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26.02.

2018 March | 2017 | Ithihas

Ithihas
Kaleidoscope of Indian civilization

In this blog you will find


Monthly Archives: March 2017
Writeups on Indian historical
themes and Biographies of
rulers and statesmen.
Demythologizing the Historic Krishna
March 6, 2017 – 11:25 am
Blogroll
Sri Krishna the hero of the Yadavas and counselor of the Pandavas was the main
facetsofindianhistory character in the epic Mahabharatha. If not for his teachings contained in the
Sanatana Parishad Bhagavad Gita, now a part of Mahabharatha, the said epic would have been a
Thinkerspad bland story of a quarrel between cousin brothers. In the annals of ancient Indian
history, Krishna possessed a unique personality. A master political strategist, he
refused to ascend the throne of Mathura, though it was the wish and plea of his
Archives fellowmen1. Krishna was a master of various arts like the art of healing2 and in the
February 2018 art of driving chariots3. He was also a good singer and musician4. He invented a
January 2018 new weapon; the Sudharshan Chakra5. Krishna was the first socio-religious
October 2017 reformer of India who questioned the significance of the dry rituals of the Vedas6
August 2017 and in its place founded an egalitarian and universally applicable religion called
June 2017 Bhagavatism7. Its philosophy now contained in the Bhagavad Gita teaches paths
May 2017 to salvation through selfless action (karmayoga), devotion (bhaktiyoga) and
March 2017 meditation (dhanyayoga). In fact the vast literature known as Upanishads, which
October 2016 the whole world admires, contains the teachings of Bhagavad Gita as its kernel8.
June 2016
But over the centuries, various myths were built around Krishna’s personality with
January 2016
some of the events associated with him being exaggerated and interpolated with
November 2015
stories which blemished his character. Some of his views/opinions on statecraft
August 2015 and ethics were also appropriated and its credit given to other historical
June 2015 characters9. In this article, an attempt has been made to demythologize some of
February 2015 the myths associated with Krishna and to find the reason behind this act of
January 2015 interpolating his history with absurdities.
September 2014
June 2014 Critical evaluation of Sources
May 2014
Is it possible to write objectively on Krishna’s history? Yes if we critically evaluate
April 2014
the sources which give us information about him, namely the Puranas and the epic,
March 2014 Mahabharatha. First we will critically examine the Puranas. Amara Simha in his
December 2013 lexicon Amarakosa spoke of the five characteristics which Puranas possessed,
November 2013 namely-
October 2013
September 2013 1. Sarga- about creation;
August 2013
2. Pratisarga- about recreation;
3. Vamsa- genealogy of gods and sages;
May 2013
4. Manvantara- cosmic cycles and
April 2013 5. Vamsanucharita- accounts of royal dynasties.
February 2013
January 2013 Except for the Vishnu Purana, none of the present Puranas have these five
July 2012 characteristics10.
January 2010
July 2009 By the middle of 4th century A.D. the Puranas gradually began to lose their original
June 2009 character and turned into important codes of Hindu rites and customs by including
May 2009
chapters on varnashramadharma, achara, shraddha, prayashichita, dana, puja,
April 2009
vrata, thirtha, diksha, utsarga, etc11. Consequently the accounts of the
genealogies of kings and sages were little cared for and often fabricated. People
March 2009
also took absolute liberty in making changes in the text resulting in the increase of
February 2009
textual corruption in the Puranas12.
October 2008
September 2008

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August 2008 With regards to information on Krishna, except for the Vishnu Purana, Brahma
July 2008 Purana, Bhagavata Purana and Brahma Vaivarta Purana, the story of Krishna is
June 2008 very briefly told in the other Puranas and their accounts is in no way different from
May 2008 those given in the first four Puranas named above13. Even among these four
April 2008 Puranas, the original Brahma Vaivarta Purana is lost and the present Brahma
March 2008 Vaivarta Purana is a modern creation of some enthusiastic religious scholar14,
February 2008 while the Bhagavata Purana is based on some other older Purana15. Coming to
the Brahma Purana, the account of Krishna given in this Purana and Vishnu
Purana is identical word for word in 26 chapters. This means that both the Puranas
have quoted these 26 chapters narrating the career of Krishna from some other
older work16. As Vishnu Purana is the only one which has retained some
characteristics which a Purana should possess as mentioned by Amara Simha,
only this Purana can be relied for reconstructing the history of Krishna.

