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SPM

Pulse Propagation

Recap

Other Soliton Types

Conclusion

Soliton Propagation

Shuvan Prashant

Sri Sathya Sai University, Prasanthi Nilayam

March 6, 2010

as part of PHY 1003 Nonlinear Optics Coursework.

Solitons

SPM

Pulse Propagation

Recap

Other Soliton Types

Conclusion

Outline

1

Solitons Introduction SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion

2

3

4

5

6

Solitons

SPM

Pulse Propagation

Recap

Other Soliton Types

Conclusion

Solitary reaper

Soliton Solitary Solution → Soliton:There exists a single solution to the propagation equation.

Solitons

SPM

Pulse Propagation

Recap

Other Soliton Types

Conclusion

Solitary reaper

Soliton Solitary Solution → Soliton:There exists a single solution to the propagation equation. Big deal about Solitons Soliton suggests particle type behaviour

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Solitary reaper Soliton Solitary Solution → Soliton:There exists a single solution to the propagation equation. Big deal about Solitons Soliton suggests particle type behaviour Solitons travel without any dispersion inside any standard ﬁber .

Big deal about Solitons Soliton suggests particle type behaviour Solitons travel without any dispersion inside any standard ﬁber (even highly dispersive ones) .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Solitary reaper Soliton Solitary Solution → Soliton:There exists a single solution to the propagation equation.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Solitary reaper Soliton Solitary Solution → Soliton:There exists a single solution to the propagation equation. Big deal about Solitons Soliton suggests particle type behaviour Solitons travel without any dispersion inside any standard ﬁber (even highly dispersive ones) Result: .

little (some but small) interaction between channels using solitons exists. Big deal about Solitons Soliton suggests particle type behaviour Solitons travel without any dispersion inside any standard ﬁber (even highly dispersive ones) Result: Single-channel data streams possible of 100 to 200 Gbps In a WDM system.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Solitary reaper Soliton Solitary Solution → Soliton:There exists a single solution to the propagation equation. .

” [NLFO Agarwal] Such waves were later called solitary waves. .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Soliton sighted ﬁrst time 1834 Scott Russell observed a heap of water in a canal that propagated undistorted over several kilometers. which continued its course along the channel apparently without change of form or diminution of speed. and overtook it still rolling on at a rate of some eight or nine miles an hour. I followed it on horseback. preserving its original ﬁgure some thirty feet long and a foot to a foot and a half in height. smooth and well-deﬁned heap of water. “a rounded.

te i(k0 −ω0 t) + c.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Self Phase Modulation is the phase change of optical pulse due to nonlinearity of medium’s RI Consider the pulse ˜ ˜ E (z. (1) .c. t) = Az.

t) = Az.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Self Phase Modulation is the phase change of optical pulse due to nonlinearity of medium’s RI Consider the pulse ˜ ˜ E (z. through a medium having nonlinear refractive index n(t) = n0 + n2 I (t) where ˜ I (t) = 2n0 0 c|A(z.c. te i(k0 −ω0 t) + c. t)|2 (2) (1) .

t)|2 (2) (1) Assumptions: Instantaneous material response and suﬃciently small length of material Change in phase φNL (t) = −n2 I (t)ω0 L/c (3) . through a medium having nonlinear refractive index n(t) = n0 + n2 I (t) where ˜ I (t) = 2n0 0 c|A(z.c. t) = Az.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Self Phase Modulation is the phase change of optical pulse due to nonlinearity of medium’s RI Consider the pulse ˜ ˜ E (z. te i(k0 −ω0 t) + c.

c. t) = Az.spectral modiﬁcation of pulse Instantaneous frequency of the pulse ω(t) = ω0 + δω(t) where δω(t) = d φNL (t) dt (4) . te i(k0 −ω0 t) + c. t)|2 (2) (1) Assumptions: Instantaneous material response and suﬃciently small length of material Change in phase φNL (t) = −n2 I (t)ω0 L/c (3) Time varying pulse . through a medium having nonlinear refractive index n(t) = n0 + n2 I (t) where ˜ I (t) = 2n0 0 c|A(z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Self Phase Modulation is the phase change of optical pulse due to nonlinearity of medium’s RI Consider the pulse ˜ ˜ E (z.

