart Then in small groups, learners develop
business success - Service Businesses
- Trading businesses organization structure and charts for their
identified business enterprises.
Identify the various According to life span
departments and - Temporary or short term
businesses

34
their roles in a - Permanent or long term A simulation game where learners have to form
business businesses teams and prepare a certain quantity of some
organization simple item (such as identical drawings of
According to ownership something, etc.). They have to make a plan to
- Sole proprietorship reach their production goal, organize their team
Explain the - Joint stock companies members into different functions/activities for
- Partnership achieving their responsibilities, and have a
importance of
- Cooperatives manager who helps to supervise and control their
management in a
- Parastatals activities. See which teams are more efficient and
business effective in reaching their goals, and analyze with
organization Advantages and disadvantages the class after they complete the game what
techniques worked well etc.
Organizational structure
Describe the Divisions, Departments,
managerial Sections, and their Roles Brainstorm on the functions of management with
functions in a an example of their school management; Learners
business Business management decide a goal they would like to achieve together,
organization Meaning, Importance and then decide on what is needed to accomplish
the chosen goal. During the discussion they
Managerial Functions classify their suggestions into the four
Identify the - Planning management functions.
- Budgeting
categories of
- Organizing
people to work
- Leading In small groups, learners discuss and share the
with in the - Controlling, etc.
business types of people involved in business organizations;
organization some factors they would consider when choosing
People in Business
people to work with in the organization
Describe the organizations
- Shareholders/Partners
process of human
- Employees/workers
resource In groups learners discuss 2 or 3 case studies
- Service providers/

35
management - suppliers about how real businesses have chosen their
employees or partners, based on the skills and
Factors considered in choosing qualities needed by the business
people to work with in a
business organization
- Financial capacity In small groups, give each group a different kind of
- Experience
business that they imagine they are operating,
- Skills, etc.
have learners role play a situation where the
Personnel (Human Resources) employer selects people (employee, shareholders,
suppliers, etc) to work with based on different
Management; factors.
Human power planning,
recruitment, selection,
placement, induction, In small groups learners think of situations where
Motivation, Performance they need to hire a specific personal, identify the
Appraisal processes/steps they would take and what they
would do to have the person work properly
Importance of personnel
management
In small groups, according to the personnel
management process (recruitment, selection,
placement, induction, motivation, performance
appraisals), learners discuss and share how they
can perform them.

Links to other subjects:


Assessment criteria: Can be able to explain the various forms of business organization, design an organization structure and explain the
importance of personnel management in a business organization

36
Materials: Case studies, nearby organizations, simulation games

Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Financial institutions and markets
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 8: Financial Management No. of lessons: 22
Key Topic Competency: To be able to evaluate short and long term capital for future investment To be introduced to finance management in
business
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values
Explain the meaning Differentiate the Take precaution The meaning of: Learners research about the meaning of finance,
of finance, financial various sources of when choosing - Finance financial system and financial management
systems and business capital sources of - Financial system
financial finance to their - Financial management Brainstorm on the meaning of money and barter
management Calculate simple and business trade, then in small groups learners discuss how they
compound interests activities Money think people used to acquire goods and services
- Meaning of money,
Explain the before the introduction of money; the advantages
- Barter trade
functions of Calculate the Show and drawbacks of such ways
- The origin of money
financial Breakeven point of responsibility in
management various businesses paying back and Functions of money Learners research on the origin and evolution of
not overspend - Medium of exchange money and discuss the various drawbacks of each
Identify the various Estimate the payback - Store of value type of money used. Learners then discuss the
sources of capital period of given - Measure of value, etc advantages of using money over barter trade system
and their business investments
advantages and Functions of financial In small groups, learners share their personal
management

37
disadvantages Compute the Return On - Ensures proper usage experience about handling their pocket money. Then
Investment (ROI ) for of resources they share their views whether it is easy or difficult
Explain the meaning various business - Repaying all borrowed to manage money.
and types of investments funds
interest - Ensuring A small group discussion about ways of raising
Compute the Return on accountability to money to meet their personal needs, then identify
shareholders, etc.
Define break even, Equity (ROE) ways that a business could acquire funds. Thereafter,
payback period and identify the advantages, challenges and cost of each
Business Capital:
return on Choose the most Sources source of funding whether at an individual level or at
investment appropriate source of - Personal savings the business level.
capital for a business - Loans from financial
institutions Given the previous activities, learners discuss about
- Trade credit, etc the meaning of interest, its types and calculate
different types of interest
Advantages and
disadvantages of sources Through an application exercise learners explain the
of capital concept of breakeven point; return on investment,
return on equity, payback period for each of the
Uses of capital
projects and discuss the most viable project to invest
- Payroll and peripheral
in.
expenses
- Payment for utilities
- Marketing and sales
related costs

Interest:
- Meaning of interest
- Types of interest
- Calculation of various
types of interest

38
Breakeven point, Payback
period and Return on
Investment, Return on
Equity
Links to other subjects: economics in money and banking, mathematics in calculation of simple and compound interest, general studies and
effective communication in financial education
Assessment criteria: Can evaluate short and long term capital for future investment
Materials: internet, Case studies, newspapers, journals,

Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Financial institutions and markets
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 9: Financial Institutions No. of lessons: 22
Key Topic Competency: To be able to evaluate the services/ products offered by financial institutions
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values
Explain the meaning Assess the Recognize the Financial institutions Brainstorm on the meaning and types
of financial importance of need for financial Meaning of financial institutions in their
institutions, banks, financial institutions institutions in community, then give the role of the
cheques, bank loans to a business business Roles of financial institution to identified institutions to
and non-banking operations entrepreneurship entrepreneurship
Classify the various
financial institutions - Provision of working capital
financial institutions Based on the above activity, learners in
- Safe custody for money
Describe the role of into banking or non- small groups classify identified financial

39
financial institution banking institutions Advocate for - Means of payment, etc institutions according to types and give
to entrepreneurship in one’s community rational use of their functions to the entrepreneur and
various financial Banking financial institutions society
Identify the types of Choose the most
products and Types and Functions/roles
banking and non- appropriate - Central Bank In small groups, learners share their
services in
banking financial financial product or personal experience about service and
business activities - Commercial banks
institutions in service to meet - Development banks, products that they have acquired from
Rwanda one’s business - Savings and credit Cooperatives with financial institutions and how they
Manage loans
needs (Sacco), have benefited from existence of such
properly
- Micro finance institutions, institutions
Assess the
Distinguish between - Specialized banks
advantages and Appreciate the
banking and non-
disadvantages of roles of various Non- banking financial institutions
banking financial By use of sample loan application
acquiring a bank financial Types and functions/roles
institutions forms from financial institutions,
loan institution in - Insurance companies,
Identify the products promotion of learners exercise and discuss the
- Social security fund,
and services offered Manage and entrepreneurial - Saving and Loan Associations, Credit procedures of acquiring loans from
by financial payback credit policies. unions, financial institutions. Or Meet a
institution effectively - Brokerages , resource person from a financial
- Mutual fund companies institution to share with learners the
Identify the various various products/services provided by
banking documents Financial products and services: financial instittoutions and how one
used in financial - Advancing loans, can access them
institution - Insurance,
In small groups, visit various financial
Explain the - Mortgages,
institution websites and check which
- Money market, etc.
procedures for types of business promotion they give,
acquiring a loan conditions to access them and share
Banking documents
- Withdrawal and deposit slip, their findings back to their colleagues.
- Money transfer slip, Through debates and discussions,

40
- Bank statement, learners will explain the meaning of
- Bankers card credit, give its importance, the
- Bank checks different types, how a credit is
obtained and procedure of refunding.
Parties
Types (bearer’s, open, crossed, post- Resource person from financial
dated, etc) institution to share with learners the
Advantages and disadvantages role of financial institution in
promoting business, various banking
Bank Loans
functions and documents used obtain
- Types and importance of loans,
services used to .
- Procedures for loan application,
- Credit management,
- Using the credit for relevant (ad hoc)
activities
- Credit Refund
Links to other subjects: Economics in money and banking, general studies and effective communication in financial education

Assessment criteria: Can evaluate the services/ products offered by financial institutions
Materials: internet, Case studies, membership form from various financial institutions, loan application forms, newspapers, journals,

41
Topic Area: Business Operations Management Sub-topic Area: Accounting and Inventory Management
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 10: Initiation to accounting No. of lessons: 22
Key Topic Competency: To be able to recognize the value of keeping accounting records in business
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values
Explain the difference Describe the Recognize the Accounting and book-keeping Group research on:
between book-keeping accounting process need for Distinction between The distinction between bookkeeping and
and accounting; keeping records. accounting and book accounting
keeping The accounting process
Keep basic
Record The Accounting process
personal
Explain the importance transactions using Given a school environment, learners in small
financial records
of keeping accounting the accounting Why keep accounting records? groups discuss the implications of a department
records in business equation Advocate for - Know how much money is (accounts department, academic department,
proper received and spent catering department) not keeping records of any
recording - Calculate whether you are single event/transaction; and eventually the
Identify different users Group business keeping making a profit or loss importance of keeping accurate records for the
of accounting transactions - Make informed business business.
t decisions
information according to the
- Keep record of buying and
accounting In small groups, learners discuss who would
selling, etc.
equation need/use the accounting information in case they
Define assets, liabilities owned a business enterprise and kept records for
Users of accounting
and equity their transactions leading to the users of
information
Complete sample accounting information
business source Internal users
Identify assets, liabilities documents - Employees Through a case study, learners should be able to
and equity - Share holders expound on the knowledge of O’ Level about the

42
- Managers meaning of assets, liabilities and equity, group
various transactions and accounts as per the
Distinguish cash and External users accounting equation.
credit transactions - Suppliers,
- Financial institutions,
- Government authorities, Learners share experiences of how they pay for
etc.
Identify various source goods and services in their community either on
documents for the cash basis or credit basis; and then discuss the
The accounting equation
business advantages and disadvantages of cash and credit
Assets = Liabilities + Equity
transactions
Assets accounts
Liabilities accounts A role play on situations where one has to pay for
Equity accounts goods and services either by cash or credit and
the mode of payment
Business transactions and
Learners are required to identify which source
Source documents
document to use for given business transactions
Business transactions
The teacher invites the school bursar to class
- Cash transactions
with sample source documents to share and
- Credit transactions
- Installment payment point out their relevance in the school records.
- Advantages and Then learners practice writing out sample source
disadvantages of cash and documents
credit transactions

Source documents
Receipts, Voucher, Pay slips,
Invoices, Cheque, Payment
order, etc.

