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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017) 1227–1238

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Particulate matter formation and its control methodologies for diesel MARK
engine: A comprehensive review

S. Mohankumara, , P. Senthilkumarb
a
Department of Automobile Engineering,Banari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamanglam, Erode 630401, India
b
Madras Institute of Technology, Department of Automobile Engineering, Chennai-44, India

A R T I C L E I N F O A BS T RAC T

Keywords: The diesel engine is being widely used in day to day life in both mobile and stationary applications. The main
Biodiesel drawback is the release of harmful gasses like HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter into the atmosphere. This
Water emulsified fuel affects both human beings and environment to a great extent and should be controlled effectively. This paper
Particulate matter reviews the works on the control of diesel particulate matter in both pre-combustion and post-combustion
Diesel particulate filter
techniques employed in the past few decades. The initial part of this review will discuss particulate matter
composition and its structure. Then the various physical processes involved in the formation of particulate
matter are discussed. Effects of fuel composition and its structure on soot formation are reported. Hazardous
effects of particulate matter on both human beings and the environment are reviewed. Use of biodiesel water
emulsified fuel as a fuel to control soot formation is highlighted. This review also highlights control of
particulate matter by varying injection parameters like injection pressure, injection timing and auxiliary air
injection. Multiple fuel injections within the same cycle to control NOx and particulate matter are also
discussed. The conventional control technique of particulate matter by using Diesel particulate filter and its
types are also compared with the new technologies. Various regeneration concepts to burn the collected soot are
also highlighted. The major part of this review focuses on pre-combustion techniques to control particulate
matter. This review paper, it is hoped, will be very useful for the researchers working on the control of diesel
particulate matter.

1. Introduction technology used to reduce NOx and particulate matter emission


simultaneously. Variation of several injection parameters can be made
The diesel engine is an efficient power source. It is widely used in possible with the help of electronic fuel injection technology.
ground transportation and commercial applications. In spite of its As stated earlier, the initial part of this review deals with particulate
popularity, diesel engines have the major drawbacks of high NOx and matter and its composition. The various substances present in the
particulate emissions; this continues to be a matter of great concern particulate matter and their methods of separation are studied. The
and has to be paid serious attention. Extensive research has been various physical processes involved in the soot formation are explained
carried out in recent years to control these emissions. Many pre- elaborately. Hazardous effects related to the particulate matter on both
combustion and post-combustion technologies are implemented to human beings and environmental issues are investigated. The second
control these emissions. This paper reviews the various control part of this review studies the effect of fuel structure and fuel
measures available for particulate matter emission in both pre-com- composition on soot formation. The third part of this review concen-
bustion and post-combustion stages. In pre-combustion several experi- trates on the use of oxygenated fuels and other fuel modifications to
ments conducted so far have concluded that it is possible to eliminate control particulate emission. The influence of injection parameters on
particulate matter formation within the cylinder chamber during early PM emission is also highlighted in this section. The final part highlights
stages of combustion. This is accomplished by using contemporary the various post-combustion technologies like diesel particulate filter,
injectors with oxygenated fuels or through the use of very small orifices. diesel oxidation catalyst, and catalyzed diesel particulate filter to
High injection pressure systems like common rail direct ignition control DPM. This review discusses and summarizes the developments
(CRDI) system is used to control soot emission and improve fuel carried out in the last decade to control particulate matter in
economy. Multiple injections within the single cycle are also a leading compression ignition engines providing a more current and relevant


Corresponding author.
E-mail address: smkmts@gmail.com (S. Mohankumar).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.133
Received 14 June 2016; Received in revised form 11 May 2017; Accepted 19 May 2017
Available online 07 June 2017
1364-0321/ © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. Mohankumar, P. Senthilkumar Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017) 1227–1238

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of Particulate Matter.

view. 2.3. Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the process in which organic compounds such as fuels


2. Particulate matter undergo a change in the molecular structure at high temperature
without sufficient oxygen concentration. These reactions are mainly
2.1. Particulate matter composition dependent on temperature and concentration and are generally
endothermic [5]. Fuel pyrolysis paves the way to the formation of
Particulate matter is the combination of soot and other liquid, solid peculiar species generally mentioned as precursors or building blocks
phase materials. Particulate matter can be separated into a soluble and for soot. Depending upon the type of flames produced pyrolysis and
insoluble organic fraction. Soot formation usually takes place in fuel oxidation rate vary. Premixed flames produce less soot since it contains
rich regions at elevated temperature without sufficient oxygen concen- more oxygen content, whereas in diffusion flame soot formation rate
tration. Liquid phase materials and hydrocarbons are absorbed on the increases due to less oxygen content. Oxidation rate increases when the
surface of soot, depending on engine operating conditions and is shown temperature increases. This scenario clearly concludes that soot
in Fig. 1. Nearly 50% of PM is composed of soot. Soluble fraction formation mainly depends upon the temperature and oxygen concen-
present in particulates mainly consists of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, tration. Some previous works have suggested that the presence of O,
aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAH's and its derivatives. Various other O2, and OH radicals stimulate pyrolysis. This process occurs since free
constituents like lubricating oil, partially oxidized fuel and oil also radical mechanism takes place in many of the reactions [5].
contribute to a soluble organic fraction in the particulate matter [1]. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, polyacetylenes, and polycyclic aromatic
Most of the particulate formed is in a size range from 7.5 to 1.0 µm hydrocarbons (PAH's) are typical pyrolysis products. Among all the
[2]. This size factor is considered as an important factor in health products formed acetylene plays a major role in pyrolysis reactions
aspects. Tiny particles are likely to be inhaled by human beings easily. Acetylene can be easily oxidized to inert products if enough O and OH
They also get trapped in the bronchial passages and alveoli of the lungs. radicals are present in fuel [5]. Molecule size plays a major role; the
About 90% of the particulates emitted from the engine are in size range radical pool size gets increased for larger molecules [6]. A study carried
( < 50 nm). Most of the particulate mass lies in the accumulation mode out by Haynes et al. [7] concluded that C2H2, C2H4, CH4, C3H6, and
range that is 50 nm < D < 1000 nm [3]. Soot formation usually takes C6H6 Considered as major products produced during pyrolysis in
place in the diesel engine at a temperature between about 1000 and laminar diffusion flames.
2800 K, at a pressure of 50–100 atm. The soluble organic fraction can
be extracted from the particulate matter samples by adopting soxhlet
and sonification methods. Since the particulates are mixtures of polar 2.4. Nucleation
and non-polar components, full extraction requires different solvents.
Methylene chloride, dichloromethane, and benzene-alcohol mixture Nucleation is the process in which particles are formed from gas
are the most commonly used extractants to remove soluble organic phase reactants. As for the sizes of the nuclei formed in luminous
fraction and soot. flame, they initially have a diameter in the range of 1.5–2 nm [8].
Smith et al. had concluded from various previous studies that the initial
number of soot nuclei in a diesel cylinder amounted to 250 nuclei per
2.2. Physical process of soot formation cubic micrometer (at a pressure of 6.5 MPa) [8]. In this process by
radical addition of small size hydrocarbons, they combine to form large
Conversion of liquid phase hydrocarbons to soot and finally to gas size aromatic molecules by particle inception process. This process
phase happens in six steps, namely pyrolysis, nucleation, surface usually takes place at temperatures in the range of 1300–1600 K.
growth, coalescence, agglomeration, and oxidation. The overall process Particle nuclei formed has less contribution towards total soot mass,
is shown in Fig. 2 schematically. The physical process of soot formation but it has a greater influence on the mass added later since they provide
depends on various conditions like pressure, temperature, injection active sites for surface growth. Premixed and diffusion flame nucleation
parameters and fuel structure. Soot formation and oxidation rate is restricted near the primary reaction zone in which temperature and
depend mainly on temperature and pressure of reaction [4]. ion concentration are higher. In one previous study concluded that soot

