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Student training report - theory of heat exchanger

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1. MANAGEMENT SUMMARY

Heat exchangers are equipments that transfer heat from one medium to another. The proper

design, operating, and maintenance of heat exchanger will make process energy efficient, which

minimize energy loss and energy cost. Heat exchanger performance can deteriorate with time

and other interferences such as fouling, scaling, etc. It is necessary to access periodically the

heat exchanger performance in order to maintain the high efficiency level.

The developed spreadsheet comprises certain proven techniques of monitoring the

performance oh heat exchangers, coolers, condenser from the observed operating data of the

equipment. The heat exchanger performance will be calculated by the developed spreadsheet,

and the alert indicator will be reported to identify any low efficiency heat exchanger.

2. PURPOSE

The performance monitoring spreadsheet will be used to determine the overall heat transfer

coefficient for assessing the performance of heat exchanger. Any deviation form the design heat

transfer coefficient will indicate the occurrence of fouling and will imply for the requirement for

heat exchanger cleaning.

3. CALCULATION BACKGROUND

3.1 HEAT TRANSFER PRINCIPLE

3.1.1 Overall energy balances

To predict the performance of a heat exchanger, it is essential to relate the total heat

transfer rate to quantities such as the inlet and outlet fluid temperature, the overall heat transfer

coefficient, and the total surface area for heat transfer. Two such relations may readily be

obtained by applying overall energy balances to the hot and cold fluids, as shown in Figure 3.1

In particular, if q is the total rate of heat transfer between the hot and cold fluids and there is

negligible heat transfer between the exchanger and its surroundings, application of the steady

flow energy equation, gives

q = m&h (i h,i-i h,o) and q = m&c (i c,i-i c,o)

: i is the fluid enthalpy

The subscript h and c refer to the hot and cold fluids.

The subscript i and o designate the fluid inlet and outlet conditions.

Such an expression would be an extension of Newton’s law of cooling, with the overall heat

transfer coefficient (U) used in place of the single convection coefficient (h). However, since

T varies with the position in the heat exchanger, it is necessary to work with a rate equation of

the form

q = UATm

Where Tm is an appropriate mean temperature difference.

3.1.2 The Overall Coefficient

o Heat is transferred

From the hot fluid to the wall by convection.

Through the wall by conduction, and

From the wall to the cold fluid by convection.

o It is convenient to combine all the thermal resistances in the path of heat flow from

the hot fluid to the cold one into a single resistance R

o The total thermal resistance

Heat Transfer

To

Cold fluid

Wa

Ti

ll

Hot fluid

Ai Ao

hi ho

Ti To

Ri Rwall Ro

1 1

R =Ri +R WALL +R o = +R WALL +

hi Ai ho Ao

o From the equation :

T

Q = = UAT = Ui AiT = Uo Ao T

R

Canceling T reduces to

1 1 1 1 1

= = =R = +R WALL +

UA Ui Ai Uo Ao hi Ai ho Ao

3.1.3 Fouling Factor.

The performance of heat exchangers usually deteriorates with times as a result of

accumulation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces.

The layer of deposits represents additional resistance to heat transfer and causes

the rate of heat transfer in heat exchanger to decrease.

The fouling factor Rf is the net effect of these accumulations on heat transfer.

The total thermal resistance can be expressed as:

1 R R 1

R = + f,i +R WALL + f,o +

hi Ai Ai Ao ho Ao

Where Rf,I and Rf,o are the fouling factor at those surfaces.

3.2.1 COLLECTED DATA

The following data have to be collected for using in the calculation.

Inlet temperature from both hot and cold side

Outlet temperature from both hot and cold side

Flow rate from gas/condensate side :

o Flow indicator transmitter

o Flow control valve

% valve opening

Inlet and outlet pressure

3.2.2 CALCULATION METHOD

3.2.2.1 Heat duty Determination

Specific heat capacity method

This method is used when there is no phase change during the fluid flow

through heat exchanger (i.e. no vaporization or condensation). As the heat transfer

is all sensible heat, the heat duty is calculated as follows:

.

Q = mCpdT

.

: m is the gas/condensate flow (kg/h.).

Cp is the mass specific heat capacity (kJ/kg-C.).

dT is the difference between inlet and outlet temperature.

Heat curve method

This method is used when there is phase change during the fluid flow through

heat exchanger. Since the heat transfer is both sensible heat and latent heat, the

heat duty is calculated as follows:

Q = mC

& pdT +m&pL

: m&p is the gas/condensate flow which is vaporized or condensed. (kg/h.)

