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NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY
SERGIU I. VACARU and NADEJDA A. VICOL
Received 21 December 2002
We present an introduction to the geometry of higherorder vector and covector bundles
(including higherorder generalizations of the Finsler geometry and KaluzaKlein gravity)
and review the basic results on Cliﬀord and spinor structures on spaces with generic local
anisotropy modeled by anholonomic frames with associated nonlinear connection struc
tures. We emphasize strong arguments for application of Finslerlike geometries in modern
string and gravity theory, noncommutative geometry and noncommutative ﬁeld theory, and
gravity.
2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 15A66, 58B20, 53C60, 83C60, 83E15.
1. Introduction. Nowadays, interest has been established in nonRiemannian geome
tries derived in the lowenergy string theory [18, 64, 65], noncommutative geometry
[1, 3, 8, 12, 15, 22, 32, 34, 53, 55, 67, 109, 111, 112], and quantumgroups [33, 35, 36, 37].
Various types of Finslerlike structures can be parametrized by generic oﬀdiagonal
metrics, which cannot be diagonalized by coordinate transforms but only by anholo
nomic maps with associated nonlinear connection (in brief, Nconnection). Such struc
tures may be deﬁned as exact solutions of gravitational ﬁeld equations in the Einstein
gravity and its generalizations [75, 79, 80, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104,
105, 109, 110, 111], for instance, in the metricaﬃne [19, 23, 56] RiemannCartan gravity
[24, 25]. Finslerlike conﬁgurations are considered in locally anisotropic thermodynam
ics, kinetics, related stochastic processes [85, 96, 107, 108], and (super) string theory
[84, 87, 90, 91, 92].
The following natural step in these lines is to elucidate the theory of spinors in
eﬀectively derived Finsler geometries and to relate this formalismof Cliﬀord structures
to noncommutative Finsler geometry. It should be noted that the rigorous deﬁnition
of spinors for Finsler spaces and generalizations was not a trivial task because (on
such spaces) there are no deﬁned even local groups of automorphisms. The problem
was solved in [82, 83, 88, 89, 93] by adapting the geometric constructions with respect
to anholonomic frames with associated Nconnection structure. The aim of this work
is to outline the geometry of generalized Finsler spinors in a form more oriented to
applications in modern mathematical physics.
We start with some historical remarks: the spinors studied by mathematicians and
physicists are connected with the general theory of Cliﬀord spaces introduced in 1876
[14]. The theory of spinors and Cliﬀord algebras play a major role in contemporary
physics and mathematics. The spinors were discovered by Èlie Cartan in 1913 in
1190 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
mathematical formin his researches on representation group theory [10, 11]; he showed
that spinors furnish a linear representation of the groups of rotations of a space of
arbitrary dimensions. The physicists Pauli [60] and Dirac [20] (in 1927, resp., for the
threedimensional and fourdimensional spacetimes) introduced spinors for the rep
resentation of the wave functions. In general relativity theory spinors and the Dirac
equations on (pseudo) Riemannian spaces were deﬁned in 1929 by Weyl [113], Fock
[21], and Schrödinger [68]. The books [61, 62, 63] by Penrose and Rindler summa
rize the spinor and twistor methods in spacetime geometry (see additional references
[7, 9, 26, 27, 31, 54] on Cliﬀord structures and spinor theory).
Spinor variables were introduced in Finsler geometries by Takano in [73] where he
dismissed anisotropic dependencies not only on vectors on the tangent bundle but also
on some spinor variables in a spinor bundle on a spacetime manifold. Then generalized
Finsler geometries, with spinor variables, were developed by Ono and Takano in a series
of publications during 1990–1993 [57, 58, 59, 74]. The next steps were investigations of
anisotropic and deformed geometries with spinor and vector variables and applications
in gauge and gravity theories elaborated by Stavrinos and his students, Koutroubis,
Manouselis, and Balan at the beginning of 1994 [69, 70, 71, 72]. In those works the
authors assumed that some spinor variables may be introduced in a Finslerlike way,
but they did not relate the Finlser metric to a Cliﬀord structure and restricted the
spinorgauge Finsler constructions only to antisymmetric spinor metrics on twospinor
ﬁbers with possible generalizations to fourdimensional Dirac spinors.
Isotopic spinors, related with SU(2) internal structural groups, were considered in
generalized Finsler gravity and gauge theories also by Asanov and Ponomarenko [4]. In
that book, and in other papers on Finsler geometry with spinor variables, the authors
did not investigate the possibility of introducing a rigorous mathematical deﬁnition of
spinors on spaces with generic local anisotropy.
An alternative approach to spinor diﬀerential geometry and generalized Finsler
spaces was elaborated, at the beginning of 1994, in a series of papers and commu
nications by Vacaru and coauthors [83, 88, 101]. This direction originates from Clif
ford algebras, Cliﬀord bundles [28], Penrose’s spinor, and twistor spacetime geometry
[61, 62, 63], which were reconsidered for the case of nearly autoparallel maps (general
ized conformal transforms) in [86]. In the works [82, 83, 88, 89], a rigorous deﬁnition
of spinors for Finsler spaces, and their generalizations, was given. It was proven that
a Finsler, or Lagrange, metric (in a tangent or, more generally, in a vector bundle) in
duces naturally a distinguished Cliﬀord (spinor) structure which is locally adapted to
the nonlinear connection structure. Such spinor spaces could be deﬁned for arbitrary
dimensions of base and ﬁber subspaces, their spinor metrics are symmetric, antisym
metric, or nonsymmetric, depending on the corresponding base and ﬁber dimensions.
That work resulted in the formation of the spinor diﬀerential geometry of general
ized Finsler spaces and developed a number of geometric applications to the theory of
gravitational and matter ﬁeld interactions with generic local anisotropy.
The geometry of anisotropic spinors and (distinguished by nonlinear connections)
Cliﬀord structures was elaborated for higherorder anisotropic spaces [82, 83, 92, 93]
and, more recently, for Hamilton and Lagrange spaces [109, 111].
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1191
We emphasize that the theory of anisotropic spinors may be related not only to
generalized Finsler, Lagrange, Cartan, and Hamilton spaces or their higherorder gen
eralizations, but also to anholonomic frames with associated nonlinear connections
which appear naturally even in (pseudo) Riemannian and RiemannCartan geometries
if oﬀdiagonal metrics are considered [94, 96, 97, 98, 102, 103, 104, 105, 110]. In order
to construct exact solutions of the Einstein equations in general relativity and extra
dimensional gravity (for lower dimensions see [85, 96, 107, 108]), it is more convenient
to diagonalize spacetime metrics by using some anholonomic transforms. As a result,
one induces locally anisotropic structures on spacetime, which are related to anholo
nomic (anisotropic) spinor structures.
The main purpose of the present review is to present a detailed summary and new
results on spinor diﬀerential geometry for generalized Finsler spaces and (pseudo) Rie
mannian spacetimes provided with an anholonomic frame and associated nonlinear
connection structure, to discuss and compare the existing approaches and to consider
applications to modern gravity and gauge theories. The work is based on communica
tions [109, 111].
2. (Co) vector bundles and Nconnections. We outline the basic deﬁnitions and de
notations for the vector and tangent (and their dual spaces) bundles and higherorder
vector/covector bundle geometry. In this work, we consider that the spacetime geom
etry can be modeled both on a (pseudo) Riemannian manifold V
[n+m]
of dimension
n+m and on a vector bundle (or its dual, covector bundle) being, for simplicity, locally
trivial with a base space M of dimension n and a typical ﬁber F (coﬁber F
∗
) of dimen
sion m, or as a higherorder extended vector/covector bundle (we follow the geometric
constructions and deﬁnitions of [45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52], which were generalized
for vector superbundles in [90, 91, 92]). Such (pseudo) Riemannian spaces and/or vec
tor/covector bundles enabled with compatible ﬁbered and/or anholonomic structures
are called anisotropic spacetimes. If the anholonomic structure with associated nonlin
ear connection is modeled on higherorder vector/covector bundles, we use the term
higherorder anisotropic spacetime. In this section, we usually omit proofs which can
be found in the mentioned monographs [45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 92].
2.1. (Co) vector and tangent bundles. A locally trivial vector bundle, in brief, v
bundle, Ᏹ =(E, π, M, Gr, F) is introduced as a set of spaces and surjective map with the
properties that a real vector space F =R
m
of dimension m (dimF =m, R denotes the
real numbers ﬁeld) deﬁnes the typical ﬁber, the structural group is chosen to be the
group of automorphisms of R
m
, that is, Gr =GL(m, R), and π : E →M is a diﬀerentiable
surjection of a diﬀerentiable manifold E (total space, dimE =n+m) to a diﬀerentiable
manifold M (base space, dimM = n). The local coordinates on Ᏹ are denoted u
α
=
(x
i
, y
a
), or in brief u=(x, y) (the Latin indices i, j, k, . . . =1, 2, . . . , n deﬁne coordinates
of geometrical objects with respect to a local frame on base space M; the Latin indices
a, b, c, . . . = 1, 2, . . . , m deﬁne ﬁber coordinates of geometrical objects and the Greek
indices α, β, γ, . . . are considered as cumulative ones for coordinates of objects deﬁned
on the total space of a vbundle).
1192 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
Coordinate transforms u
α
¹
=u
α
¹
(u
α
) on a vbundle Ᏹ are deﬁned as (x
i
, y
a
) →(x
i
¹
,
y
a
¹
), where
x
i
¹
=x
i
¹
¸
x
i
, y
a
¹
=K
a
¹
a
¸
x
i
y
a
, (2.1)
and matrix K
a
¹
a
(x
i
) ∈GL(m, R) are functions of a necessary smoothness class.
A local coordinate parametrization of vbundle Ᏹ naturally deﬁnes a coordinate basis
∂
α
=
∂
∂u
α
=
∂
i
=
∂
∂x
i
, ∂
a
=
∂
∂y
a
¸
(2.2)
and the reciprocal to (2.2) coordinate basis
d
α
=du
α
=
¸
d
i
=dx
i
, d
a
=dy
a
(2.3)
which is uniquely deﬁned from the equations d
α
◦∂
β
= δ
α
β
, where δ
α
β
is the Kronecker
symbol and by “◦” we denote the inner (scalar) product in the tangent bundle ᐀Ᏹ.
A tangent bundle (in brief, tbundle) (TM, π, M) to a manifold M can be deﬁned as a
particular case of a vbundle when the dimensions of the base and ﬁber spaces (the last
one considered as the tangent subspace) are identical, n = m. In this case both types
of indices i, k, . . . and a, b, . . . take the same values 1, 2, . . . , n. For tbundles, the matrices
of ﬁber coordinates transforms from (2.1) can be written as K
i
¹
i
=∂x
i
¹
/∂x
i
.
We will also use the concept of covector bundle (in brief, cvbundles)
˘
Ᏹ = (
˘
E, π
∗
, M,
Gr, F
∗
) which is introduced as a dual vector bundle for which the typical ﬁber F
∗
(coﬁber) is considered to be the dual vector space (covector space) to the vector space F.