Coming to the Mahabharatha, Vyasa had composed only the essence of


Mahabharatha comprising 8800 shlokas and that work was known as Jaya.
Vaishampayana added a few verse of his own and brought the number of shlokas
to 24,000 and gave the book the name, Bharata Samhita. It was Suta who made
many more addition and made the book so big as to fetch it the name
Mahabharatha. It took perhaps centuries to get this transformation of the book from
Jaya to Mahabharatha17.

Hence on the nucleus of the family feud of the Kauravas and Pandavas, in its
present form the Mahabharatha contains myths and legends pertaining to
Brahmanical philosophy, ethics and law stressing the superiority of Brahmins,
myths of Vishnu and Siva, fables, parables, fairy tales and moral stories18. With
regards to information on Krishna, he appears for the first time in the epic at the
svayamvara of Draupadi where he had come from Dwaraka and the epic is silent
as to his earlier life. This is because the Mahabharatha is principally concerned
itself with the history of the Bharatas. The Harivamsha which forms the supplement
of Mahabharatha deals exhaustively and exclusively with the life and history of
Krishna on which the Mahabharatha is silent19.

A critical study of the Harivamsha reveals that the descriptions of things in the
Vishnu Purana are all expanded in the Harivamsha. The Harivamsha is a later
work than Vishnu Purana and the story of Krishna that it gives is apparently
borrowed from Vishnu Purana20.

Hence it is quite apparent that the works such as the Puranas and the
Mahabharatha were made the vehicles by various enthusiastic writers of different
cults at different times to promulgate their own dogmas and doctrines. They
became the store houses of writings of all sorts of men of all shades of opinions,
nay of any and everyone who thought that he had written something clever. From
big books to single couplets, everything was thrust into them by every sort and
grade of men who desired to publish their composition and to secure for them a
wide circle of readers21.

Therefore the story of Krishna’s life is chiefly found in the Vishnu Purana and the
Mahabharatha; one about the early life and the other about his later life. But both of
them in their present form are mixed with annals, legends and fictions22. But by
putting the searching light of history, analysis and logic, it would not be difficult to
find out which portions of it are fictions and stories and which are after-
interpolations23.

Why interpolation/slander of Krishna took place?

Bhagavatism the religion founded by Krishna was not very favourably inclined
towards the varnashramadharma and the Brahmins. This religion freely admitted
women, shudras and even foreigners into its fold.24 And from about the beginning
of the 5th century A.D. if not earlier, the Vaishnavas (Bhagavatas and
Pancharatras) and probably the Shaivas came to be influenced by Tantricism. It is
not yet definitely known how and when Tantricism arouse but that it is of
considerable antiquity cannot be denied. Tantricism was purely of non-Vedic in
origin and its ideas and practices were also non-Vedic. In its early character it did
not seem to have recognized the varnashramadharma and the authority of the
Vedas25. The ideas, rites and practices of Pancharatras (the aagamic literature of
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the Vaishnavas), aagamic Shaivas and the Tantriks amply testify to their non-
Brahminical or rather anti- Brahmanical character. These sectarian faiths
discouraged priesthood, and its rituals which were all non-Vedic affected the
Brahmins very seriously26 (in terms of their livelihood). The rise and propagation of
these rival faiths proved very fatal to the sacrificial religion of the Vedas which was
already on the decline27. To reestablish the varnashramadharma and the authority
of the Vedas, the Brahmins introduced smrti materials into the Mahabharatha and
the Puranas28.

The varnashramadharma and Vedic rituals must have had been proved quite
sophisticating, stifling for all and sundry of the ancient Indian society. The people
and society was wallowing in the grip of superstitions, rituals and cumbersome
process of prestation society. Moreover, the priestly class must have had been
interfering in every walk of life as they had woven such intricate web of ‘dry rituals’
in each and every aspect of individual and collective life that it might have had
been quite exasperating. The rigid and stratified social order might have had been
proving to be anathema to the progress and development. Krishna had not only
broken the backbone of this prestation society by establishing a monotheistic sect
Bhagavata and propounding Samkya yoga, but also virtually abolished the
varnashramadharma and the stratification thereof. The Samkya Yoga and
Bhagavat Sect that Krishna founded had led to the loss of power and privilege of
the priestly classes. He punished and dethroned anti-people, cruel and selfish
kings and emphasized on debate and discussion, making ruling elites sensitive to
public opinion29.