c. through a medium having nonlinear refractive index n(t) = n0 + n2 I (t) where ˜ I (t) = 2n0 0 c|A(z. t)|2 (2) (1) Assumptions: Instantaneous material response and suﬃciently small length of material Change in phase φNL (t) = −n2 I (t)ω0 L/c (3) Time varying pulse . t) = Az.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Self Phase Modulation is the phase change of optical pulse due to nonlinearity of medium’s RI Consider the pulse ˜ ˜ E (z. te i(k0 −ω0 t) + c.spectral modiﬁcation of pulse Instantaneous frequency of the pulse ω(t) = ω0 + δω(t) [Boyd2003] where δω(t) = d φNL (t) dt (4) .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse Pulseshape I (t) = I0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse Pulseshape I (t) = I0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) Nonlinear phase shift φNL (t) = −n2 I (t)ω0 L/c .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse Pulseshape I (t) = I0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) Nonlinear phase shift φNL (t) = −n2 I0 sech2 (t/τ0 )ω0 L/c .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse Pulseshape I (t) = I0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) Nonlinear phase shift φNL (t) = −n2 I0 sech2 (t/τ0 )ω0 L/c Change in instantaneous frequency dI L ω0 δω(t) = −n2 ω0 = 2n2 LI0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) tanh(t/τ0 ) dt c cτ0 Leading edge shifted to lower frequencies and trailing edge to higher frequencies .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse Pulseshape I (t) = I0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) Nonlinear phase shift φNL (t) = −n2 I0 sech2 (t/τ0 )ω0 L/c Change in instantaneous frequency dI L ω0 δω(t) = −n2 ω0 = 2n2 LI0 sech2 (t/τ0 ) tanh(t/τ0 ) dt c cτ0 Leading edge shifted to lower frequencies and trailing edge to higher frequencies Max value of freq shift ω0 δωmax n2 LI0 cτ0 ∆φmax NL ωmax τ0 ω0 where ∆φmax = n2 LI0 NL c .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion The Case of Curious sech pulse [Boyd2003] .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Chirping of an optical pulse by propagation through a nonlinear optical Kerr medium [SalehTeich] .

t) = A(z. ω) = (ω)E (z. ω)e −iωt 2π −∞ D(z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion How do Pulses Propagate in Dispersive Media ??? ˜ ˜ E (z.c. ω) Using Fourier transforms in wave equation ∂ 2 E (z. ω) ω2 + (ω) 2 E (z. t) = E (z. (5) where k0 = nlin (ω0 )ω0 /c How does pulse envelope function propagate in dispersive media ? Wave Equation ˜ ˜ ∂2E 1 ∂2D − 2 2 =0 (6) 2 ∂z c ∂t Fourier Transforms ∞ dω ˜ (7) E (z. ω) ∂z 2 c [Boyd2003] (8) . t)e i(k0 z−ω0 t) + c.

ω ) = ∞ −∞ ˜ A(z. t)e iω t dt .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media Slowly varying amplitude ˜ A(z.

ω) = A(z. ω − ω0 )e ik0 z + A∗ (z. ω + ω0 )e −ik0 z . ω ) = ∞ −∞ ˜ A(z. t)e iω t dt E (z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media Slowly varying amplitude ˜ A(z.

ω − ω0 )e ik0 z + A∗ (z. ω − ω0 )e ik0 z On substitution into the wave equation 2ik0 where k(ω) = ∂A 2 + (k 2 − k0 )A = 0 ∂z 2 k 2 − k0 ∼ 2k0 (k − k0 ) (9) (ω)ω/c. ω + ω0 )e −ik0 z E (z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media Slowly varying amplitude ˜ A(z. t)e iω t dt E (z. ω ) = ∞ −∞ ˜ A(z. ω − ω0 ) − i(k − k0 )A(z. ω) A(z. ∂A(z. ω) = A(z. ω − ω0 ) = 0 ∂z .