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Fig. 2. particulates formation.

nucleation process basically has three major steps involved in the hydrocarbon molecules oxidizes into products of combustion. Carbon
process [9]. Initially, the conversion of chain molecules into ring will not involve in soot formation reaction once it gets partially oxidized
structures by Cyclization process takes place. During this process, the into CO, even after entering a fuel-rich zone. This process commences
acetylene molecules combine to form a benzene ring. Then the at any time during the soot formation process from pyrolysis through
aromatic rings dehydrogenate at low temperature and result in the agglomeration. The rate of reaction mainly depends upon process and
formation of polycyclic compounds. Finally, the Breakup and recycliza- the air-fuel mixture formation at that time. Oxidation reactions do not
tion of aromatic rings take place at a higher temperature. seem to play an important role during surface growth and coagulation
reactions. The radicals like OH, O-, and O are considered to be the
2.5. Surface growth main oxidizing species involved in reactions [5].
Soot particle oxidation reaction usually takes places while the
Nucleation process leads to the production of a large number of temperature exceeds 1300 K [6]. The high resistance towards oxidation
very small particles. The size of particulate matter is majorly increased reaction is mainly due to the Graphite-like structure present in soot [4].
in the surface growth process. Surface growth is considered as a key Oxidation process usually follows two stages initially the absorption of
factor for the increase of soot mass [10]. In the gas phase deposition of oxygen on soot surface takes place. In second stage desorption of
hydrocarbon occurs on the surface of spherules that develop to form oxygen takes place from the surface as a product takes place [6].
the nuclei. This appears to be mostly acetylenes which finally lead to an Another study suggested that an OH radical influences more to soot
increase in soot mass, while the number of particles remains constant. oxidation reactions under fuel-rich and stoichiometric conditions. Both
This process continues even though the movement of particles takes OH and O2 radicals oxidize soot under lean conditions [8], the collision
place from the primary reaction zone to less reactive and cooler of OH radicals with soot contributes nearly 10–20% effective for
regions, where the concentration of hydrocarbon are below the soot oxidizing carbon atoms [7]. After all these processes in the exhaust
inception limit [7]. Soot formation rate during surface growth mainly tailpipe, the exhaust gasses cool down. Hydrocarbons of relatively low
depends on the number of nuclei present [5]. This process usually vapor pressure, sulfates, and sulphuric acid plus bound water would
occurs in a few ps to 0.05 ms after the formation of nuclei. Hence the condense on the soot leading to particulate matter formation.
residence time of this process has a major influence on the mass of soot
and its volume fraction. The Surface growth rates are lower for larger
3. Effects of fuel composition and structure on soot
particles while compared with smaller size particles because small size
formation
particles have more reactive radical sites [8].

Fuel composition and structure plays a major role in the formation


2.6. Coalescence and agglomeration of particulate matter. Especially substances like sulfate, lead contents
in the fuel composition will enhance the formation of the soluble
Coalescence and agglomeration are the processes in which combi- organic fraction which increases the soot mass. The fuel elements
nation of particles takes place. Once particles have been formed, inter- mainly consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur and the content
particle collisions can lead to agglomeration. This leads to decrease in of each of these elements determines fuel composition. Fuel structure
the number of particles and increase in their size. In these two will be determined by its bond structure, location, and type of bond
processes, spherical particles will collide with each other and finally making up the molecules in the fuels. In several previous types of
result in their coagulation into a single spheroid. The size of the research majority of work was carried out on fuel composition and
primary spherical particles formed depends upon various engine structure especially on laboratory flames. Incoming part results of
operating conditions, like injector type, and injector conditions. some of their experiments will be summarized in this review. In major
Primary particles’ sizes formed are in the range which varies from 20 previous works suggested that fuel composition plays a vital role in the
to 70 nm. A study carried out used sampling probe and optical formation of soot for all types of flames. In the case of diffusion flames,
scattering technique, concluding that primary particles’ size varied fuel structure influences more in soot formation process and is likely
from 20 to 50 nm with an average diameter of about 30 nm [9,11]. The less considered in the case of premixed flames.
researchers finally concluded that the size of the primary particles Fuel with more carbon content in their composition has great
diameter varied in the range of 30–70 nm. [9]. In-cylinder light- tendency to produce soot, while the oxygen content within the fuel
scattering measurements done on diesel engines showed that the size reduces the soot formation rate. The hydrogen content in the fuel also
range of 30–50 nm [12] and 40–65 nm [13]. At the end of the influences the soot formation rate; fuel with less hydrogen content
combustion, particles agglomerated further to form a chain-like produces more soot. Sulfur content is not directly involved in formation
structure in size range varying from 100 nm to 2 µm. The size of the process but is responsible for increasing the particulate mass by
particles formed even becomes larger based upon the surrounding oxidizing and then attaching to soot particles resulting in increased
conditions. The determined particle size will vary with respect to many particle size and mass [14]. In one previous study, they examined the
factors like engine operating conditions, sampling technique, the soot formation rate against the number of carbon atoms [15]. They
hardware of an injector and its particle size determining methods. found that molecular structure was the governing parameter which
These methods have great influence on particles size reported. determines the soot forming tendency in laminar diffusion flames.
They concluded that the ring structure plays a crucial role and fused
2.7. Oxidation cyclic molecules were the most prolific shooters. In the case of non-
aromatic fuels, the carbon atoms count, length of the main chain,
Oxidation is the process in soot formation in which the carbon or position and length of side chains are considered as key parameters

