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# PERFORMANCE MONITORING SPREADSHEET FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS

1. MANAGEMENT SUMMARY
Heat exchangers are equipments that transfer heat from one medium to another. The proper
design, operating, and maintenance of heat exchanger will make process energy efficient, which
minimize energy loss and energy cost. Heat exchanger performance can deteriorate with time
and other interferences such as fouling, scaling, etc. It is necessary to access periodically the
heat exchanger performance in order to maintain the high efficiency level.
The developed spreadsheet comprises certain proven techniques of monitoring the
performance oh heat exchangers, coolers, condenser from the observed operating data of the
equipment. The heat exchanger performance will be calculated by the developed spreadsheet,
and the alert indicator will be reported to identify any low efficiency heat exchanger.

2. PURPOSE
The performance monitoring spreadsheet will be used to determine the overall heat transfer
coefficient for assessing the performance of heat exchanger. Any deviation form the design heat
transfer coefficient will indicate the occurrence of fouling and will imply for the requirement for
heat exchanger cleaning.

3. CALCULATION BACKGROUND
3.1 HEAT TRANSFER PRINCIPLE
3.1.1 Overall energy balances

## Figure 3.1 The overall energy balance

To predict the performance of a heat exchanger, it is essential to relate the total heat
transfer rate to quantities such as the inlet and outlet fluid temperature, the overall heat transfer
coefficient, and the total surface area for heat transfer. Two such relations may readily be
obtained by applying overall energy balances to the hot and cold fluids, as shown in Figure 3.1
In particular, if q is the total rate of heat transfer between the hot and cold fluids and there is
negligible heat transfer between the exchanger and its surroundings, application of the steady
flow energy equation, gives
q = m&h (i h,i-i h,o) and q = m&c (i c,i-i c,o)
: i is the fluid enthalpy
The subscript h and c refer to the hot and cold fluids.
The subscript i and o designate the fluid inlet and outlet conditions.
Such an expression would be an extension of Newton’s law of cooling, with the overall heat
transfer coefficient (U) used in place of the single convection coefficient (h). However, since
T varies with the position in the heat exchanger, it is necessary to work with a rate equation of
the form
q = UATm
Where Tm is an appropriate mean temperature difference.
3.1.2 The Overall Coefficient
o Heat is transferred
 From the hot fluid to the wall by convection.
 Through the wall by conduction, and
 From the wall to the cold fluid by convection.
o It is convenient to combine all the thermal resistances in the path of heat flow from
the hot fluid to the cold one into a single resistance R
o The total thermal resistance
Heat Transfer

To

Cold fluid
Wa

Ti
ll

Hot fluid
Ai Ao
hi ho

Ti To

Ri Rwall Ro

## Figure 3.2 The total thermal resistance

1 1
R =Ri +R WALL +R o = +R WALL +
hi Ai ho Ao
o From the equation :
T
Q = = UAT = Ui AiT = Uo Ao T
R
Canceling T reduces to
1 1 1 1 1
= = =R = +R WALL +
UA Ui Ai Uo Ao hi Ai ho Ao
3.1.3 Fouling Factor.
 The performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with times as a result of
accumulation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces.
 The layer of deposits represents additional resistance to heat transfer and causes
the rate of heat transfer in heat exchanger to decrease.
 The fouling factor Rf is the net effect of these accumulations on heat transfer.
 The total thermal resistance can be expressed as:
1 R R 1
R = + f,i +R WALL + f,o +
hi Ai Ai Ao ho Ao
Where Rf,I and Rf,o are the fouling factor at those surfaces.