43
Links to other subjects:
Assessment criteria: Can recognize the value of keeping accounting records
Materials: Resourceful person, case study, sample reports, internet, research, journals, Accounting Software like: QuickBooks, Sage, Pastel,
Tally, and Peachtree

44
6.2 Senior Five Syllabus Units
Key competencies at the end of S.5
At the end of senior five, the learner should be able to:

 Generate business ideas and take advantage of opportunities


 Make valid contracts and resolve conflicts in business operations
 Justify the need for taxes in the economy
 Evaluate the factors that lead to business growth
 Analyze the role of technology in businesses and daily life.
 Maintain good relations with people at the workplace through effective communication
 Demonstrate ability and knowledge of carrying out general office operations
 Record accounting transactions and manage finances responsibly
 Exercise rights and responsibilities as an employee and employer
 Lead a team in accomplishing a goal

Topic Area: Entrepreneurial Culture Sub-topic Area: Business start-up and development
S. 5: Entrepreneurship Unit 11: Business ideas and opportunities No. of lessons: 17
Key Topic Competency Competence: To be able to generate business ideas and take advantage of opportunities
Learning Objectives Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values Content
understanding

45
Explain the meaning Use different Recognize that a Business ideas and opportunities Group research and brainstorm on the
of a “business, resources to search business idea alone is Meaning of : meaning of a business, business idea, and
business idea and for business ideas not sufficient to start - A businesses business opportunity; then learners share
business a business - A business idea experiences of whether they have ever had
opportunity”, - A business opportunity business ideas/opportunities, and discuss the
Use different Appreciate one’s characteristics of a good business
Identify the qualities business ideas to environment as a Characteristics/Qualities of a idea/opportunity
of a good business come up with source of business business ideas and opportunity
idea business opportunity ideas and - Business ideas are simple
opportunities - They solve real problems
Assess business - Brilliant ideas have a market In small groups based on sources of business
Discuss the different ideas and - Specific to market niche ideas (resources, people’s needs, types of
sources of business opportunities for - Scalability and flexible customers, idle resources, existing business),
ideas/opportunities viability - Health profit margin, etc. learners come-up with different business
ideas according to their assigned source and
Describe the factors Sources of good business ideas then share with rest of the class
influencing one’s Use the SWOT and opportunities
choice of a business Analysis to evaluate - Business opportunities based
idea/opportunity business on Resources (Material,
ideas/opportunities In small groups learners investigate/interview
Financial, Information, local residents (business people and non-
Describe how to Human resource, Technology) business people) about the needs, wants they
evaluate a business - Business opportunities based would like to have met by the business
idea on people’s needs community; and then learners suggest
(Physiological, Security, business ideas to meet identified needs
Psychological, Esteem and
Self Actualisation needs)
- Business opportunities based
on types of customers (Age,
Based on the above research, learners create
profession, Gender, Location,
a list of business ideas that they are
Hobby, Belief, Healthy status)
interested in. Through brainstorming,

46
- Business resources from idle learners rank their list of business ideas and
resources (plastic waste, opportunities based on what they have
waste papers, scrap metals, discovered about potential local demand
waste food, animal remains) conditions, as well as considering other
- Business opportunities from factors such as the amount of resources
existing business (products, available, the learners’ personal capacities,
waste products)
etc.
Factors influencing choice of a
business opportunity
- Inheritance, Invite a panel of successful entrepreneurs to
- Profitability, share with learners the rationale behind their
- Resources, etc. business ideas

Evaluating Business Ideas


Factors includes: In small groups, learners make a SWOT
- Legality of business Analysis of their identified business idea
- Entry barriers
- Potential customers, etc.

Using SWOT Analysis

Links to other subjects: Entrepreneurship in ordinary level


Assessment criteria: can be able to generate, identify and, assess different business ideas and opportunities
Materials: Resourceful persons, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, internet access, computers, case studies, interview guides

47
Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Business laws and contracts
S. 5: Entrepreneurship Unit 12: Contracts in business operations No. of lessons: 17
Key Topic Competency: to be able to make a valid contracts and resolve conflicts in business operations
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the meaning of Make personal Respect agreements Business contracts : Brainstorm on the meaning of
contracts and business and business with other people Meaning of contracts and business contracts and business contracts;
contracts contracts contracts learners share experiences when,
Seek for the appropriate where and why they had to make
Handle conflicts in institutions for conflict Types of contracts contracts
Describe the types of life and business and dispute resolution - Written contracts
contracts - Oral contracts In small groups, learners research
- Bilateral contracts and discuss the different types of
- Unilateral contracts, etc. contracts in business; then analyze
Identify common case studies of situations where
contracts related to Common Business Contracts businesses made or did not make
business Sales related contracts contracts, discuss the benefits and
- Agreement for sale of goods, consequences of making and not
Purchaser order, making contracts in business
Explain the importance - Warranty, etc.
of contracts in life and In groups learners analyze and
business General business contracts evaluate sample contracts and
- Franchise agreement, identify the different parties
- Partnership agreement, etc. involved in the contract, the terms
Describe the elements of and conditions to the contract,
a valid contract Employment related contract elements that made the contract
- Employment agreement, valid, circumstances under which
Identify the element of a consulting agreement, etc. the contract could be terminated;

48
written contract Leases and discuss the benefits of the
- Real property lease agreement, entering into a valid contract.
Give instances when a - Equipment lease agreement, etc.
contract can be Brainstorm on how learners resolve
terminated Importance of business contracts: conflicts among themselves; then in
- Makes parties involved execute small groups discuss various ways of
Explain the remedies to their duties and responsibilities, resolving conflicts and disputes in
a breach of contract - Minimizes business risks, business
- Acts as evidence of an agreement.
Identify the conflicts and In small groups, learners analyze
disputes within a Essential elements of a valid contract case studies involving instances
business - Offer, where contracts had to be made,
- Acceptance, breached and how the conflicts
Indicate methods of - Consideration, were resolved; and then discuss the
conflict resolution in - Legality, effects of making or not making
business - Witness .etc. contracts

Elements of a written contract In pairs learners practice making


Title, Parties to the contract, contracts for activities or
Details of goods or services, terms transactions of their own
and conditions of the contract,
damages in case of breach,
signatures of parties and witnesses

Termination of a contract:
- Agreement,
- Performance,
- Breach ,
- Frustration,
- Operation of the law

49
Remedies for breach of a contract:
- Compensation,
- Performance,
- Rectification of the contract, etc.

Conflicts and disputes in business .i.e.


with customers, suppliers, employees
and other related stakeholders

Resolutions to conflicts and disputes in


business:
- Re-negotiation,
- Mediation,
- Arbitration,
- Court interaction,
- Reconciliation, etc.
Links to other subjects: Contracts in Citizenship
Assessment criteria: Can be able to make a valid contracts and resolve conflicts in business operations
Materials to be used: Sample contracts, case studies

50
Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Taxes and Customs procedures
S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 13: Taxes in business No. of lessons: 17
Key Topic Competency: To be able to justify the need for taxes in the economy
Learning Objectives Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values Content
understanding
Explain the meaning of Analyze tax reports Appreciate the need Meaning of: Group research and
tax, taxation, tax for paying taxes in - Tax and taxation brainstorm on the meaning of
evasion tax avoidance Analyze the benefits of the economy and - Tax Evasion and Avoidance a tax, taxation, tax evasion, tax
and tax shifting taxes to the economy being tax compliant - Tax shifting avoidance and tax shifting;
then learners discuss the
Examine the different Develop positive Benefits of paying taxes: importance of paying taxes to
- Entrepreneur the entrepreneur, government
Discuss the benefits of types of taxes imposed attitude towards
- Government and society
paying taxes to an on business in Rwanda paying taxes
entrepreneur, - Society
In small groups, learners
government and society Show concern for analyze sample tax reports to
Principle of taxation:
Analyze tax documents non-tax payment investigate and discuss the
- Equity,
- Convenience, sources of tax revenue for
Explain the principles of local authorities and
- Certainty,
taxation - Elasticity, government, and the revenue
Calculate the different - Productivity, is used
taxes paid by a business - Simplicity
Identify the rights and
obligations of tax payers Rights and obligation of the tax payers
In small groups, learners
Right of the tax payers
research and discuss the
Give examples of taxes - Right to confidentiality, principles of taxation, rights
paid by businesses in - Right to legal representation, and obligations of tax payers

51
Rwanda - Right to tax refund, etc.

Identify sanctions that Obligation of the tax payers


may be imposed on - Register with Rwanda Revenue
business for non-tax Authority,
payment - Signing of tax returns,
- Supply all the information and
documents, etc
In small groups, learners
Identify conflicts that
Taxes imposed on business in Rwanda: research and discuss the
may arise during
- Direct taxes (income tax, personal different types of taxes paid in
payment of taxes by Rwanda particularly by
tax, corporate tax, inheritance
businesses businesses;
etc.)
- Indirect taxes (customs duties,
sumptuary tax, sales tax, value
added tax etc.) In small groups learners
analyze case studies of
Tax computations, exempts and businesses and discuss the
types of taxes paid, benefits of
sanctions
paying taxes and negative
- Value Added Tax (VAT)
effects of not paying taxes; tax
- Corporate tax
conflicts and how they were
- Personal Income tax
resolved
- Pay As You Earn (PAYE), etc.
In groups learners, use tax
Name documents Tax conflicts and Resolution rates for different taxes to
during subscription to - Disagreement on the law calculate some types of taxes
the tax system - Disagreement on the tax rates and paid by businesses in Rwanda
amount
- Disagreement on exemptions, etc Reflecting on their
Special and non-Fiscal tax collection
communities, learners

52
- Fines and penalties brainstorm on other special
- General fines and non-fiscal tax collections
- Certificate fees, etc

Subscribing to tax system Group research and


presentation on the
Conditions, conditions, documents,
- Filling in a registration form advantages and penalties of
- Legal form of the business not subscribing to the tax
Discuss how conflicts - Indicate all types of taxes one system
owes to the RRA, etc
during tax payment can
be resolved Invite/meet a resourceful
Documents,
person to share with learners
- Certificate of registration the various taxes paid in
- Documents showing types of taxes Rwanda, rights and obligations
- His/her identification document, of tax payers, advantages and
etc sanctions of not
paying/subscribing to tax
Advantages, system
- Take part in business
- Take part in national building In small groups, learners
- Get certification, etc analyze and discuss sample tax
documents for different taxes
Sanctions/ penalties paid by businesses
- Fines, Closure of business
- Cancellation of registration Role play on benefits and
certificate sanctions of tax compliance
Links to other subjects: Public revenue in Economics