Krishna had ushered in social revolution by stopping the worship of serpents, ghost
and superstitious figures like Indra30. Krishna had become the biggest threat to the
two classes or castes of Indian society- social and political elites (priestly and
political class). He gave an open challenge to the priestly class by opposing the
system of worshiping based on fear and greed (of getting heaven or birth in a rich
and prosperous family) and terming Vedas and Vedic ritual as obstruction
instead31. Hence they (priestly and political class) started the greatest farce of the
humanity. Gita was distorted, Krishna was mystified and made god so that nobody
could dare to repeat his great acts. There were many insertion made in the Gita
related to the varnashrama based caste system which was against the very
principle and values of Krishna. The Avatar system was concocted to prevent any
repetition of Krishna like acts by any human being in future32.

Interpolation also took place as the authors who revised the Puranas and epics
wanted to make them amusing and interesting to the masses before whom they
were recited and sung. Hence fanciful and poetic descriptions and extraordinary
miracles were added to them over the years33.

The priests of Shiva were the last to retouch the Mahabharatha and as there is as
much Shaivism in the Mahabharatha as there is Vaisnavism; sectarian rancor may
have been responsible for inventing some incidents and darkening the character of
Krishna34.

Myths on Krishna decoded

Now we shall scrutinize some of the myths/exaggerated accounts related to


Krishna’s life mentioned in the Puranas and Mahabharatha and through logic and
critical analysis find the actual facts.

Myth– Putana a rakshasi was deputed by Kamsa to kill Krishna. She went to his
house in disguise as a gopa woman and fed him on her breasts. But Krishna the
child extracted her life also with her breast milk and she assumed her original form
and fell down dead35.

Fact– During his childhood Krishna was attacked with a fatal disease named
Putana which has been referred by Susruta in his work Uttara Tantra, chapter 27
and 3736.

Myth– A fierce serpent called Kaliya lived in Kalindi. The trees on the banks of the
river were withered and dried up on account of the poisonous breadth emitted by
him. One day the Gopalas and their cattle drank water in the Kalindi and fell down

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dead. Krishna then jumped into the river, fought with kaliya, who being defeated
begged for mercy. At the instance of Krishna, Kaliya with his family left the place37.

Fact– At Vrindavana lived a settlement of Nagas whose chief was Kaliya. The
Gopas were in great fear of the fierce Nagas. Krishna challenged the Naga chief to
a single combat and in a fierce encounter defeated Kaliya. Krishna then
commanded him to leave the forest which the Nagas did38.

Myth– Once Krishna picked up the clothes of Gopa women bathing in Yamuna
river39.

Fact– The incident of Krishna removing the clothes of the maidens when they were
bathing described in the Bhagavata Purana is the creations of the author of
Bhagavata Purana according the Dhirendra Nath Pal40. Whether this incident is
fictitious or real, a more reasonable explanation which one can give is that having
seen some maidens bathing all naked in river Yamuna, Krishna collected their
clothes lying under a tree and placed it up in the tree. Later when the maidens
expressed their regrets; Krishna returned their clothes with a warning not to repeat
the act of bathing naked in public places41.

Myth– The people of Vrindavana used to perform yajna every year in favour of
Indra for rainfall. Krishna opposed it and instead asked them to worship mount
Govardhana. Angered by this Indra let loose heavy rains on Vrindavana. Krishna
uprooted and held mount Govardhana like an umbrella and people took shelter
under it. Beaten at this own game, Indra sang the praises of Krishna, came and
saluted him42.

Fact– It is impossible to believe that a boy of ten years of age or for that matter any
being in human form could have lifted a mountain and held it on his finger.
Probably Krishna might have dug a big cave in which his people and cattle took
shelter during the rains. It might be an allegory signifying that the Indra
worshippers finding their god slighted attacked the Gopas and made an attempt to
destroy their new sacrifice and that Krishna in this armed attack protected the hill
on which the Gopas took shelter43. It is also probable that there occurred heavy
during the time of the yajna which flooded the Yamuna and Govardhana. Krishna
while grazing cattle near the Govardhana Mountain might have gained good
knowledge about the terrain of the said mountain which had large caves there. At
the time of the floods, Krishna shifted the residents to the caves in Govardhana
and saved them. For that he was given the title, ‘Giridhar’44.