## 3.2 CALCULATION SUMMARY

3.2.1 COLLECTED DATA
The following data have to be collected for using in the calculation.
 Inlet temperature from both hot and cold side
 Outlet temperature from both hot and cold side
 Flow rate from gas/condensate side :
o Flow indicator transmitter
o Flow control valve
 % valve opening
 Inlet and outlet pressure
3.2.2 CALCULATION METHOD
3.2.2.1 Heat duty Determination
 Specific heat capacity method
This method is used when there is no phase change during the fluid flow
through heat exchanger (i.e. no vaporization or condensation). As the heat transfer
is all sensible heat, the heat duty is calculated as follows:
.
Q = mCpdT
.
: m is the gas/condensate flow (kg/h.).
Cp is the mass specific heat capacity (kJ/kg-C.).
dT is the difference between inlet and outlet temperature.
 Heat curve method
This method is used when there is phase change during the fluid flow through
heat exchanger. Since the heat transfer is both sensible heat and latent heat, the
heat duty is calculated as follows:
Q = mC
& pdT +m&pL
: m&p is the gas/condensate flow which is vaporized or condensed. (kg/h.)
L is the heat using during a change of phase (kJ./kg)
Because the m&p cannot be measured, the simulation software is used for
estimate the heat curve (Heat curve is the relationship between heat duty and
temperature). If Inlet and outlet temperature are known, the heat duty will be
estimated by using heat curve.

This following table shows the type of method which uses to calculated the heat duty
for each exchanger.
Heat Exchanger Type Type of method
AWP-1 well fluid coolers Shell&Tube Heat Curve
Feed Compr. Disch. Coolers PCHE Heat Curve
fuel gas heater Shell&Tube Specific heat capacity
membrane preheater Shell&Tube Heat Curve
Memguard regeneration heaters Shell&Tube Heat Curve
NGL Extraction Pre-cooler PCHE Heat Curve
Gas/Gas/Liguid exchanger PCHE 3-stream exchanger
Sales Gas Compr. Disch. Cooler PCHE Specific heat capacity
Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger Shell&Tube Heat Curve
Stabilizer condenser Shell&Tube Heat Curve
Stabilizer condensate reboiler Shell&Tube Heat Curve
Stabilizer condensate cooler Shell&Tube Specific heat capacity
VRU comp. discharge cooler Shell&Tube Heat Curve
Table 3.1 The type of method for each heat exchanger

## 3.2.2.2 Flow Determination

This determination is used for the flow line that does not have the flow indicator
but has control valve. The flow rate can be calculated as follows:

q US.gallons 
min. = Cv SG.
P(psi.)

## : q is the flow rate through the control valve.

Cv is Flow coefficient
SG. Is specific gravity (1 for water).
∆P is pressure drop between inlet and outlet pressure.
3.2.2.3 Performance Determination
The chosen indicator, to monitor the performance of each exchanger, is UA
which can be calculated from:
Q
UA 
( FT )( LMTD)
: Q is heat duty (kW.)
LMTD is Log mean temperature difference
FT is correction factor
For each exchanger, the performance is defined by comparison the UA value
with the designed one.
 UACalc. 
% Performance    100%
 
And alerts will be launched when the performance is no more acceptable. Two
different levels are defined:
 The first alert is set up at 95% of designed value.
 The second at 90%.

3.3 CALCULATION
All of the calculations in this spreadsheet are based on the following assumptions:
 The heat exchangers are well insulated so there is no heat loss.
 Some heat exchangers are operated in parallel. It has been assumed that gas equally
flows through parallel exchangers.
 The gas/liquid flows to flare and to closed drain have been ignored.
 The 40% CO2 design case is used for Stabilizer condensate cooler.
 The Rich design case is used for Stabilizer feed/bottom exchangers, fuel gas heater
and VRU. Compressor Discharge cooler.
 The Most likely design case data is used for others.

## The following are the calculation method used in the spreadsheet.

3.3.1 HEAT DUTY DETERMINATION
3.3.1.1 Specific heat capacity method
The heat duty can be calculated from:
Tout .
Q =  mCp (T)dT
Tin
.
: m is the gas/condensate flow (kg/h.).
Cp is the mass specific heat capacity (kJ/kg-C.).
dT is the difference between inlet and outlet temperature.
Simulation Software is used for estimation of specific heat capacity curve by using
the process stream composition and pressure from the data sheet. Because they
cannot be fitted by a polynomial equation, the specific heat capacity curve has to be
separated into many linear equations. As the result, the heat duty should be calculated
from:
.  T1 T2 Tout 
Q = m   Cp(1) (T)dT +  Cp(2) (T)dT +...+  Cp(n+1) (T)dT 
T T1 Tn 
 in 
Only for the fuel gas heater (H-4210), the process stream composition does not
provided, so the specific heat capacity will be estimated as a linear equation by using
the value at inlet and outlet temperature from the data sheet.