L is the heat using during a change of phase (kJ./kg)

Because the m&p cannot be measured, the simulation software is used for

estimate the heat curve (Heat curve is the relationship between heat duty and

temperature). If Inlet and outlet temperature are known, the heat duty will be

estimated by using heat curve.

This following table shows the type of method which uses to calculated the heat duty

for each exchanger.

Heat Exchanger Type Type of method

AWP-1 well fluid coolers Shell&Tube Heat Curve

Feed Compr. Disch. Coolers PCHE Heat Curve

fuel gas heater Shell&Tube Specific heat capacity

membrane preheater Shell&Tube Heat Curve

Memguard regeneration heaters Shell&Tube Heat Curve

NGL Extraction Pre-cooler PCHE Heat Curve

Gas/Gas/Liguid exchanger PCHE 3-stream exchanger

Sales Gas Compr. Disch. Cooler PCHE Specific heat capacity

Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger Shell&Tube Heat Curve

Stabilizer condenser Shell&Tube Heat Curve

Stabilizer condensate reboiler Shell&Tube Heat Curve

Stabilizer condensate cooler Shell&Tube Specific heat capacity

VRU comp. discharge cooler Shell&Tube Heat Curve

Table 3.1 The type of method for each heat exchanger

This determination is used for the flow line that does not have the flow indicator

but has control valve. The flow rate can be calculated as follows:

q US.gallons

min. = Cv SG.

P(psi.)

Cv is Flow coefficient

SG. Is specific gravity (1 for water).

∆P is pressure drop between inlet and outlet pressure.

3.2.2.3 Performance Determination

The chosen indicator, to monitor the performance of each exchanger, is UA

which can be calculated from:

Q

UA

( FT )( LMTD)

: Q is heat duty (kW.)

LMTD is Log mean temperature difference

FT is correction factor

For each exchanger, the performance is defined by comparison the UA value

with the designed one.

UACalc.

% Performance 100%

UADesigned

And alerts will be launched when the performance is no more acceptable. Two

different levels are defined:

The first alert is set up at 95% of designed value.

The second at 90%.

3.3 CALCULATION

All of the calculations in this spreadsheet are based on the following assumptions:

The heat exchangers are well insulated so there is no heat loss.

Some heat exchangers are operated in parallel. It has been assumed that gas equally

flows through parallel exchangers.

The gas/liquid flows to flare and to closed drain have been ignored.

The 40% CO2 design case is used for Stabilizer condensate cooler.

The Rich design case is used for Stabilizer feed/bottom exchangers, fuel gas heater

and VRU. Compressor Discharge cooler.

The Most likely design case data is used for others.

3.3.1 HEAT DUTY DETERMINATION

3.3.1.1 Specific heat capacity method

The heat duty can be calculated from:

Tout .

Q = mCp (T)dT

Tin

.

: m is the gas/condensate flow (kg/h.).

Cp is the mass specific heat capacity (kJ/kg-C.).

dT is the difference between inlet and outlet temperature.

Simulation Software is used for estimation of specific heat capacity curve by using

the process stream composition and pressure from the data sheet. Because they

cannot be fitted by a polynomial equation, the specific heat capacity curve has to be

separated into many linear equations. As the result, the heat duty should be calculated

from:

. T1 T2 Tout

Q = m Cp(1) (T)dT + Cp(2) (T)dT +...+ Cp(n+1) (T)dT

T T1 Tn

in

Only for the fuel gas heater (H-4210), the process stream composition does not

provided, so the specific heat capacity will be estimated as a linear equation by using

the value at inlet and outlet temperature from the data sheet.

Since there is phase change during the fluid flow through exchanger or the specific

heat capacity method is caused too much error for some exchangers, the calculation

method has to be changed. Heat duty can be calculated by using heat curve which is

the relationship between heat duty and outlet temperature. For following heat

exchangers, the heat curves have already been provided, so the heat curve from data

sheet will be used.

AWP-1 well fluid coolers

Stabilizer condenser

Stabilizer reboiler

VRU comp. discharge cooler

Using Software to estimate the heat curves for others heat exchangers. The

process stream composition Simulation and pressure from the data sheet have been

used.

When using the heat curve, the inlet temperature has to be fixed for the reference.

But the inlet temperature is not constant, so another heat curve is used for estimate the

heat duty that required for changing the reference temperature to real inlet temperature

of the fluid with no pressure drop. The figure below will explain how to calculate the heat

duty. The left one is when the real inlet temperature is lower than reference and the right

one is when the real inlet temperature is higher than reference.