Myth– At the advent of spring the melody of Krishna’s flute rendered the Gopa
women lovelorn. Gopa women both married and unmarried mad with love roamed
about Vrindavana with Radha calling ‘o Krishna’, ‘o Krishna’. Krishna appeared,
entered the waters of Yamuna with them and satisfied them45.

Fact– Raasa means simply a dance. Sridhara Swami the great commentator of the
Bhagavata, thus explains the word. ‘It is a circular dance of men and women by
holding one another’s hand’. Such dances were very popular amongst the people
in which Krishna was born. There was nothing wrong in these amusements and
none was charged with carnality who joined in them. Hence the Raasa leela of
Krishna is nothing but the innocent sports of merry boys and girls at Vrindavana.
Krishna was a mere boy about eleven years of age when these sports were held.
Is it possible for a boy of eleven to entertain any idea of carnality? When Krishna
was most foully abused by Shishupala, he was never charged by him with
sensuality. If Krishna really did what some of the Puranas wanted us to believe, he
would not have been spared by Shishupala. Nowhere in the Mahabharatha, which
is a much earlier work than any one of the Puranas, have we found Krishna
described as a man of lewd character46.

Radha is a poetical creation. She is not to be found in the Mahabharatha, or in


Vishnu Purana or Harivamsha or Bhagavata ⃰. Perhaps she is the creation of the
author of the original Brahma Vaivarta Purana which is now lost. It is possible that
the author of this Purana picked up one of the many gopa maidens who sported
with Krishna in the Vrindavana and giving her a name, he painted her in the
highest flight of poesy. Since then innumerable poets have used their great powers
to develop the character of Radha. Her love for Krishna has been painted as the
highest development of devotional love of the human soul for the supreme one47.
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Bhasa in his two dramas Balacharita and Panchasatra refers to Hallisaka dance of
the cowherd boys and girls. The latter’s names are Ghosa, Sundari, Vanamala,
Candrarekha and Mrigaksi and Radha is conspicuous by her absence even in
Harivamsha and Vishnu Purana48.

Myth– Krishna went to Pragjyotisa the kingdom of Narakasura, defeated him and
released his 16,000 daughters from captivity. After returning to Dwaraka along with
them, Krishna assumed the guise of 16,000 men and married these 16,000 girls49.

Fact– In the Mahabharatha, Harivamsha, Vishnu Purana and other Puranas there
are many accounts of Krishna’s various wars. But they are narratives, full of
extraordinary descriptions and it would be mere waste of time to make an attempt
to pick up from them any historical facts and this include the story of Krishna’s war
with Narakasura and his rescuing and marrying the sixteen thousand women
imprisoned by Naraka50.

But some historians who believe in this story opine that it is not sixteen thousand
but 16 wives of Narakasura whom Krishna married. According to them sixteen
thousands of the Puranas mean 16 only. Shata and sahasra (100 and 1000) are
very often meaningless addition in the Vedic parlance51. This story is also
interpreted in another way where Narakasura is depicted as a dacoit who looted
brides and marriage parties. Krishna killed him and liberated all the women. But
neither their parents nor husbands were willing to accept them. Krishna told the
Yadavas to take these women so that they get a home and a name for their
children. But none agreed. Hence Krishna married them and gave them a home.
Thus he set an example for the relatives of these women who are raped and are
then left alone either to commit suicide or to become a prostitute52.

Myth– Krishna had 80 sons, ten each born to his eight wives namely Rukmini,
Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Satya, Bhadra and Lakshana53.

Fact– The list of wives of Krishna given in the various chapters of Vishnu Purana
and Harivamsha differs in numbers and names. Except Rukmini and Satyabhama
none of these wives ever appear on the scene of action. Satyabhama appears only
once or twice, but those places of the Puranas or Mahabharatha in which she
appears are apparently interpolations. Again none of the sons of these wives
except of Rukmini and Jambhavati is to be met with in any period of Krishna’s life.
Jambhavati was a bear’s daughter and therefore it is impossible to believe that she
gave birth to a human being. It is said this son Samba carried away the daughter of
Duryodhana name Lakshana. This story is mentioned only in the Puranas; no
mention is made of it in the Mahabharatha. If this story had any truth in it, it must
have a place in the Mahabharatha which is the history of Duryodhana and the
Kurus. Rukmini’s son Pradumna however is present all through Krishna’s career. It
is his grandson, Vajra, who finally ascended the throne of the Vrisnis. Under the
circumstances we shall not be very wrong if we doubt the very existence of any
other wives of Krishna except Rukmini54.