The ﬁber coordinates p
a
of
˘
E are dual to y
a
in E. The local coordinates on total space
˘
E
are denoted ˘ u=(x, p) =(x
i
, p
a
). The coordinate transforms on
˘
E, ˘ u=(x
i
, p
a
) → ˘ u
¹
=
(x
i
¹
, p
a
¹ ), are written as
x
i
¹
=x
i
¹
¸
x
i
, p
a
¹ =K
a
a
¹
¸
x
i
p
a
. (2.4)
The coordinate bases on E
∗
are denoted
˘
∂
α
=
˘
∂
∂u
α
=
∂
i
=
∂
∂x
i
,
˘
∂
a
=
˘
∂
∂p
a
¸
,
˘
d
α
=
˘
du
α
=
¸
d
i
=dx
i
,
˘
d
a
=dp
a
. (2.5)
We use breve symbols in order to distinguish the geometrical objects on a cvbundle
Ᏹ
∗
from those on a vbundle Ᏹ.
As a particular case with the same dimension of base space and coﬁber, one obtains
the cotangent bundle (T
∗
M, π
∗
, M), in brief, ctbundle, being dual to TM. The ﬁbre
coordinates p
i
of T
∗
M are dual to y
i
in TM. The coordinate transforms (2.4) on T
∗
M
are stated by some matrices K
k
k
¹
(x
i
) =∂x
k
/∂x
k
¹
.
In our further considerations, we will distinguish the base and coﬁber indices.
2.2. Higherorder (co) vector bundles. The geometry of higherorder tangent and
cotangent bundles provided with a nonlinear connection structure was elaborated in
[45, 49, 50, 51, 52] in order to geometrize the higherorder Lagrange and Hamilton
mechanics. In this case we have base spaces and ﬁbers of the same dimension. To
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1193
develop the approach to modern highenergy physics (in superstring and KaluzaKlein
theories), we introduced (in [82, 83, 90, 91, 92, 93]) the concept of higherorder vector
bundle with the ﬁbers consisting of ﬁnite “shells” of vector, or covector, spaces of
diﬀerent dimensions not obligatorily coinciding with the base space dimension.
Deﬁnition 2.1. A distinguished vector/covector space, in brief, dvcspace, of type
˜
F =F
¸
v(1), v(2), cv(3), . . . , cv(z−1), v(z)
¸
(2.6)
is a vector space decomposed into an invariant oriented direct sum
˜
F =F
(1)
⊕F
(2)
⊕F
∗
(3)
⊕···⊕F
∗
(z−1)
⊕F
(z)
(2.7)
of vector spaces F
(1)
, F
(2)
, . . . , F
(z)
of respective dimensions
dimF
(1)
=m
1
, dimF
(2)
=m
2
, . . . , dimF
(z)
=m
z
, (2.8)
and of covector spaces F
∗
(3)
, . . . , F
∗
(z−1)
of respective dimensions
dimF
∗
(3)
=m
∗
3
, . . . , dimF
∗
(z−1)
=m
∗
(z−1)
. (2.9)
As a particular case, we obtain a distinguished vector space, in brief dvspace (resp.,
a distinguished covector space, in brief dcvspace), if all components of the sum are
vector (resp., covector) spaces. We note that we have ﬁxed, for simplicity, an orientation
of (co) vector subspaces like in (2.6).
Coordinates on
˜
F are denoted
˜ y =
¸
y
(1)
, y
(2)
, p
(3)
, . . . , p
(z−1)
, y
(z)
=
¸
y
¹α
z
)
¸
=
¸
y
a
1
, y
a
2
, p
a
3
, . . . , p
a
z−1
, y
a
z
,
(2.10)
where indices run correspondingly to the values a
1
= 1, 2, . . . , m
1
; a
2
= 1, 2, . . . , m
2
; . . . ;
a
z
=1, 2, . . . , m
z
.
Deﬁnition2.2. Ahigherorder vector/covector bundle, in brief, hvcbundle, of type
˜
Ᏹ =
˜
Ᏹ[v(1), v(2), cv(3), . . . , cv(z−1), v(z)] is a vector bundle
˜
Ᏹ = (
˜
E, p
¹d)
,
˜
F, M) with
corresponding total,
˜
E, and base, M, spaces, surjective projection p
¹d)
:
˜
E → M, and
typical ﬁber
˜
F.
We deﬁne the higherorder vector (resp., covector) bundles, in brief, hvbundles (resp.,
in brief, hcvbundles), if the typical ﬁbre is a dvspace (resp., a dcvspace) as particular
cases of the hvcbundles.
An hvcbundle is constructed as an oriented set of enveloping “shellbyshell” v
bundles and/or cvbundles,
p
¹s)
:
˜
E
¹s)
→
˜
E
¹s−1)
, (2.11)
where we use the index ¹s) =0, 1, 2, . . . , z in order to enumerate the shells, when
˜
E
¹0)
=
M. Local coordinates on
˜
E
¹s)
are denoted
˜ u
(s)
=
¸
x, ˜ y
¹s)
=
¸
x, y
(1)
, y
(2)
, p
(3)
, . . . , y
(s)
=
¸
x
i
, y
a
1
, y
a
2
, p
a
3
, . . . , y
a
s
. (2.12)
1194 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
If ¹s) =¹z), we obtain a complete coordinate system on
˜
Ᏹ denoted in brief
˜ u=
¸
x, ˜ y
= ˜ u
α
=
¸
x
i
=y
a
0
, y
a
1
, y
a
2
, p
a
3
, . . . , p
a
z−1
, y
a
z
. (2.13)
We will use the general commutative indices α, β, . . . for objects on hvcbundles which
are marked by tilde, like ˜ u, ˜ u
α
, . . . ,
˜
E
¹s)
, . . . .
The coordinate bases on
˜
Ᏹ are denoted
˜
∂
α
=
˜
∂
∂u
α
=
∂
i
=
∂
∂x
i
, ∂
a
1
=
∂
∂y
a
1
, ∂
a
2
=
∂
∂y
a
2
,
˘
∂
a
3
=
˘
∂
∂p
a
3
, . . . , ∂
a
z
=
∂
∂y
a
z
¸
,
˜
d
α
=
˜
du
α
=
¸
d
i
=dx
i
, d
a
1
=dy
a
1
, d
a
2
=dy
a
2
,
˘
d
a
3
=dp
a
3
, . . . , d
a
z
=dy
a
z
.
(2.14)
We give two examples of higherorder tangent/cotangent bundles (when the dimen
sions of ﬁbers/coﬁbers coincide with the dimension of bundle space, see [45, 49, 50,
51, 52]).
2.2.1. Osculator bundle. The kosculator bundle is identiﬁed with the ktangent
bundle (T
k
M, p
(k)
, M) of an ndimensional manifold M. We denote the local coordinates
˜ u
α
= (x
i
, y
i
(1)
, . . . , y
i
(k)
), where we have identiﬁed y
i
(1)
= y
a
1
, . . . , y
i
(k)
= y
a
k
, k = z, in
order to have similarity with denotations from[45, 49, 50, 51, 52]. The coordinate trans
forms ˜ u
α
¹
→ ˜ u
α
¹
(˜ u
α
) preserving the structure of such higherorder vector bundles are
parametrized:
x
i
¹
=x
i
¹
¸
x
i
, det
∂x
i
¹
∂x
i
¸
≠0,
y
i
¹
(1)
=
∂x
i
¹
∂x
i
y
i
(1)
,
2y
i
¹
(2)
=
∂y
i
¹
(1)
∂x
i
y
i
(1)
+2
∂y
i
¹
(1)
∂y
i
y
i
(2)
,
.
.
.
ky
i
¹
(k)
=
∂y
i
¹
(1)
∂x
i
y
i
(1)
+···+k
∂y
i
¹
(k−1)
∂y
i
(k−1)
y
i
(k)
,
(2.15)
where the equalities
∂y
i
¹
(s)
∂x
i
=
∂y
i
¹
(s+1)
∂y
i
(1)
=··· =
∂y
i
¹
(k)
∂y
i
(k−s)
(2.16)
hold for s =0, . . . , k−1 and y
i
(0)
=x
i
.
The natural coordinate frame on (T
k
M, p
(k)
, M) is deﬁned by
˜
∂
α
=(∂/∂x
i
, ∂/∂y
i
(1)
, . . . ,
∂/∂y
i
(k)
) and the coframe is
˜
d
α
= (dx
i
, dy
i
(1)
, . . . , dy
i
(k)
). These formulas are, respec
tively, some particular cases of (2.14).
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1195
2.2.2. The dual bundle of kosculator bundle. This higherorder vector/covector
bundle, denoted as (T
∗k
M, p
∗k
, M), is deﬁned as the dual bundle to the ktangent bun
dle (T
k
M, p
k
, M). The local coordinates (parametrized as in the previous paragraph)
are
˜ u=
¸
x, y
(1)
, . . . , y
(k−1)
, p
=
¸
x
i
, y
i
(1)
, . . . , y
i
(k−1)
, p
i
∈T
∗k
M. (2.17)
The coordinate transforms on (T
∗k
M, p
∗k
, M) are
x
i
¹
=x
i
¹
¸
x
i
, det
∂x
i
¹
∂x
i
¸
≠0,
y
i
¹
(1)
=
∂x
i
¹
∂x
i
y
i
(1)
,
2y
i
¹
(2)
=
∂y
i
¹
(1)
∂x
i
y
i
(1)
+2
∂y
i
¹
(1)
∂y
i
y
i
(2)
,
.
.
.
(k−1)y
i
¹
(k−1)
=
∂y
i
¹
(k−2)
∂x
i
y
i
(1)
+···+k
∂y
i
¹
(k−1)
∂y
i
(k−2)
y
i
(k−1)
, p
i
¹ =
∂x
i
∂x
i
¹
p
i
,
(2.18)
where the equalities
∂y
i
¹
(s)
∂x
i
=
∂y
i
¹
(s+1)
∂y
i
(1)
=··· =
∂y
i
¹
(k−1)
∂y
i
(k−1−s)
(2.19)
hold for s =0, . . . , k−2 and y
i
(0)
=x
i
.
The natural coordinate frame on (T
∗k
M, p
∗(k)
, M) is written in the form
˜
∂
α
=(∂/∂x
i
,
∂/∂y
i
(1)
, . . . , ∂/∂y
i
(k−1)
, ∂/∂p
i
) and the coframe is written as
˜
d
α
=(dx
i
, dy
i
(1)
, . . . , dy
i
(k−1)
,
dp
i
). These formulas are, respectively, certain particular cases of (2.14).
2.3. Nonlinear connections. The concept of nonlinear connection, in brief, Nconnec
tion, is fundamental in the geometry of vector bundles and anisotropic spaces (see a
detailed study and basic references in [46, 47, 48] and, for supersymmetric and/or
spinor bundles, see [90, 91, 92, 106]). A rigorous mathematical deﬁnition is possible by
using the formalism of exact sequences of vector bundles.
2.3.1. Nconnections in vector bundles. Let Ᏹ=(E, p, M) be a vbundle with typi
cal ﬁber R
m
and π
T
: TE → TM being the diﬀerential of the map P which is a ﬁbre
preserving morphism of the tangent bundle (TE, τ
E
, E) → E and of tangent bundle
(TM, τ, M) → M. The kernel of the vector bundle morphism, denoted as (VE, τ
V
, E),
is called the vertical subbundle over E, which is a vector subbundle of the vector bundle
(TE, τ
E
, E).