Assessment criteria: Can be able to calculate various taxes and justify the need for taxes

53
Materials: Resource person from RRA, sample tax reports from the government, sample tax documents, case studies

Topic Area: Business growth and sustainable development Sub-topic Area: Business Market research
S. 4: Entrepreneurship Unit 14: Research in Business No. of lessons: 18
Key Topic Competency: Be able to identify a business problem and carry out an investigation to solve it To be able to carry out business
researches

Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities


Knowledge Skills Attitudes and
and values
understandi
ng
Explain the Describe Appreciate the The meaning of: Through brainstorming, learners should
meaning of various steps of role of conducting Research and Business research explain research and business research;
research and research in a business and the importance of research in
business business research The role or importance of research in business business;
research - Identification of business opportunities,
Collect data Demonstrate their - Testing and validation of ideas,
In affordable groups, learners are
Show from primary or ability to - Development of new products, assigned a product and a particular
importance of secondary successfully carry - Provide basis for decision making
problem that the product faces; Learners
research in sources out relevant - Collect information about the market and make and present a list of information
business research competitors, etc
Analyze they need in order to solve the problem;
growth and
collected data Demonstrate their
development
using data ability to interpret Types of Business Research Through research and discussion, learners
analysis and use research - Quantitative and Qualitative Research in small groups differentiate between
software findings in - Primary Research primary and secondary data and how it
- Advantages and disadvantages

54
Interpret decision making - Secondary Research can help in business research; For primary
analyzed data - Advantages and disadvantages data, each group formulates five
questions they would administer to
Develop a critical Key steps in research: collect the required information
Carry out small thinking approach - Identification of a problem,
or simple to problem - Analyze the problem and determine the In groups above, for primary data,
market solving in research objectives, learners use the population of all the
research business. - Determine the methodology to be used to learners in the school as the consumers of
solve the problem, the product to demonstrate the concept
- Survey design, of sampling and data collection
- Population,
- Sample, Instruments, In their groups, learners identify and
- Collect data, Primary data, discuss where they can find the necessary
- Secondary data, Analyze data, secondary data and collect it.
- Release findings and Conclusions
In small groups learners go out in a
Data Collection nearby market or trading center to collect
- Sources of Primary and Secondary data information about a specific product
offered by different companies and what
- Methods of data collection the users say about them. Upon their
return in class, they share their findings
Primary data and the teacher facilitates their
- Interviews (types, advantages and understanding of the importance of
disadvantages) research in business.
- Observation (advantages and disadvantages)
- Filed experiments (advantages and Given the product learners investigated in
disadvantages) the previous exercise, they should identify
- Focus groups (advantages and disadvantages) potential problems associated with them.
- Case studies (advantages and disadvantages) Then determine the objectives for a
- The Questionnaires research intending to solve the problems.

55
Questionnaire questions (advantages and Learners in small groups discuss and
disadvantages) decide which methodology is appropriate
- Samples for the particular product and problems.
Types, advantages and disadvantages
In small groups formed earlier, learners
prepare the instrument; thereafter
Secondary data
learners go back to the nearby trading
- Books center and collect data that will facilitate
- Statistics data the analysis, and interpretation for
- Magazine decision making.
- Websites
- Data centers Learners carry out analysis of case studies
of two different enterprises where one
Data Analysis enterprise is carrying research and
- Analysis of Qualitative data another one is not. Then they analyze
- Analysis of Quantitative data those two enterprises.

Manual data analysis


Electronic data analysis
Data analysis using software
Entering data Excel,

Measuring central tendencies in data


Mean, Average and Mode
Links to other subjects: Statistics in mathematics
Assessment criteria: Be able to identify a business problem and carry out an investigation to solve it
Materials: Visiting businesses, interview guides and sample questionnaires, data analysis software, various sources of secondary data, sample
products

56
Topic Area: Business growth and sustainable development Sub-topic Area: Business Market research
S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 15: Business Growth and Development No. of lessons: 18
Key Topic Competency: Evaluate the factors that lead to business growth
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge Skills Attitudes and
and values
understanding
Explain the Differentiate aAcknowledge that Meaning of: Brainstorm on meaning of business
meaning of growing from a certain business - Business growth and growth and business development; then
business declining behavior affect - Business development identify businesses in their communities
growth and business business growth that have grown and give reasons to
business Indicators of business growth: support their answers linking to
development - Increase in sales, indicators of business growth
Asses the Develop strategies - Increase in profit,
Identify
different growth to grow in business - Number of employees, In small groups, learners discuss business
indicators,
strategies in a and life - Increase in cash or liquidity assets, growth strategies, then analyze case
hindrances and
business - Increase number of branches, studies showing several strategies applied
factors of
- Use of improved technology, by various businesses for their growth and
business
- Market share then compare with their suggestions.
growth and
development Propose possible
solutions to Growth strategies:
Describe constraints of Internal business growth strategies In small groups, learners analyze case
strategies for business growth - Bundling products or services, studies of failing or poorly performing
business - Promotions and discounts, businesses; then they identify factors for
growth and Asses factors their situation and suggest growth
which leads to - New distribution channels, etc.
development strategies for business growth
business growth
and External business growth strategies
- Mergers (reasons, types)

57
development - Franchising (advantages and Visit local business operators to
disadvantages) investigate factors that may have
- Joint ventures, etc contributed and hindered their growth.
- Developing new products Each group should then produce and
present a small report, including
Factors that lead to business growth: recommendations for overcoming any
- Favorable government policies, constraints on growth.
- Less or no competition

Factors that hinder business growth:


Internal factors,
- Lack of experience in the business,
- Capital constraints,
- Lack of proper business plan,
- Lack of proper record keeping,
- Inadequate education and training

External factors:
- Corruption,
- Competition,
- Technological barrier,
- Unfavourable economic factors,
- Bureaucratic procedures
Links to other subjects:
Assessment criteria: Can evaluate the factors that affect business growth
Materials: nearby businesses, case studies and source persons

58
Topic Area: Business growth and sustainable development Sub-topic Area: Technology in business
S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 16: Technology in Business operations No. of lessons: 17
Key Topic Competency: To be able to describe the role of technology and its impact on businesses
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding

Explain the Distinguish capital, Appreciate the role of Meaning of technology in business: In groups, learners explain what
importance of labor and technology in technology is and distinguish different
technology in intermediate effective and efficient Types of technology types of technology. Then learners
business intensive technology. operation of the - Capital Intensive (advantages and analyze photos or video clips of various
business disadvantages) activities and discuss the type
Select appropriate - Labor intensive (advantages and technology used, possible advantages
Identify the disadvantages)
technology for their Choose appropriate and likely challenges.
different types of - Intermediate
businesses technology for
technology Visit nearby business and investigate
different activities
Factors considered when choosing on the different technology used, with
Identify various ICT
appropriate technology reasons for choosing such technology
tools used in Acknowledge ICT as
S—Social and limitations for using certain
Identify factors business source of business
H—Health technology
considered when opportunities
T—Technological
choosing Use ICT tools like In small groups, learners research and
E—Economic
technology for the phones, ATM cards, F—Financial discuss what an appropriate
business computers I—Institutional technology is and what should be
E—Environmental (SHTEFIE) considered when choosing
Search and initiate an appropriate technology for the
online business Technology in Business business
Explain how they transactions - Communication
In small groups learners carry out a
would be able to - Management
research to understand the meaning of

59
use ICT to enhance Describe limitations - Accounting ICT and identify the various ICT tools
the effectiveness of technology in - Transport, etc. and how they are used in business be it
their business business their school or other business
Describe various ICT in business enterprises
business Meaning of ICT
Explain the In groups learners discuss the benefits
importance of opportunities that
Tools of ICT like phones, computers and challenges associated with using
technology and its can be started basing ATMs etc. ICT in business
impact on on ICT
businesses ICT and Business Learners visit the computer laboratory
- Business Publicity, connected to internet, then in small
- Financial management groups learners search the meaning
and examples of E-commerce/online
Role of ICT in Business businesses and find out how business
- Makes work easier transactions are initiated online using
- Produce better products the internet
Explain how they
- Helps companies sell globally, etc.
would be able to Learners in small groups visit nearby
use ICT to enhance businesses or various departments in
Problems associated with using ICT
the effectiveness the school and investigate the ICT tools
- Need for training
their business
- Incompatibility used, how ICT has promoted/affected
- Mass unemployment, etc business activities as well as limitations
to using ICT
E-commerce/Online business
Basing on the activities above, learners
Advantages discuss the role and limitations to
- Cheaper technology in business operations
- Global reach
In small groups, learners identify
- Virtual goods can delivered
instantly, etc. various areas where ICT is used and
how it has contributed to creation of

60
Disadvantages business opportunities
- Costly
- Accessibility, etc.

ICT as a source of business


opportunities
- Designing and maintaining
websites
- Developing software, etc
Links to other subjects: ICT, General Studies

Assessment criteria: Can be able explain the importance of technology and its impact on businesses as well as choose appropriate
technology
Materials: Audio-visual materials, photos, internet access, computers, nearby businesses, samples of ICT tools, a stocked computer laboratory

Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Business organization and management
S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 17: Interpersonal communication No. of lessons: 17

Key Topic Competency: can be able to maintain good relations with people at the work place through effective communication
Learning Objectives
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and Content Learning Activities
understanding values
Identify various Give and receive Listen actively and Listening and Speaking In small groups, learners re-enact the role play
listening strategies instructions speak effectively “Possible Scenarios for Listening” (with a positive
and skills effectively appropriately - Cooperating with others outcome) using some of the identified listening

61
and Teambuilding strategies; learners take turns at practicing good
Describe the Participate actively Cooperate and - Customer care listening skills and observing.
characteristics of a in a team work as a team
good team member Cooperating with others and In small groups, learners analyze different roles of
Demonstrate the use Teambuilding people (quiet/shy, domineering, disagreeable,
Describe the of effective speaking Recognize there - Characteristics of a good harmonious, encouraging, ideas person, task
behavior of an skills and strategies different team master) in accomplishing a task requiring team
effective team personalities - Behavior of an effective work; then discuss the effect of each role towards
member Strategize how to within a group team member cooperating with others. Then discuss how one
- Teambuilding in should behave in a group (if possible role play the
handle different
businesses activity)
Describe how to personalities in a Practice good
- Importance of
develop an group customer service teambuilding In small groups, learners discuss what effective
effective team skills and handle - Building effective teams communication is, the communication process,
Communicate difficult customers
internal and external communication, essentials of
Differentiate effectively with Effective Communication effective communication and share their findings in
communication and customers by - Communication and class
effective telephone and face Work with and effective communication
communication to face through colleagues - The communication In small groups, learners brainstorm and discuss
or partners to process various methods they use to communicate with
Describe the reach a stated - Internal and external their colleges, and then demonstrate the methods
communication Show how to give goal. communication
discussed.
process good customer - Essentials of effective
Learners analyze different scenarios requiring
service when there is communication
- Forms of communication communication and chose appropriate methods of
Identify the conflict/misundersta communication for each; then they discuss the
- Choosing a
essentials of nding reasons for their choices; learners then discuss the
communication channel
effective advantages and disadvantages of each method of
- Importance of
communication Determine the communication in communication
appropriate format, business
Identify the barriers style and tone to use Basing on the above activities, learners discuss