Myth– Krishna taught Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna on the eve of the battle at
Kurukshetra.

Fact– It is hard to believe that the armies of Pandavas and Kauravas were waiting
till Krishna recited the eighteen adhyayas (chapters) of Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna55.
As we know the Gita is in verse form and nowhere have we found people talking in
verse. It is nowhere mentioned in the Mahabharatha that the Rishi Vyasa was
present when Krishna told it to Arjuna or when Sanjaya recited it to the king
Dhritarashtra. Thus we can by no means trace the Gita as it now exists to
Krishna56. Moreover the present Gita contains innumerable interpolations and
grafting of Brahmanical discourses, particularly in respect of Vedic authority, rituals
and varnasharama. This has distorted the Gita and has transformed it into a
confusing treatise with several passages contradictory with one another. How could
the same Krishna adhere to the supremacy of the Vedas and the Vedic rituals
which he considered as obstruction for, liberation57?

It has also been proved by many great oriental scholars that the present Gita is a
work written many years subsequent to the time when the original Mahabharatha
was written. But by whomsoever written it was written based on the teachings of
Sri Krishna. Krishna delivered a lecture to the Pandavas just before the great battle
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and Vyasa must have briefly mentioned it in the original Mahabharatha he wrote. It
was quite natural that Arjuna and the Pandavas should be filled with great
despondency when they came face to face with their dearest friends and relatives
whose death meant their victory. To remove this despondency Krishna had lectured
them and this was briefly mentioned by Vyasa in the original Mahabharatha. A
subsequent writer wrote the present Gita in verse based on these teachings. It is
evident from the meager accounts that we get of Krishna in the Puranas and the
Mahabharatha that he founded and preached a new religion; but neither the
Puranas nor the Mahabharatha clearly say what it was. The little of his teachings
that we meet with in the Puranas and the Mahabharatha leads one to conclude that
his religion could not but be that which has been told in the Gita 58.

Myth– During the Mahabharatha war Drona was killed deceitfully on the advice of
Krishna. It is written that when Krishna found it impossible for the Pandavas to kill
Drona, he advised them to leave the path of righteousness and kill Drona by a
most shameful stratagem. He advised them to go and tell Drona that his son
Ashwathama was killed. It he hear this news, he would be overwhelmed with grief
and he would surely give up arms. Arjuna flatly refused to do it but Yudhisthira
hesitatingly agreed. Bhima then killed an elephant named Ashwathama and went
to Drona and told him that his son was dead. Drone did not believe Bhima’s words
and said that he would believe none except that embodiment of virtue, Yudhisthira.
So Yudhisthira went and said-‘Ashwathama was dead’, adding in a low voice,
‘Ashwathama the elephant’. On hearing this Drona left his arms and Dhristadumna
cut off his head59.

Fact-This story is a palpable fiction as it is impossible to believe that Yudhisthira


who went to exile only to keep his word would tell a lie or Krishna who spoke of the
Gita would advise him to do so. It is written in the Mahabharatha itself that
Ashwathama obtained immorality by his asceticism. Drona was fully aware of it. It
is not possible that he should take even Yudhisthira’s words as truth knowing fully
well that his son could not die. It is also impossible that a man like Krishna should
advise to say something which was in the face of it could not be taken as true. It is
also impossible that Drona would not ask anyone of his party to enquire whether
Ashwathama was really dead of not. Drona’s death was due to fatigue and his
great religious devotion for which he gave up arms and concentrated his mind on
god, determined to die instead of retiring from the field with ignominy and shame.
This story was subsequently added to save the great Panchala dynasty from the
reproach of their prince having killed a Brahman, – an act which in later age
became one of the greatest sins amongst the Hindus 60.

It might be asked why this scandalous incident has been fastened on Krishna. It is
very easy to explain. The answer would be ‘because he was God and to God, right
or wrong, sin or virtue are all alike for nothing touches him’. The poetaster who
made these foolish embellishments over the descriptions of great Vyasa has
fastened on Krishna all wrongful acts done on the Pandava side; for the poor fellow
thought that he would thereby save the reputation of the Pandavas without doing
any harm to anybody; for nobody would blame Krishna for anything as he was the
incarnation of God. Such writers have done the greatest possible injury to our great
religion and great men61.