## 3.3.1.2 Heat curve method

Since there is phase change during the fluid flow through exchanger or the specific
heat capacity method is caused too much error for some exchangers, the calculation
method has to be changed. Heat duty can be calculated by using heat curve which is
the relationship between heat duty and outlet temperature. For following heat
exchangers, the heat curves have already been provided, so the heat curve from data
sheet will be used.
 AWP-1 well fluid coolers
 Stabilizer condenser
 Stabilizer reboiler
 VRU comp. discharge cooler
Using Software to estimate the heat curves for others heat exchangers. The
process stream composition Simulation and pressure from the data sheet have been
used.
When using the heat curve, the inlet temperature has to be fixed for the reference.
But the inlet temperature is not constant, so another heat curve is used for estimate the
heat duty that required for changing the reference temperature to real inlet temperature
of the fluid with no pressure drop. The figure below will explain how to calculate the heat
duty. The left one is when the real inlet temperature is lower than reference and the right
one is when the real inlet temperature is higher than reference.

Figure 3.3 this figure show how to calculate the heat duty when the inlet temperature is changed.

## So the heat duty can be calculated by this equation:

.
Q(heatduty) = m( Qin - Qout )

The occurred errors cannot be avoided since the specific heat capacity or heat
curve depend on a lot of parameters that are not taken in account (pressure, process
stream composition,…).
3.3.1.3 3-stream exchanger method for GAS/GAS/LIQUID EXCHANGER
For the Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger, the calculation is different. From the data
sheet, this exchanger was calculated by separate into 2 exchangers (Gas/Gas
Section and Gas/Liquid Section).

## Figure 3.4 Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger

So heat curves have to be estimated for overall heat duty (calculate from Gas (Hot
Side) inlet and outlet temperature) and Gas/Liquid Section heat duty (calculate from
Liquid (Cold side) inlet and outlet temperature). Then the Gas/Gas section heat duty
can be calculated from:
QGas/Gas = Qoverall - QGas/Liquid
After that the outlet temperature of the hot gas flow from the Gas/Gas section
exchanger will be able to calculate.
3.3.2 FLOW DETERMINATION
To determine the flow for flowline that does not have the flow indicator but has control
valve. The flow rate can be calculated as follows:

 min. = Cv SG.
P(psi.)
q US.gallons

m3
q
h.  = Cv
m3 P(bar) *14.50377(psi/bar) min. 1
* 60 *
SG. h. 264.1721 US.gallons
: q is the flow rate through the control valve.
Cv is Flow coefficient which can be calculated from the relationship between %Cv
and %opening valve from datasheet.
SG. Is specific gravity (1 for water).
∆P is pressure drop between inlet and outlet pressure.
3.3.3 PERFORMANCE MONITORING
The chosen indicator, to monitor the performance of each exchanger, is UA which can
be calculated from:
Q
UA 
( FT )( LMTD)
: Q is heat duty (kW.)
LMTD is Log mean temperature difference, can be calculated from input data. (See
Appendix 6.5)
Correction factor (FT) for shell and tube heat exchangers can be calculated (See
Appendix 6.5) but for the printed circuit heat exchangers are set to be constant at the
designed value.

For each exchanger, the performance is defined by comparison the UA value with the
designed one.
 UACalc. 
% Performance    100%
 
