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# Contents

• Quantization
• coding
• Digital to Analog Conversion
Example 1.4.2

Solution:
Example
1.4.3
DIY
Example 1.4.4

Solution:
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𝑭𝒔
Folding Frequency/Nyquist Frequency :
𝟐
Quantization
• The process of converting a discrete-time continuous-amplitude signal into
a digital signal by expressing each sample value as a finite number of
digits is called quantization.
• The error introduced in representing the continuous-valued signal by a
finite set of discrete value levels is called quantization error or
quantization noise.
• Denote the quantizer operation on the samples x(n) as Q[x(n)] and let
𝑥𝑞 (n) denote the sequence of quantized samples at the output of the
quantizer. Then the quantization error is a sequence 𝑒𝑞 (n) defined as the
difference between the quantized value and the actual sample value.
𝑒𝑞 (n) = 𝑥𝑞 (𝑛) − 𝑥(𝑛)
Example
Quantization error:
−∆ ∆
≤ 𝑒𝑞 (n) ≤
2 2

## 𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑠

∆=
𝑛𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑠 −1

𝑥max − 𝑥𝑚𝑖𝑛
=
𝐿−1
Sampling and Quantization
Coding
• In the coding process in an A/D converter assigns a unique binary
number to each quantization level. For L levels we need at least L
different binary numbers.
• The number of bits required in the coder is the smallest integer greater
than or equal to 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝐿.
𝑅
• Step size or resolution = ∆= 𝑏+1 , R is range of quantizer
2
• Generally, higher the sampling speed and the finer the quantization,
and device becomes expensive.
Digital to Analog Conversion
• To convert a digital signal into an analog signal, use a
digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. D/A converter is to
interpolate between samples.
• The simplest D/A converter is the zero-order, which
simply holds constant the value of one sample until the
next one is received.
• Additional improvement can be obtained by using
linear interpolation to connect successive samples
with straight- line segments.
• In general, interpolation techniques result in passing
frequencies above the folding frequency. Such
frequency components are undesirable and are
usually removed by passing the output of the
interpolator through a proper analog filter, which is
called a post-filter or smoothing filter.
Exercise Problems
• 1.1
• 1.2
• 1.7
• 1.8
• 1.9
• 1.10
• 1.11
• 1.12