62
to effective in writing business - Barriers to Effective what may make communication ineffective and
communication documents communication suggest ways of reducing the barriers to effective
communication
Explain how to Write various types Public Relations/Customer
manage customer of business care Learners study 2 case studies relating to customer
care documents - Functions of Public care services, one emphasizing a successful
relations experience and the other one failure to care about
Describe how to - Tools of Public Relations customers. Learners then mention their own
handle customer experiences in regard to customer care services.
Customer relations Then, form two groups in the class. One group will
complaints
- What customer want role play what bad customer service looks like, and
- How to manage customer the other group will role play good customer
Describe ways of care
being a successful service should be.
- Dealing with customer
sales person complaints Basing on the above activity, learners suggest ways
Understand and listen
they can deal/treat customers and suppliers in
Identify various Show that you care
order to maintain good relations with customers
documents used in Focus on the solutions
and suppliers; then they also discuss how one can
business - Ways to treat customers
be a successful sales person
communication better
Developing customer Learners visit various offices within the school and
loyalty identify various business documents used; then
they analyze sample business documents provided
Supplier relations
How to be a successful Then based on the activity, learners practice writing
sales person
various business documents and exchange with
their peers to proof read and provide feedback on
Writing skills
Business documents the content, spelling, punctuation, presentation
- Standard letters and layout

63
- Simple reports
- Advertisements
- Notices
- Instructions, memos,
messages, (using
appropriate format, style
and tone)

Proof reading
Identify errors (spelling,
punctuation, figures,
presentation and layout)
Links to other subjects: General studies and effective communication
Assessment criteria: can be able to maintain good relations with people at the work place
Materials: Work readiness module 2 (trainer tool 2.1: Possible scenarios for listening role plays), sample office documents, case study scenarios,

Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Business organization and management
S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 18: Office Procedures No. of lessons: 17
Key Topic Competency: to be able to demonstrate ability and knowledge of carrying out general office operations
Learning Objectives
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values Content Learning Activities
understanding
Identify and describe Produce and interpret Use business Personnel Based on their school environment, learners
the work of different simple organization services/equipment - Principal departments of identify and discuss the various principal
departments within responsibly an organization (staff, departments, the staff, their roles and

64
an organization charts duties and responsibilities) responsibilities
Take proper care of - Job analysis,
Identify the job roles office documents - Job descriptions, In small groups, learners research and discuss
of staff within the Design job descriptions, and equipment - Job specification, job analysis, job descriptions, job specifications,
principal job specifications, - Job grading, advertisements; and using samples of
departments of an advertisements Advertisements, advertisements, learners identify components
- Application forms and CVs of job descriptions and job specifications. Then
organization
in their recruitment and learners in their groups develop job
- selection process descriptions, job specifications and design
Operate simple office
Explain the purpose advertisements for identified jobs
equipment Office support services
of job analysis, job
descriptions, job Equipment In small groups, learners analyze sample
Use office machines for - Equipment in a modern
specifications in various tasks application forms, identify their components
office
recruitment and and design Application forms and CVs for
- Selection of equipment for
selection of process various jobs identified.
given office tasks
Take care of office - Maintenance and care for
Identify various Learners in small groups role play the
equipment office equipment
equipment available recruitment and selection process of the
- Security for office
in a modern office equipment business

Use various Learners visit various offices at their school and


Explain routine telecommunication Telecommunications
- Telecommunication identify the various equipment used, then
equipment methods in an
methods (fax, e-mail, discuss what they would consider when
maintenance and organization
telephone, mobile/cell choosing office equipment for given tasks, how
cleaning procedures
phone, answering they would maintain, take care and security for
Practice telephone and
data communications machines) office equipment.
Identify ways of
- Advantages,
keeping equipment cost control methods In small groups, learners research various
disadvantages and
secure problems that might occur telecommunications methods used in offices,
Prepare sample buying
and selling documents - Cost of telephone and discuss their presentations giving advantages

65
Identify various data communications and disadvantages of each telecommunication
telecommunication Prepare, Interpret and (control) method, and how they can control costs of
methods used in an check receipt and telephone and data communications
organization payment documents Business documents and
used in business payment procedures Learners role play a buying and selling situations
Describe the - Buying and selling where they have to use the documents required
Prepare and interpret documents in business for buying and selling, receiving and
advantages and
stock control Requisitions, letters of in making payments
disadvantages of
documents enquiry, price-lists,
using different quotations, estimates, Learners visit various offices within their
telecommunication Interpret various orders, invoices, credit surrounding especially school and identify the
methods classification systems notes, etc various information handled in the organization,
- Receipts and payments
the classification system used, methods of
Describe methods of Sort, handle and store Receipts, paying-in slips,
sorting, handling and sorting documents.
controlling the costs documents cheques, credit transfers,
of telephone and direct debits, standing Learners visit the school bursar , director of
data Carry out procedures orders, credit/debit cards,
studies, or any other office in school and
communications for maintaining safety, etc
identify how documents are filed, provision of
within an security and - Stock control
confidentiality of Requisitions, inventories, safety, security and confidentiality of
organization information; and the file retention policy with
information stock control cards
the school
Identify the various
Keep, organize and use Information and record
documents used in effectively the business handling
buying and selling files, documents and Maintenance of established
operations equipment filing system
- Classification systems
Identify the - Methods for sorting
documents used - Handling and storing
when making documents
receipts and - Efficient and effective

66
payments filing system
- Safety, security and
Identify documents confidentiality of
used in stock control information
- File retention policy
Identify classification
systems

Describe methods
for sorting, handling
and storing
documents

Explain various
methods of filing
documents in a
business

Describe control
mechanisms for
ensuring the
operations of an
efficient and
effective filing
system

Describe procedures
and systems for
maintaining safety,

67
security and
confidentiality of
information

Assessment criteria: can be able to demonstrate ability and knowledge of carrying out general office work, communication, and use of office
equipment
Materials: Case studies, various business documents, office machines and tools, sample application forms and CVs, role play scenarios

Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Financial institutions and markets
S. 5: Entrepreneurship Unit 19: Money management No. of lessons: 17
Key Topic Competency: To be able to manage finances responsibly
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Identify the Analyze financial needs Acknowledge risk Need for finance In groups, learners discuss and make a
things they need effectively associated with debt - Need for Money (personal list of 5 things they think a person who
money for at and business), is financially educated/literate/capable
different stages in - Accessing Money will be able to know and/or be able to
life Determine ways to decrease Make financial plans do
expenses through reuse, for the future Financial fitness
- Becoming financially fit, In groups, learners discuss items written
Recognize that recycling, reduction, and
- Decreasing spending on provided slips and categorize them
they need to plan repair
into NEEDS and WANTS
how to get Feel confident Saving
Develop personal budgets
money for the making financial - What is saving, In groups, learners make a list of things
things they need Setting saving goals plans for the future - Saving goals, that they personally need money for at
- Where to save each stage of life such as: Primary

68
Identify sources Assess the various sources school, Secondary school, Looking after
of finance to of finance Managing debt family, running a business, older age;
Recognize that - Good loans v/s bad loans,
meet their and discuss why the money they need
Cut costs through reducing, people of all income benefits and risks of
personal and at each stage of life is different.
recycling, repairing and levels can save borrowing,
business needs
reusing - How to manage a debt Group discussion on:
Explain the Develop strategies to Why save? How and where to save?
Develop a saving Record-keeping and Budgeting
importance of manage debts Where and how finance? How to
culture - Basic record-keeping,
saving and setting - What is budgeting, manage loans/debts? Benefits and
Keep basic personal
saving goals - Personal budgeting costs associated with borrowing
financial records
In groups learners discuss the four
Identify ways that Develop plans to manage Exploring savings and loans in
money saving habits (reduce, reuse,
they waste their finances Rwanda
repair, recycle) and suggest how the can
money - Financial structures and
use them to decrease spending
Institutions,
Identify ways - Understanding ATMs (debit Basing on the previous activities,
they can save and credit cards) learners make a budget for a specified
money amount of money
Financial fitness plan
- Preparing personal financial Invite a resourceful/successful person
Identify good ways
Fitness plans, who works with a financial institution or
of manage money
- Giving Advice to others an entrepreneur from the community
Explain the
to share his financial experience with
importance of
learners
budgeting
In small groups, learners develop plans
Identify various to manage their finances
savings and credit
financial
institutions

69
Links to other subjects: Savings in Economics and General studies
Assessment criteria: Can be able to manage finances responsibly and keep basic personal financial records
Materials: Slips of items, resourceful person, samples of money

Topic Area: Business Operations Management Sub-topic Area: Accounting and Inventory Management
S. 5: Entrepreneurship Unit 20: Accounting Prime books No. of lessons: 18
Key Topic Competency: To be able to record accounting transactions
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the steps for Analyze transactions Appreciate the Business transactions In small groups, learners identify
transaction analysis importance of proper - Identify the transaction transactions and use appropriate
Record transactions
accounting records - Steps for transaction analysis steps to analyze them
Identify the types of using the single - Accounts affected by the
accounts that are entry system transaction, In small groups, learners record
affected by various transactions provided, discuss the
Record transactions Develop a positive
transactions Accounting systems system used in recording linking to
using the double attitude to record
Single entry (recording entries, the single entry accounting system
Identify the advantages entry system keeping
Advantages and disadvantages) and the double accounting system
and disadvantages of
Record transactions
single and double entry Based on the activity above, learners
in a T-account The double entry accounting principle
systems Show concern for identify which accounts are affected
- Double entry principle
Describe what is in a T-
Process accounting improper recording - T-accounts, Crediting and Debiting by the transactions, then record the
data in the books of keeping transactions using the double entry