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influencing the soot formation tendency. The carbon double bond has particulate matter formation tendency. Oxygen within the fuel struc-
some impact on soot formation tendency, but its position will not affect ture generally decreases soot formation but the effect depends on
soot formation rate widely. They identified that cyclohexane (C6H12) temperature as well and is also accounted for the reduction in the
saturated ring produces more soot while compared with hexane number of carbon-carbon bonds in the premixed flames. The role of
(C6H14). Then also Straight chain Benzene C6H6 produces more soot aromatics on the influence of soot formation indicates clearly that
than the saturated and unsaturated rings. In another study shows that increasing the C/H weight ratio leads to a rise in particulate formation
the soot volume fraction increases linearly with the increase in rate in the order mono aromatics < di aromatics < Tri aromatics.
hydrogen wt% for alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl benzene and From the above-cited works, we can finally conclude that fuel composi-
naphthalens [16]. Gulder et al. [17] measured soot formation rate in tion and structure plays a major role in particulate matter formation.
axisymmetric laminar diffusion flames of methane, propane, and n- Therefore fuel used should have low C/H ratio, high oxygen content,
butane. They finally concluded that while adding oxygen to the fuel and low aromatic content. One such fuel is biodiesel, a naturally
either it promotes soot formation rate through the formation of H oxygenated fuel having low C/H ratio reducing PM to greater values. In
atoms and hydrocarbon radicals or decreases soot formation by the the later part of this review, the earlier works carried out using
attack on aromatic radicals and aliphatic hydrocarbons. In another biodiesel and oxygenated additives fuel to control particulate matter
study, they found that a number of carbon-carbon bonds are respon- will be discussed in detail.
sible for increasing rate of pyrolysis by forming soot precursors and it
decreases oxidation rate produced by OH radicals which are a function 4. Hazardous effects of diesel particles
of C/H ratio [18]. Finally, it was concluded that fuels with a large
number of carbon-carbon bonds tended to have lower C/H ratio which Diesel particulates are so small that they can penetrate the
increased the soot forming tendency. respiratory tract of the human or animal lung and are deposited in
Many studies were carried out in shock tubes to examine the effect the pulmonary region of the lung, where they may cause adverse health
of oxygen on soot formation in premixed and diffusion flames. They effects. Warnatz et al. [25] discussed the effects of ultrafine particles in
concluded that the oxygenated fuels have greater tendency to suppress the study conducted and showed that the ultrafine particles emitted
soot formation rate and reduces soot precursors. The later part of this were high in number, more than millions of particles per cubic
review would highlight most of the work on reducing particulate matter centimeter. The highest deposition efficiency in the alveolar region of
by using oxygenated fuel elaborately. Aromatics also play a significant the lungs was shown by particles having a diameter of 20 nm. Small
role in particulate matter formation. Experiments have been conducted size particles not only penetrate the epithelium but also enter into the
with three engines to test the effects of T90, aromatic and sulfur blood stream. One study indicated that diesel exhaust gasses and
content on particulate emission [19]. The results indicated that the particulates had a great tendency towards lung disorders and a higher
increase in both aromatic and sulfur content led to increasing in daily mortality [26,27].
particulate matter. Another study carried out by Ullman et al. [20] used A review by Mauderly et al. [28] showed a large number of
a new engine and found that aromatic content and Cetane number had epidemiological studies had been evaluated. They concluded that
insignificant effects on particulate emission levels. Thus, in the con- long-term employment in jobs with substantial exposure to diesel
clusion, it was reported that the effect of aromatic content on exhaust could be associated with a 20–50% increase in the risk of
particulate was dependent on the engine technology. Increase in PM getting lung cancer [21]. In addition to a possible affection of lung
emission is mainly caused by an increase in dry soot. Di-aromatics have cancer, diesel particulates have also been found to increase the risk of
greater tendency to produce particulate than monoaromatic fuels bladder cancer. Several laboratory studies carried out especially on
which are mainly due to their higher C/H ratio. animals like mice and canines are considered as good models for
Tsurutani et al. [21] kept T90 nearly constant for various fuel humans with regard to their response to DPM [29,30]. Various studies
structures and studied the effects of aromatics on particulate matter conducted so far pointed out that diesel exhaust exposure could lead to
emissions and found that it was in the increasing order of mono < di several other problems like acute eye affections, bronchial irritation,
< tri aromatics. They concluded that molecular structure was the main nausea, light headiness, phlegm, and cough. Numerous studies carried
cause which influenced particulate matter formation. In another study out involving laboratory rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, cats, and
by Bertoli et al. [22] it was pointed out that aromatic content had a monkeys have studied the respiratory and systematic effects due to
diminishing effect on soot loading as the Cetane number increased and exposure to DPM [30,31].
had no effect when Cetane number went beyond 58. Nakakita et al. [23] Some recent laboratory studies with rats showed that SOF content
conducted experiments on three different diesel fuels in an optical considered as an important precursor for tumor formation [32,33].
single cylinder engine and measured particulate matter in an exhaust High concentrations of other poorly soluble respirable particles sus-
stream. They concluded that class 1 fuel produced more particulate pected to have a high risk of inducing lung tumor and also cause stress
matter than other two fuels even though the fuel had lower distillation in lung region [28,34]. Some studies carried out regarding specific
temperature, aromatic content, sulfur, and density; all these para- mutagenic compounds found in diesel particulates, such as 1-nitropyr-
meters led to a reduction in soot. The main reason behind PM increase ene [36,37] and benzo[a]pyrene [38,39], showed that polar fraction of
was that class 1 fuel contained 50–70% branched molecular structure PAHs, which mainly consisted of oxygenated PAHs, accounted sig-
and twice as many naphthenes. Another work carried out by Takatori nificantly for the mutagenicity of the diesel particulate extracts. Some
et al. [24] studied isomers of hexane and octane including the ring researchers carried out tests using animal models to determine the
structure in a flow reactor (1000–1300 K) and in a shock tube (2000– mechanisms associated with pulmonary cancer caused by diesel
2500 K). They concluded that soot formation increased in the order of exhaust particles [30].
n-Paraffin1-branched paraffin,2-branched paraffin, and cycloparaffin. The particulate matter also contains some other metals like Ca, Fe,
The final conclusion indicated clearly that molecular structure other Mg etc. in their composition which leads to several effects. Another
than aromatics played an important role in soot formation in DI diesel study indicated that deposition of metals like iron which could lead to
combustion. the production of free radicals and finally cause both acute and chronic
Finally from the various earlier works mentioned it became clear lung injuries [40]. Advanced research carried out to estimate the
that fuel composition could play an important role in soot formation in various toxic metals concentration of diesel particles indicated that
most types of flames, but not all. Fuel structure is considered an these metals activated epidermal growth receptor (EGFR) and led to
important parameter in diffusion flames. Then for all types of flames increasing the levels of guanosine triphosphate-bound Ras in human
increasing the number of carbon-carbon atoms would increase the lung cells [10]. Iron and also other metals like such as Cu and Zn