And alerts will be launched when the performance is no more acceptable. Two different
levels are defined:
 The first alert is set up at 95% of designed value.
 The second at 90%.
4.1 STRUCTURE
The spreadsheet is composed of 4 worksheets and 17 modules (Visual Basics codes) within
the same file:
Worksheets:
 The "User Guide", is the instruction to use this program
 The "Input DATA" sheet is the sheet where data are collected. This sheet is protected to
avoid accidentally TAG No. data deletion.
 The "Current status" sheet is the calculation sheet for exchanger performance. All
designed, collected and calculated data are given.
 The "Report" sheet is used for tracing the history of the heat exchangers performance
and theirs status
Modules:
 The “Allduty_ GasGasLiquid” module is used for calculate the overall heat duty for
Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger.
 The “heatduty_GasLiquidSection” module is used for calculate the Gas/Liquid section
heat duty.
 The “FindTemp2” module is iterating function to find the outlet temperature from the
Gas/Gas section exchanger.
 The “AWP1Cooler” module is used for calculate the AWP-1 well fluid cooler heat duty.
 The “FeedBottomHeatX” module is used for calculate the stabilizer feed/bottom
exchanger heat duty.
 The “FeedGasDiscCooler” module is used for calculate the feed gas compressor
discharge cooler heat duty.
 The “LMTD_CorrectionFactor” module is used for calculate the log mean temperature
difference and correction factor for shell and tube heat exchanger.
 The “Membranepreheater” module is used for calculate the membrane preheater heat
duty.
 The “MemguardRegenerationheater” module is used for calculate the memguard
regeneration heater heat duty.
 The “NGL_precooler” module is used for calculate the NGL precooler heat duty.
 The “SalesGasDiscCooler” module is used for calculate the sales gas compressor
discharge cooler heat duty.
 The “StabilizerCondenser” module is used for calculate the stabilizer condenser heat
duty.
 The “StabilizerCondyCooler” module is used for calculate the stabilizer condensate
cooler heat duty.
 The “StabilizerReboiler” module is used for calculate the stabilizer reboiler heat duty.
 The “VRU” module is used for calculate the VRU. Compressor discharge cooler heat
duty.
 The “AllFunction” module includes the function about checking status and copying the
calculated data to the Report sheet.
 The “FlowCv” module is used for calculated the flow rate.

On the “Current status” and “Report” sheet, the performance indicators are shown for all the
heat exchangers.
- If the performance indicator is red (by default, < 90% of the design value, the
exchanger must be examined in more detail and cleaning may be necessary.
- If the performance indicator is yellow (by default, between 90 and 95 % of the design
value), the pressure drop measurements should be carried out on the exchanger and
if the value is higher than the designed one the exchanger has to be examined in more
detail and cleaning maybe necessary.
If the current alerts levels seem to be inappropriate, they can be changed.

## 4.3 REFERENCE DATA UPDATE

On the “Input DATA” sheet, new alerts level can be set up. They can be set up different for
each exchanger. This change does not need to recalculate all the previous data. These levels
should be changed if the alert seems to be too sensitive. (i.e. there is an alert but the exchanger
is still clean.)
On the same sheet (column o), fluid densities from data sheet for each flow indicator can be
changed if they seem inaccurate. No need to recalculate previous data. But this sheet is
protected in normally use, the password for unprotect the sheet is “1234”.
In case of changing the control valve, the relationship between %Cv and % opening valve
has to recalculate. The module which is used to calculate for that control valve has to rewrite.
In case of changing in process stream composition or operational condition of exchanger,
the specific heat capacity curve or heat curve has to recalculate. The module which is used to
calculate for that exchanger has to rewrite and also the density of the fluid flow has to change.
5. RECOMMENDATION
 Because the real composition is different from the design, the calculated heat duty is not
correct. However, this spreadsheet can be used as the template for improving when the new
composition can be analyzed.
After that the specific heat capacity and heat curve have to be recalculated and the
modules for heat duty determination have to be rewritten.
 Because of the testing data shows the temperature crossing in heat exchanger, the
instrument calibration should be done especially with temperature gauges
6. REFERENCES
 Bowman, R.A., Mueller, A.C., and Nagle, W.M., Mean Temperature Difference In Design
Trans of ASME, May 1940, pp283-293
 Wales, R.E., Mean Temperature Difference In Heat Exchangers, Chemical Engineering, Feb
23, 1981, pp 79-81
 Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman and Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer ,sixth
Edition
 Data sheets of heat exchangers and control valve from Arthit database.
7. APPENDIX
7.1 SPCIFIC HEAT CAPACITY CURVES
The followings data is estimated from Simulation Software (Hysys 3.1).
7.1.1Specific Heat Capacity curve for Sales Gas Discharge Coolers