70
account prime (original) entry Books of original entry system; then discuss the advantages
–cash book, petty Journals and disadvantages of each system
Identify the types of
cash book, sales Definition, importance and entries
books of original entry Learners record the transactions
journal, purchases
above in T-accounts by debiting and
Describe the different journal, sales returns General journal
crediting
types of journals journal, purchases
returns journal and Specialized journals Learners in small groups research on
Describe the different
the general journal; - Purchase journal, the meaning, types and importance of
types of cash books
- Sales journal, books of original entry
Describe the different - Purchase returns journal,
- Sales returns journal, Given application exercises learners
types of ledgers Post the ledger
record transactions in various
entries from the
Describe the importance The cash book journals, cash books and ledgers
books of prime
of the trial balance Definition, importance and entries Brainstorm meaning and importance
(original) entry;
Identify types of errors in Single column, Double column, of a trial balance; then from the
Prepare a trial Three column and Petty cash book previous activities, learners balance
a trial balance
balance
off the ledger accounts and extract a
Ledgers trial balance
Definition, importance and entries
- Purchase ledger, Based on the above activities,
- Sales ledger, brainstorm types of errors that can be
- Purchase returns ledger, made during the process of recording
- Sales returns ledger, in the journals, cash books and
- The general ledger ledgers; discuss how these errors may
- Balancing off ledger accounts or may not affect the trial balance
linking to errors in a trial balance
The Trial Balance
- Definition, importance and entries In small groups, learners analyze given
- Errors in a trial balance trial balances that have errors, then
identify them and correct the trial

71
balances
Not detected by the trial balance
- Errors of original entry
- Errors of omission
- Compensating errors, etc

Detected by the trial balance


- Errors in double entry
- Errors of data entry
- Mathematical errors, etc

Correction of trial balance errors


Links to other subjects:

Assessment criteria: Can record business transactions


Materials: Application exercises, case study, sample reports, internet, research, journals

Topic Area: Work Readiness Sub-topic Area: Rights and Responsibilities of Workers and Employers
S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 21: Rights and responsibilities of workers and No. of lessons: 15
employers
Key Topic Competency: To be able to exercise rights and responsibilities as an employee and employer
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Identify the universal human Discuss the Advocate and Meaning of; In small groups, learners analyze pictures
rights relationship exercise their - Rights and responsibilities of depicting one essential human rights;

72
Explain the difference between rights and personal rights and workers and employers then write underneath each picture the
between rights and responsibilities responsibilities - Universal Human Rights name of the right they think each picture
responsibilities illustrates and share their answers;
Discuss some of the
Rights and responsibilities of learners then are provided with “Universal
Identify their own personal provisions of the
Advocate for rights workers; Human Rights” handouts and identify
rights and responsibilities Rwandan Labor
and responsibilities Employees have the right to: which human rights are most concerned
Law as applied to a
of workers and - Work in a respectful, inclusive about in Entrepreneurship
different workplace
employers at work environment free of
settings
workplaces discrimination In small groups, learners make a list of
Exercise the legal - A safe and healthful workplace “Rights as a Rwandan person” and a list of
obligations of - Ask employer to correct “Responsibilities you have to your family,
employers and dangerous conditions. community, religious, and yourself” to
workers - Receive training from your understand the difference between rights
employer and responsibilities
Identify ways in
which the Rwandan Employees are responsible for: In small groups, learners read the
Labor Law can be - Carrying out the duties of their “Worksheet on Rights and Responsibilities
broken and steps to position and identify activities that are their
take when that - Complying with workplace rules, responsibilities and which ones are their
happens regulations, policies and rights
legislation
- Treating clients, coworkers and Using a game, Learners are tested about
the public with respect and the Rwandan labor law by choosing
dignity “Agree”, “Disagree” or “Do Not Know” to
- Keep in good conditions tools some statements about the Rwandan
given to him/her and give them Labor Law; learners then discuss the
back to the employer at the statements and any other issues that
time the work is completed arose

Rights and responsibilities of In small groups, learners analyze either a


employers copy of “Article 47 or Article 48 of the

73
Rights of an employer Labor Code”, read the Article, discuss its
- Hiring rights meaning, and create a way to help others
- Firing employees understand it; each group presents as
- Etc. other groups rate their product or
performance using an “Observation Form
Responsibilities of employers for Demonstrations” provided
- Ensuring no discrimination in
the workplace In small groups, learners are provided
- Provide a workplace safe and with a scenario from the “Labor code
free from hazards scenarios”, read and discuss the scenario
- Provide hazard information, and the labor code article (Labor Code
- Provide proper safety Excerpts) that addresses the issue in the
equipment, scenario; learners come up with at least 2
- Provide training to employees possible responses or solutions for the
- Provide competent supervision worker in the scenario.

Links to other subjects: General studies and effective communication


Assessment criteria: Can recognise right and responsibilities as an employee and employer
Materials: Work readiness training program (trainer manual: 6.2: Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 6.3: worksheet on rights & responsibilities at
work; 6.4: Obligations of the Employer and the Employee; 6.6: Labor code Excerpts)

74
Topic Area: Work Readiness Sub-topic Area: Leadership
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 22: Team leadership No. of lessons: 16
Key Topic Competency: To be able to lead a team in accomplishing a goal
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and understanding Skills Attitudes and
values
Explain the meaning of a team, Work well as a Recognize that Meaning of; Brainstorm examples of inspiring
team work and leadership. team member all people have - Team leaders (famous or from their
qualities of a - Teamwork community); describe the
good leader - Leadership character/qualities of those
Describe the qualities of an Differentiate the leaders; learners then discuss the
Recognize that
effective leader various Qualities of an effective leader qualities of a good leader using the
leadership styles
leadership styles. - Self confidence pictures of some of the great
should change
- Determination leaders and then challenge them to
according to the
Identify team leading - Creativity assess their own qualities against
context in which
requirements Lead a group in they are working. - Responsibility those of the famous leaders.
accomplishing a - Good communication skills
task Cooperate and - Good accountability In small groups, learners;
Describe the different leadership work effectively  Discuss the meaning of the
styles within a group Leadership Styles leadership style and give
Solve problems Exhibit the - Autocratic style/Authoritarian example s of people who tend to
by applying the desirable - Democratic/Consulting/joining lead in that way
Identify the basic steps of appropriate - Laissez-faire  Do a short role play that shows
qualities of
problem solving approaches that the type of leader you have
effective leaders. Source of power in Leadership
been assigned
Appreciate the - Legitimate (comes from right to make  Discuss when this type of
challenges and demands and to expect compliance) leadership would be appropriate
dynamics - Reward (results from ones’ ability to to use
amongst people compensate another for compliance.

75
during the - Expert ( someone’s superior knowledge) Learners share their experiences as
problem solving - Referent (as a result of a person’s leaders of anything-a group task at
process perceived attractiveness and worthiness. school or in their community, at
- Coercive (from the belief that a person job, being a leader on a sports
can punish others for non compliance) team….how did they like playing
the role? What made it difficult or
Leadership and team requirements easy?
Characteristics of a successful team
- Common goal, In small groups, learners are
- Clear roles and tasks blindfolded and required to form
- Decision making procedures, etc different forms with a rope tied at
both ends with a group leader
Strategies to Work together/ developing a communicating instructions to the
team team; debrief the activity by
- Encourage participation discussing leadership and
- Model respect teamwork in the groups
- Treat members fairly and equally
- Use positive feedback, etc In small groups, learners perform
the Helium Stick game to
Leading Problem Solving and Decision Making emphasize learning how to work
Problem Solving Steps; together and communicate in
- Defining and identifying the problem(state groups
emotions a side and state the problem)
- Getting more information about the Learners perform “The Human
problem from colleagues and others. Knot” game to emphasize the
- Generate many ideas on how to solve the Communication as a critical tool in
problem problem solving; the activity is
- Choose a solution, evaluate and summed up with some debriefing
implement it. questions

Real solution In small groups, learners are

76
Any solution has to be realistic, effective, provided with Scenarios for
acceptable and logical. Problem solving”, read and go
through the problem solving steps
for each scenario and share their
ideas in class
Links to other subjects: History and citizenship, General studies and Effective Communication
Assessment criteria: Can motivate, organize and lead a team in accomplishing a goal
Materials: Work readiness training program (trainer manual: 4.3: leading team work; The human knot (pg 205); 4.2: scenarios for problem solving steps)

Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Standardization culture


S.5: Entrepreneurship Unit 23: Conformity assessment in business No. of lessons: 12

Key Topic Competency: Justify the need for conformity assessment to business

Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities

Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values


understanding

Explain the meaning of Analyze the need Appreciate the Meaning of conformity In small groups learners search the
importance and interrelationship between standards, quality
conformity assessment and for conformity assessment in business.
necessity of testing, quality control, test reports, auditing
the relationship between assessment in conformity Quality testing and certification.
standards – quality testing - business assessment in - Laboratory safety
business - Quality control and test Using case studies, the teacher will help

77
quality control – Assess whether or Appreciate the need results learners to understand the interrelationship
for quality assurance Certification between standards, quality testing, quality
certification not businesses
and quality - Certification schemes and control, test reports, auditing and
Explain the importance of require certification management in certification.
related process
accreditation for Determine the business - Inspection
- Market surveillance
certification services and implications of Using different scenarios, students are asked
- Industrial inspection
to analyze the importance of accreditation
testing laboratories conformity - Import/Export inspections
and also assess the need for quality
Justify the importance of assessment for assurance and quality management.
Importance of conformity
conformity assessment for consumers, fair
assessment for health and safety Watch a documentary about different
health and safety of trade and market
products both certified and non-certified and
of consumers, fair trade and
consumers, fair trade and access ask learners to undertake research to
market access identify the importance of conformity
market access ( local,
assessment for health and safety of
regional and international)
consumers, fair trade and market access
(local, regional and international).