Figure 3.3 this figure show how to calculate the heat duty when the inlet temperature is changed.

.

Q(heatduty) = m( Qin - Qout )

The occurred errors cannot be avoided since the specific heat capacity or heat

curve depend on a lot of parameters that are not taken in account (pressure, process

stream composition,…).

3.3.1.3 3-stream exchanger method for GAS/GAS/LIQUID EXCHANGER

For the Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger, the calculation is different. From the data

sheet, this exchanger was calculated by separate into 2 exchangers (Gas/Gas

Section and Gas/Liquid Section).

So heat curves have to be estimated for overall heat duty (calculate from Gas (Hot

Side) inlet and outlet temperature) and Gas/Liquid Section heat duty (calculate from

Liquid (Cold side) inlet and outlet temperature). Then the Gas/Gas section heat duty

can be calculated from:

QGas/Gas = Qoverall - QGas/Liquid

After that the outlet temperature of the hot gas flow from the Gas/Gas section

exchanger will be able to calculate.

3.3.2 FLOW DETERMINATION

To determine the flow for flowline that does not have the flow indicator but has control

valve. The flow rate can be calculated as follows:

min. = Cv SG.

P(psi.)

q US.gallons

m3

q

h. = Cv

m3 P(bar) *14.50377(psi/bar) min. 1

* 60 *

SG. h. 264.1721 US.gallons

: q is the flow rate through the control valve.

Cv is Flow coefficient which can be calculated from the relationship between %Cv

and %opening valve from datasheet.

SG. Is specific gravity (1 for water).

∆P is pressure drop between inlet and outlet pressure.

3.3.3 PERFORMANCE MONITORING

The chosen indicator, to monitor the performance of each exchanger, is UA which can

be calculated from:

Q

UA

( FT )( LMTD)

: Q is heat duty (kW.)

LMTD is Log mean temperature difference, can be calculated from input data. (See

Appendix 6.5)

Correction factor (FT) for shell and tube heat exchangers can be calculated (See

Appendix 6.5) but for the printed circuit heat exchangers are set to be constant at the

designed value.

For each exchanger, the performance is defined by comparison the UA value with the

designed one.

UACalc.

% Performance 100%

UADesigned

And alerts will be launched when the performance is no more acceptable. Two different

levels are defined:

The first alert is set up at 95% of designed value.

The second at 90%.

4. SPREADSHEET STRUCTURE

4.1 STRUCTURE

The spreadsheet is composed of 4 worksheets and 17 modules (Visual Basics codes) within

the same file:

Worksheets:

The "User Guide", is the instruction to use this program

The "Input DATA" sheet is the sheet where data are collected. This sheet is protected to

avoid accidentally TAG No. data deletion.

The "Current status" sheet is the calculation sheet for exchanger performance. All

designed, collected and calculated data are given.

The "Report" sheet is used for tracing the history of the heat exchangers performance

and theirs status

Modules:

The “Allduty_ GasGasLiquid” module is used for calculate the overall heat duty for

Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger.

The “heatduty_GasLiquidSection” module is used for calculate the Gas/Liquid section

heat duty.

The “FindTemp2” module is iterating function to find the outlet temperature from the

Gas/Gas section exchanger.

The “AWP1Cooler” module is used for calculate the AWP-1 well fluid cooler heat duty.

The “FeedBottomHeatX” module is used for calculate the stabilizer feed/bottom

exchanger heat duty.

The “FeedGasDiscCooler” module is used for calculate the feed gas compressor

discharge cooler heat duty.

The “LMTD_CorrectionFactor” module is used for calculate the log mean temperature

difference and correction factor for shell and tube heat exchanger.

The “Membranepreheater” module is used for calculate the membrane preheater heat

duty.

The “MemguardRegenerationheater” module is used for calculate the memguard

regeneration heater heat duty.

The “NGL_precooler” module is used for calculate the NGL precooler heat duty.

The “SalesGasDiscCooler” module is used for calculate the sales gas compressor

discharge cooler heat duty.

The “StabilizerCondenser” module is used for calculate the stabilizer condenser heat

duty.

The “StabilizerCondyCooler” module is used for calculate the stabilizer condensate

cooler heat duty.

The “StabilizerReboiler” module is used for calculate the stabilizer reboiler heat duty.

The “VRU” module is used for calculate the VRU. Compressor discharge cooler heat

duty.

