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# 1. Soft wood chips weighing 17.2 kg are placed in an iron vessel and mixed with 150.

1 kg
water and 22.43 kg sodium hydroxide. A steel lid seals the vessel, which is then placed in
an oven at 250°C for 6 hours. Much of the wood fiber decomposes under these conditions;
the vessel and lid do not react.
a. Classify each of the materials mentioned as a substance or mixture. Subclassify the
substances as elements or compounds.
b. Determine the mass of the contents of the iron vessel after the reaction.

2. Naturally occurring rubidium (Rb) consists of two isotopes: 85Rb (atomic mass 84.9117)
and 87Rb (atomic mass 86.9092). The atomic mass of the isotope mixture found in nature
is 85.4678. Calculate the percentage abundances of the two isotopes in rubidium.

3. A dark brown binary compound contains oxygen and a metal. It is 13.38% oxygen by
mass. Heating it moderately drives off some of the oxygen and gives a red binary
compound that is 9.334% oxygen by mass. Strong heating drives off more oxygen and
gives still another binary compound, which is only 7.168% oxygen by mass.
a. Compute the mass of oxygen that is combined with 1.000 g of the metal in each of
these three oxides.
b. Assume that the empirical formula of the first compound is MO2 (where M represents
the metal). Give the empirical formulas of the second and third compounds.
c. Name the metal.

4. A sample of a gaseous binary compound of boron and chlorine weighing 2.842 g occupies
0.153 L. This sample is decomposed to give 0.664 g solid boron and enough gaseous
chlorine (Cl2) to occupy 0.688 L at the same temperature and pressure. Determine the
molecular formula of the compound.

5. Citric acid (C6H8O7) is made by fermentation of sugars such as sucrose (C12H22O11) in air.
Oxygen is consumed and water generated as a by-product.
a. Write a balanced equation for the overall reaction that occurs in the manufacture of
citric acid from sucrose.
b. What mass of citric acid is made from 15.0 kg sucrose?

## 6. An industrial-scale process for making acetylene consists of the following sequence of

operations:
CaCO3  CaO + CO2
Limestone lime carbon dioxide
CaO + 3 C  CaC2 + CO
Calcium carbide carbon monoxide
CaC2 + 2 H2O  Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
Calcium hydroxide Acetylene
What is the percentage yield of the overall process if 2.32 metric tons C2H2 is produced
from 10.0 metric tons limestone (1 metric ton = 1000 kg) ?

7. An ionic compound used as a chemical fertilizer has the composition (by mass) 48.46% O,
23.45% P, 21.21% N, 6.87% H. Give the name and chemical formula of the compound
and draw Lewis diagrams for the two typesof ions that make it up.

8. A compound is being tested for use as a rocket propellant. Analysis shows that it contains
18.54% F, 34.61% Cl, and 46.85% O.
a. Determine the empirical formula for this compound.
b. Assuming that the molecular formula is the same as the empirical formula, draw a
Lewis diagram for this molecule.
c. Use the VSEPR theory to predict the structure of the molecule from part (b).

9. A solid sample of Rb2SO3 weighing 6.24 g reacts with 1.38 L gaseous HBr, mea sured at
75°C and 0.953 atm pressure. The solid RbBr, extracted from the reaction mixture and
purified, has a mass of 7.32 g.
a. What is the limiting reactant?
b. What is the theoretical yield of RbBr, assuming complete reaction?
c. What is the actual percentage yield of product?

10. a. Sketch the phase diagram of temperature versus molar volume for carbon dioxide,
indicating the region of each of the phases (gas, liquid, and solid) and the coexistence
regions for two phases.
b. Liquid water has a maximum at 4°C in its curve of density against temperature at P 5
1 atm, and the solid is less dense than the liquid. What happens if you try to draw a
phase diagram of T versus molar volume for water?