Links to other subjects: Standards in chemistry


Assessment criteria: Explain the need for conformity assessment to business
Materials: Video, internet access

78
6.3 Senior Six Syllabus Units
Key competencies at the end of S.6

 Prepare a business plan for an enterprise


 Prepare a business plan for an enterprise
 Developing an ethical understanding of Rwandan customs system
 Establish an effective quality compliance system in business activities
 Evaluate the contribution of entrepreneurship towards socio-economic development
 Analyze Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool for prevention and control of environmental impacts caused by
socio-economic development

Topic Area: Business growth and sustainable development Sub-topic Area: Socio-economic development and environment
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 24: Socio-economic development No. of lessons: 19
Key Topic Competency: Evaluate the contribution of entrepreneurship towards socio-economic development
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values

79
Explain the Analyze factor that Develop The Meaning of Socio- In small groups, learners identify changes they would like to see
meaning of lead to socio- positive economic in their locality to make it a better place than it is presently.
Socio-economic economic attitude development Then learners enumerate any changes they have observed in
development development towards the locality over the past five years. Learners should then be
and describe payment of Factors and indicators able to say if the locality has developed or not over this period.
some of its Identify a range of taxes of Socio-economic
indicators other contributions development Referring to the above activity, learners discuss reasons to
entrepreneurship support their observation as to whether the locality has
Appreciate that developed or not, and factors that may affect socio-economic
Explain how makes to Socio- Role of
environmental
entrepreneurshi economic entrepreneurship in development
protection and
p contributes to development Socio-economic
conservation Learners Identify local entrepreneurs who have contributed to
Socio-economic development
are essential to the community’s development
development - Employment
ethical Discussion on how some ways of conducting entrepreneurship
Explain the role Identify potential - Government
entrepreneurs revenue (Business might hold back development rather than promote it (such as
of negative effects of
hip Taxes) exploiting employees, corruption, cheating on contracts, etc.).
entrepreneurshi entrepreneurship on
p in employment the environment - Other Meet and discuss with a local entrepreneur how they take into
creation contributions to account community needs and manage any possible negative
Proactive Social socio-economic implications.
Explain the role
Suggest strategies to Responsibility development Review of present data showing: Rwanda’s government budget
of taxes in
reduce the negative for say the last five years; show total tax collected for the last
development
effects of five years, show share of the private sector in total tax collected
entrepreneurship on (the entrepreneurs).
the environment and In small groups, learners discuss other contributions business
using a completed and entrepreneurship makes to development
EIA

Understand the Meaning of Brainstorm the meaning environment and society; in small
environment and groups learners identify and discuss the various components of
relationship Use notions of social
the environment
between responsibility to society, their types

80
entrepreneurshi evaluate and components Learners cite examples of environmental pollution (e.g. garbage;
p, environment, entrepreneurial noise and air pollution from industries, soil erosion from farming
society and activities and Possible negative etc) and how they can negatively affect the people around the
socio-economic suggest possible effects of business business
development areas of change activities on different Group research on:
types of environment
and their components Effects of entrepreneurial activities on Environment and society
(standards of living, pollution, exploitation, soil erosion,
extinction, etc.)
Know the
meaning of Do role plays exploring the possible effects on people and the
social environment of different types of businesses (a factory
responsibility producing toxic waste, a bar, a market, a bus park, a disco hall
Managing and etc.)
and give preventing the
examples negative effects of a Learners visit nearby business premises to have an opportunity
business on different to obverse various forms of waste generated from the
types of environment businesses. Discuss the impact and better ways for these
and their components businesses to reduce or manage their waste.
In small groups, learners discuss 3 or more case studies showing
different ways businesses have proactively contributed to the
Entrepreneurs and
social and environmental context. Using those examples help
social responsibility
the learners identify more ideas related to how a business can
implement social responsibility.
Links to other subjects: Local and government finance in Economics, Socio-economic development in General studies, and Geography
Assessment criteria: Able to evaluate the contribution of entrepreneurship towards socio-economic development
Materials: Rwanda’s government budget for say the last five years, local entrepreneurs who have contributed to the community’s
development

81
Topic Area: Business growth and sustainable development Sub-topic Area: Socio-economic development and environment
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 25: Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) No. of lessons: 19
Key Topic Competency: To be able to analyze EIA as a tool for prevention and control of the social economic development impacts on the
environment
Learning Objectives Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values Content
understanding

Give an introduction Analyze EIA reports Assume responsibility Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) In small groups learners analyze the
and meaning of EIA and equitable use of - Meaning of Environmental Impact “GENERAL GUIDELINES AND
the environment Assessment PROCEDURE FOR EIA” from
Interpret EIA resources - Historical background and context of Rwanda Environment management
Identify the reports EIA in Rwanda Authority (REMA) to:
components of EIA - National policy on EIA Understand the terms used in
process - International Context of EIA EIA,
Fostering the
Prepare EIA for - Objective, roles and benefits of EIA in Understand the general
commitment for
identified business Rwanda introduction to EIA,
environmental - EIA development planning- Understand the EIA process,
Describe the roles and ideas
protection - Strategic Environmental Assessment Identify the roles of stakeholders
responsibilities of the
various stakeholders in (SEA) in the EIA process
the EIA process - Roles and responsibilities of different Explain the EIA Procedure
Advocate for EIA for stakeholders in EIA
any business activity In small groups learners analyse
Describe the EIA EIA process sample Environment Impact
process - Project application and registration Assessment (EIA) Reports for
by REMA various businesses to identify and
- Environmental impact study and discuss the various components of
Describe the EIA report the EIA Reports, Objectives of the
procedure - Project decommissioning or
study, methodology used, General
relocation

82
description of the business site
Roles of stakeholders’ in the EIA process areas, Project description,
- Roles of developers Consultation, Concerns, Evaluation
- Roles of REMA of impacts, Analysis of alternatives,
- Functions of lead agencies/ line Mitigation measures,
ministries Rehabilitation plan, Environmental
Management Plan
EIA procedure
- Project brief submission and
registration
- Scoping and consideration of In small groups, learners prepare
alternatives an EIA for any one identified
- Impact prediction and analysis of business idea
alternatives
- Public hearing
- Decision-making
- Environmental monitoring
Links to other subjects: General studies,
Assessment criteria: can be able to identify the components of EIA reports and the process and procedures of EIA, and its impact on Social
economic development
Materials: Internet access, audio-visual media, nearby business premises, EIA document, Sample EIA Reports, general guidelines and
procedure for EIA

83
Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Taxes and customs procedures
S.6: Entrepreneurship Unit 26: Customs procedures No. of lessons: 19
Key Topic Competency: Developing an ethical understanding of Rwandan Customs system
Learning Objectives
Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values Content
understanding
Explain the customs Differentiate documents Recognize the role of Meaning of: Group research on:
and customs necessary for goods customs service - Customs Customs, customs
declaration declaration in customs department in the - Customs declaration declaration, objectives of
exportation and customs service
Distinguish different Describe the process importation of goods Objectives of the customs service department and customs
types of customs related to customs department offices in Rwanda
declaration procedures Advocate for
Customs offices in Rwanda Learners analyse and
compliance with
discuss various customs
Identify partners in the Identify goods that may be customs procedure declaration forms through
process of customs exported and imported in Types of customs declaration:
audio-visual aids
declaration Rwanda - Export,
- Import, Visits to any customs
Explain the procedures Fill sample documents - Temporary importation, office/border post and
of verifying, paying of involved in customs Warehousing, experience with the
- Transit various customs partners
customs duties and declaration
taking goods out of the regarding customs
Goods that may be exported and procedures
customs
imported in Rwanda.
Invite a Customs
Customs exempt goods declaration officer to guide
learners fill sample
declaration forms

84
Partners in the customs declaration
- Customs administration,
- Warehouse,
- Rwanda Bureau of Standards,
Rwanda Police, etc.

Documents in customs declaration.


- Transaction invoice,
- Transport documents, Simulation games on the
- Transport invoice, process of exportation and
- Import License, arrival declaration, importation of goods
etc.

Declaration forms in customs

Verification and payment of customs


duties

Administrative practices for taking goods


out of the customs
Links to other subjects: Public finance in Economics and general studies
Assessment criteria: Can be able to calculate various customs duties. identify partners and types of customs declaration in Rwanda

Materials: Resource person from RRA, debates ,sample tax reports from the government

85
Topic Area: Business operations management Sub-topic Area: Financial institutions and markets
S.6: Entrepreneurship Unit 27: Financial markets No. of lessons: 19
Key Topic Competency: To be able to Evaluate the role of financial market
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the meaning and Distinguish Recognize the role of Financial markets Group research on:
types of financial between the capital markets as Meaning and functions
Meaning and types of
markets various types of source of finance
financial markets
financial markets Types financial markets
- Physical assets markets Vs. financial asset Meaning of capital
Explain how the stock Advocate for capital markets, exchange, Stock
market operates and the markets as a source - Spot markets Vs. futures markets, exchange.
functions of stock of investment - Money markets Vs. capital markets, etc.
Analyze the
exchange
procedures and Capital markets
requirements of Meaning and functions of capital markets
Make informed
joining the Rwanda
Explain the benefits of decision when Stock exchange
Stock Exchange
investing through the investing in the Meaning of stock exchange, Functions
capital markets capital markets
Group research on:
Capital Market Authority (CMA)
Functions on Capital
Describe the Introduction, Responsibilities of CMA Market Authority (CMA)
instruments of a capital Capital Market Business and Capital markets
market
Dealing in capital market instruments,
arranging deals in capital market

86
Identify the various Capital market instruments Group research on:
capital markets
- Shares, Capital markets
participants
- Instruments creating or acknowledging instruments,
indebtedness, participants, benefits of
- Government-owned market instruments, investing through capital
Describe how investors - instruments entitling to shares,etc. markets; procedures and
in a capital market are
requirements of joining
protected Capital market participants Rwanda Stock Exchange
- Stock exchange,
- Stockbrokers,
Identify the - Dealers,
Invite a resourceful
requirements and - Sponsors,
person from CMA to
procedure of listing on
Benefits of investing through capital market share with learners about
the Rwanda Stock
- Access capital, Financial markets in
Exchange
- Discover value of its business, Rwanda
- Better bargaining position with financiers, etc
-
How investors are protected? Learners perform a
- CMA ensures that only competent and simulation game where
credible professionals are licensed to serve learners take on different
the market roles of stakeholders at a
- CMA ensures that all prospectuses of issuers Stock exchange
have adequate disclosures for decision
making
- CMA ensures that there periodic reports and
A video presentation on
all price sensitive information are released
how of Stock Exchange
once they are available, etc
operations are conducted
How to invest in capital market?

87
Primary market
Primary Market Transaction Process

Secondary market
Secondary Market Transaction Process

Procedures to join the Rwanda stock exchange

Links to other subjects: Capital markets in Economics

Assessment criteria: Can be able to evaluate the role of financial markets.