## Specific Heat Capacity for Sales Gas Discharge Coolers

3.2

3
Cp (kJ/kg-˚C.)

2.8

2.6
2.4

2.2

2
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.1 Specific Heat Capacity curve for Sales Gas Discharge Coolers

The following equations are used for calculation the specific heat capacity:
Equation: specific heat(kJ/kg°C) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 57 -0.0168 3.7319
57-71.167 -0.0118 3.4483
71.167-96.667 -0.0071 3.1068
96.667-113.667 -0.0039 2.804
higher than 113.667 -0.0025 2.6484

## Specific Heat Capacity for Stabilizer Condensate Cooler

2.7
2.6
2.5
Cp (kJ/kg-˚C.)

2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure7.2 Specific Heat Capacity curve for Stabilizer Condensate Cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the specific heat capacity:
Equation: specific heat(kJ/kg°C) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 50 0.0051 1.9198
50-62 0.0052 1.9169
62-80 0.0053 1.9113
80-101 0.0054 1.8976
101-113 0.0057 1.8765
higher than 113 0.0059 1.8482

## 7.2 HEAT CURVES

The followings data is estimated from Simulation Software (Hysys 3.1).
7.2.1Feed Gas Compressed Discharge Coolers
- Heat curve for Qout
Heat curve(Qout) for Feed Gas Compr. Discharge Cooler

35000
30000
25000
20000
Q (kJ)

15000
10000
5000
0
-5000 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170
Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.3 Heat curve (Qout) for Feed Gas Compr, Discharge Cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 22.5 -400 37083
22.5-25 -388.89 36833
25-27.5 -371.11 36389
27.5-30 -356.67 35992
30-32.5 -342.22 35558
32.5-35 -306.67 34403
35-37.5 -290 33819
37.5-40 -285.56 33653
40-42.5 -282.22 33519
42.5-45 -271.11 33047
45-60 -252.26 32198
60-70 -241.39 31539
70-100 -232.22 30879
100-130 -226.73 30344
130-140 -215.46 28886
higher than140 -226.86 30479

## - Heat curve for Qin

Heat curve(Qin) for Feed Gas Compr. Discharge Cooler

9000

7000

5000
Q (kJ)

3000

1000

## -1000 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

-3000
Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.4 Heat curve (Qin) for Feed Gas Compr. Discharge Cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
100-140 -226.87 30423

## 7.2.2 Membrane Preheater

- Heat curve for Qout

## Heat curve(Qout) for Membrane Preheater

10000

8000

6000
Q (kJ)

4000

2000

0
10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150
-2000
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.5 Heat curve (Qout) for Membrane preheater

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 29 134.11 -4429.8
29-34 113.44 -3825.5
34-41.5 100.87 -3403.2
41.5-51.5 95.886 -3195.6
51.5-74 90.462 -2909.2
74-104 86.443 -2613.8
higher than 104 85.086 -2476.9

## Heat curve(Qin) for Membrane Preheater

1000

500

0
15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Q (kJ)

-500

-1000

-1500

-2000
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.6 Heat curve (Qin) for Membrane preheater

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 23 147.26 -4767.6
23-27 138.04 -4554.5
27-31 128.52 -4297.4
31-36 104.51 -3554.4
higher than 36 100.97 -3427.7

## 7.2.3 Memguard Regeneration Heater

- Heat curve for Qout
Heat curve(Qout) for M emquard Regeneration Heater

10000

8000

6000
Q (kJ)

4000

2000

0
10 60 110 160 210 260 310
-2000
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.7 Heat curve (Qout) for Memquard Regeneration Heater

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 35 38.202 -1473.1
35-45 35.002 -1361
45-65 32.612 -1251.2
65-85 30.978 -1146.6
85-105 30.234 -1084.1
105-197.5 30.118 -1076.6
197.5-242.5 31.237 -1293.1
242.5-275 32.151 -1513.1
higher than275 32.883 -1713.7

## - Heat curve for Qin

Heat curve(Qin) for M emquard Regeneration Heater

400
300
200
100
Q (kJ)

0
-100 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

-200
-300
-400
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.8 Heat curve (Qin) for Memquard Regeneration Heater

