You are on page 1of 15

# JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

## School of Distance Education & Learning

Internal Assignment No. 1

## Paper Code: BCA -106

Paper Title: Computer Organization

## Last Date of submission: Max. Marks: 15

Note: Question No. 1 is of short answer type and is compulsory for all the students. It
carries 5 Marks. (Word limits 50-100)

Section-A

## (ii) Differentiate between Schottky and Zener diode.

Schottky diodes and Zener diodes are two different types of diodes. The main difference between
Schottky and Zener diode is that a Schottky diode is made of a metal-semiconductor junction whereas
a Zener diode is made of a p-n junction of two highly-doped semiconductors.

## (iii). What are the control unit and its functions?

(iv). what is skip instructions?

## (v). What are the accumulators?

An accumulator is a register for short-term, intermediate storage of arithmetic and logic data in a

computer's CPU (central processing unit). The term "accumulator" is rarely used in reference to contemporary CPUs,

having been replaced around the turn of the millennium by the term "register." In a modern computers, any register

## can function as an accumulator.

The most elementary use for an accumulator is adding a sequence of numbers. The numerical value in the

accumulator increases as each number is added, exactly as it happens in a simple desktop calculator (but much

faster, of course). Once the sum has been determined, it is written to the main memory or to another register.

Section-B

Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q.1. What is IC? Explain the different generations of IC.
Q.2. What is difference between hardwired and microprogrammed implementation of control
unit?
Q.3. What is meant by addressing mode? Explain at least five different addressing modes with an
example.
The operation field of an instruction specifies the operation to be performed. This operation will be executed on some data which is stored in
computer registers or the main memory. The way any operand is selected during the program execution is dependent on the addressing
mode of the instruction. The purpose of using addressing modes is as follows:
1. To give the programming versatility to the user.
2. To reduce the number of bits in addressing field of instruction.

Immediate Mode
In this mode, the operand is specified in the instruction itself. An immediate mode instruction has an operand field rather than the address
field.
For example: ADD 7, which says Add 7 to contents of accumulator. 7 is the operand here.

Register Mode
In this mode the operand is stored in the register and this register is present in CPU. The instruction has the address of the Register where
the operand is stored.

##  Very limited address space

 Using multiple registers helps performance but it complicates the instructions.

## Register Indirect Mode

In this mode, the instruction specifies the register whose contents give us the address of operand which is in memory. Thus, the register
contains the address of operand rather than the operand itself.
Auto Increment/Decrement Mode
In this the register is incremented or decremented after or before its value is used.

In this mode, effective address of operand is present in instruction itself.

##  Single memory reference to access data.

 No additional calculations to find the effective address of the operand.

For Example: ADD R1, 4000 - In this the 4000 is effective address of operand.
NOTE: Effective Address is the location where operand is present.

In this, the address field of instruction gives the address where the effective address is stored in memory. This slows down the execution, as
this includes multiple memory lookups to find the operand.

In this the contents of the indexed register is added to the Address part of the instruction, to obtain the effective address of operand.
EA = A + (R), In this the address field holds two values, A(which is the base value) and R(that holds the displacement), or vice versa.

It is a version of Displacement addressing mode.
In this the contents of PC(Program Counter) is added to address part of instruction to obtain the effective address.
EA = A + (PC), where EA is effective address and PC is program counter.
The operand is A cells away from the current cell(the one pointed to by PC)
JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
School of Distance Education & Learning
Internal Assignment No. 2

## Paper Code: BCA -106

Paper Title: Computer Organization

## Last Date of submission: Max. Marks: 15

Note: Question No. 1 is of short answer type and is compulsory for all the students. It
carries 5 Marks. (Word limits 50-100)

Section-A

## (i). What are the stack pointers?

A stack pointer is a small register that stores the address of the last program request in a stack. A stack is a

specialized buffer which stores data from the top down. As new requests come in, they "push down" the older ones.

The most recently entered request always resides at the top of the stack, and the program always takes requests

## from the top.

A stack (also called a pushdown stack) operates in a last-in/first-out sense. When a new data item is entered or

"pushed" onto the top of a stack, the stack pointer increments to the next physical memory address, and the new item

is copied to that address. When a data item is "pulled" or "popped" from the top of a stack, the item is copied from the

address of the stack pointer, and the stack pointer decrements to the next available item at the top of the stack.

## (ii) Differentiate between RAM and ROM.

(iii).Write a short note on tunneling.
Tunneling is a protocol that allows for the secure movement of data from one network to another. Tunneling involves allowing
private network communications to be sent across a public network, such as the Internet, through a process called encapsulation.
The encapsulation process allows for data packets to appear as though they are of a public nature to a public network when they
are actually private data packets, allowing them to pass through unnoticed.
Tunneling is also known as port forwarding.

## (v). Write any two difference between a microcontroller and microprocessors.

Section-B

Note: Answer any two questions. Each question carries 5 marks (Word limits 500)
Q.1. Describes the I/O cards in personal computers.