Materials: Resourceful person, audio visual, reference books, internet, video-clips

Topic Area: Business Operations Management Sub-topic Area: Accounting and Inventory Management
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit: 28: Financial Statements No. of lessons: 21
Key Topic Competency: To be able to prepare financial statements
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the meaning of Adjust necessary Appreciate the Financial statements Group research and brainstorm the meaning
financial statements entries need for end of Meaning and importance of Financial Statements
periods reports Importance
Prepare income Through buying and selling scenarios, learners
statements for the Advocate for calculate the Gross profit/loss linking to the
Identify the various The Income Statement
preparing of trading account; then in small groups they

88
financial statements and business financial statements - Meaning analyze transactions involving purchase and
their purpose - Trading account sale of goods to determine gross profit/loss,
Prepare statement of (Purpose and Entries) and prepare trading accounts
Owner’s Equity - Profit and Loss
Distinguish gross profit Prepare the Balance account (Purpose and Based on the above activities, learners discuss
Entries) what may affect the profit margin of a business
and net profit sheet
such as expenses, revenues linking the activity
Prepare a cash flow Balance sheets to profit and loss account; then in small groups,
statement - Definition and they analyze given transactions involving
Explain how the
purpose expenses and revenues and use them to
statement of cash flows Calculate Financial
- Preparation calculate Net profit/loss.
assists users in statement analysis
evaluation of business ratios Interpreting Financial In small groups, learners calculate the Gross
performance. Statements/ Financial profit/loss and Net profit/loss and then prepare
Prepare end of period
statement analysis: the Trading accounts and Profit and Loss
reports
- Definition and accounts.
Interpret the format and Compute and analyze Purpose Using sample trial balances, learners extract
content of the statement financial ratios - Liquidity ratio, balances sheets using the vertical and
of cash flows - Profitability ratio,
horizontal formats
- Debt to equity ratio,
- Asset management Learners research about financial statement
Prepare a statement of ratio, etc analysis and ratios, then calculate and interpret
cash flows various ratios from the financial statements
Cash Flows Statement
- Definition and In small groups, learners discuss the various
importance sources of cash in a business and what it’s used
- Preparation for linking to the cash flow statement; learners
then prepare cash flow statements from given
Statement of Owner’s transactions showing the Net cash
equity
In small groups, learners prepare and interpret

89
- Definition and Statement of Owners equity from information
importance provided
- Preparation
Links to other subjects:
Assessment criteria: Can prepare financial statements
Materials: Application exercises, sample reports, internet, research, journals, Accounting Software like: QuickBooks, Sage, Pastel, Tally, and
Peachtree

Topic Area: Business Operations Management Sub-topic Area: Accounting and Inventory Management
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 29: Stock control No. of lessons: 22
Key Topic Competency: To be able to assess the need for proper inventory management
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Explain the meaning of Fill in documents in Appreciate the Meaning of stock, stock management Learners research the meaning of
stock, stock relation to stock need for inventory and inventory stock, stock management,
management and management management in inventory and stock management
Necessary documents for stock
inventory business documents
management
- Receipt note,
Interpret
- Material requisition note,
Identify the necessary information on stock Invite a school bursar/procurement
- Return-outward note,
documents for sock management officer to share with learners the
- Return-inward note,
management documents meaning of procurement, the
- Stock sheet (Inventory form)
documents and the procedures
followed during the procurement

90
Describe the procedures Demonstrate Procurement procedures process, the inventory
of procurement in a procurement - Determining minimum stock level, management methods and the
business process Placing an order, stock evaluation methods used in
- Invoice receipt, the school
- Invoice payment,
In class, learners role play the
Describe the different Perform perpetual - Goods’ transport,
procurement process in a given
methods of stock and periodical - Goods’ receipt,
business
valuation inventory - Goods’ value

Perpetual and periodical inventory


Perpetual inventory and Periodical Learners use application exercises
Prepare stock cards
inventory to calculate the value of stock using
using LIFO, FIFO and
FIFO, LIFO and WAC
WAC evaluation Evaluation methods on supplied stock:
methods - LIFO (Last in, First out), Learners role play a situation where
- FIFO (First in, first out), they have to use perpetual or
- Weighted average cost (WAC) periodical inventory methods

Links to other subjects:


Assessment criteria: Can assess the need for proper inventory management
Materials: Research, internet, field visits, application exercises, sample stock management documents

91
Topic Area: Entrepreneurial Culture Sub-topic Area: Business start-up and development
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 30: Business plan for an enterprise No. of lessons: 21
Key Topic Competency: To be able to prepare a business plan for an enterprise (Part 1)
Learning Objectives Learning Activities

Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values Content


understanding
Explain the Review a sample Recognize the Introduction to Business plan Learners review three complete
meaning of a business plan importance of a business - What is a business plan, business plans prepared for different
business plan and determine if plan in the successful - Why and when write a business plan types of businesses and discuss:
it has all the operation of a business What a business plan is
necessary Users of a business plan and how they The importance of a business plan
Explain why a information Develop personal and use it. When a business plan is written
business plan business plans for daily - The business owner Identify the elements, or different
should be activities - The government agents parts of a business plan, after
prepared Prepare some - Managers which they present their ideas
components of - Employees
the business plan - Financial institutions Learners in small groups make a
Describe the users such as: - Investors research and discuss the different
a business plan Business users of a business plan and how they
description The structure of a business plan may use it
Marketing plan, - Cover page,
Describe the Organization - Table of contents Based on the activity above learners in
components of and - Executive summary small groups prepare an aspect of a
Business management business plan each such as:
Description plan, etc Business description: Cover page
- Name of business, Business description
- Contact address, Marketing plan
Describe the - Legal form, Promotion strategy, etc.

92
components of the - Type of business, Sales forecast for the next 12
Marketing plan - Description of the business idea and months
market, Organization and management
- Information about the owner plan
Organizational structure
Marketing plan:
- Product description,
- Customer description, Demand/need
for the product, Competition,
- Current production,
- Price,
- Sales forecast for next 12 months,
- Business location,
- Promotion
Links to other subjects:
Assessment criteria: Can be able to identify the elements of a business plan, and elaborate a business plan for a small enterprise (Part 1)
Materials: Sample business plans and copies of different organizational charts/ organogram

93
Topic Area: Entrepreneurial Culture Sub-topic Area: Business start-up and development
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 31: Operational business plan for an No. of lessons: 21
enterprise
Key Topic Competency: To be able to prepare a business plan for an enterprise (Part 2)
Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities
Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding
Identify the Calculate various Encourage others to Production plan: Following production plans from the
necessary business operation develop plans - Location of the business samples provided, learners in their groups
required cost to costs whether for personal - Type, nature and capacity of develop production plans for their
start a business or business purposes equipment identified business opportunities
Prepare: Sales plan, - Production process and layout
Describe the Cost forecast (6 Take moderate life - Sources of raw materials and other
production plan months/1 year), and business risks supplies In small groups learners calculate and
Cash flow plan, - Production staff prepare business operations costs:
Describe the Monthly net profit - Production process Start-up costs,
parts of the estimation, - Quality control Sources of capital,
business Operating balance - Production utilities Loan repayment schedule
operation and sheet - Packing materials
costs plan
Assess business risks Business operation and Costs Plan: In small groups learners review and
- Start-up costs analyze elements of the financial plan from
Explain the Devise contingency - Sources of capital sample business plans; then learners
various measures to reduce - Sales plan, calculate and prepare the various elements
components of risks - Monthly cost forecast of the financial plan for their identified
the financial plan business opportunity
Develop an action Financial plans:
plan for successful - Start-up budget
Describe various operation of the - Trading, Profit and Loss statement In small groups, learners identify and

94
risks business - Financial forecast/cash flow plan discuss various risks that may be involved
encountered in - Opening Balance sheet in business operations, and then develop
business Develop a business - Pay back period, Return on contingency plans for managing the risks
operations plan from an Investment identified.
identified business
Describe the idea Risk assessment and contingency plan In small groups, learners develop a sample
elements of a - Risks related to business (Internal action plan for their identified business
business plan and External) opportunities.
- Procedure Strategies to reduce
severity or completely avoid the In small groups, learners develop a
risks complete business plan from the activities
- Contingency plan above

Action plan
- Meaning
- Functions
- Preparation, etc.

Sample business plan


Links to other subjects:
Assessment criteria: Can be able to identify the elements of a business plan, and elaborate a viable business plan for an enterprise
Materials: Sample business plans and resource materials/books

95
Topic Area: Business legal aspects Sub-topic Area: Standardization culture
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 32: Quality assurance and quality compliance in business No. of lessons: 27
Key Topic Competency: To be able to establish an effective quality compliance system in business activities

Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities


Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and values
understanding

Describe what Analyze and identify Appreciate the Meaning and background of Learners research metrology and its
application to scientific, legal and industrial
quality assurance loopholes in terms of importance of quality metrology.
aspects, identifying specific applications.
procedures entail, quality assurance for compliance for Types of Metrology: With a case study learners are given a
- Fundamental, Scientific, particular business to analyze how quality
including the role a given operating entrepreneurs to meet
- Legal, Industrial
assurance is done, then identify loopholes in
of government business regulatory - Applications of metrology in
business activities; the process of implementation. Learners are
requirements, then asked to give their views on how to
- importance of accurate
Explain the role of Design an effective safeguarding health and measurements improve quality compliance system in place
quality compliance quality compliance safety of consumers and Watch a documentary that encompasses
Meaning and relationship between episodes of verification and calibration of
as a link between system based on the protection of quality management, quality equipment, auditing and certification
assurance and quality compliance
standards - quality requirements environment. process by accreditation body, quality
entrepreneurship of a business assurance process, testing for quality
Accreditation and its role in cross- compliance within a production unit, and
– health and safety venture. border businesses.
exports and market surveillance for quality
of consumers - compliance by regulatory authorities.
market Learners identify and connect all the
processes that comprise effective quality

96
requirements and compliance systems in business.
environment.