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 31 43.505 -1639.3
31-34 37.065 -1439.5
34-39 35.897 -1399.6
39-44 34.723 -1353.8
higher than 44 33.712 -1309.3

## 7.2.4 NGL Extraction Pre-cooler

- Heat curve for Qout

## Heat curve(Qout) for NGL Extraction Pre-cooler

20000

15000

10000
Q (kJ)

5000

0
15 25 35 45 55 65
-5000
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.9 Heat curve (Qout) for NGL Extraction Pre-cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 22.5 -592.62 26290
22.5-25 -579.31 25990
25-27.5 -565.47 25644
27.5-30 -551.16 25251
30-32.5 -536.52 24812
32.5-35 -521.77 24332
35-37.5 -507.12 23819
37.5-40 -492.69 23278
40-42.5 -432.71 20879
42.5-52.5 -380.96 18670
higher than 52.5 -369.76 18088

## Heat curve(Qin) for NGL Extraction Pre-cooler

7500
5500

3500
1500
Q (kJ)

-500
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
-2500

-4500
-6500
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.10 Heat curve (Qin) for NGL Extraction Pre-cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 40 -501.58 23794
40-42.5 -431.46 20995
42.5-45 -388.93 19187
45-50 -382.61 18902
50-55 -375.57 18550
55-60 -369.86 18236
higher than 60 -365.22 17958
7.2.5 Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger
7.2.5.1 Gas (hot side)
- Heat curve for Qout with pressure drop 0.7 bar.

## Heat curve(Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Gas hot side)

pressure drop 0.7 bar
12000
10000
8000
Q (kJ)

6000
4000
2000
0
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.11 Heat curve (Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Gas hot side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 17 -617.56 20992
17-19 -607.66 20824
19-21 -597.54 20632
21-23 -587.12 20413
23-25 -576.37 20166
25-27 -565.28 19888
27-29 -553.87 19580
29-31 -542.21 19242
31-33 -530.41 18876
higher than 33 -518.59 18486

## - Heat curve for Qout with pressure drop 1.4 bar.

Heat curve(Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Gas hot side)
pressure drop 1.4 bar
15000

10000
Q (kJ)

5000

0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
-5000
Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.12 Heat curve (Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Gas hot side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 15 -632.93 21008
15-17 -615.95 20761
17-19 -606.07 20593
19-21 -595.96 20400
21-23 -585.53 20181
23-26 -572 19868
26-28 -557.96 19505
28-31 -543.45 19097
31-33 -528.7 18641
33-35 -516.86 18251
35-38 -502.24 17737
38-41 -484.98 17081
41-42 -414.42 14191
higher than 42 -383.35 12885

## - Heat curve for Qin

Heat curve(Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Gas hot side)

9500
7500
5500
3500
Q (kJ)

1500
-500
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
-2500
-4500
-6500
Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.13 Heat curve (Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Gas hot side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 23 -591.31 20702
23-25 -577.96 20397
25-28 -564.06 20047
28-30 -549.72 19648
30-32 -538 19296
32-34 -526.19 18918
34-36 -514.42 18518
36-39 -499.88 17993
39-41 -485.48 17433
41-42 -404.37 14108
42-46 -386.49 13356
higher than 46 -380.01 13058

## 7.2.5.2 Liquid (Cold side)

- Heat curve for Qout
Heat curve(Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Liquid side)

4000
3500
3000
2500
Q (kJ)

2000
1500
1000
500
0
-15 -5 -500 5 15 25 35
Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.14 Heat curve (Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Liquid side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than (-5) 79.9 450.74
(-5)-2 82.175 461.27
2.0-8.0 85.093 455.69
8.0-14.0 88.181 430.87
14.0-19.0 91.249 388.32
19-24 94.128 333.61
24-27 96.405 279.64
higher than 27 98.044 235.42

## Heat curve(Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Liquid side)

2000

1500

1000
Q (kJ)

500

0
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-500
Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.15 Heat curve (Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Liquid side)
The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than (-4) 79.579 389.88
(-)4.0-3 81.971 398.89
3.0-9.0 84.825 390.59
higher than 9 87.845 363.28

## 7.2.6 Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger

- Heat curve for Qout

11000
9000

7000
5000
Q (kJ)

3000
1000

## -1000 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210

-3000
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.16 Heat curve (Qout) for Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 100 -68.726 14221
100-130 -74.4 14781
130-155 -79.3 15415
155-188 -85.702 16420
188-188.25 -155.89 29602
188.25-188.5 -170.75 32399
higher than 188.5 -168.79 32027

## - Heat curve for Qin

Heat curve(Qin) for Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger

3800
2800

1800
800
Q (kJ)

-200
150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220
-1200

-2200
-3200
Tem perature (˚C.)