Avector X
u
tangent to a point u∈E is locally written as (x, y, X, Y) =(x
i
, y
a
, X
i
, Y
a
),
where the coordinates (X
i
, Y
a
) are deﬁned by the equality X
u
= X
i
∂
i
+Y
a
∂
a
. We have
π
T
(x, y, X, Y) = (x, X). Thus the submanifold VE contains the elements which are
locally represented as (x, y, 0, Y).
1196 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
Deﬁnition 2.3. A nonlinear connection N in a vector bundle Ᏹ = (E, π, M) is the
splitting on the left of the exact sequence
0 ·→VE ·→TE ·→TE/VE ·→0, (2.20)
where TE/VE is the factor bundle.
By Deﬁnition 2.3 a morphism of vector bundles C : TE →VE is deﬁned such that the
superposition of maps C◦i is the identity on VE, where i : VE VE. The kernel of the
morphismC is a vector subbundle of (TE, τ
E
, E), which is the horizontal subbundle, de
noted by (HE, τ
H
, E). Consequently, we can prove that in a vbundle Ᏹ, an Nconnection
can be introduced as a distribution
¸
N : E
u
→H
u
E, T
u
E =H
u
E⊕V
u
E
¸
(2.21)
for every point u∈E deﬁning a global decomposition, as a Whitney sum, into horizon
tal, HᏱ, and vertical, VᏱ, subbundles of the tangent bundle TᏱ:
TᏱ =HᏱ⊕VᏱ. (2.22)
Locally, an Nconnection in a vbundle Ᏹ is given by its coeﬃcients N
a
i
(u) =N
a
i
(x, y)
with respect to bases (2.2) and (2.3), N = N
a
i
(u)d
i
⊗∂
a
. We note that a linear connec
tion in a vbundle Ᏹ can be considered as a particular case of an Nconnection when
N
a
i
(x, y) =K
a
bi
(x)y
b
, where functions K
b
ai
(x) on the base M are called the Christoﬀel
coeﬃcients.
2.3.2. Nconnections in covector bundles. A nonlinear connection in a cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ (in brief an
ˇ
Nconnection) can be introduced in a similar fashion as for vbundles
by reconsidering the corresponding deﬁnitions for cvbundles. For instance, it may be
deﬁned by a Whitney decomposition, into horizontal, H
˘
Ᏹ, and vertical, V
˘
Ᏹ, subbundles
of the tangent bundle T
˘
Ᏹ :
T
˘
Ᏹ =H
˘
Ᏹ⊕V
˘
Ᏹ. (2.23)
Hereafter, for the sake of brevity, we will omit details on the deﬁnition of geometrical
objects on cvbundles if they are very similar to those for vbundles: we will present only
the basic formulas by emphasizing the most important common points and diﬀerences.
Deﬁnition 2.4. An
ˇ
Nconnection on
˘
Ᏹ is a diﬀerentiable distribution
˘
N :
˘
Ᏹ →
˘
N
u
∈T
∗
u
˘
Ᏹ (2.24)
which is supplementary to the vertical distribution V, that is, T
u
˘
Ᏹ =
˘
N
u
⊕
˘
V
u
, for all
˘
Ᏹ.
The same deﬁnition is true for
ˇ
Nconnections in ctbundles, we have to change in
Deﬁnition 2.4 the symbol
˘
Ᏹ to T
∗
M.
An
ˇ
Nconnection in a cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ is given locally by its coeﬃcients
˘
N
ia
(u)=
˘
N
ia
(x, p)
with respect to bases (2.2) and (2.3),
˘
N=
˘
N
ia
(u)d
i
⊗
˘
∂
a
.
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1197
We emphasize that if an Nconnection is introduced in a vbundle (resp., cvbundle),
we have to adapt the geometric constructions to the Nconnection structure (resp., the
ˇ
Nconnection structure).
2.3.3. Nconnections in higherorder bundles. The concept of Nconnection can be
deﬁned for a higherorder vector/covector bundle in a standard manner like in the
usual vector bundles.
Deﬁnition 2.5. A nonlinear connection
˜
N in hvcbundle
˜
Ᏹ =
˜
Ᏹ
¸
v(1), v(2), cv(3), . . . , cv(z−1), v(z)
¸
(2.25)
is a splitting of the left of the exact sequence
0 →V
˜
Ᏹ →T
˜
Ᏹ →T
˜
Ᏹ/V
˜
Ᏹ →0. (2.26)
We can associate sequences of type (2.26) to every mapping of intermediary subbun
dles. For simplicity, we present here the Whitney decomposition
T
˜
Ᏹ =H
˜
Ᏹ⊕V
v(1)
˜
Ᏹ⊕V
v(2)
˜
Ᏹ⊕V
∗
cv(3)
˜
Ᏹ⊕···⊕V
∗
cv(z−1)
˜
Ᏹ⊕V
v(z)
˜
Ᏹ. (2.27)
Locally, an Nconnection
˜
N in
˜
Ᏹ is given by its coeﬃcients
N
a
1
i
, N
a
2
i
, N
ia
3
, . . . , N
ia
z−1
, N
a
z
i
,
0, N
a
2
a
1
, N
a
1
a
3
, . . . , N
a
1
a
z−1
, N
a
z
a
1
,
0, 0, N
a
2
a
3
, . . . , N
a
2
a
z−1
, N
a
z
a
2
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0, 0, 0, . . . , N
a
z−2
a
z−1
, N
a
z
a
z−2
,
0, 0, 0, . . . , 0, N
a
z−1
a
z
,
(2.28)
which are given with respect to the components of bases (2.14).
2.3.4. Anholonomic frames and Nconnections. Having deﬁned an Nconnection
structure in a (vector, covector, or higherorder vector/covector) bundle, we can adapt
with respect to this structure (by “Nelongation”) the operators of partial derivatives
and diﬀerentials, and consider decompositions of geometrical objects with respect to
adapted bases and cobases.
Anholonomic frames in vbundles. In a vbundle Ᏹ provided with an Nconnec
tion, we can adapt to this structure the geometric constructions by introducing locally
adapted basis (Nframe or Nbasis)
δ
α
=
δ
δu
α
=
δ
i
=
δ
δx
i
=∂
i
−N
a
i
(u)∂
a
, ∂
a
=
∂
∂y
a
¸
(2.29)
and its dual Nbasis (Ncoframe or Ncobasis)
δ
α
=δu
α
=
¸
d
i
=δx
i
=dx
i
, δ
a
=δy
a
+N
a
i
(u)dx
i
. (2.30)
1198 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
The anholonomic coeﬃcients, w = ¦w
α
βγ
(u)¦, of Nframes are deﬁned to satisfy the
relations
¸
δ
α
, δ
β
¸
=δ
α
δ
β
−δ
β
δ
α
=w
α
βγ
(u)δ
α
. (2.31)
A frame basis is holonomic if all anholonomy coeﬃcients vanish (like for usual co
ordinate basis (2.3)), or anholonomic if there are nonzero values of w
α
βγ
.
The operators (2.29) and (2.30) on a vbundle Ᏹ enabled with an Nconnection can
be considered as respective equivalents of the operators of partial derivations and dif
ferentials: the existence of an Nconnection structure results in “elongation” of partial
derivations on xvariables and in “elongation” of diﬀerentials on yvariables.
The algebra of tensorial distinguished ﬁelds DT(Ᏹ) (dﬁelds, dtensors, dobjects) on
Ᏹ is introduced as the tensor algebra ᐀=¦᐀
pr
qs
¦ of the vbundle Ᏹ
(d)
=(HᏱ⊕VᏱ, p
d
, Ᏹ),
where p
d
: HᏱ⊕VᏱ →Ᏹ.
Anholonomic frames in cvbundles. The anholonomic frames adapted to the
ˇ
Nconnection structure are introduced similarly to (2.29) and (2.30):
(i) the locally adapted basis (
ˇ
Nbasis or
ˇ
Nframe):
˘
δ
α
=
˘
δ
δu
α
=
δ
i
=
δ
δx
i
=∂
i
+
˘
N
ia
¸
˘ u
˘
∂
a
,
˘
∂
a
=
∂
∂p
a
¸
, (2.32)
(ii) its dual (
ˇ
Ncobasis or
ˇ
Ncoframe):
˘
δ
α
=
˘
δu
α
=
¸
d
i
=δx
i
=dx
i
,
˘
δ
a
=
˘
δp
a
=dp
a
−
˘
N
ia
¸
˘ u
dx
i
. (2.33)
We note that the sings of
ˇ
Nelongations are inverse to those for Nelongations.
The anholonomic coeﬃcients, ˘ w=¦ ˘ w
α
βγ
(˘ u)¦, of
ˇ
Nframes are deﬁned by the relations
¸
˘
δ
α
,
˘
δ
β
¸
=
˘
δ
α
˘
δ
β
−
˘
δ
β
˘
δ
α
= ˘ w
α
βγ
¸
˘ u
˘
δ
α
. (2.34)
The algebra of tensorial distinguished ﬁelds DT(
˘
Ᏹ) (dﬁelds, dtensors, dobjects) on
˘
Ᏹ is introduced as the tensor algebra
˘
᐀=¦
˘
᐀
pr
qs
¦ of the cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ
(d)
=(H
˘
Ᏹ⊕V
˘
Ᏹ, ˘ p
d
,
˘
Ᏹ),
where ˘ p
d
: H
˘
Ᏹ⊕V
˘
Ᏹ →
˘
Ᏹ.
An element
˘
t ∈
˘
᐀
pr
qs
, dtensor ﬁeld of type
¸
p r
q s
, can be written in local form as
˘
t =
˘
t
i
1
···i
p
a
1
···a
r
j
1
···j
q
b
1
···b
r
¸
˘ u
˘
δ
i
1
⊗···⊗
˘
δ
i
p
⊗
˘
∂
a
1
⊗···⊗
˘
∂
a
r
⊗
˘
d
j
1
⊗···⊗
˘
d
j
q
⊗
˘
δ
b
1
···⊗
˘
δ
b
r
.
(2.35)
We will, respectively, use the denotations ᐄ(
˘
E) (or ᐄ(M)), Λ
p
(
˘
Ᏹ) (or Λ
p
(M)), and
Ᏺ(
˘
E) (or Ᏺ(M)) for the module of dvector ﬁelds on
˘
Ᏹ (or M), the exterior algebra of
pforms on
˘
Ᏹ (or M), and the set of real functions on
˘
Ᏹ (or M).
Anholonomic frames in hvcbundles. The anholonomic frames adapted to an
Nconnection in hvcbundle
˜
Ᏹ are deﬁned by the set of coeﬃcients (2.28); having re
stricted the constructions to a vector (or covector) shell, we obtain some generaliza
tions of the formulas for the corresponding N(or
ˇ
N)connection elongation of partial
derivatives deﬁned by (2.29) (or (2.32)) and (2.30) (or (2.33)).