The “AllFunction” module includes the function about checking status and copying the

calculated data to the Report sheet.

The “FlowCv” module is used for calculated the flow rate.

In normal use, no access to these modules is required.

On the “Current status” and “Report” sheet, the performance indicators are shown for all the

heat exchangers.

- If the performance indicator is red (by default, < 90% of the design value, the

exchanger must be examined in more detail and cleaning may be necessary.

- If the performance indicator is yellow (by default, between 90 and 95 % of the design

value), the pressure drop measurements should be carried out on the exchanger and

if the value is higher than the designed one the exchanger has to be examined in more

detail and cleaning maybe necessary.

If the current alerts levels seem to be inappropriate, they can be changed.

On the “Input DATA” sheet, new alerts level can be set up. They can be set up different for

each exchanger. This change does not need to recalculate all the previous data. These levels

should be changed if the alert seems to be too sensitive. (i.e. there is an alert but the exchanger

is still clean.)

On the same sheet (column o), fluid densities from data sheet for each flow indicator can be

changed if they seem inaccurate. No need to recalculate previous data. But this sheet is

protected in normally use, the password for unprotect the sheet is “1234”.

In case of changing the control valve, the relationship between %Cv and % opening valve

has to recalculate. The module which is used to calculate for that control valve has to rewrite.

In case of changing in process stream composition or operational condition of exchanger,

the specific heat capacity curve or heat curve has to recalculate. The module which is used to

calculate for that exchanger has to rewrite and also the density of the fluid flow has to change.

5. RECOMMENDATION

Because the real composition is different from the design, the calculated heat duty is not

correct. However, this spreadsheet can be used as the template for improving when the new

composition can be analyzed.

After that the specific heat capacity and heat curve have to be recalculated and the

modules for heat duty determination have to be rewritten.

Because of the testing data shows the temperature crossing in heat exchanger, the

instrument calibration should be done especially with temperature gauges

6. REFERENCES

Bowman, R.A., Mueller, A.C., and Nagle, W.M., Mean Temperature Difference In Design

Trans of ASME, May 1940, pp283-293

Wales, R.E., Mean Temperature Difference In Heat Exchangers, Chemical Engineering, Feb

23, 1981, pp 79-81

Incropera, DeWitt, Bergman and Lavine, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer ,sixth

Edition

Data sheets of heat exchangers and control valve from Arthit database.

7. APPENDIX

7.1 SPCIFIC HEAT CAPACITY CURVES

The followings data is estimated from Simulation Software (Hysys 3.1).

7.1.1Specific Heat Capacity curve for Sales Gas Discharge Coolers

3.2

3

Cp (kJ/kg-˚C.)

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.1 Specific Heat Capacity curve for Sales Gas Discharge Coolers

The following equations are used for calculation the specific heat capacity:

Equation: specific heat(kJ/kg°C) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 57 -0.0168 3.7319

57-71.167 -0.0118 3.4483

71.167-96.667 -0.0071 3.1068

96.667-113.667 -0.0039 2.804

higher than 113.667 -0.0025 2.6484

2.7

2.6

2.5

Cp (kJ/kg-˚C.)

2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the specific heat capacity:

Equation: specific heat(kJ/kg°C) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 50 0.0051 1.9198

50-62 0.0052 1.9169

62-80 0.0053 1.9113

80-101 0.0054 1.8976

101-113 0.0057 1.8765

higher than 113 0.0059 1.8482

The followings data is estimated from Simulation Software (Hysys 3.1).

7.2.1Feed Gas Compressed Discharge Coolers

- Heat curve for Qout

Heat curve(Qout) for Feed Gas Compr. Discharge Cooler

35000

30000

25000

20000

Q (kJ)

15000

10000

5000

0

-5000 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170

Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.3 Heat curve (Qout) for Feed Gas Compr, Discharge Cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 22.5 -400 37083

22.5-25 -388.89 36833

25-27.5 -371.11 36389

27.5-30 -356.67 35992

30-32.5 -342.22 35558

32.5-35 -306.67 34403

35-37.5 -290 33819

37.5-40 -285.56 33653

40-42.5 -282.22 33519

42.5-45 -271.11 33047

45-60 -252.26 32198

60-70 -241.39 31539

70-100 -232.22 30879

100-130 -226.73 30344

130-140 -215.46 28886

higher than140 -226.86 30479

Heat curve(Qin) for Feed Gas Compr. Discharge Cooler

9000

7000

5000

Q (kJ)

