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# Hazen-Williams Formula

In the absence of solid scientific data, engineers in the past have experimented with and used
empirical equations for determination of friction losses in pipe flow. Many of these equations 2
were developed over the early years but most have fallen into disuse. Due to the difficulty in
using the D’Arcy-Weisback equation for pipe flow one singular example still endures, which is
the Hazen-Williams formula. Hazen-Williams is simpler to use than D’Arcy-Weisbach where
you are solving for flowrate, pressure drop or velocity dependent on the flow.
The D’Arcy-Weisbach formula is generally considered more accurate and is valid for any liquid
or gas. The Hazen-Williams method is very popular, especially among civil engineers, because
of its ease of use and its friction coefficient “C” is not a function of velocity or pipe diameter.
Its validity depends on the successful selection of the constant friction loss coefficient “C”,
which is a function of pipe material, pipe linings and pipe age to indicate the roughness of a
pipe interior. The higher the C factor, the smoother the pipe. Typical values of the roughness
coefficient “C” is given in the table following this definition.
The Hazen-Williams equation has narrow applicable ranges for Reynolds numbers and pipe
sizes. The equation is generally valid for pipe sizes 3 in. (75 mm) and larger, for water flowing at
temperatures of between 40° to 75ºF (21° to 24°C) and pressures up to 175 psi (1.2 MPa). The
level of error when the Hazen-Williams equation is used outside its data ranges is significant.
In this case, the D’Arcy-Weisbach formula must be used. The Hazen-Williams equation is com-
monly used for pressure drop calculations in American fire sprinkler systems, water distribution
systems, and irrigation systems where conditions are mostly constant.
Hazen-Williams Formula
Solving for psi pressure drop per 100 feet of pipe
Pd = 4.52 × Q1.85
C1.85 × d4.87
Solving for total psi pressure drop in system
× Q1.8655
1.85
Td = 0.002082 L 100
1.85

C d
Solving for velocity
V = 1.318 × C × R0.63 × S0.54
Solving for flow rate
Q = 0.849 × C × A × R0.63 × S0.54
Solving for friction head loss per 100 feet of type, SI units.
6.05 × Q1.85
f=
C1.85 × d 4.87
where
Q = quantity rate of flow, gpm (Lpm)
C = roughness coefficient, dimensionless
d = inside pipe diameter, in. (mm)
f = friction head loss in ft. hd./100 ft. of pipe (m per 100m)
Pd  = pressure drop, psi/100 feet of pipe
R = hydraulic radius, feet (m)
V = Velocity, feet per second
A = cross section area, in (mm)
Td = Total drop in system, psi
L = Total length of pipe run, ft.

## Plumbing Engineering and Design Handbook of Tables 73

Sizing and Capacity (Natural Gas)
Gas): U.S./English

## Maximum Capacity in Cubic Feet of Gas Per Hour (Natural Gas)

Material: Steel, ASTM A53 – Schedule 40
Inlet Pressure = 5.0 psi
Pressure Drop = 3.5 psi • Speciﬁc Gravity 0.60 • Temperature 70°F
Pipe Size (inch)
Nominal ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½
Actual OD 0.840 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875
WT 0.109 0.113 0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203
Actual ID 0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469
Feet Cubic Feet of Gas per Hour
10 3276 6850 12903 26491 39692 76443 121838
20 2251 4708 8868 18207 27280 52539 83738
30 1808 3781 7121 14621 21907 42190 67245
40 1547 3236 6095 12514 18749 36110 57553
50 1371 2868 5402 11091 16617 32003 51008
60 1243 2598 4895 10049 15056 28997 46217
70 1143 2390 4503 9245 13852 26677 42519
80 1064 2224 4189 8601 12886 24818 39556
90 998 2087 3930 8070 12091 23286 37114
100 943 1971 3713 7623 11421 21996 35058
125 835 1747 3291 6756 10122 19494 31071
150 757 1583 2981 6121 9171 17663 28152
175 696 1456 2743 5631 8438 16250 25900
200 648 1355 2552 5239 7850 15117 24095
250 574 1201 2262 4643 6957 13398 21355
300 520 1088 2049 4207 6303 12140 19349
350 479 1001 1885 3870 5799 11169 17801
400 445 931 1754 3601 5395 10390 16560
450 418 874 1646 3378 5062 9749 15538
500 395 825 1554 3191 4781 9209 14677
550 375 784 1476 3031 4541 8746 13939
600 358 748 1408 2891 4332 8344 13298
650 342 716 1349 2769 4149 7990 12735
700 329 688 1296 2660 3986 7676 12234
750 317 663 1248 2563 3840 7395 11786
800 306 640 1205 2475 3708 7141 11382
850 296 619 1166 2395 3588 6911 11015
900 287 600 1131 2322 3479 6700 10679
950 279 583 1098 2255 3379 6507 10371
1,000 271 567 1068 2193 3286 6329 10087
1
0 1,100 258 539 1015 2083 3121 6011 9580
1,200 246 514 968 1987 2978 5735 9140
1,300 235 492 927 1903 2851 5492 8753
1,400 226 473 891 1828 2739 5276 8409
1,500 218 455 858 1761 2639 5082 8101
1,600 210 440 828 1701 2548 4908 7823
1,700 204 426 802 1646 2466 4750 7570
1,800 197 413 777 1596 2391 4605 7340
1,900 192 401 755 1550 2322 4472 7128
2,000 186 390 734 1507 2259 4350 6933