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1199
We introduce the adapted partial derivatives (anholonomic Nframes or Nbases) in
˜
Ᏹ by applying the coeﬃcients (2.28):
˜
δ
α
=
˜
δ
δ˜ u
α
=
¸
δ
i
, δ
a
1
, δ
a
2
,
˘
δ
a
3
, . . . ,
˘
δ
a
z−1
, ∂
a
z
, (2.36)
where
δ
i
=∂
i
−N
a
1
i
∂
a
1
−N
a
2
i
∂
a
2
+N
ia
3
˘
∂
a
3
−···+N
ia
z−1
˘
∂
a
z−1
−N
a
z
i
∂
a
z
,
δ
a
1
=∂
a
1
−N
a
2
a
1
∂
a
2
+N
a
1
a
3
˘
∂
a
3
−···+N
a
1
a
z−1
˘
∂
a
z−1
−N
a
z
a
1
∂
a
z
,
δ
a
2
=∂
a
2
+N
a
2
a
3
˘
∂
a
3
−···+N
a
2
a
z−1
˘
∂
a
z−1
−N
a
z
a
2
∂
a
z
,
˘
δ
a
3
=
˜
∂
a
3
−N
a
3
a
4
∂
a
4
−···+N
a
3
a
z−1
˘
∂
a
z−1
−N
a
3
a
z
∂
a
z
,
.
.
.
˘
δ
a
z−1
=
˜
∂
a
z−1
−N
a
z−1
a
z
∂
a
z
,
∂
a
z
=
∂
∂y
a
z
.
(2.37)
These formulas can be written in the matrix form
˜
δ
•
=
N(u)×
˜
∂
•
, (2.38)
where
˜
δ
•
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
δ
i
δ
a
1
δ
a
2
˘
δ
a
3
.
.
.
˘
δ
a
z−1
∂
a
z
,
˜
∂
•
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂
i
∂
a
1
∂
a
2
˜
∂
a
3
.
.
.
˜
∂
a
z−1
∂
a
z
,
N=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −N
a
1
i
−N
a
2
i
N
ia
3
−N
a
4
i
··· N
ia
z−1
−N
a
z
i
0 1 −N
a
2
a
1
N
a
1
a
3
−N
a
4
a
1
··· N
a
1
a
z−1
−N
a
z
a
1
0 0 1 N
a
2
a
3
−N
a
4
a
2
··· N
a
2
a
z−1
−N
a
z
a
2
0 0 0 1 −N
a
3
a
4
··· N
a
3
a
z−1
−N
a
3
a
z
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 0 ··· 1 −N
a
z−1
a
z
0 0 0 0 0 ··· 0 1
.
(2.39)
The adapted diﬀerentials (anholonomic Ncoframes or Ncobases) in
˜
Ᏹ are introduced
in the simplest form by using the matrix formalism: the respective dual matrices
˜
δ
•
=
¸
˜
δ
α
¸
=
d
i
δ
a
1
δ
a
2 ˘
δ
a
3
···
˘
δ
a
z−1
δ
a
z
,
˜
d
•
=
¸
˜
∂
α
¸
=
d
i
d
a
1
d
a
2
d
a
3
··· d
a
z−1
d
a
z
(2.40)
1200 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
are related via a matrix relation
˜
δ
•
=
˜
d
•
M (2.41)
which deﬁnes the formulas for anholonomic Ncoframes. The matrix
M from (2.41) is
the inverse to
N, that is, it satisﬁes the condition
M×
N=I. (2.42)
The anholonomic coeﬃcients, ` w= ¦ w
α
βγ
( ` u)¦, on hcvbundle
˜
Ᏹ are expressed via co
eﬃcients of the matrix
N and their partial derivatives following the relations
¸
`
δ
α
,
`
δ
β
¸
=
`
δ
α
`
δ
β
−
`
δ
β
`
δ
α
= w
α
βγ
¸
` u
`
δ
α
. (2.43)
We omit the explicit formulas on shells.
A dtensor formalism can also be developed on the space
˜
Ᏹ. In this case the indices
have to be stipulated for every shell separately, like for vbundles or cvbundles.
3. Distinguished connections and metrics. In general, distinguished objects (d
objects) on a vbundle Ᏹ (or cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ) are introduced as geometric objects with vari
ous group and coordinate transforms coordinated with the Nconnection structure on Ᏹ
(or
˘
Ᏹ). For example, a distinguished connection (in brief, dconnection) D on Ᏹ (or
˘
Ᏹ) is
deﬁned as a linear connection D on E (or
˘
E) conserving under a parallelism the global
decomposition (2.22) (or (2.23)) into horizontal and vertical subbundles of TᏱ (or T
˘
Ᏹ).
A covariant derivation associated to a dconnection becomes dcovariant. We will give
necessary formulas for cvbundles in round brackets.
3.1. dconnections
3.1.1. dconnections in vbundles (cvbundles). An Nconnection in a vbundle Ᏹ
(cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ) induces a corresponding decomposition of dtensors into sums of hor
izontal and vertical parts, for example, for every dvector X ∈ ᐄ(Ᏹ)(
˘
X ∈ ᐄ(
˘
Ᏹ)) and
1form A∈Λ
1
(Ᏹ)(
˘
A∈Λ
1
(
˘
Ᏹ)), we have respectively
X =hX+vX, A=hA+vA,
¸
˘
X =h
˘
X+vX,
˘
A=h
˘
A+v
˘
A
,
(3.1)
where
hX =X
i
δ
i
, vX =X
a
∂
a
,
¸
h
˘
X =
˘
X
i
˜
δ
i
, v
˘
X =
˘
X
a
˘
∂
a
,
hA=A
i
δ
i
, vA=A
a
d
a
,
¸
h
˘
A=
˘
A
i
˘
δ
i
, v
˘
A=
˘
A
a
˘
d
a
.
(3.2)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1201
In consequence, we can associate to every dcovariant derivation along the dvector
(3.1), D
X
=X◦D (D
˘
X
=
˘
X◦D), two new operators of h and vcovariant derivations
D
(h)
X
Y =D
hX
Y, D
(v)
X
Y =D
vX
Y, ∀Y ∈ᐄ(Ᏹ),
D
(h)
˘
X
˘
Y =D
h
˘
X
˘
Y, D
(v)
˘
X
˘
Y =D
v
˘
X
˘
Y, ∀
˘
Y ∈ᐄ
¸
˘
Ᏹ
(3.3)
for which the following conditions hold:
D
X
Y =D
(h)
X
Y +D
(v)
X
Y,
D
˘
X
˘
Y =D
(h)
˘
X
˘
Y +D
(v)
˘
X
˘
Y
,
(3.4)
where
D
(h)
X
f =(hX)f, D
(v)
X
f =(vX)f, X, Y ∈ᐄ(Ᏹ), f ∈Ᏺ(M),
˘
D
(h)
˘
X
f =
¸
h
˘
X
f,
˘
D
(v)
˘
X
f =
¸
v
˘
X
f,
˘
X,
˘
Y ∈ᐄ
¸
˘
Ᏹ
, f ∈Ᏺ(M)
.
(3.5)
The components Γ
α
βγ
(
˘
Γ
α
βγ
) of a dconnection
˘
D
α
= (
˘
δ
α
◦D), locally adapted to the N
connection structure with respect to the frames (2.29) and (2.30) ((2.32) and (2.33)), are
deﬁned by the equations
D
α
δ
β
=Γ
γ
αβ
δ
γ
,
¸
˘
D
α
˘
δ
β
=
˘
Γ
γ
αβ
˘
δ
γ
, (3.6)
from which one immediately has
Γ
γ
αβ
(u) =
¸
D
α
δ
β
◦δ
γ
,
˘
Γ
γ
αβ
¸
˘ u
=
˘
D
α
˘
δ
β
◦
˘
δ
γ
. (3.7)
The coeﬃcients of operators of h and vcovariant derivations
D
(h)
k
=
¸
L
i
jk
, L
a
bk
¸
, D
(v)
c
=
¸
C
i
jk
, C
a
bc
¸
,
˘
D
(h)
k
=
¸
˘
L
i
jk
,
˘
L
b
ak
¸
,
˘
D
(v)c
=
¸
˘
C
ic
j
,
˘
C
bc
a
¸ (3.8)
(see (3.4)) are introduced as corresponding h and vparametrizations of (3.7)
L
i
jk
=
¸
D
k
δ
j
◦d
i
, L
a
bk
=
¸
D
k
∂
b
◦δ
a
,
˘
L
i
jk
=
˘
D
k
˘
δ
j
◦d
i
,
˘
L
b
ak
=
˘
D
k
˘
∂
b
◦
˘
δ
a
,
(3.9)
C
i
jc
=
¸
D
c
δ
j
◦d
i
, C
a
bc
=
¸
D
c
∂
b
◦δ
a
,
˘
C
ic
j
=
˘
D
c
˘
δ
j
◦d
i
,
˘
C
bc
a
=
˘
D
c
˘
∂
b
◦
˘
δ
a
.
(3.10)
A set of components (3.9) and (3.10)
Γ
γ
αβ
=
¸
L
i
jk
, L
a
bk
, C
i
jc
, C
a
bc
¸
,
˘
Γ
γ
αβ
=
¸
˘
L
i
jk
,
˘
L
b
ak
,
˘
C
ic
j
,
˘
C
bc
a
¸
(3.11)
completely deﬁnes the local action of a dconnection D in Ᏹ (
˘
D in
˘
Ᏹ).
For instance, having taken on Ᏹ (
˘
Ᏹ) a dtensor ﬁeld of type
¸
1 1
1 1
,
t =t
ia
jb
δ
i
⊗∂
a
⊗d
j
⊗δ
b
,
˜
t =
˘
t
ib
ja
˘
δ
i
⊗
˘
∂
a
⊗d
j
⊗
˘
δ
b
, (3.12)
1202 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
and a dvector X (
˘
X), we obtain
D
X
t =D
(h)
X
t+D
(v)
X
t =
X
k
˘
t
ia
jb¦k
+X
c
t
ia
jb⊥c
δ
i
⊗∂
a
⊗d
j
⊗δ
b
,
˘
D
˘
X
˜
t =
˘
D
(h)
˘
X
˜
t+
˘
D
(v)
˘
X
˜
t =
˘
X
k
˘
t
ib
ja¦k
+
˘
X
c
˘
t
ib⊥c
ja
˘
δ
i
⊗
˘
∂
a
⊗d
j
⊗
˘
δ
b
,
(3.13)
where the hcovariant derivative is written as
t
ia
jb¦k
=δ
k
t
ia
jb
+L
i
hk
t
ha
jb
+L
a
ck
t
ic
jb
−L
h
jk
t
ia
hb
−L
c
bk
t
ia
jc
,
˘
t
ib
ja¦k
=
˘
δ
k
˘
t
ib
ja
+
˘
L
i
hk
˘
t
hb
ja
+
˘
L
b
ck
˘
t
ic
ja
−
˘
L
h
jk
˘
t
ib
ha
−
˘
L
b
ck
˘
t
ic
ja
(3.14)
and the vcovariant derivative is written as
t
ia
jb⊥c
=∂
c
t
ia
jb
+C
i
hc
t
ha
jb
+C
a
dc
t
id
jb
−C
h
jc
t
ia
hb
−C
d
bc
t
ia
jd
, (3.15)
˘
t
ib⊥c
ja
=
˘
∂
c
˘
t
ib
ja
+
˘
C
ic
j
˘
t
hb
ja
+
˘
C
dc
a
˘
t
ib
jd
−
˘
C
ic
j
˘
t
ib
ha
−
˘
C
bc
d
˘
t
id
ja
. (3.16)
For a scalar function f ∈Ᏺ(Ᏹ) (f ∈Ᏺ(
˘
Ᏹ)), we have
D
(h)
k
=
δf
δx
k
=
∂f
∂x
k
−N
a
k
∂f
∂y
a
, D
(v)
c
f =
∂f
∂y
c
,
˘
D
(h)
k
=
˘
δf
δx
k
=
∂f
∂x
k
+N
ka
∂f
∂p
a
,
˘
D
(v)c
f =
∂f
∂p
c
¸
.