Myth– During his last days Krishna retired into the deepest forest and lay down on
the ground with his feet raised. An asura called Jara mistaking Krishna’s raised
feet for a deer, shot it with his arrow and Krishna expired. There is a story behind
the reason why Krishna died after his feet was hit by an arrow. Once sage Durvasa
went to Dwaraka as Krishna’s guest. One day he expressed his desire to taste
pudding and accordingly was served the same. After tasting it Durvasa asked
Krishna to smear his whole body with the leftover pudding. Krishna did so, except
the region below his feet. Then Durvasa smeared the body of Rukmini with the
remaining pudding, yoked her to a chariot, whipped her and rode on the streets of
Dwaraka with Krishna running after him. After going some distance, Durvasa
jumped out of the chariot and went to the forest. Before that he told Krishna that he
was pleased with the service accorded to him by them and said that Rukmini would
not be affected by old age and Krishna would never meet with death by being hit at
those parts of his body which had been smeared with the pudding. As Krishna had
not smeared his feet with the pudding, he was killed by the hunter’s arrow62.

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Fact– This story is evidently an allegory. Jara means old age and Krishna died of
old age in a forest63. With regards to the story of Durvasa smearing the body of
Krishna and Rukmini with pudding we can easily make out that this is one among
the numerous stories interpolated in the Mahabharatha to show that Brahmins had
power to change the destiny of even Gods.

Need to bring critical editions on Krishna’s history

The teachings of Krishna contained in the Bhagavad Gita is universal in outlook


and if we want to showcase his teachings to the world then we have to first
expunge all absurdities and silly fables interpolated in the literary sources providing
information about his life and times. Even the Gita which has been interpolated
with contradictory statements has to be critically edited.

One reason why fables were interpolated and incidents exaggerated by editors of
Puranas and epics was to amuse the masses to whom these were recited. But now
times have changed and with access to modern education and information
available at the touch of their fingertips, people no longer believe in things which
defy commonsense and logic. Moreover all these texts are being translated into
English and other languages of the world. If absurdities and silly descriptions
contained in these texts are not removed, Hindus stand exposed in the world as
those who are immature and believe in cock and bull stories.

By not bringing critical editions of the Puranas and the epics we are providing
ammunitions to Hindu baiters who ridicule historic Hindu personalities and sages
by citing the information provided in the Puranas and epics. It is no use blaming
Marxists for depicting Hindu society in poor light as they do so by quoting the
Puranas and epics.

Today only a minuscule percentage of Brahmins have priesthood as their calling.


Majority of them have foraged into different professions. Just for the sake of
protecting their main source of livelihood, that is through gifts (dana and dakshina)
the Brahmins of yore had written about the merits of giving gifts to Brahmins and
also about their superior status in the society in the Puranas and epics. Times have
now changed and it is high time we get rid of these additions to make the Puranas
and epics as the true history books of ancient India.

Compared to Muslims and Christians, the present Hindu society is not cohesive.
The main reason is the caste system, in which some caste groups consider
themselves as superior to other castes. This illusion of superiority among the upper
castes especially the Brahmins is mainly due its reference in the Puranas and
epics which majority of them believe as divinely sanctioned. They are not aware of
the fact that these books have been revised several times by common people and
unscrupulous men with ulterior motives had interpolated them with falsehoods.
The castes so considered as the lowest in the Hindu caste hierarchy fall easy prey
to missionaries who take advantage of this schism in the Hindu society to convert
them to their respective faiths. These missionaries in fact make use of the Puranas
and epics which depict the Shudras and women in poor light to propagate their
faiths in bright colours and claim that their faiths stand for equality.

Bibliography

1. During the time of Krishna, it was a practice for a person who dethroned a
king to ascend the vacant throne. In the history of ancient India we find none
who did not avail himself of this privilege except Krishna. For a cow herd boy
to withstand the great temptation of becoming a king and to refuse the
supplications of the whole Yadu race bespoke a strong will. Cited in
Dhirendra Nath Pal- Sri Krishna- His Life and Teachings, Published by
C.C.Basak, The Research Home, Calcutta, 1923, p. 84.
2. Ibid, p.76
3. Ibid, p.386
4. Ibid, p.48
5. The chief weapon of Krishna was a discus- a circular steel instrument with
sharp edges all round which he used to throw at the enemy by whirling it on
his finger. It was a tremendous weapon of offence. Ibid, pp:207,208
6. Krishna was opposed to the sacerdotalism of the Vedic religion and
preached the doctrines which he had learnt from Ghora Angirasa. His
opposition to the Vedic cult comes out in passages where Indra when