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present in particulate also leads to several problems. This metal usually be converted into monoglycerides by transesterification process. Fuel
comes due to excessive wear of engine components due to improper has low sulfur and aromatic content also contains nearly 10% oxygen
lubrication [41]. These metals have great tendency to cause major which helps it to burn completely. It has been confirmed from the
injury to macromolecules by undergoing redox- cycle which will lead to above-mentioned advantages that the usage of biodiesel as a fuel
the generation of hydroxyl radicals. This task can be made possible reduces PM to a greater value. Several previous works carried out in
with the help of reductant commonly found in lungs which include last few decades to control particulate matter using biodiesel is briefly
superoxide anion, glutathione, acerbate [42]. In previous works, given in Table 1 [49–59].
researchers have done a detailed study in an artificial environment
on the effect of solar radiation and aging on diesel exhaust within the 5.2. Oxygenated fuel additives
chamber [43].
In another study, it has been reported that particulate matter reacts Oxygenated fuel is a fuel that has a chemical compound containing
with ozone and causes severe damage to rat lungs [44]. In some recent oxygen. These oxygenated additives simply enhance combustion and
studies pointed out diesel particulates plays a crucial role in enhancing the ignition quality of fuel by improving the Cetane number, thereby
inflammatory and allergic problems, leads to damage of respiratory reducing ignition temperature of particulates. The earlier part of this
system [35,44]. The ultra fine particles have greater ability to get review highlighted the fact that fuel with low carbon to hydrogen
penetrate and deposited in deeper part of the lungs which will lead to ratio(C/H) and high oxygen content would reduce particulate matter to
lung cancer [2,25]. These particles also have a tendency to enter into to a greater value. Several works [15,17–19] discussed previously in this
the liver and even to neurons leads to a brain disorder. In recent review also pointed out the role of C/H ratio and number position of
studies, many researchers have done to examine the effect of particu- carbon bonds had great influence on PM formation. The various
late matter focuses mainly on cancer outcomes [4] It has been found oxygenated additives used comprise methanol, ethanol, butanol,
that prolong exposure to particulate matter leads to several problems diethyl ether, diphenyl ether, diethylene glycol, dimethyl ether, and
like respiratory illness, asthma problem among children, and lung nitromethane, dimethyl carbonate etc. Several previous works carried
function disorder [25,45,46]. to reduce particulate matter using oxygenated additives is discussed
There are also some studies carried out to show the health effects of briefly in Table 1 [60–68].
diesel particulates while using biodiesel as a fuel. Biodiesel is an
oxygenated fuel derived from vegetable or animal fats by transester- 5.3. Injection timing
ification process. Ultrafine particles will be emitted while using
biodiesel blends. These fine particles are considered to be more difficult Particulate matter emission can also be controlled up to some
to trap and more severe than large particles in terms of its impact on extent by varying the injection timing parameter. When the injection
health and environment. In several studies, it was concluded that the timing is advanced, the particulate emissions will get reduced; this
use of biodiesel reduced particulate matter, but the problem was that effect is mainly related to the ignition delay property. The reason
the size of particulate matter got changed to ultra fine particles which behind this scenario is that while advancing injection timing it will lead
would penetrate deeply into lungs and that could easily lead to cancer to increase in premixed combustion duration which enhances fine
[47]. One such study carried out by Lapuerta et al. [46] studied the mixing of fuel and air, thereby reducing PM emissions. But the Nox
effect of biodiesel on health, especially the adverse effects of particu- emission gets increased by advancing the injection timing due to
lates emissions. Smaller particles are considered to have more deleter- increased ignition delay. Particulate emission increases when injection
ious effects since they can reside longer time in the atmosphere, and timing gets retarded and NOx emission get reduced. This scenario
thus have a greater probability of inhalation with the higher specific occurs because the ignition delay gets reduced and also the premixed
surface area and this capability to absorb potentially carcinogenic combustion duration reduces while retarding injection thus increasing
organic compounds. These smaller particles penetrate further into the fuel consumption, HC smoke and particulate matter [77]Heywood. The
respiratory system, to be retained in the interstitial tissue of the lung or coming part of the review will present some previous works related to
even to penetrate into the cardiovascular system. This effect will the effect of injection timing on particulate matter emission using
ultimately cause pulmonary or vascular diseases. In another study various fuels. Some of the works related to control particulate matter
carried out by Yanamala et al. [48] the researchers investigated the by varying injection timing is given in Table 1 [69–75].
effect of running biodiesel blends with petrodiesel. In these experi- The mentioned works in the table clearly show that advancing the
mental investigations, lung sections of rodents exposed to diesel engine injection timing by few degree crank angle will reduce particulate
exhaust were studied. The results indicated biodiesel exhaust particles number and concentration to a greater value. Finally, it shows clearly
could exert more toxic effects compared to diesel. This phenomenon that 20°bTDC to 23°bTDC seems to be optimum injection timing for
occurs mainly due to the unsaturated fatty acid content of biodiesel, particulate matter reduction. In the coming part of this review will be
exhaust particles could induce adverse effects due to the increasing discussed the effect of injection pressure on particulate matter forma-
tendency of unsaturated fatty acid chains to oxidize. tion.
On account of all the hazardous effects mentioned above steps have
to be taken to control the particulate matter (PM), otherwise, it will 5.4. Injection pressure
cause several health effects to both human beings and the environment.
So the following part of this review deals with various pre-combustion Another pre-combustion technique adopted to reduce particulate
and post-combustion technologies to control particulate matter. The matter is by varying injection pressure. The main reason behind this is
complete layout of PM control technique is shown in Fig. 3. when injection pressure gets increased, it leads to fine atomization and
fuel droplet size gets reduced which leads to complete combustion.
5. Pre combustion control techniques Another factor is that spray penetration length increases with high
injection pressure which leads to proper utilization of air and improves
5.1. Biodiesel as a fuel to reduce PM fuel-air mixing rate. In the coming part of the review, some previous
works carried out in this area is explained in Table 1 [76–81].
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel commonly described as fatty acid Based on the above cited previous works the following conclusions
methyl or ethyl ester derived from vegetable oils and animal fats [101– have been drawn: Particulate matter greatly reduced when injection
103]. It is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated fuel consisting of pressure got increased. Higher injection pressure led to the fine
triglycerides of long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. It can atomization of fuel droplet and also droplet size got reduced which