(3.17)
3.1.2. dconnections in hvcbundles. The theory of connections in higherorder ani
sotropic vector superbundles and vector bundles was elaborated in [90, 91, 92, 93].
Here, we reformulate that formalism for the case when some shells of higherorder
anisotropy could be covector spaces by stating the general rules of covariant deriva
tion compatible with the Nconnection structure in hvcbundle
˜
Ᏹ, and omit details and
cumbersome formulas.
For an hvcbundle of type
˜
Ᏹ =
˜
Ᏹ[v(1), v(2), cv(3), . . . , cv(z −1), v(z)], a dconnec
tion
˜
Γ
γ
αβ
has the next shell decomposition of components (with induction being on the
pth shell, considered as the base space, which is in this case an hvcbundle, we introduce
in a usual manner, like a vector or covector ﬁber, the (p+1)th shell):
˜
Γ
γ
αβ
=
¸
Γ
γ
1
α
1
β
1
=
¸
L
i
1
j
1
k
1
, L
a
1
b
1
k
1
, C
i
1
j
1
c
1
, C
a
1
b
1
c
1
¸
,
Γ
γ
2
α
2
β
2
=
¸
L
i
2
j
2
k
2
, L
a
2
b
2
k
2
, C
i
2
j
2
c
2
, C
a
2
b
2
c
2
¸
,
˘
Γ
γ
3
α
3
β
3
=
¸
˘
L
i
3
j
3
k
3
,
˘
L
b
3
a
3
k
3
,
˘
C
i
3
c
3
j
3
,
˘
C
b
3
c
3
a
3
¸
, . . . ,
˘
Γ
γ
z−1
α
z−1
β
z−1
=
¸
˘
L
i
z−1
j
z−1
k
z−1
,
˘
L
b
z−1
a
z−1
k
z−1
,
˘
C
i
z−1
c
z−1
j
z−1
,
˘
C
b
z−1
c
z−1
a
z−1
¸
,
Γ
γ
z
α
z
β
z
=
¸
L
i
z
j
z
k
z
, L
a
z
b
z
k
z
, C
i
z
j
z
c
z
, C
a
z
b
z
c
z
¸¸
.
(3.18)
These coeﬃcients determine the rules of a covariant derivation
˜
D on
˜
Ᏹ.
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1203
For example, we consider a dtensor
˜
t of type
1 1
1
1
2
˘
1
3
··· 1
z
1 1
1
1
2
˘
1
3
··· 1
z
with a corresponding
tensor product of components of anholonomic Nframes (2.38) and (2.41):
˜
t =
˜
t
ia
1
a
2
˘
b
3
···
˘
b
z−1
a
z
jb
1
b
2
˘ a
3
···˘ a
z−1
b
z
δ
i
⊗∂
a
1
⊗d
j
⊗δ
b
1
⊗∂
a
2
⊗δ
b
2
⊗
˘
∂
a
3
⊗
˘
δ
b
3
···⊗
˘
∂
a
z−1
⊗
˘
δ
bz−1
⊗∂
a
z
⊗δ
b
z
.
(3.19)
The dcovariant derivation
˜
D of
˜
t is to be performed separately for every shell according
to the rule (3.15) if a shell is deﬁned by a vector subspace, or according to the rule (3.16)
if the shell is deﬁned by a covector subspace.
3.2. Metric structure
3.2.1. dmetrics in vbundles. We deﬁne a metric structure G in the total space E
of a vbundle Ᏹ = (E, p, M) over a connected and paracompact base M as a symmetric
covariant tensor ﬁeld of type (0, 2),
G =G
αβ
du
α
⊗du
β
, (3.20)
being nondegenerate and of constant signature on E.
Nonlinear connection N and metric G structures on Ᏹ are mutually compatible if they
satisfy the following conditions:
G
¸
δ
i
, ∂
a
=0, (3.21)
or equivalently,
G
ia
(u)−N
b
i
(u)h
ab
(u) =0, (3.22)
where h
ab
=G(∂
a
, ∂
b
) and G
ia
=G(∂
i
, ∂
a
), which gives
N
b
i
(u) =h
ab
(u)G
ia
(u) (3.23)
(the matrix h
ab
is inverse to h
ab
). One obtains the following decomposition of metric:
G(X, Y) =hG(X, Y)+vG(X, Y), (3.24)
where the dtensor hG(X, Y) = G(hX, hY) is of type
¸
0 0
2 0
and the dtensor vG(X, Y) =
G(vX, vY) is of type
¸
0 0
0 2
. With respect to the anholonomic basis (2.29), the dmetric
(3.24) is written as
G =g
αβ
(u)δ
α
⊗δ
β
=g
ij
(u)d
i
⊗d
j
+h
ab
(u)δ
a
⊗δ
b
, (3.25)
where g
ij
=G(δ
i
, δ
j
).
A metric structure of type (3.24) (equivalently, of type (3.25)) or a metric on E with
components satisfying the constraints (3.21) and (3.22) (equivalently (3.23)) deﬁnes an
adapted to the given Nconnection inner (dscalar) product on the tangent bundle ᐀Ᏹ.
1204 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
A dconnection D
X
is metric (or compatible with metric G) on Ᏹ if D
X
G = 0, for all
X ∈ᐄ(Ᏹ). With respect to anholonomic frames, these conditions are written as
D
α
g
βγ
=0, (3.26)
where by g
βγ
we denote the coeﬃcients in the block form (3.25).
3.2.2. dmetrics in cv and hvcbundles. The presented considerations on the self
consistent deﬁnition of Nconnection, dconnection, and metric structures in vbundles
can be reformulated in a similar fashion for other types of anisotropic spacetimes, on
cvbundles and on shells of hvcbundles. For simplicity, we give here only the analogous
formulas for the metric dtensor (3.25).
(i) On cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ we write
˘
G = ˘ g
αβ
¸
˘ u
˘
δ
α
⊗
˘
δ
β
= ˘ g
ij
¸
˘ u
d
i
⊗d
j
+
˘
h
ab
¸
˘ u
˘
δ
a
⊗
˘
δ
b
, (3.27)
where ˘ g
ij
=
˘
G(
˘
δ
i
,
˘
δ
j
),
˘
h
ab
=
˘
G(
˘
∂
a
,
˘
∂
b
), and the Ncoframes are given by formulas
(2.33).
For simplicity, we consider that the metricity conditions are satisﬁed,
˘
D
γ
˘ g
αβ
=0.
(ii) On hvcbundle
˜
Ᏹ we write
˜
G = ˜ g
αβ
¸
˜ u
˜
δ
α
⊗
˜
δ
β
= ˜ g
ij
¸
˜ u
d
i
⊗d
j
+
˜
h
a
1
b
1
¸
˜ u
δ
a
1
⊗δ
b
1
+
˜
h
a
2
b
2
¸
˜ u
δ
a
2
⊗δ
b
2
+
˜
h
a
3
b
3
¸
˜ u
˘
δ
a
3
⊗
˘
δ
b
3
+···+
˜
h
a
z−1
b
z−1
¸
˜ u
˘
δ
a
z−1
⊗
˘
δ
b
z−1
+
˜
h
a
z
b
z
¸
˜ u
δ
a
z
⊗δ
b
z
,
(3.28)
where ˜ g
ij
=
˜
G(
˜
δ
i
,
˜
δ
j
),
˜
h
a
1
b
1
=
˜
G(∂
a
1
, ∂
b
1
),
˜
h
a
2
b
2
=
˜
G(∂
a
2
, ∂
b
2
),
˜
h
a
3
b
3
=
˜
G(
˘
∂
a
3
,
˘
∂
b
3
), . . . , and the Ncoframes are given by formula (2.41).
The metricity conditions are
˜
D
γ
˜ g
αβ
=0.
(iii) On osculator bundle T
2
M =Osc
2
M, we have a particular case of (3.28) when
˜
G = ˜ g
αβ
¸
˜ u
˜
δ
α
⊗
˜
δ
β
= ˜ g
ij
¸
˜ u
d
i
⊗d
j
+
˜
h
ij
¸
˜ u
δy
i
(1)
⊗δy
i
(1)
+
˜
h
ij
¸
˜ u
δy
i
(2)
⊗δy
i
(2)
(3.29)
with respect to Ncoframes.
(iv) On dual osculator bundle (T
∗2
M, p
∗2
, M) we have another particular case of (3.28)
when
˜
G = ˜ g
αβ
¸
˜ u
˜
δ
α
⊗
˜
δ
β
= ˜ g
ij
¸
˜ u
d
i
⊗d
j
+
˜
h
ij
¸
˜ u
δy
i
(1)
⊗δy
i
(1)
+
˜
h
ij
¸
˜ u
δp
(2)
i
⊗δp
(2)
i
(3.30)
with respect to Ncoframes.
3.3. Some examples of dconnections. We emphasize that the geometry of con
nections in a vbundle Ᏹ is very rich. If a triple of fundamental geometric objects
(N
a
i
(u), Γ
α
βγ
(u), g
αβ
(u)) is ﬁxed on Ᏹ, a multiconnection structure (with correspond
ing diﬀerent rules of covariant derivation, which are, or not, mutually compatible and
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1205
with the same, or without, induced dscalar products in ᐀Ᏹ) is deﬁned on this vbundle.
We can give a priority to a connection structure following some physical arguments, like
the reduction to the Christoﬀel symbols in the holonomic case, mutual compatibility
between metric and Nconnection, and dconnection structures, and so on.
In this subsection, we enumerate some of the connections and covariant derivations
in vbundle Ᏹ, cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ, and in some hvcbundles which can represent interest in
the investigation of locally anisotropic gravitational and matter ﬁeld interactions.