3000

1000

-3000

Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.4 Heat curve (Qin) for Feed Gas Compr. Discharge Cooler

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

100-140 -226.87 30423

- Heat curve for Qout

10000

8000

6000

Q (kJ)

4000

2000

0

10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150

-2000

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 29 134.11 -4429.8

29-34 113.44 -3825.5

34-41.5 100.87 -3403.2

41.5-51.5 95.886 -3195.6

51.5-74 90.462 -2909.2

74-104 86.443 -2613.8

higher than 104 85.086 -2476.9

1000

500

0

15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Q (kJ)

-500

-1000

-1500

-2000

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 23 147.26 -4767.6

23-27 138.04 -4554.5

27-31 128.52 -4297.4

31-36 104.51 -3554.4

higher than 36 100.97 -3427.7

- Heat curve for Qout

Heat curve(Qout) for M emquard Regeneration Heater

10000

8000

6000

Q (kJ)

4000

2000

0

10 60 110 160 210 260 310

-2000

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 35 38.202 -1473.1

35-45 35.002 -1361

45-65 32.612 -1251.2

65-85 30.978 -1146.6

85-105 30.234 -1084.1

105-197.5 30.118 -1076.6

197.5-242.5 31.237 -1293.1

242.5-275 32.151 -1513.1

higher than275 32.883 -1713.7

Heat curve(Qin) for M emquard Regeneration Heater

400

300

200

100

Q (kJ)

0

-100 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

-200

-300

-400

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 31 43.505 -1639.3

31-34 37.065 -1439.5

34-39 35.897 -1399.6

39-44 34.723 -1353.8

higher than 44 33.712 -1309.3

- Heat curve for Qout

20000

15000

10000

Q (kJ)

5000

0

15 25 35 45 55 65

-5000

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 22.5 -592.62 26290

22.5-25 -579.31 25990

25-27.5 -565.47 25644

27.5-30 -551.16 25251

30-32.5 -536.52 24812

32.5-35 -521.77 24332

35-37.5 -507.12 23819

37.5-40 -492.69 23278

40-42.5 -432.71 20879

42.5-52.5 -380.96 18670

higher than 52.5 -369.76 18088

7500

5500

3500

1500

Q (kJ)

-500

30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

-2500

-4500

-6500

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 40 -501.58 23794

40-42.5 -431.46 20995

42.5-45 -388.93 19187

45-50 -382.61 18902

50-55 -375.57 18550

55-60 -369.86 18236

higher than 60 -365.22 17958

7.2.5 Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger

7.2.5.1 Gas (hot side)

- Heat curve for Qout with pressure drop 0.7 bar.

pressure drop 0.7 bar

12000

10000

8000

Q (kJ)

6000

4000

2000

0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.11 Heat curve (Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Gas hot side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 17 -617.56 20992

17-19 -607.66 20824

19-21 -597.54 20632

21-23 -587.12 20413

23-25 -576.37 20166

25-27 -565.28 19888

27-29 -553.87 19580

29-31 -542.21 19242

31-33 -530.41 18876

higher than 33 -518.59 18486

Heat curve(Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Gas hot side)

pressure drop 1.4 bar

15000

10000

Q (kJ)

5000

0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-5000

Temperature (˚C.)

Figure 7.12 Heat curve (Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Gas hot side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 15 -632.93 21008

15-17 -615.95 20761

17-19 -606.07 20593

19-21 -595.96 20400

21-23 -585.53 20181

23-26 -572 19868

26-28 -557.96 19505

28-31 -543.45 19097

31-33 -528.7 18641

33-35 -516.86 18251

35-38 -502.24 17737

38-41 -484.98 17081

41-42 -414.42 14191

higher than 42 -383.35 12885

Heat curve(Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Gas hot side)

9500

7500

5500

3500

Q (kJ)

1500

-500

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

-2500

-4500

-6500

Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.13 Heat curve (Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Gas hot side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 23 -591.31 20702

23-25 -577.96 20397

25-28 -564.06 20047

28-30 -549.72 19648

30-32 -538 19296

32-34 -526.19 18918

34-36 -514.42 18518

36-39 -499.88 17993

39-41 -485.48 17433

41-42 -404.37 14108

42-46 -386.49 13356

higher than 46 -380.01 13058

- Heat curve for Qout

Heat curve(Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger(Liquid side)

4000

3500

3000

2500

Q (kJ)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

-15 -5 -500 5 15 25 35

Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.14 Heat curve (Qout) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Liquid side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than (-5) 79.9 450.74

(-5)-2 82.175 461.27

2.0-8.0 85.093 455.69

8.0-14.0 88.181 430.87

14.0-19.0 91.249 388.32

19-24 94.128 333.61

24-27 96.405 279.64

higher than 27 98.044 235.42

2000

1500

1000

Q (kJ)

500

0

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

-500

Tem perature (˚C.)