## Q.2. Briefly explain the following:

(a) EPROM (b) cache memory (c) virtual memory (d) main memory

EPROM
Acronym for erasable programmable read-only memory, and pronounced ee-prom, EPROM is a special type of memory that retains its contents until it is exposed to ultraviolet

light. The ultraviolet light clears its contents, making it possible to reprogram the memory. To write to and erase an EPROM, you need a special device called

## a PROM programmer or PROM burner.

An EPROM differs from a PROM in that a PROM can be written to only once and cannot be erased. EPROMs are used widely in personal computers because they enable the

manufacturer to change the contents of the PROM before the computer is actually shipped. This means that bugscan be removed and new versions installed shortly before
delivery.

Cache
Cache memory provides faster data storage and access by storing instances of programs and data routinely accessed by the
processor. Thus, when a processor requests data that already has an instance in the cache memory, it does not need to go to the
main memory or the hard disk to fetch the data.
Cache memory can be primary or secondary cache memory, with primary cache memory directly integrated into (or closest to) the
processor. In addition to hardware-based cache, cache memory also can be a disk cache, where a reserved portion on a disk stores

Virtual Memory
Computers have a finite amount of RAM so memory can run out, especially when multiple programs run at the same

time. A system using virtual memory can load larger programs or multiple programs running at the same time,

allowing each one to operate as if it has infinite memory and without having to purchase more RAM.

As part of the process of copying virtual memory into physical memory, the OS divides memory into pagefiles or swap

files that contain a fixed number of addresses. Each page is stored on a disk and when the page is needed, the OS

copies it from the disk to main memory and translates the virtual addresses into real addresses.

## Pros and cons of using virtual memory

Among the primary benefits of virtual memory is its ability to handle twice as many addresses as main memory. It uses software

to consume more memory by using the HDD as temporary storage while memory management units translate virtual memory

addresses to physical addresses via the central processing unit. Programs use virtual addresses to store instructions and data;

when a program is executed, the virtual addresses are converted into actual memory addresses.

Main Memory
Main memory refers to physical memory that is internal to the computer. The word main is used to distinguish it from external mass storage devices such as disk drives. Other

terms used to mean main memory include RAM and primary storage.

The computer can manipulate only data that is in main memory. Therefore, every program you execute and every file you accessmust be copied from a storage device into main

memory. The amount of main memory on a computer is crucial because it determines how many programs can be executed at one time and how much data can be readily

available to a program.

Because computers often have too little main memory to hold all the data they need, computer engineers invented a technique called swapping, in which portions of data are

copied into main memory as they are needed. Swapping occurs when there is no room in memory for needed data. When one portion of data is copied into memory, an equal-

## The following image depicts the pin diagram of 8085 Microprocessor −

The pins of a 8085 microprocessor can be classified into seven groups −

A15-A8, it carries the most significant 8-bits of memory/IO address.

Data bus

## Control and status signals

These signals are used to identify the nature of operation. There are 3
control signal and 3 status signals.
Three control signals are RD, WR & ALE.
 RD − This signal indicates that the selected IO or memory device is to be read and is ready for accepting data available
on the data bus.

 WR − This signal indicates that the data on the data bus is to be written into a selected memory or IO location.

 ALE − It is a positive going pulse generated when a new operation is started by the microprocessor. When the pulse
goes high, it indicates address. When the pulse goes down it indicates data.
Three status signals are IO/M, S0 & S1.

IO/M
This signal is used to differentiate between IO and Memory operations, i.e.
when it is high indicates IO operation and when it is low then it indicates
memory operation.

S1 & S0
These signals are used to identify the type of current operation.

Power supply
There are 2 power supply signals − VCC & VSS. VCC indicates +5v power
supply and VSS indicates ground signal.

Clock signals
There are 3 clock signals, i.e. X1, X2, CLK OUT.
 X1, X2 − A crystal (RC, LC N/W) is connected at these two pins and is used to set frequency of the internal clock
generator. This frequency is internally divided by 2.

 CLK OUT − This signal is used as the system clock for devices connected with the microprocessor.

## Interrupts & externally initiated signals

Interrupts are the signals generated by external devices to request the
microprocessor to perform a task. There are 5 interrupt signals, i.e. TRAP,
RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5, and INTR. We will discuss interrupts in detail in
interrupts section.
 INTA − It is an interrupt acknowledgment signal.

 RESET IN − This signal is used to reset the microprocessor by setting the program counter to zero.

 RESET OUT − This signal is used to reset all the connected devices when the microprocessor is reset.

 READY − This signal indicates that the device is ready to send or receive data. If READY is low, then the CPU has to wait

 HOLD − This signal indicates that another master is requesting the use of the address and data buses.

 HLDA (HOLD Acknowledge) − It indicates that the CPU has received the HOLD request and it will relinquish the bus in
the next clock cycle. HLDA is set to low after the HOLD signal is removed.

## Serial I/O signals

There are 2 serial signals, i.e. SID and SOD and these signals are used for
serial communication.
 SOD (Serial output data line) − The output SOD is set/reset as specified by the SIM instruction.

 SID (Serial input data line) − The data on this line is loaded into accumulator whenever a RIM instruction is executed.