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Fig. 3. Layout of PM control technique.

led to complete combustion. Another parameter nozzle hole size also Air injected enhances the combustion by increasing the turbulence and
played an important role for particulate matter reduction. So it could mixing rate of an air-fuel mixture which finally increases the tempera-
be concluded that micro hole size along with high injection pressure ture to burn out the soot particles. This can be done by constructing a
reduced particulate matter to a greater amount. secondary chamber beside the main chamber with a restriction
between two chambers. Restriction created should be in proper size
so that only gasses will flow during compression and get compressed
5.5. Multiple injections
during compression and will exit during expansion stroke and near the
end of combustion. The main drawback is that this effect will increase
Another pre-combustion technology to control particulate matter is
the heat transfer which leads to decrease the efficiency. Another
the use of multiple injections events within the same cycle. The key
drawback is that the design is complex which will increase the
advantage of using this technology is that it will reduce both NOx and
fabrication cost too.
particulate matter simultaneously [83]. Multiple injection technologies
are made possible with the adoption of Common rail direct injection
(CRDI) technology, which allows shorter injection duration and vari- 5.7. Water emulsified fuel
able injection timing. This precise control is made possible through the
use of electronic control solenoid valve which controls injection Water emulsified fuel is another fuel modification principle used to
pressure and timing accurately. Multiple injection strategies employ control particulate matter and NOx emission simultaneously. In this
three types of injection, namely pilot injection, main injection, and post emulsion is created when primary fluid is dispersed throughout the
injection. In pilot injection event some amount of fuel is injected before secondary immiscible fluid, usually in the form of spherical droplets.
main injection event and it has the effect of temperature rise prior to This process can be done with or without the help of surfactant usually
main injection event. This effect reduces ignition delay which reduces accomplished with the help of a ternary diagram. The main reason for
the fraction of fuel burned during initial premixed burn of the main the reduction of emissions is that during rapid evaporation, water
injection event. Ultimately decreasing knocking by reducing peak droplets having a lesser boiling point than the surrounding fuel would
pressure; however, this pilot injection results in an increase of explode rapidly. This process is called microexplosion event. This
particulate emission most of the time. Increase in PM occurs due to eventually increases premixed combustion duration and more ignition
the following two reasons: i) higher temperature in the cylinder during delay period creates more time for fuel-air mixing leading to a
main injection event leads to a reduction of lift-off length, thereby reduction in particulate matter formation. In the same case, water
reducing charge air entrained into the main injection event ii) Product droplet evaporation reduces peak cycle temperature. This leads to the
releases from the pilot injection event have high temperature and reduction of NOx emission also. Some previous works to control
contain reduced oxygen content. Particulate matter by using water emulsified fuel is quoted in Table 1
The main advantage of multiple injections comes during post [86–90].
injection event when some amount of fuel is injected after the main It was concluded that from the above works emulsified fuels greatly
injection event. Total injection period for this post injection is about reduced both particulate matter and NOx emission simultaneously. The
10–50° CA and 10% of fuel injected during this event. Another use of biodisehols, combination of diesel, alcohol, and Biodiesel could
advantage of this post injection is that it increases exhaust tempera- be a promising fuel to reduce particulate matter to a great extent and
ture, thereby helping regeneration event of diesel particulate filter. In also improve the thermal efficiency of a diesel engine in a satisfactory
Table 1 some of the previous works related to control particulate manner.
matter using multiple injections is mentioned [82,84,85].
6. Post-combustion control technologies
5.6. Auxiliary air injection
6.1. Diesel particulate filter
Another pre-combustion technology is auxiliary air injection to
control soot formation. In this, some amount of air is injected into the Physical removal of diesel particulates by filtration means of
cylinder of diesel engine near or shortly after the end of the injection. emission control has been investigated from the early 1980s. The

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Table 1
Summary of Various works discussed.

S.no Author Research Engine Factors varied Effects of PM and other emissions Core reasons

1 Su et al. [49] Single cylinder CRDI Biodiesel & Ethanol blends as fuel PM > 50 nm reduces, PM < 20 nm increases Biodiesel E20 produces lower soot emission
Engine due to high Oxygen content and reduced aromatic content
2 Zhu et al. [50] Single Cylinder diesel Euro V diesel fuel, Pure biodiesel, and Ethanol Particle mass concentration reduced, Particle number Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde emission increases due to different H-
Engine BE blends as a fuel concentration and Formaldehyde emission got increased abstraction reaction
DOC is more effective for reduction HC species then Unburned
ethanol then Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde emissions
S. Mohankumar, P. Senthilkumar

3 Nabi et al. [51] Single cylinder diesel Cotton seed oil as biodiesel with 20% blends PM reduces by 24% for biodiesel blend 10–12% extra oxygen content in biodiesel results in better
engine combustion reduces PM
4 Gill et al. [52] Diglyme blended with RME biodiesel as a fuel. Mean particle size reduces and NOx emission is also get 15% DGM addition increases combustion efficiency reduces PM.
reduced Cetane number increases reduces Ignition delay causes reduction in
premixed combustion duration which helps for NOx emission
reduction
5 Zhang et al. [53] Single cylinder diesel ULSD blended with 20% PME and then blended Particle mass, elemental carbon concentration, Tot no of Geometric mean diameter of particles get shifted towards small size
engine with butanol by 5%,10% and 15% by volume particles gets reduced but Organic carbon in the particles Butanol addition shows lower PAH emission, low carcinogenic
get increased with butanol addition potential and also lower cytotoxicity.
6 Tan et al. [54] Light duty diesel engine Pure Jatropha and their blends B20 & B50 used Accumulation mode particles get decreased Particle The increase in biodiesel content favors for reduction of larger size
as fuel number concentration increases particles but it increases tiny size particles number concentration.
7 Barrios et al. [55] Single cylinder diesel Animal fat based and soybean biodiesel as a fuel Mean particle diameter gets reduced. Due to increase in fatty acid saturation level of biodiesel which
engine (B10,B20,B25,B50 results in reduced particulate matter emission.
8 Awad et al. [56] single cylinder direct Animal fat residues as a biodiesel PM get reduces at both low and medium load ranges and This is to due to increase in soluble organic fraction of PM which
injection diesel engine show no changes at higher loads gets absorbed on PM surface at this operating conditions
9 Young et al. [57] Heavy duty diesel engine Waste cooking oil as a biodiesel Particle number concentration increases with load % and Oxygen content in biodiesel promotes for oxidation of soot and
(B2,B10 & B20) as a fuel get reduces with addition of WCO blends helps for reduction of particle number concentration.
10 Lapuerta et al. DI diesel commercial waste cooking oil as a biodiesel Smoke and PM emissions get reduced, Particle number Mean particle size get reduced this is probably due to high oxygen
[58] engine concentration remains the same content and low sulfur content of biodiesel