Figure 7.15 Heat curve (Qin) for Gas/Gas/Liquid exchanger (Liquid side)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than (-4) 79.579 389.88

(-)4.0-3 81.971 398.89

3.0-9.0 84.825 390.59

higher than 9 87.845 363.28

- Heat curve for Qout

11000

9000

7000

5000

Q (kJ)

3000

1000

-3000

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 100 -68.726 14221

100-130 -74.4 14781

130-155 -79.3 15415

155-188 -85.702 16420

188-188.25 -155.89 29602

188.25-188.5 -170.75 32399

higher than 188.5 -168.79 32027

Heat curve(Qin) for Stabilizer feed/bottom exchanger

3800

2800

1800

800

Q (kJ)

-200

150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220

-1200

-2200

-3200

Tem perature (˚C.)

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 175 -84.384 16210

175-191.3 -88.323 16901

191.3-191.4 -129.5 24773

191.4-191.8 -170.66 32652

higher than191.8 -169.29 32387

The followings equations are used for calculated the heat duty from heat curves that are

provided in data sheet.

7.3.1 AWP-1 well fluid coolers

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 43.4 -67.432 8760.6

43.4-50.8 -69.189 8836.8

50.8-58.2 -71.622 8960.4

58.2-65.6 -75.595 9133.4

65.6-73 -78.243 9372.8

73-80.4 -83.108 9727.9

80.4-87.8 -89.054 10206

87.8-95.2 -96.892 10894

95.2-102.6 -106.7 11828

higher than 102.6 -118.97 13087

7.3.2 Stabilizer condenser

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than56.8 -188.89 13769

56.8-58.6 -194.44 14084

58.6-60.4 -205.56 14736

60.4-62.3 -200 14400

62.3-65.9 -211.11 15092

65.9-67.7 -205.56 14726

67.7-69.5 -194.44 13974

69.5-71.4 -157.89 11434

73.2-71.4 -88.889 6506.7

higher than 73.2 -42 3074.4

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 166.1 190.7100 -31010

166.1-168.3 434.8300 -71386

168.3-171.1 503.5700 -82956

171.1-174 476.5500 -78333

174-176.8 484.2900 -79679

176.8-179.6 474.2900 -77911

179.6-182.5 447.2400 -73054

185.2-185.3 450.3600 -73622

185.3-188.2 421.0300 -68189

higher than188.2 419.6400 -67927

The following equations are used for calculation the heat duty:

Equation: Heat duty(kW.) = (m x temperature) + c

Temperature (°C.) slope (m) y-intercept(c)

lower than 52.4 -80 5417

52.4-55.9 -81.429 5491.9

55.9-59.4 -80 5412

59.4-62.9 -55.714 3969.4

higher than 62.9 -22.143 1856.7

The following equations are used for calculation the flow coefficient for FCV 1883:

Equation: %Cv = (m x %Stroke) + c

%Stroke slope (m) y-intercept(c)

0-30 0.215 2.4

30-35 0.4 -3

35-40 0.6 -10

40-45 1.2 -34

45-50 1.4 -43

50-100 1.4343 -43.905

These equations are used for LMTD and Correction factor calculation and these are used

parameters.

T1 is the shell inlet temperature.

T2 is the shell outlet temperature.

t1 is the tube inlet temperature.

t2 is the tube outlet temperature.

N is the number of series shells.

Auxiliary Variables :

(t2 - t1)

P=

(T1- t1)

(T1- T2)

R=

(t2 - t1)

For the case when R is not equal to 1.

LMTD Definition:

(T1- t2) - (T2 - t1)

LMTD =

(T1- t2)

ln

(T2 - t1)

1/N

1- P *R

1-

P' = 1- P 1/N

1- P *R

R -

1- P

(R 2 +1)0.5 (1- P')

* ln

(R - 1) (1- P' *R)

CT =

2 2 0.5

P' - 1- R +(R +1)

ln

2

- 1- R - (R 2 +1)0.5

P'

LMTD Definition:

LMTD = (T1- t2)

P

P' =

P +N- P *N

(20.5 *P')

CT = (1- P')

2 0.5

P' - 2 + 2

ln

2

- 2 - 20.5

P'

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