ω − ω0 ) = 0 ∂z [Boyd2003] . ω) = A(z. ω − ω0 ) − i(k − k0 )A(z. ω − ω0 )e ik0 z + A∗ (z. ω − ω0 )e ik0 z On substitution into the wave equation 2ik0 where k(ω) = ∂A 2 + (k 2 − k0 )A = 0 ∂z 2 k 2 − k0 ∼ 2k0 (k − k0 ) (9) (ω)ω/c. ∂A(z. ω) A(z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media Slowly varying amplitude ˜ A(z. ω + ω0 )e −ik0 z E (z. ω ) = ∞ −∞ ˜ A(z. t)e iω t dt E (z.

t)|2 k1 = dk dω = ω=ω0 (10) (11) 1 dnlin (ω0 ) nlin (ω0 ) + ω c dω ∼ = ω=ω0 1 vg (ω0 ) .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media 1 k = k0 + ∆kNL + k1 (ω − ω0 ) + k2 (ω − ω0 )2 2 Nonlinear contribution of propagation constant ∆kNL = ∆nNL ω0 /c = n2 I ω0 /c ˜ with I = [nlin (ω0 )c/2π]|A(z.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media 1 k = k0 + ∆kNL + k1 (ω − ω0 ) + k2 (ω − ω0 )2 2 Nonlinear contribution of propagation constant ∆kNL = ∆nNL ω0 /c = n2 I ω0 /c ˜ with I = [nlin (ω0 )c/2π]|A(z. t)|2 k1 = dk dω = 1 dnlin (ω0 ) nlin (ω0 ) + ω c dω = d 1 dω vg (ω0 ) ∼ = ω=ω0 (10) (11) ∼ = ω=ω0 k2 = ω=ω0 2k d 1 vg (ω0 ) dω 2 ω=ω0 −1 dvg 2 vg dω ω=ω0 [Boyd2003] .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media .

t) 2π −∞ . ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = A(z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media ∂A 1 − i∆kNL A − ik1 (ω − ω0 )A − ik2 (ω − ω0 )2 A = 0 (12) ∂z 2 Frequency Domain to Time domain transformation ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ˜ A(z.

t) 2π −∞ ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ∂ ˜ (ω − ω0 )A(z. ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = A(z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media ∂A 1 − i∆kNL A − ik1 (ω − ω0 )A − ik2 (ω − ω0 )2 A = 0 (12) ∂z 2 Frequency Domain to Time domain transformation ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ˜ A(z. t) 2π ∂t −∞ . ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = i A(z.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media ∂A 1 − i∆kNL A − ik1 (ω − ω0 )A − ik2 (ω − ω0 )2 A = 0 (12) ∂z 2 Frequency Domain to Time domain transformation ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ˜ A(z. ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t d(ω − ω0 ) 2π = − ∂2 ˜ A(z. t) 2π −∞ ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ∂ ˜ (ω − ω0 )A(z. t) ∂t 2 . t) 2π ∂t −∞ ∞ −∞ (ω − ω0 )2 A(z. ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = A(z. ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = i A(z.

t) 2π ∂t −∞ ∞ −∞ (ω − ω0 )2 A(z. t) 2π −∞ ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ∂ ˜ (ω − ω0 )A(z. t) ∂t 2 The ﬁnal equation is ˜ ˜ ˜ ∂A ∂A 1 ∂2A ˜ + k1 + ik2 2 − i∆kNL A = 0 ∂z ∂t 2 ∂t [Boyd2003] (13) . ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = A(z. ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t d(ω − ω0 ) 2π = − ∂2 ˜ A(z. ω − ω0 )e −i(ω−ω0 )t = i A(z.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media ∂A 1 − i∆kNL A − ik1 (ω − ω0 )A − ik2 (ω − ω0 )2 A = 0 (12) ∂z 2 Frequency Domain to Time domain transformation ∞ d(ω − ω0 ) ˜ A(z.