1233
11 Tsai et al. [59] Soybean biodiesel as a fuel(B0,B10,B20 and Particulate matter(PM), PAH, elemental carbon get B10 and B20 shows lowest PM concentration,
B50) reduced EC, OC and TC(14%,29%, and 20%) lower than diesel due to low
sulfur, aromatic and high oxygen content.
12 Wang et al. [60] Heavy duty turbocharged Dimethyl carbonate, ethanol as an oxygenated An oxygenated blend containing 50% biodiesel,15% PM Reduction occurs due to high oxygen content, high Cetane
diesel engines additive to diesel dimethyl carbonate and 35% diesel fuel reduces PM number, low sulfur content of fuel, low aromatics, and suitable
effectively viscosity
13 Górsk et al. [61] Ethyl-tert-butyl-ether(ETBE) as an oxygenated Particulate matter and smoke emission get reduced with This Scenario occurs due to less carbon and aromatic content and
additive to diesel the increase in ETBE % high oxygen content ETBE additive will promote soot oxidation
14 Burshaid et al. Biofuel with methane, ethane, and acetone as PM get reduced with methane as oxygenated additive Due to less carbon content of methane and presence of oxygen in its
[62] oxygenated additive along with water emulsified fuel structure which helps for burning and hence soot formation gets
reduced
15 Yao et al. [63] Heavy duty direct injection Butanol as an oxygenated additive to diesel fuel PM mass concentration get reduced with the increase in Triple-injection strategy with highest n-butanol fraction reduces
diesel engine butanol content PM formation to a greater level due to the fine atomization of fuel
droplets.
16 Zhu et al. [64] Intake charge dilution with CO2 along with Reduction of NOx, Particulate number, and Particle mass Application of both CO2 dilutions with oxygenated additives
oxygenated additives methanol and ethanol concentration was obtained reduces NOx and also restricts PM formation rate.
17 Zhang et al. [65] single cylinder diesel Diglyme (DGM), Palm oil methyl ester, Dimethyl Particulate mass concentration, Organic carbon(OC) and Butanol had found to be more effective and Diglyme shows the
engine carbonate, diethyl additive and butanol used as elemental carbon(EC get reduced minimum effect on particulate matter reduction. PM value also
additives depends upon the chemical structure of additive.
18 Lefoi et al. [66] Ethanol as an oxygenated additive with soybean Greater reduction in Particle number and large size Modulus of volumetric compressibility of biodiesel increases the
biodiesel particles with B100 and ethanol as additive time for fuel to mix with air leads to longer ignition delay reduces
size and concentration of PM.
19 Hernández et al. Four cylinders direct Glycerol as an oxygenated additive Great reduction in particulate matter and pour point of Additive greatly affects the chemical nature and increases the
[67] injection diesel engine. diesel with glycerol as an additive aromatic content which promotes reduction of PM
20 Sirignano et al. Dimethyl ether as an oxygenated additive Nanoparticles reduced for diffusion flames DME addition effectively reduces PM emission when added up to
[68] 60% for both premixed and diffusion flames.
21 Agarwal [70] Single cylinder CRDI SOI timing get advanced Particulate number concentration get reduced Due to increased premixed combustion duration promotes proper
engine air fuel mixture formation leads to complete burning of fuel. This
reduces PM number concentration
(continued on next page)
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017) 1227–1238
Table 1 (continued)

S.no Author Research Engine Factors varied Effects of PM and other emissions Core reasons

22 Dhananjay et al. Single cylinder diesel SOI timing varied 15°BTDC to 9.375°BTDC at 1000 bar FIP at 4.875° BTDC SOI shows lower PM At higher FIP fine atomization of fuel, droplets takes places ensures
[71] engine 500 and 1000 bar concentration complete combustion and advanced Injection timing promotes
proper air-fuel mixing formation
23 Benajes et al. Single cylinder direct SOI timing varied from PM mass and number Concentration get reduced SOI advance leads to increases ID and premixed combustion
[72] injection engine 24° to −33° ATDC duration which will reduce PM formation.
24 Xinling et al. [73] Four cylinder CRDI engine SOI timing varied from23°BTDC to 8°ATDC at Both accumulation and nucleation mode particles get AT 0%. EGR rate accumulation mode particles reduced and at 40%
0% and 40% EGR rate reduced nucleation mode particles reduced with varying injection timing
S. Mohankumar, P. Senthilkumar

due to the proper air fuel mixture formation.


25 Zhu et al. [74] Single cylinder direct SOI timing varied 20° to 26° CA BTDC with Nanoparticles number and concentration get reduced Injection timing with 23°CA BTDC and 50% DMM addition shows
injection engine DMM blends varied lower particle number and concentration due to increased ID and
oxygen content in fuel.
26 Sayin et al. [75] Single cylinder direct SOI timing varied at 15°, 20° and 25° BTDC Particulate mass concentration get reduced SOI timing with 20° bTDC is an optimum one in terms of BSFC and
injection engine timings PM reduction due longer time available for air fuel mixture
formation.
27 Agarwal et al. Single cylinder CRDI Varying injection pressure((300, 500, and Particulate number concentration and size decreases At 750 bar injection pressure and 9.375° BTDC start of combustion
[76] engine 750 bars) shows minimum particulate concentration due to the fine
atomization of fuel at higher injection pressures.
28 Dodge et al. [77] Six cylinders turbocharged Injection pressure with varying injector hole Injector hole diameter 0.086 mm and pressure 2830 bar Fuel droplets size reduces at higher injection pressure with small
diesel engine diameters shows almost no particulate matter emission nozzle diameter leads to complete burning of fuel with minimum
available air.
29 Pierpoint et al. Single cylinder heavy duty Injection pressure with Varying spray angles Injection pressure from 90 MPa to 160 MPa at 75% load As injection increases lead to the proper atomization of fuel and
[78] diesel engine with sharp edge nozzles show low PM concentration also sharp edge nozzle injects fuel with minimum droplet diameter.
30 Su et al.[79] single cylinder heavy duty Injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, spray Particle number and mass concentration get reduced When injection pressure increases from 90 MPa to 160 MPa the
diesel engine angle and nozzle configuration varied particulate matter reduction of 78% was achieved due to proper
mixing of the air-fuel mixture and fine atomization of the fuel.
31 Wang et al. [80] Single cylinder CRDI Injection pressure with micro hole nozzle PM size and mass concentration got reduced Injection pressure 100 MPa with micro hole nozzle 0.08 mm shows