Links to other subjects: Standards I in chemistry


Assessment criteria: learners establish an effective quality compliance system in business activities
Materials: Audio visual materials, internet access, sample test reports, physical standards

Topic Area: Work Readiness Sub-topic Area: Work Habits and Conduct
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 33: Work habits and behavior No. of lessons: 19
Key Topic Competency: To be able to apply for a job and maintain professional conduct at workplace

Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities


Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values
Identify resources in Find a job Demonstrate Finding a Job In small groups, learners discuss and share one or
their communities appropriate Finding employment information two experiences they have had searching for and
Apply for job
that will help them workplace Writing a CV and Application Letter finding work. They should discuss:
opportunities
find a job behavior and Interview process How did you start the process?
Write an attitudes - Opening (greetings, What did resources did you use to find a job?
Explain the contents
application letter introductions……..) What steps did you take to find the job?
of an application Manage time
- Body of the interview. (Common What approaches worked well and what did
letter and a basic CV Write a basic CV
Communicate interview questions) not work?
Recognize typical Use a variety of effectively in - Closing the interview How long did it take for you to find work?
questions asked resources to find order to manage

97
during an interview a job personal and Interviews Techniques In small groups, learners identify many resources
work lives Before the interview that will be helpful in finding employment. Then
Identify appropriate Demonstrate
- Learn as much as you can about the have a panel of invited speakers/resourceful
workplace behaviors effective
organization persons briefly share with learners about:
and attitudes interviewing
- Dress appropriately for the Jobs for youth and how their
skills
interview,…etc agency/organization/business can help people
Identify find work
Describe the During the interview What they are looking for when they hire
strategies to
elements of a career - Speak slowly and clear (types of skills, behaviors, attitudes)
better manage
plan - Be respectful What type o people do they like to have work
time
- Be honest in your answers, etc. for them?
Develop a career Importance of volunteering, doing an
plan After the interview internship, and community service
- Send a thank letter
- Follow up with a call, etc. In small groups, learners read sample CVs and
application letters provided and discuss:
The type of information found in the CV and
application letter
The differences between a CV and an
application letter
The elements of a well written CV
The elements of a well written application; in
subsequent activities learners begin writing
their CVs and application letter. The learners
write their own CVs and Application letters

With a co-facilitator, perform a mock interview


depicting an interviewee as being unresponsive,
disrespectful, unclear, not answering questions
clearly, etc; then learners discuss what they
observed.

98
In small groups, learners identify the main parts
of an interview based on the above activity, their
own experience or from others; then they come
Appropriate Workplace Behaviors and up with sample interview questions and tips for a
Attitudes successful interview. Then in groups of 3 they
Workplace behaviors and Attitudes practice interviewing with one as the interviewer,
Dress neatly and appropriately interviewee and observer
Be on time
Be honest, etc In small/peer groups, learners discuss and share
any previous work they have done (long or short
Time Management skills term jobs, family businesses, etc) and should
- Setting goals and planning discuss:
- Prioritizing what you want to do What was the work setting-office, shop,
- Making decisions about important construction site..?
decisions Did you need to follow any rules or
regulations (dress, work hours,…..)?
Personal qualities that help one to What happened if you were not able to
manage time follow the rules?
- Good organizational skills Did you behave the same way at work and
- Self discipline home? Why or why not? What were some of
- Motivation the differences? Then brainstorm the
- Being focused on accomplishing appropriate workplace behaviors and
tasks, etc. attitudes based on the scenarios and own
- Balancing Work and Personal Life experience

Developing a career plan In small groups, learners are given a task that
- Identify a career they need to complete in a set amount of time.
- Setting goals Debrief the activity using some of the following
- Steps to reach the goals questions:
- Pooling together necessary How well did you manage your time?
information needed (CV, What have you learned about task planning?

99
Application letter, etc.) What have you learned about time
management? Then discuss time
management skills, benefits, personal
qualities of a good time manager and
challenges

In small groups, learners are provided with “Did


s/he Do the Right Thing?” scenarios, read through
each scenario and discuss and decide whether or
not the right decision was made. Learners can act
out the improved versions of the scenarios; and
identify situations where it might be hard to
balance personal and work life

Learners develop their career plan


Links to other subjects: General Studies and Effective communication
Assessment criteria: Can be able to for apply for a job, write a CV, application letter and manage time
Materials: Flipchart paper, makers, tape, sample CVs and Application letters, ball or object to toss, reflection journals, card stock, crayons, paint,
handouts, contact representatives from business sector, youth organizations, cooperatives, workplace scenarios, handouts ; Work readiness
training program

100
Topic Area: Work Readiness Sub-topic Area: Work Safety and Health
S. 6: Entrepreneurship Unit 34: Work safety and health No. of lessons: 19
Key Topic Competency: To be able to apply standard health and safety practices and regulations in the workplace

Learning Objectives Content Learning Activities


Knowledge and Skills Attitudes and
understanding values
Describe the Handle unsafe Promote healthy Safety and Health at Work In small groups, learners discuss and share assigned
importance of good situations that habits in daily life Positive health and health habits statements on “Habits for Good Health”
personal care and could harm safety practices using the following questions:
healthy habits at work people while on Healthy Habits What do you think this statement means? Give
the job - Get enough rest several examples that will help explain this health
Identify important
- Good nutrition habit
health practices in the Respond - Plenty of exercise, etc. Why is this health habit important?
workplace appropriately if
Practice ways to Is this health habit important?
there is a safety Healthy hygiene and
Explain how to prevent prevent
hazard, an sanitation practices In 3 groups: Group 1: Germs be gone! (Personal
the spread of illness accidents and
accident or an - Wash hand before hygiene practices); Group 2: Let’s eat! (Food
and contamination at getting sick at
emergence at preparing and eating sanitation practices); Group 3: Water and waste!
work work
work and in daily food (clean water and toilet facilities), learners read and
Explain why certain life - Wash dishes and store discuss the information provided in each group and
situations or food then:
Practice healthy
substances are - Protect water sources, Identify the health habits related to their assigned
habits in life and
hazardous etc. topics
workplace
Identify ways of Discuss how their topic relates to hygiene and
controlling hazards and Hazards in the sanitation at work
staying safe Deal with workplace Use the information and material to prepare a 5
emergences in - Safety hazards minute demonstration that will be given to the
life and - Chemical hazards other groups (e.g. demonstrate hand washing using
- Biological hazards, etc. a basin, soap and water)

101
workplace
Ways to make work In small groups, learners think about places that they
safer have worked (construction sites, farms, stores,
- Remove hazards restaurants, offices, etc.), identify possible hazards
- Improve work policies and classify them as Safety, Chemical, Biological, or
and procedures other Health hazards; learners discuss 4 different
- Use protective pictures of work scenes and find as many hazards as
clothing and they can; and discuss how each hazard could harm
equipment them if they were working in this place

Emergencies at Work In small groups, learners discuss and share how the
Responding to hazards identified in activity above can be reduced or
emergencies and eliminated; then learners discuss “Hazards Scenes and
staying healthy at work Solutions” handout and show how each of these
- What to do in case of methods can be used to control the hazards in the
fire workplace scenes
- Chemical spill
- Earth quake In teams of two of 4 participants each, learners play
- Keeping safe at night the “Disaster Blaster Game” to understand
- Hygiene practices at Responding to emergencies and staying healthy at
work work; learners then reflect on responding to
emergencies by using the following questions:
How do you feel about dealing with possible
emergencies at work?
Have you ever had to deal with an emergency
before?
With information learned through the game, do you
feel better able to handle an emergency?
Links to other subjects: Biology, Chemistry
Assessment criteria: Can be able to apply safety and health practices at work and respond appropriately if there is a safety hazard, an accident

102
or an emergency
Materials: Work readiness training program (trainer manual; 5.1: Habits for good health; 5.2: Healthy hygiene and sanitation practices; 5.3:
hazards in the workplace; 5.4: Find the hazard; 5.5: Controlling hazards; 5.6: Hazard Scenes and solutions; Trainer tool 5.1: Disaster Blaster
game),

103
5. References
1. Richard Thompson and DenryMachin (2003), As Business Studies, HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, Hammersmith, London
2. Kato Musoke (2013), Understanding Entrepreneurship Education, 3 rd Edition, Kaggwa Publishers, Uganda.
3. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 1: Introduction to Commerce; Student Module,
Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
4. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 1: Introduction to Commerce; Teachers Guide,
Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
5. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 2: Introduction to Accounting; Student Module,
Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
6. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 2: Introduction to Accounting; Teachers Guide,
Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
7. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 3: Taxes and Charges in Rwanda; Student
Module, Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
8. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 3: Taxes and Charges in Rwanda; Teachers Guide,
Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
9. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 4: Project Planning and Management; Student
Module, Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
10. National Curriculum Development Centre (2013), Entrepreneurship, Module 4: Project Planning and Management; Teachers
Guide, Longhorn Publishers (K) Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya.
11. Ugene F Brigham and Joel F Houston(2012),Fundamentals of Financial Management 7th Edition ,south Western U.S.A,
JoeSabatino publishers
12. Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihood project (2009), Work Readiness Trainers’ Manual, Education Development Centre (EDC), USAID,
Kigali-Rwanda.
13. Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihood project (2011), Advanced Entrepreneurship, Education Development Centre (EDC), USAID,
Kigali-Rwanda.
14. Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihood project (2009), Work Readiness Trainer Manual, Education Development Centre (EDC), Work
Force Development Authority (WDA), Kigali -Rwanda.
15. Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihood project (2012), Small Business and Co-operative, Education Development Centre (EDC), USAID,
Kigali-Rwanda.
16. National Curriculum Development Centre (2002), Entrepreneurship for Secondary Schools Book 1, Kampala – Uganda.
17. Kanyike John Paul (2009), Entrepreneurship Education Book 1, 2&3.Kayonza –Rwanda.

104
6. Curricula / Syllabi
Rwanda Education Board (1ST Edition 2008, Reprint 2012), Introduction to Entrepreneurship, Curriculum for Advanced Level, Kigali-
Rwanda.
National Curriculum Development Centre (2009), Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum for advanced secondary level, Kigali-
Rwanda.
Enterprise, Retrieved from: http://www.cie.org.uk/images/128456-2015-syllabus.pdf
Business studies 0450, Retrieved from: http://www.cie.org.uk/images/128338-2015-syllabus.pdf
Business studies 9707, Retrieved from: http://www.cie.org.uk/images/128591-2015-syllabus.pdf
Accounting 0452, Retrieved from: http://www.cie.org.uk/images/128591-2015-syllabus.pdf
Accounting 9706, Retrieved from: http://www.cie.org.uk/images/128709-2015-syllabus.pdf
Diploma program business and management guide, Retrieved from: https://store.ibo.org/business-and-management-guide-for-first-
examinations-2009

105
7. Appendices
9.1 Subjects and weekly time allocation for Advanced level

Subject Weekly periods in S4 Weekly periods in S5 Weekly periods in S6

Mathematics 8 8 8

Physics 8 8 8

Computer 8 8 8

Chemistry 7 7 7

Biology 7 7 7

Geography 7 7 7

History 7 7 7

Economics 7 7 7

Literature in English 8 8 8

Kinyarwanda major 8 8 8

Swahili major 8 8 8

Religion major 8 8 8

Entrepreneurship 6 6 6

General studies and communication 3 3 3

Subside mathematics 3 3 3

106
English minor 4 4 4

French minor 4 4 4

Swahili minor 4 4 4

Kinyarwanda minor 4 4 4

107