t) (14) ˜ ˜ ∂ As 1 ∂ 2 As ˜ + ik2 − i∆kNL As = 0 ∂z 2 ∂τ 2 Deﬁning nonlinear propagation as ∆kNL = n2 n0 n2 ω0 ˜ 2 ω0 ˜ I = |As | = γ|As |2 c 2π (15) (16) Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation ˜ ˜ 1 ∂ 2 As ∂ As ˜ ˜ + ik2 = iγ|As |2 As ∂z 2 ∂τ 2 [Boyd2003] (17) .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Media On co-ordinate transformation from t to τ τ =t− z = t − k1 z vg and ˜ ˜ As (z. τ ) = A(z.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Solitary Solution Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation ˜ ˜ ∂ As 1 ∂ 2 As ˜ ˜ + ik2 = iγ|As |2 As ∂z 2 ∂τ 2 Soliton ˜ As (z. τ ) = A0 sech(τ /τ0 )e iκz s where pulse amplitude an pulse width I0 = |A0 |2 = s −k2 −2πk2 = 2 2 γτ0 n0 n2 ω0 τ0 (20) (19) (18) and phase shift experienced by the pulse upon propagation 1 2 κ = −k2 /2τ0 = γ|A0 |2 s 2 This is the Fundamental Soliton solution [Boyd2003] (21) .

Thus a spectrally wide pulse disperses → the shorter wavelengths got to the leading edge of the pulse .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion How it happens? A Recap in words Anomalous dispersion regime λ > 1310nm Chromatic dispersion ( remember GVD ) causes shorter wavelengths to travel faster.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion What makes it work? High intensity pulses → Change in RI → Phase change and frequency change Non-linear Kerr eﬀect → self-phase modulation (SPM) SPM causes a chirp eﬀect where longer wavelengths tend to move to the beginning of a pulse Opposite direction to the direction of GVD in anomalous dispersion regime If the pulse length and the intensity are right. . negative GVD and SPM strike a balance and the pulse will stay together.

.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion What makes it work? The faster (high-frequency components) at the beginning of the pulse are slowed down a bit and the slower (low-frequency components) in the back are speeded up.

[IBM] .Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Soliton launch a pulse of right energy and right duration into a ﬁbre medium → short travel → evolves into the characteristic sech(hyperbolic secant) shape of a soliton.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion N-soliton .

. the gap in the beam can behave exactly like a regular soliton! Such gaps are called dark solitons.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Dark Soliton If you have a small gap within an unbroken high power optical beam or a very long pulse.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Spatial Soliton Temporal Optical Solitons → Spatial Solitons intense beam of light → a beam which holds together in the transverse direction without spatial (lateral) dispersion It travels in the material as though it was in a waveguide although it is not! Beam constructs its own waveguide Diﬀraction eﬀects and SPM Application Potentially to be used as a guide for light at other wavelengths Fast optical switches and logic devices by carrying beams of diﬀerent wavelength . [IBM] .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Spatial Soliton .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Pros and Cons Ampliﬁers at regular intervals and working with an intense signal → Practical problem Low maximum power limits on the signal imposed by eﬀects like SBS and SRS To Retain the soliton shape and characteristics ampliﬁcation needed at intervals of 10 to 50 km! Virtually error-free transmission over very long distances at speeds of over 100 Gbps. Laboratory prototype stage right now Attractive for long-distance links in the future. Optical TDM needed as the electronic systems to which the link must be interfaced cannot operate at these very high speeds. [IBM] .

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion To sum up Solitons are solitary solution to the NLS equation in the anomalous dispersion regime for a material having positive SPM Solitons evolve into sech pulses Diﬀerent types of solitons have been explored Laboratory Stage only .

AP . Saleh & Teich . II Edition(2007). International Technical Support Organization Nonlinear Fiber Optics.Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion References Nonlinear Optics. II Edition(2003). III Edition(2004). Elsevier Publications Photonics. I Edition(1998). Wiley Interscience Understanding Optical Communications. R Boyd.

Solitons SPM Pulse Propagation Recap Other Soliton Types Conclusion Thank You for your patient listening .

This presentation gives an overview about the soliton propagation in media. To reason the physical existence of solitons, the relevant mathematics is discussed.

This presentation gives an overview about the soliton propagation in media. To reason the physical existence of solitons, the relevant mathematics is discussed.

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