1234
engine lower soot concentration
32 Pierpont et al. single cylinder CRDI Injection pressure varied PM number Concentration got reduced Varying injection pressure from 720 to 960 bar and also for 960–
[81] engine 1220 bar shows a significant reduction in particulate matter.
33 Chen [82] 1.2 l four cylinder diesel Multiple injections within the same cycle Both NOx and PM got reduced simultaneously smoke Multiple injections along with EGR will reduce NOx and PM
engine emission also reduced by 40%. effectively due to increased charge air entrained and increased lift-
off length
34 Choi and Reitz Single cylinder CRDI Multiple injections with oxygenated fuels Particulate matter concentration got reduced Split injections at low load conditions reduce PM to a greater extent
[84] engine due to increase in combustion temperature promotes soot
oxidation.
35 Hotta et al. [85] Small HSDI engine Multiple injections with in same cycle Soot concentration got reduced After injection event increases temperature of mixture and also
enhances fresh air entrainment which leads to reduction of soot
36 Armas et al. [86] Turbocharged indirect Water Emulsified fuel is used NOx, THC and PM got reduced simultaneously. PM emission reduces due to micro explosion process this will
injection diesel engine increase premixed combustion duration. Water droplet acts as a
heat sink reduces NOx emission too.
37 Nadeem et al. Emulsified fuel with Gemini as an surfactant NOx, CO, HC and PM got reduced Diesel with 15% water content shows minimum PM due to fine
[87] atomization of fuel since premixed duration increased.
38 Tsai et al. [88] Biodiesehols as a fuel(Biodiesel + water + PM, NOx and PAH got reduced Due to oxygen content in alcohol and micro emulsion principle
alcohol) ensures proper combustion reduces PM to a great extent
39 Chang et al. [89] water containing acetone-Butanol-etanol PM, NOx got reduced simultaneously. Pyrolysis of secondary atomised oil droplets in high temperature
(WABE) as fuel produced ionised carbon particles which react with H2O leading to
water shift reactions.
40 Lin et al. [90] Heavy duty diesel engine Water with n-butanol diesel blends as a fuel PM and PAH greatly reduced 5% and 10% BT additive with 0.5% water content were found to be
generator most suitable one for PM reduction due to fine atomization of fuel
and water gas shift reactions reduces PM
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017) 1227–1238
S. Mohankumar, P. Senthilkumar Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017) 1227–1238

temperature to the levels sufficient for regeneration even when the


catalyst is employed throttling, however, has several disadvantages it
increases HC, CO, and smoke emissions and results in fuel
consumption as the engine operate at the significantly lower overall
air-fuel ratio.

6.2.1.2. Burner regeneration. This is a currently used technique for


active filter regeneration. In this, a diesel fuel burner placed in the
exhaust, in front of the filter, has been employed to regenerate the
Fig. 4. Schematic layout of DPF Cell.
diesel particulate filter [92]. In this system, regeneration can be done in
all engine speed and load conditions. This system consists of a
currently used post-combustion technology to control diesel particulate
differential pressure sensor which will monitor the back pressure
matter is by means of using diesel particulate filter (DPF). DPF is also
value of filter as the soot gets deposited on the filter. This sensor will
called diesel particulate traps. There are wide varieties of filtration
send a signal to the ECU when the filter gets loaded fully with soot
media which are available to collect the diesel particulates. The various
particle with the indication of back pressure value. The ECU sends a
DPF filters used are Alumina coated wire mesh, ceramic fiber, porous
signal to the fuel burner placed upstream of DPF that will increase the
ceramic monoliths etc. At present, the honeycomb ceramic monolith
temperature around 650 °C; then the soot oxidation begins. This
wall flow concepts have been widely used to collect diesel particulate
regeneration process is initiated when the backpressure typically is
matter. These honeycomb monolith traps the particulate matter as the
75 mm Hg [93]. As the combustion begins, increase in temperature
gas flows through its porous walls. These filters are often named as
accelerates the combustion of soot further that may result in an
Ceramic wall flow filters. In these alternate cells are plugged at one end
uncontrolled increase in temperatures and melt the substrate. To
and open at the opposite end. The exhaust gasses enter the cells that
control temperatures during regeneration, the burner may be shut off
are open at the upstream end and flow through the porous walls to the
midway through the regeneration cycle. The burning process
adjacent cells. The adjacent cells are open at the opposite downstream
progressing from the front oxidizes soot in the remainder of the filter
end and the filtered gas exits from the opposite end to the atmosphere.
and the process is expedited due to increase in oxygen concentration. It
The flow path of gas through wall flow filters is also shown schema-
also helps in controlling the filter bed temperature gradients and peak
tically in Fig. 4. This wall flow concept has large filtration surface areas
temperature below a critical level to prevent filter cracking and melting
per unit volume with high filtration efficiency close to 98% being
(Figs. 5 and 6).
possible [91,92]. Filtration efficiency of a DPF of 144 mm dia.x150mm
length and having a substrate of 100 cpsi (cells/in2), 0.017 in
(0.43 mm) wall thickness used on a 1.9 l, turbocharged, DI diesel
engine was evaluated in this study [92]. Test result indicated that 6.2.1.3. Electric regeneration. Electric filter regeneration is similar in
78.2% reduction of volatile substances and about 98.9% removal of principle to the burner system except that an electric resistance heater
solid soot and total about 97.7% filtration efficiency was achieved. replaces the complex burner and electronic controls. Power to the
electric heater is supplied by the engine alternator. A typical truck DPF
regeneration system may require a 3 kW heater.
6.2. Regeneration