(1) Every Nconnection in Ᏹ with coeﬃcients N
a
i
(x, y) being diﬀerentiable on y
variables induces a structure of linear connection N
α
βγ
, where
N
a
bi
=
∂N
a
i
∂y
b
, N
a
bc
(x, y) =0. (3.31)
For some Y(u) = Y
i
(u)∂
i
+Y
a
(u)∂
a
and B(u) = B
a
(u)∂
a
, one introduces a covariant
derivation as
D
(
`
N)
Y
B =
¸
Y
i
∂B
a
∂x
i
+N
a
bi
B
b
¸
+Y
b
∂B
a
∂y
b
∂
∂y
a
. (3.32)
(2) The dconnection of Berwald type on vbundle Ᏹ (cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ)
Γ
(B)α
βγ
=
L
i
jk
,
∂N
a
k
∂y
b
, 0, C
a
bc
¸
,
˘
Γ
(B)α
βγ
=
˘
L
i
jk
, −
∂
˘
N
ka
∂p
b
, 0,
˘
C
bc
a
¸¸
,
(3.33)
where
L
i
.jk
(x, y) =
1
2
g
ir
δg
jk
δx
k
+
δg
kr
δx
j
−
δg
jk
δx
r
¸
,
C
a
.bc
(x, y) =
1
2
h
ad
∂h
bd
∂y
c
+
∂h
cd
∂y
b
−
∂h
bc
∂y
d
¸
,
˘
L
i
.jk
(x, p) =
1
2
˘ g
ir
˘
δ˘ g
jk
δx
k
+
˘
δ˘ g
kr
δx
j
−
˘
δ˘ g
jk
δx
r
¸
,
˘
C
bc
a
(x, p) =
1
2
˘
h
ad
∂
˘
h
bd
∂p
c
+
∂
˘
h
cd
∂p
b
−
∂
˘
h
bc
∂p
d
¸¸
,
(3.34)
which is hvmetric, that is, the conditions D
(B)
k
g
ij
=0 and D
(B)
c
h
ab
=0 (
˘
D
(B)
k
˘ g
ij
=0 and
˘
D
(B)c
˘
h
ab
=0) are satisﬁed.
(3) The canonical dconnection Γ
(c)
(or
˘
Γ
(c)
) on a vbundle (or cvbundle) is associated
to a metric G (or
˘
G) of type (3.25) (or (3.27)),
Γ
(c)α
βγ
=
¸
L
(c)i
jk
, L
(c)a
bk
, C
(c)i
jc
, C
(c)a
bc
¸
,
˘
Γ
(c)α
βγ
=
¸
˘
L
(c)i
jk
,
˘
L
(c).b
a.k
,
˘
C
(c)ic
j
,
˘
C
(c)bc
a
¸ (3.35)
1206 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
with coeﬃcients
L
(c)i
jk
=L
i
.jk
, C
(c)a
bc
=C
a
.bc
,
˘
L
(c)i
jk
=
˘
L
i
.jk
,
˘
C
(c)bc
a
=
˘
C
bc
a
, (see (3.34))
L
(c)a
bi
=
∂N
a
i
∂y
b
+
1
2
h
ac
δh
bc
δx
i
−
∂N
d
i
∂y
b
h
dc
−
∂N
d
i
∂y
c
h
db
¸
,
˘
L
(c).b
a.i
=−
∂
˘
N
a
i
∂p
b
+
1
2
˘
h
ac
˘
δ
˘
h
bc
δx
i
+
∂
˘
N
id
∂p
b
˘
h
dc
+
∂
˘
N
id
∂p
c
˘
h
db
¸¸
,
C
(c)i
jc
=
1
2
g
ik
∂g
jk
∂y
c
,
˘
C
(c)ic
j
=
1
2
˘ g
ik
∂ ˘ g
jk
∂p
c
¸
.
(3.36)
This is a metric dconnection which satisﬁes the conditions
D
(c)
k
g
ij
=0, D
(c)
c
g
ij
=0, D
(c)
k
h
ab
=0, D
(c)
c
h
ab
=0,
˘
D
(c)
k
˘ g
jk
=0,
˘
D
(c)c
˘ g
jk
=0,
˘
D
(c)
k
˘
h
bc
=0,
˘
D
(c)c
˘
h
ab
=0
.
(3.37)
In physical applications, we will use the canonical connection and, for simplicity, we
will omit the index (c). The coeﬃcients (3.36) are to be extended to a higher order if
we are dealing with derivations of geometrical objects with “shell” indices. In this case
the ﬁber indices are to be stipulated for every type of shell in consideration.
(4) We can consider the Nadapted Christoﬀel symbols
`
Γ
α
βγ
=
1
2
g
ατ
¸
δ
γ
g
τβ
+δ
β
g
τγ
−δg
βγ
(3.38)
which have the components of dconnection
`
Γ
α
βγ
=(L
i
jk
, 0, 0, C
a
bc
), with L
i
jk
and C
a
bc
as in
(3.34) if g
αβ
is taken in the form (3.25).
3.4. Almost Hermitian anisotropic spaces. There are possible very interesting par
ticular constructions [45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52] on tbundle TM provided with
Nconnection which deﬁnes an Nadapted frame structure δ
α
= (δ
i
,
˙
∂
i
) (for the same
formulas (2.29) and (2.30) but with identiﬁed ﬁber and base indices). We use the dot
ted symbol in order to distinguish the horizontal and vertical operators because on
tbundles the indices could take the same values both for the base and ﬁber objects.
This allows us to deﬁne an almost complex structure J =¦J
β
α
¦ on TM as follows:
J
¸
δ
i
=−
˙
∂
i
, J
¸
˙
∂
i
=δ
i
. (3.39)
It is obvious that J is well deﬁned and J
2
=−I.
For dmetrics of type (3.25), on TM, we can consider the case when g
ij
(x, y) =
h
ab
(x, y), that is,
G
(t)
=g
ij
(x, y)dx
i
⊗dx
j
+g
ij
(x, y)δy
i
⊗δy
j
, (3.40)
where the index (t) denotes that we have a geometrical object deﬁned on a tangent
space.
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1207
An almost complex structure J
β
α
is compatible with a dmetric of type (3.40) and a
dconnection D on tangent bundle TM if the conditions
J
β
α
J
δ
γ
g
βδ
=g
αγ
, D
α
J
γ
β
=0 (3.41)
are satisﬁed.
The pair (G
(t)
, J) is an almost Hermitian structure on TM.
One can introduce an almost sympletic 2form associated to the almost Hermitian
structure (G
(t)
, J),
θ =g
ij
(x, y)δy
i
∧dx
j
. (3.42)
If the 2form (3.42), deﬁned by the coeﬃcients g
ij
, is closed, we obtain an almost
Kähler structure in TM.
Deﬁnition 3.1. An almost Kähler metric connection is a linear connection D
(H)
on
T
˜
M =TM\¦0¦ with the following properties:
(1) D
(H)
preserves by parallelism the vertical distribution deﬁned by the Nconnec
tion structure;
(2) D
(H)
is compatible with the almost Kähler structure (G
(t)
, J), that is,
D
(H)
X
g =0, D
(H)
X
J =0, ∀X ∈ᐄ
¸
T
˜
M
. (3.43)
By a straightforward calculation, we can prove that a dconnection DΓ =(L
i
jk
, L
i
jk
, C
i
jc
,
C
i
jc
) with the coeﬃcients deﬁned by
D
(H)
δ
i
δ
j
=L
i
jk
δ
i
, D
(H)
δ
i
˙
∂
j
=L
i
jk
˙
∂
i
, D
(H)
δ
i
δ
j
=C
i
jk
δ
i
, D
(H)
δ
i
˙
∂
j
=C
i
jk
˙
∂
i
, (3.44)
where L
i
jk
and C
e
ab
→C
i
jk
on TM are deﬁned by the formulas (3.34), deﬁnes a torsionless
(see the next section on torsion structures) metric dconnection which satisﬁes the
compatibility conditions (3.26).
Almost complex structures and almost Kähler models of Finsler, Lagrange, Hamilton,
and Cartan geometries (of ﬁrst higher orders) are investigated in detail in [45, 49, 50,
51, 52, 92].
3.5. Torsions and curvatures. We outline the basic deﬁnitions and formulas for
the torsion and curvature structures in vbundles and cvbundles provided with N
connection structure.
3.5.1. Nconnection curvature. (1) The curvature Ω of a nonlinear connection N in
a vbundle Ᏹ can be deﬁned in local form as (see [46, 47, 48])
Ω=
1
2
Ω
a
ij
d
i
∧d
j
⊗∂
a
, (3.45)
where
Ω
a
ij
=δ
j
N
a
i
−δ
i
N
a
j
=∂
j
N
a
i
−∂
i
N
a
j
+N
b
i
N
a
bj
−N
b
j
N
a
bi
, (3.46)
N
a
bi
being that from (3.31).
1208 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
(2) For the curvature
˘
Ω of a nonlinear connection
˘
N in a cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ, we introduce
˘
Ω=
1
2
˘
Ω
ija
d
i
∧d
j
⊗
˘
∂
a
, (3.47)
where
˘
Ω
ija
=−
˘
δ
j
˘
N
ia
+
˘
δ
i
˘
N
ja
=−∂
j
˘
N
ia
+∂
i
˘
N
ja
+
˘
N
ib
˘
N
b
ja
−
˘
N
jb
˘
N
b
ja
,
˘
N
b
ja
=
˘
∂
b
˘
N
ja
=
∂
˘
N
ja
∂p
b
.
(3.48)
(3) The curvatures
˜
Ω of diﬀerent types of nonlinear connections
˜
N in higherorder
anisotropic bundles were analyzed for higherorder tangent/dual tangent bundles and
higherorder prolongations of generalized Finsler, Lagrange, and Hamilton spaces in
[45, 49, 50, 51, 52] and for higherorder anisotropic superspaces and spinor bundles in
[82, 83, 90, 91, 92, 93]. For every higherorder anisotropy shell, we will deﬁne the coef
ﬁcients (3.46) or (3.48) depending on the fact what type of subﬁber we are considering
(a vector or covector ﬁber).
3.5.2. dtorsions in v and cvbundles. The torsion T of a dconnection Din vbundle
Ᏹ (cvbundle
˘
Ᏹ) is deﬁned by the equation
T(X, Y) =XY
◦
◦
T=D
X
Y−D
Y
X−[X, Y]. (3.49)
The following h and vdecompositions hold:
T(X, Y) =T(hX, hY)+T(hX, vY)+T(vX, hY)+T(vX, vY). (3.50)
We consider the projections
hT(X, Y), vT(hX, hY), hT(hX, hY), . . . (3.51)
and say that, for instance, hT(hX, hY) is the h(h,h)torsion of D, vT(hX, hY) is the v(h,h)
torsion of D, and so on.
The torsion (3.49) in vbundle is locally determined by ﬁve dtensor ﬁelds, torsions,
deﬁned as
T
i
jk
=hT
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
·d
i
, T
a
jk
=vT
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
·δ
a
,
P
i
jb
=hT
¸
∂
b
, δ
j
·d
i
, P
a
jb
=vT
¸
∂
b
, δ
j
·δ
a
, S
a
bc
=vT
¸
∂
c
, ∂
b
·δ
a
.
(3.52)
Using formulas (2.29), (2.30), (3.46), and (3.49), we can compute [46, 47, 48] in explicit
form the components of torsions (3.52) for a dconnection of type (3.9) and (3.10):
T
i
.jk
=T
i
jk
=L
i
jk
−L
i
kj
, T
i
ja
=C
i
.ja
, T
i
aj
=−C
i
ja
,
T
i
.ja
=0, T
a
.ib
=−P
a
.bi
,
T
a
.bc
=S
a
.bc
=C
a
bc
−C
a
cb
, T
a
.ij
=δ
j
N
a
i
−δ
j
N
a
j
, T
a
.bi
=P
a
.bi
=∂
b
N
a
i
−L
a
.bj
.