## Figure 7.17 Heat curve (Qin) for Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 175 -84.384 16210
175-191.3 -88.323 16901
191.3-191.4 -129.5 24773
191.4-191.8 -170.66 32652
higher than191.8 -169.29 32387

## 7.3 HEAT DUTY EQUATIONS

The followings equations are used for calculated the heat duty from heat curves that are
provided in data sheet.
7.3.1 AWP-1 well fluid coolers
The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 43.4 -67.432 8760.6
43.4-50.8 -69.189 8836.8
50.8-58.2 -71.622 8960.4
58.2-65.6 -75.595 9133.4
65.6-73 -78.243 9372.8
73-80.4 -83.108 9727.9
80.4-87.8 -89.054 10206
87.8-95.2 -96.892 10894
95.2-102.6 -106.7 11828
higher than 102.6 -118.97 13087
7.3.2 Stabilizer condenser
The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than56.8 -188.89 13769
56.8-58.6 -194.44 14084
58.6-60.4 -205.56 14736
60.4-62.3 -200 14400
62.3-65.9 -211.11 15092
65.9-67.7 -205.56 14726
67.7-69.5 -194.44 13974
69.5-71.4 -157.89 11434
73.2-71.4 -88.889 6506.7
higher than 73.2 -42 3074.4

## 7.3.3 Stabilizer reboiler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 166.1 190.7100 -31010
166.1-168.3 434.8300 -71386
168.3-171.1 503.5700 -82956
171.1-174 476.5500 -78333
174-176.8 484.2900 -79679
176.8-179.6 474.2900 -77911
179.6-182.5 447.2400 -73054
185.2-185.3 450.3600 -73622
185.3-188.2 421.0300 -68189
higher than188.2 419.6400 -67927

## 7.3.4 VRU comp. discharge cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:
Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c
Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)
lower than 52.4 -80 5417
52.4-55.9 -81.429 5491.9
55.9-59.4 -80 5412
59.4-62.9 -55.714 3969.4
higher than 62.9 -22.143 1856.7

## 7.4 CONTROL VALVE

The following equations are used for calculation the flow coefficient for FCV 1883:
Equation: %Cv = (m x %Stroke) + c
%Stroke slope (m) y-intercept(c)
0-30 0.215 2.4
30-35 0.4 -3
35-40 0.6 -10
40-45 1.2 -34
45-50 1.4 -43
50-100 1.4343 -43.905

## 7.5 LOG MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE AND CORRECTION FACTOR

These equations are used for LMTD and Correction factor calculation and these are used
parameters.
T1 is the shell inlet temperature.
T2 is the shell outlet temperature.
t1 is the tube inlet temperature.
t2 is the tube outlet temperature.
N is the number of series shells.
Auxiliary Variables :
(t2 - t1)
P=
(T1- t1)
(T1- T2)
R=
(t2 - t1)
 For the case when R is not equal to 1.
LMTD Definition:
(T1- t2) - (T2 - t1)
LMTD =
 (T1- t2) 
ln 
 (T2 - t1) 

## LMTA Correction Factor Formula:

1/N
1- P *R 
1-  
P' =  1- P  1/N
1- P *R 
R - 
 1- P 
(R 2 +1)0.5  (1- P') 
* ln  
(R - 1)  (1- P' *R) 
CT =
2 2 0.5 
 P' - 1- R +(R +1) 
ln  
2
 - 1- R - (R 2 +1)0.5 
 P' 

LMTD Definition:
LMTD = (T1- t2)

P
P' =
P +N- P *N

(20.5 *P')
CT = (1- P')
2 0.5 
 P' - 2 + 2 
ln  
2
 - 2 - 20.5 
 P' 