Periodically the control system activates the diesel fuel burners or


It is relatively easy to filter and collect the particulate matter in the
electric heaters to start the regeneration cycle. Regeneration may be
trap. The most difficult and challenging job is to remove the soot
required typically every two hours and the regeneration cycle lasts for
particle collected in the trap. In order to recover the trap to its original
8–10 min. When the backpressure value approaches the value of the
clean state before the filter is plugged by the soot particles, the
clean filter, it indicates the completion of the regeneration cycle.
regeneration process is carried out. During the process of regeneration,
the soot particles collected in the filter must be oxidized to carbon
dioxide without melting or cracking the filtration ceramic substrate
6.3. Passive/catalytic regeneration
under the high temperature achieved during regeneration. Depending
upon the type of regeneration method diesel particulate filters may be
The active regeneration systems discussed above are quite complex
classified as follows:
and expensive. This has led to more research work on the development
of passive regeneration systems. The passive regeneration systems
6.2.1. Active regeneration
employ catalysts to reduce soot oxidation temperatures to the levels
Inactive regeneration system, sensors monitor the particulate build
that lie within the normal exhaust gas temperature range. The catalyst
up across the trap. On receiving the signal from the sensor, the exhaust
can either be added to diesel fuel in the form of additives or it can be
gas temperature is increased above 500 °C by any one of the following
coated on the surface of the filter substrate. Another approach for
techniques:

6.2.1.1. Engine throttling. Throttling air to the engine increases


exhaust gas temperature. Reduction in airflow would result in a
decrease of overall air-fuel ratio, which increases the combustion
temperature resulting in higher exhaust temperature. Throttling
increases the engine pumping losses and to maintain the same
engine power output more fuel has to be injected, which increases
the exhaust temperature. Throttling, on the other hand, decreases
oxygen concentration of exhaust. Soot oxidation requires 2–5% oxygen
in the exhaust and throttling is to be limited to provide this much
oxygen. The major drawback of this method is that, under normal
cruising conditions, throttling is unable to increase the exhaust Fig. 5. Active burner regeneration in DPF.

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S. Mohankumar, P. Senthilkumar Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017) 1227–1238

However, to achieve the best performance of CRT, the following


conditions should be met [98]:

i) Sulfur content of the fuel should be less than 30 ppm to prevent


catalyst poisoning.
ii) Temperature should be in the range 250–450 °C.
iii) NOx/Soot ratio should be adequately high otherwise NO2 available
will be too low to oxidize soot.

6.4. Metal supported diesel particulate filter/trap


Fig. 6. Continuous regeneration trap in DPF.
Although wall flow diesel particulate filters have very high particu-
passive regeneration is to install a specially designed oxidation catalyst late trapping efficiency, their regeneration over the entire life span
in front of the ceramic wall flow particulate filter to promote soot extending to 496,000 Kms for heavy-duty vehicles is a major concern.
oxidation. This system is known as the continuously regenerating trap To overcome this difficulty the metal supported flow through diesel
(CRT). filters employing CRT operational principle for continuous combustion
of accumulated particulate matter have been developed [99,100]. These
6.3.1. Regeneration with fuel additives filters have been developed to provide 50–70% reduction in PM
Usually, additives like Fe, Ce, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Pb based fuel emissions. These filters are also called ‘Partial flow filters’. These filters
additives lower the soot oxidation temperatures [94–96]. Cerium and have a modular structure. In the first section, an oxidation catalyst is
copper based additives in 60–100 ppm concentration are seen to lower installed where NO is oxidized to NO2 for combustion of soot. Here,
soot ignition temperature to about 300 °C and soot regeneration has HC, CO, and SOF part of PM also get oxidized. The second section
been achieved at a temperature below 400 °C [94,95]. The cerium fuel consists of flow through type filter element soot collection and
additive gets converted to cerium oxide on combustion in the engine combustion process. The typical cell density of these filters is 200 cpsi.
and cerium oxide on reaching the DPF catalysts the soot oxidation. Its Reduction in PM was low during tests on ECE 15 +EUDC cycle for the
mechanism of action is as shown below: light vehicles [99].Higher reductions were obtained on US heavy duty-
Transient cycle due to higher exhaust gas temperatures that promote
(i) Oxidation of soot soot oxidation [100].

2CeO2 +C−→Ce2O3+CO 7. Conclusion

In this review paper, an attempt has been made to review the


(ii) Oxidation of carbon Mono-oxide
various works carried out to control diesel particulate matter in the last
CO+1/2 O2−→CO2 few decades. Particulate matter from diesel engines is one of the major
regulated emissions. If it is not minimized it causes Hazardous effects
in both human beings and the environment. Various laboratory studies
(iii) Ce2O3 is an unstable compound and gets converted to Ce2O2 in
carried out on animals indicates that prolong exposure to Particulate
the exhaust gas as excess oxygen is available by the following
matter will lead to several problems like lung cancer, respiratory
reaction
problems, asthma etc.
Ce2O3+1/2 O2−→2CeO2 Various studies on the effect of Fuel composition on PM emissions
show that fuel with low carbon to weight ratio, low aromatic content,
low sulfur content and addition of oxygenated additives could reduce
the particulate matter to a great extent. Water emulsified fuel was seen
These reactions are quite fast and take 2–6 s only to occur once the as another prominent technology to control NOx and particulate matter
temperature is sufficiently high. Since the oxidation of soot and CO are simultaneously.
exothermic reactions, the heat released can increase the filter bed Studies made on Role of Injection Parameters on Particulate
temperature significantly. The fuel borne catalyst technology for emissions conclude that Micro-hole nozzle with high injection pressure
particulate trap regeneration has been investigated extensively and is will reduce particulate matter to a greater value. With CRDI technol-
considered quite promising. The additive can be introduced into the ogy, multiple injections was seen to reduce both PM and NOx
fuel when required by automatic dosing equipment on board. Studies emissions.
have also been made with fuel borne catalyst with the DPF having a Post-combustion technologies are the best-suited methods to meet
catalyzed wash coat. the current robust emission norms. Diesel Particulate filter is the
currently used technology to minimize PM emissions. DPF are
6.3.2. Continuously Regenerating Trap (CRT) system regenerated to burn off the collected soot. Different types of regenera-
The trap substrate can be coated with a catalyst material to reduce tion method used to burn off the soot collected have also been
soot oxidation temperature to as low as 200 °C, However, the preferred discussed.
approach is to install an oxidation catalyst where NO is preferentially Although particulate filters have great filtration efficiency, there are
converted to NO2 ahead of diesel particulate filter. The catalysts used several associated problems. If the filters are not regenerated properly,
are noble metals. The principle of CRT is based on the fact that NO2 is a it will create back pressure and it will increase fuel consumption. Since
much superior oxidizing agent for soot compared with oxygen [97]. active regeneration requires complex set-up, the overall cost of the
NO2 was shown to oxidize the dry carbon soot trapped in the filter system gets increased.
below 300 °C by the following reactions: Electrostatic Precipitator is another prominent technology to
2NO2+C → CO2+2NO capture PM and overcome the drawbacks faced by DPF. Further
research needs to be done in this particular area.
With the implementation of stringent emission norms across
NO2+C → CO+NO
worldwide. The PM mass concentration and PM number are also

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