(3.53)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1209
Formulas similar to (3.52) and (3.53) hold for cvbundles:
ˇ
T
i
jk
=hT
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
·d
i
,
ˇ
T
jka
=vT
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
·
ˇ
δ
a
,
ˇ
P
ib
j
=hT
¸
ˇ
∂
b
, δ
j
·d
i
,
ˇ
P
b
aj
=vT
¸
ˇ
∂
b
, δ
j
·
ˇ
δ
a
,
ˇ
S
bc
a
=vT
¸
ˇ
∂
c
,
ˇ
∂
b
·
ˇ
δ
a
,
(3.54)
ˇ
T
i
.jk
=
ˇ
T
i
jk
=L
i
jk
−L
i
kj
,
ˇ
T
ia
j
=
ˇ
C
ia
.j
,
ˇ
T
ia
j
=−
ˇ
C
ia
j
,
ˇ
T
ia
.j
=0,
ˇ
T
j
ab
=−
ˇ
P
j
ab
,
ˇ
T
bc
a
=
ˇ
S
bc
a
=
ˇ
C
bc
a
−
ˇ
C
cb
a
,
ˇ
T
.ija
=−δ
j
ˇ
N
ia
+δ
j
ˇ
N
ja
,
ˇ
T
bi
a
=
ˇ
P
bi
a
=−
ˇ
∂
b
ˇ
N
ia
−
ˇ
L
bi
a
.
(3.55)
The formulas for torsion can be generalized for hvcbundles (on every shell we must
write (3.53) or (3.55) depending on the type of shell, vector or covector one, we are
dealing with).
3.5.3. dcurvatures in v and cvbundles. The curvature R of a dconnection in v
bundle Ᏹ is deﬁned by the equation
R(X, Y)Z =XY
•
•
R•Z =D
X
D
Y
Z−D
Y
D
X
Z−D
[X,Y]
Z. (3.56)
The next properties for the h and vdecompositions of curvature hold:
vR(X, Y)hZ =0, hR(X, Y)vZ =0,
R(X, Y)Z =hR(X, Y)hZ+vR(X, Y)vZ.
(3.57)
From (3.57) and the equation R(X, Y) =−R(Y, X), we get that the curvature of a d
connection D in Ᏹ is completely determined by the following six dtensor ﬁelds:
R
.i
h.jk
=d
i
·R
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
δ
h
, R
.a
b.jk
=δ
a
·R
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
∂
b
,
P
.i
j.kc
=d
i
·R
¸
∂
c
, ∂
k
δ
j
, P
.a
b.kc
=δ
a
·R
¸
∂
c
, ∂
k
∂
b
,
S
.i
j.bc
=d
i
·R
¸
∂
c
, ∂
b
δ
j
, S
.a
b.cd
=δ
a
·R
¸
∂
d
, ∂
c
∂
b
.
(3.58)
By a direct computation, using (2.29), (2.30), (3.9), (3.10), and (3.58), we get
R
.i
h.jk
=δ
h
L
i
.hj
−δ
j
L
i
.hk
+L
m
.hj
L
i
mk
−L
m
.hk
L
i
mj
+C
i
.ha
R
a
.jk
,
R
.a
b.jk
=δ
k
L
a
.bj
−δ
j
L
a
.bk
+L
c
.bj
L
a
.ck
−L
c
.bk
L
a
.cj
+C
a
.bc
R
c
.jk
,
P
.i
j.ka
=∂
a
L
i
.jk
−
δ
k
C
i
.ja
+L
i
.lk
C
l
.ja
−L
l
.jk
C
i
.la
−L
c
.ak
C
i
.jc
+C
i
.jb
P
b
.ka
,
P
.c
b.ka
=∂
a
L
c
.bk
−
δ
k
C
c
.ba
+L
c
.dk
C
d
.ba
−L
d
.bk
C
c
.da
−L
d
.ak
C
c
.bd
+C
c
.bd
P
d
.ka
,
S
.i
j.bc
=∂
c
C
i
.jb
−∂
b
C
i
.jc
+C
h
.jb
C
i
.hc
−C
h
.jc
C
i
hb
,
S
.a
b.cd
=∂
d
C
a
.bc
−∂
c
C
a
.bd
+C
e
.bc
C
a
.ed
−C
e
.bd
C
a
.ec
.
(3.59)
We note that dtorsions (3.53) and dcurvatures (3.59) are computed in explicit form
by particular cases of dconnections (3.33), (3.36), and (3.38).
1210 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
For cvbundles, we have
ˇ
R
.i
h.jk
=d
i
·R
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
δ
h
,
ˇ
R
b
a.jk
=
ˇ
δ
a
·R
¸
δ
k
, δ
j
ˇ
∂
b
,
ˇ
P
.ic
j.k
=d
i
·R
¸
ˇ
∂
c
, ∂
k
δ
j
,
ˇ
P
bc
a.k
=
ˇ
δ
a
·R
¸
ˇ
∂
c
, ∂
k
ˇ
∂
b
,
ˇ
S
.ibc
j.
=d
i
·R
¸
ˇ
∂
c
,
ˇ
∂
b
δ
j
,
ˇ
S
b.cd
.a
=
ˇ
δ
a
·R
¸
ˇ
∂
d
,
ˇ
∂
c
ˇ
∂
b
,
(3.60)
ˇ
R
.i
h.jk
=
ˇ
δ
h
L
i
.hj
−
ˇ
δ
j
L
i
.hk
+L
m
.hj
L
i
mk
−L
m
.hk
L
i
mj
+C
ia
.h
ˇ
R
.ajk
,
ˇ
R
b.
.ajk
=
ˇ
δ
k
ˇ
L
b
a.j
−
ˇ
δ
j
ˇ
L
a
bk
+
ˇ
L
b
cj
ˇ
L
c
.ak
−
ˇ
L
b
ck
ˇ
L
c
a.j
+
ˇ
C
bc
a
ˇ
R
c.jk
,
ˇ
P
.ia
j.k
=
ˇ
∂
a
L
i
.jk
−
ˇ
δ
k
ˇ
C
ia
.j
+L
i
.lk
ˇ
C
la
.j
−L
l
.jk
ˇ
C
ia
.l
−
ˇ
L
a
ck
ˇ
C
ic
.j
+
ˇ
C
ib
.j
ˇ
P
a
bk
,
ˇ
P
ba
ck
=
ˇ
∂
a
ˇ
L
b
c.k
−
ˇ
δ
k
ˇ
C
ba
c.
+
ˇ
L
bd
c.k
ˇ
C
ba
d
−
ˇ
L
b
d.k
ˇ
C
ad
c.
−
ˇ
L
a
dk
ˇ
C
bd
c.
+
ˇ
C
bd
c.
ˇ
P
a
d.k
,
ˇ
S
.ibc
j.
=
ˇ
∂
c
ˇ
C
ib
.j
−
ˇ
∂
b
ˇ
C
ic
.j
+
ˇ
C
hb
.j
ˇ
C
ic
.h
−
ˇ
C
hc
.j
ˇ
C
ib
h
,
ˇ
S
bcd
a.
=
ˇ
∂
d
ˇ
C
bc
a.
−
ˇ
∂
c
ˇ
C
bd
a.
+
ˇ
C
bc
e.
ˇ
C
ed
a.
−
ˇ
C
bd
e.
ˇ
C
ec
.a
.
(3.61)
The formulas for curvature can also be generalized for hvcbundles (on every shell
we must write (3.53) or (3.54) depending on the type of shell, vector or covector one,
we are dealing with).
4. Generalizations of Finsler geometry. We outline the basic deﬁnitions and formu
las for Finsler, Lagrange, and generalized Lagrange spaces (constructed on tangent bun
dle) and for Cartan, Hamilton, and generalized Hamilton spaces (constructed on cotan
gent bundle). The original results are given in detail in [45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52],
see also developments for superbundles in [90, 91, 92].
4.1. Finsler spaces. The Finsler geometry is modeled on tangent bundle TM.
Deﬁnition 4.1. A Finsler space (manifold) is a pair F
n
= (M, F(x, y)), where M is
a real ndimensional diﬀerentiable manifold and F : TM →R is a scalar function which
satisﬁes the following conditions:
(1) F is a diﬀerentiable function on the manifold
¯
TM =TM\¦0¦ and F is continuous
on the null section of the projection π : TM →M;
(2) F is a positive function, homogeneous on the ﬁbers of the TM, that is, F(x, λy) =
λF(x, y), λ ∈R;
(3) The Hessian of F
2
with elements
g
(F)
ij
(x, y) =
1
2
∂
2
F
2
∂y
i
∂y
j
(4.1)
is positively deﬁned on
¯
TM.
The function F(x, y) and g
ij
(x, y) are called, respectively, the fundamental function
and the fundamental (or metric) tensor of the Finsler space F.
One considers “anisotropic” (depending on directions y
i
) Christoﬀel symbols. For
simplicity, we write g
(F)
ij
=g
ij
,
γ
i
jk
(x, y) =
1
2
g
ir
∂g
rk
∂x
j
+
∂g
jr
∂x
k
−
∂g
jk
∂x
r
¸
, (4.2)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1211
which are used for the deﬁnition of the Cartan Nconnection
N
i
(c)j
=
1
2
∂
∂y
j
¸
γ
i
nk
(x, y)y
n
y
k
¸
. (4.3)
This Nconnection can be used for the deﬁnition of an almost complex structure like in
(3.39) and to deﬁne on TM a dmetric
G
(F)
=g
ij
(x, y)dx
i
⊗dx
j
+g
ij
(x, y)δy
i
⊗δy
j
, (4.4)
with g
ij
(x, y) taken as in (4.1).
Using the Cartan Nconnection (4.3) and Finsler metric tensor (4.1) (or, equivalently,
the dmetric (4.4)), we can introduce the canonical dconnection
DΓ
¸
N
(c)
=Γ
α
(c)βγ
=
L
i
(c)jk
, C
i
(c)jk
(4.5)
with the coeﬃcients computed as in (3.44) and (3.34) with h
ab
→g
ij
. The dconnection
DΓ (N
(c)
) has the unique property that it is torsionless and satisﬁes the metricity con
ditions for both the horizontal and vertical components, that is, D
α
g
βγ
=0.
The dcurvatures
ˇ
R
.i
h.jk
=
¸
ˇ
R
.i
h.jk
,
ˇ
P
.il
j.k
, S
.i
(c)j.kl
¸
(4.6)
on a Finsler space provided with Cartan Nconnection and Finsler metric structures are
computed following the formulas (3.59) when the a, b, c, . . . indices are identiﬁed with
i, j, k, . . . indices. It should be emphasized that in this case all values g
ij
, Γ
α
(c)βγ
, and
R
.α
(c)β.γδ
are deﬁned by a fundamental function F(x, y).
In general, we can consider that a Finsler space is provided with a metric g
ij
=
∂
2
F
2
/2∂y
i
∂y
j
, but the Nconnection and dconnection are deﬁned in a diﬀerent man
ner; they are not even determined by F.