## 1032 American Society of Plumbing Engineers

Steel. ASTM A53 — Schedule 40

## Maximum Capacity in Cubic Feet of Gas Per Hour (Natural Gas)

Material: Steel, ASTM A53 – Schedule 40 (Continued)
Inlet Pressure = 5.0 psi
Pressure Drop = 3.5 psi • Speciﬁc Gravity 0.60 • Temperature 70°F
Pipe Size (inch)
Nominal 3 4 5 6 8 10 12
Actual OD 3.500 4.500 5.563 6.625 8.625 10.750 12.750
WT 0.216 0.237 0.258 0.280 0.322 0.365 0.375
Actual ID 3.068 4.026 5.047 6.065 7.981 10.020 12.000
Feet Cubic Feet of Gas per Hour
10 215387 439322 794795 1286957 2644205 4802582 7707103
20 148035 301943 546258 884518 1817347 3300787 5297048
30 118877 242471 438665 710299 1459394 2650649 4253717
40 101743 207524 375440 607924 1249052 2268613 3640631
50 90173 183925 332746 538792 1107012 2010629 3226624
60 81703 166649 301492 488185 1003033 1821776 2923555
70 75166 153315 277368 449124 922778 1676011 2689634
80 69928 142630 258038 417823 858467 1559205 2502185
90 65611 133825 242108 392030 805471 1462950 2347718
100 61976 126410 228694 370309 760843 1381894 2217641
125 54928 112035 202687 328198 674321 1224747 1965454
150 49769 101512 183649 297371 610984 1109710 1780844
175 45786 93390 168955 273577 562097 1020919 1638353
200 42595 86881 157180 254511 522923 949768 1524172
250 37752 77001 139306 225568 463457 841762 1350845
300 34206 69769 126221 204381 419926 762697 1223964
350 31469 64186 116122 188028 386326 701672 1126031
400 29276 59713 108029 174924 359402 652770 1047555
450 27468 56027 101360 164125 337215 612473 982886
500 25946 52922 95744 155032 318531 578538 928428
550 24642 50263 90932 147241 302523 549463 881769
600 23509 47952 86751 140470 288613 524198 841223
650 22513 45919 83075 134517 276381 501983 805573
700 21628 44115 79810 129231 265520 482255 773915
750 20836 42499 76886 124496 255792 464587 745561
800 20121 41040 74248 120224 247015 448645 719978
850 19472 39716 71852 116345 239045 434169 696748
900 18879 38507 69664 112803 231766 420949 675532
950 18335 37397 67656 109551 225085 408815 656059
1,000 17833 36373 65804 106553 218925 397626 638104
1,100 16937 34545 62497 101198 207923 377643 606035 1
0
1,200 16158 32957 59624 96544 198362 360278 578168
1,300 15473 31560 57097 92453 189955 345010 553666
1,400 14865 30320 54853 88820 182490 331451 531907
1,500 14320 29209 52843 85565 175804 319308 512420
1,600 13829 28207 51030 82629 169772 308351 494837
1,700 13383 27297 49384 79963 164294 298402 478871
1,800 12975 26466 47880 77529 159292 289316 464289
1,900 12601 25703 46500 75294 154700 280976 450905
2,000 12256 24999 45227 73233 150466 273286 438565

## Plumbing Engineering and Design Handbook of Tables 1033

Hazen-Williams Equation: PEX Tubing, ASTM F877

## Flow Rate, Velocity, and Friction Loss (Water)

Material: PEX Tubing, ASTM F877
Coefficient of Friction, C = 150 2
OD = Outside Diameter (in.)  •  ID = Inside Diameter (in.)  •  WT = Wall Thickness (in.)

## ½" PEX ¾" PEX

OD = 0.625  •  ID = 0.485  •  WT = 0.070 OD = 0.875  •  ID = 0.681  •  WT = 0.097
Flow Pressure Flow Pressure
Rate Velocity Loss Rate Velocity Loss
(gpm) (ft/sec) (psi/100') (gpm) (ft/sec) (psi/100')
1.00 1.74 1.4448 1.00 0.88 0.2767
2.00 3.47 5.2085 2.00 1.76 0.9974
3.00 5.21 11.0276 3.00 2.64 2.1116
4.00 6.95 18.7767 4.00 3.52 3.5955
5.00 8.68 28.3728 5.00 4.40 5.4330
6.00 10.42 39.7546 6.00 5.29 7.6124
7.00 12.16 52.8736 7.00 6.17 10.1245
8.00 7.05 12.9616
8.00 13.89 67.6899
9.00 7.93 16.1173
9.00 15.63 84.1697
10.00 8.81 19.5859
10.00 17.37 102.2839
11.00 9.69 23.3625
11.00 19.10 122.0067
12.00 10.57 27.4428
12.00 20.84 143.3153
13.00 11.45 31.8228
13.00 22.58 166.1891
14.00 12.33 36.4989
14.00 24.31 190.6094
15.00 13.21 41.4679
15.00 26.05 216.5590 16.00 14.09 46.7267
16.00 27.79 244.0222 17.00 14.97 52.2725
18.00 15.86 58.1028
19.00 16.74 64.2151
20.00 17.62 70.6071
21.00 18.50 77.2768
22.00 19.38 84.2219
23.00 20.26 91.4407
24.00 21.14 98.9314
25.00 22.02 106.6921
26.00 22.90 114.7212
27.00 23.78 123.0173
28.00 24.66 131.5787
29.00 25.54 140.4040
30.00 26.43 149.4918
31.00 27.31 158.8409
32.00 28.19 168.4499
33.00 29.07 178.3175