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vanquished humbled himself before Krishna. S.Radhakrishnan, The


Bhagavad Gita, George Allen & Unwin (India) Pvt Ltd, 1971, p.29.
7. There is a consensus among scholars in favour of the view that Krishna, a
warrior chief and religious teacher of the Yadava clan founded in ancient
India a monotheistic religious system called Bhagavata or Sattvata Dharma.
The cult gained momentum and flourished steadily and Krishna the nucleus
of the cult was apotheosized even before 5th century B.C. Janmajit Roy-
Theory of Avatara & Divinity of Chaitanya, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors,
2002, p. 26.
8. Bhagavad Gita contains a total synthetic view of life and it would be more
reasonable to accept the kernel of the teachings of Bhagavad Gita as
forerunner of the vast class of literature known as Upanishad. Ibid, p.132
9. Bhishma’s wisdom on the statecraft, war, thumb of the rules for conducting
the stately affairs, the pro-people, just equalitarian rule and related subjects
as imparted to Yudhisthira after his coronation as king of Hastinapur after the
great war while he was lying on deathbed seem to be that of Krishna’s
appropriated to the patriarch, perhaps to counter balance the latter. This also
seems to be interpolation as to how a dying man could preach such wisdom
and ideas on the statecraft. Moreover his teachings seem to be more of
Krishna’s than that of Bhishma. Gopal Chowdhary – The Greatest Farce of
History, Partridge India, 2014, p. 114
10. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp: xv, xvi
11. Rajendra Chandra Hazra- Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites
and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, 1987, p.6
12. Ibid, p.7
13. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. xxiii
14. Ibid, p. xxiv
15. Ibid, p. xxv
16. Ibid,
17. Vettam Mani- Puranic Encyclopedia, Motilal Banarsidass, 1975, p.122
18. D.Pusalker- The Epic and Puranas, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay, 1955,
p. xxi
19. Ibid, p.58
20. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. xxvi
21. Ibid, pp: xxxi, xxxii
22. Ibid, pp: xxiii, xxxiv
23. Ibid, p. ix
24. Rajendra Chandra Hazra- Op.cit, pp: 199, 200
25. Ibid, p.218
26. Ibid, p. 225
27. Ibid, p. 194
28. Ibid, p. 213
29. Gopal Chowdhary – Op.cit, p. 203
30. Ibid, p. 56
31. Ibid, p.107
32. Ibid, p. 154
33. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. xlix
34. D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 60
35. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 421
36. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:25,26; A.D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 68
37. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 422
38. D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 69; According to Dhirendra Nath Pal, Kaliya was a
thief of the wild men who was driven out of Vrindavan by Krishna (p.43)
39. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 423
40. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p.67
41. P.Mittal- History of Ancient India (4250 B.C.-637 A.D.) Vol- II, , Atlantic
Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, 2006, p.434
42. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p.423
43. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:60,61
44. P.Mittal- Op.cit, p.433
45. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 423
46. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:68,69

⃰ Though traditional pandits try to find veiled references to Radha in the Bhagavata
Purana, it is seen that the name occurs for the first time in the 9th century A.D. and
that the Radha worship is a late growth in Bhagavatism. A.D.Pusalker- Op.cit, p. 81

47. Ibid, p.70


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26.02.2018 March | 2017 | Ithihas

48. Venkatakrishna Rao – Krishna’s story in its various settings, QJMS, vol-
XLIX, 1958, No.1, p.28
49. Vettam Mani-Op.cit, p. 426
50. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p.105
51. C.Singhal and Roshan Gupta- The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period, a
New Interpretation, Atlantic Publishers and distributors, New Delhi, 2003,
pp:196,197
52. P.Mittal- Op.cit, p.444
53. Vettam Mani-Op.cit, p. 426
54. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:98,99
55. Prof Vrinda Nabar and Shanta Tumkur- The Bhagavad Gita, Translated from
the Sanskrit- Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1997, p.XIII
56. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p. 285
57. Gopal Chowdhary – Op.cit, pp:99,110
58. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, pp:285-287
59. Ibid, pp:415,416
60. Ibid, pp:416,418
61. Ibid, p. 418
62. Vettam Mani- Op.cit, p. 429
63. Dhirendra Nath Pal, Op.cit, p.450

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