4.2. Lagrange and generalized Lagrange spaces. The notion of Finsler spaces was
generalized by Kern [30] and Miron [38, 39]. It is widely developed in [46, 47, 48] and
extended to superspaces in [76, 77, 78, 81, 90, 91, 92].
The idea of extension was to consider instead of the homogeneous fundamental
function F(x, y) in a Finsler space a more general one, a Lagrangian L(x, y) deﬁned
as a diﬀerentiable mapping L : (x, y) ∈ TM → L(x, y) ∈ R, of class C
∞
on manifold
¯
TM, and continuous on the null section 0 : M →TM of the projection π : TM →M. A
Lagrangian is regular if it is diﬀerentiable and the Hessian
g
(L)
ij
(x, y) =
1
2
∂
2
L
2
∂y
i
∂y
j
(4.7)
is of rank n on M.
Deﬁnition 4.2. A Lagrange space is a pair L
n
=(M, L(x, y)), where M is a smooth
real ndimensional manifold provided with regular Lagrangian L(x, y) structure L :
TM →R for which g
ij
(x, y) from (4.7) has a constant signature over the manifold
¯
TM.
1212 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
The fundamental Lagrange function L(x, y) deﬁnes a canonical Nconnection
N
i
(cL)j
=
1
2
∂
∂y
j
¸
g
ik
∂
2
L
2
∂y
k
∂y
h
y
h
−
∂L
∂x
k
¸
(4.8)
as well as a dmetric
G
(L)
=g
ij
(x, y)dx
i
⊗dx
j
+g
ij
(x, y)δy
i
⊗δy
j
, (4.9)
with g
ij
(x, y) taken as in (4.7). We can also introduce an almost Kähler structure and
an almost Hermitian model of L
n
, denoted as H
2n
as in the case of Finsler spaces but
with a proper fundamental Lagrange function and metric tensor g
ij
. The canonical
metric dconnection DΓ (N
(cL)
) = Γ
α
(cL)βγ
= (L
i
(cL)jk
, C
i
(cL)jk
) is to be computed by the
same formulas (3.44) and (3.34) with h
ab
→g
(L)
ij
, for N
i
(cL)j
. The dtorsions (3.53) and
dcurvatures (3.59) are deﬁned, in this case, by L
i
(cL)jk
and C
i
(cL)jk
. We also note that
instead of N
i
(cL)j
and Γ
α
(cL)βγ
one can consider on an L
n
space arbitrary Nconnections
N
i
j
, dconnections Γ
α
βγ
, which are not deﬁned only by L(x, y) and g
(L)
ij
but can be metric
or nonmetric with respect to the Lagrange metric.
The next step of generalization is to consider an arbitrary metric g
ij
(x, y) on TM
instead of (4.7) which is the second derivative of “anisotropic” coordinates y
i
of a
Lagrangian [38, 39].
Deﬁnition 4.3. A generalized Lagrange space is a pair GL
n
=(M, g
ij
(x, y)), where
g
ij
(x, y) is a covariant, symmetric dtensor ﬁeld of rank n and of constant signature
on
¯
TM.
One can consider diﬀerent classes of N and dconnections on TM, which are com
patible (metric) or noncompatible with (4.9) for arbitrary g
ij
(x, y). We can apply all
formulas for dconnections, Ncurvatures, dtorsions, and dcurvatures as in a vbundle
Ᏹ, but reconsidering them on TM, by changing h
ab
→g
ij
(x, y) and N
a
i
→N
k
i
.
4.3. Cartan spaces. The theory of Cartan spaces (see, e.g., [29, 66]) was formulated
in a new fashion in Miron’s works [40, 42] by considering them as duals to the Finsler
spaces (see details and references in [45, 49, 50, 51, 52]). Roughly, a Cartan space is
constructed on a cotangent bundle T
∗
M like a Finsler space on the corresponding
tangent bundle TM.
Consider a real smooth manifold M, the cotangent bundle (T
∗
M, π
∗
, M), and the
manifold
T
∗
M =T
∗
M\¦0¦.
Deﬁnition 4.4. A Cartan space is a pair C
n
= (M, K(x, p)) such that K : T
∗
M →R
is a scalar function which satisﬁes the following conditions:
(1) K is a diﬀerentiable function on the manifold
T
∗
M =T
∗
M\¦0¦ and is continuous
on the null section of the projection π
∗
: T
∗
M →M;
(2) K is a positive function, homogeneous on the ﬁbers of the T
∗
M, that is, K(x, λp)
=λF(x, p), λ ∈R;
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1213
(3) the Hessian of K
2
with elements
ˇ g
ij
(K)
(x, p) =
1
2
∂
2
K
2
∂p
i
∂p
j
(4.10)
is positively deﬁned on
T
∗
M.
The function K(x, y) and ˇ g
ij
(x, p) are called, respectively, the fundamental function
and the fundamental (or metric) tensor of the Cartan space C
n
. We use symbols like
“ˇ g” to emphasize that the geometrical objects are deﬁned on a dual space.
We consider “anisotropic” (depending on directions, momenta, p
i
) Christoﬀel sym
bols; for simplicity, we write the inverse to (4.10) as g
(K)
ij
= ˇ g
ij
,
ˇ γ
i
jk
(x, p) =
1
2
ˇ g
ir
∂ ˇ g
rk
∂x
j
+
∂ ˇ g
jr
∂x
k
−
∂ ˇ g
jk
∂x
r
¸
, (4.11)
which are used for the deﬁnition of the canonical Nconnection,
ˇ
N
ij
= ˇ γ
k
ij
p
k
−
1
2
γ
k
nl
p
k
p
l
˘
∂
n
ˇ g
ij
,
˘
∂
n
=
∂
∂p
n
. (4.12)
This Nconnection can be used to deﬁne an almost complex structure like in (3.39) and
to deﬁne on T
∗
M a dmetric
ˇ
G
(k)
= ˇ g
ij
(x, p)dx
i
⊗dx
j
+ˇ g
ij
(x, p)δp
i
⊗δp
j
, (4.13)
with ˇ g
ij
(x, p) taken as in (4.10).
Using the canonical Nconnection (4.12) and Finsler metric tensor (4.10) (or, equiva
lently, the dmetric (4.13)), we can introduce the canonical dconnection
D
ˇ
Γ
¸
ˇ
N
(k)
=
ˇ
Γ
α
(k)βγ
=
ˇ
H
i
(k)jk
,
ˇ
C
jk
(k)i
(4.14)
with the coeﬃcients
ˇ
H
i
(k)jk
=
1
2
ˇ g
ir
ˇ
δ
j
ˇ g
rk
+
ˇ
δ
k
ˇ g
jr
−
ˇ
δ
r
ˇ g
jk
,
ˇ
C
jk
(k)i
= ˇ g
is
˘
∂
s
ˇ g
jk
. (4.15)
The dconnection D
ˇ
Γ (
ˇ
N
(k)
) has the unique property that it is torsionless and satis
ﬁes the metricity conditions for both the horizontal and vertical components, that is,
ˇ
D
α
ˇ g
βγ
=0.
The dcurvatures
ˇ
R
.α
(k)β.γδ
=
¸
R
.i
(k)h.jk
, P
.i
(k)j.km
,
ˇ
S
.ikl
j.
¸
(4.16)
on a Finsler space provided with Cartan Nconnection and Finsler metric structures are
computed following formulas (3.61) when the a, b, c, . . . indices are identiﬁed with the
i, j, k, . . . indices. It should be emphasized that in this case all values ˇ g
ij
,
ˇ
Γ
α
(k)βγ
, and
ˇ
R
.α
(k)β.γδ
are deﬁned by a fundamental function K(x, p).
In general, we can consider that a Cartan space is provided with a metric ˇ g
ij
=
∂
2
K
2
/2∂p
i
∂p
j
, but the Nconnection and dconnection could be deﬁned in a diﬀerent
manner, even if they are not determined by K.
1214 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
4.4. Generalized Hamilton and Hamilton spaces. The geometry of Hamilton spaces
was deﬁned and investigated by Miron in [41, 43, 44] (see details and references in
[45, 49, 50, 51, 52]). It was developed on the cotangent bundle as a dual geometry
to the geometry of Lagrange spaces. Here, we start with the deﬁnition of generalized
Hamilton spaces and then consider the particular case.
Deﬁnition 4.5. Ageneralized Hamilton space is a pair GH
n
=(M, ˇ g
ij
(x, p)), where
M is a real ndimensional manifold and ˇ g
ij
(x, p) is a contravariant, symmetric, nonde
generate tensor of rank n and of constant signature on
T
∗
M.
The value ˇ g
ij
(x, p) is called the fundamental (or metric) tensor of the space GH
n
. One
can deﬁne such values for every paracompact manifold M. In general, an Nconnection
on GH
n
is not determined by ˇ g
ij
. Therefore, we can consider arbitrary coeﬃcients
ˇ
N
ij
(x, p) and deﬁne on T
∗
M a dmetric like (3.27)
˘
G = ˘ g
αβ
¸
˘ u
˘
δ
α
⊗
˘
δ
β
= ˘ g
ij
¸
˘ u
d
i
⊗d
j
+ˇ g
ij
¸
˘ u
˘
δ
i
⊗
˘
δ
j
. (4.17)
These Ncoeﬃcients
ˇ
N
ij
(x, p) and dmetric structure (4.17) allow to deﬁne an almost
Kähler model of generalized Hamilton spaces and to deﬁne canonical dconnections,
dtorsions, and dcurvatures (see, respectively, formulas (3.34), (3.36), (3.55), and (3.59)
with the ﬁber coeﬃcients redeﬁned for the cotangent bundle T
∗
M).
A generalized Hamilton space GH
n
=(M, ˇ g
ij
(x, p)) is called reducible to a Hamilton
one if there exists a Hamilton function H(x, p) on T
∗
M such that
ˇ g
ij
(x, p) =
1
2
∂
2
H
∂p
i
∂p
j
. (4.18)
Deﬁnition 4.6. A Hamilton space is a pair H
n
=(M, H(x, p)) such that H : T
∗
M →
R is a scalar function which satisﬁes the following conditions:
(1) H is a diﬀerentiable function on the manifold
T
∗
M =T
∗
M\¦0¦ and is continuous
on the null section of the projection π
∗
: T
∗
M →M;
(2) the Hessian of H with elements (4.18) is positively deﬁned on
T
∗
M and ˇ g
ij
(x, p)
is a nondegenerate matrix of rank n and of constant signature.
For Hamilton spaces, the canonical Nconnection (deﬁned by H and its Hessian)
exists,
ˇ
N
ij
=
1
4
¸
ˇ g
ij
, H
¸
−
1
2
ˇ g
ik
∂
2
H
∂p
k
∂x
j
+ˇ g
jk
∂
2
H
∂p
k
∂x
i
¸
, (4.19)
where the Poisson brackets, for arbitrary functions f and g on T
∗
M, act as
¦f, g¦ =
∂f
∂p
i
∂g
∂x
i
−
∂g
∂p
i
∂p
∂x
i
. (4.20)
The canonical dconnection D
ˇ
Γ (
ˇ
N
(c)
) =
ˇ
Γ
α
(c)βγ
=(
ˇ
H
i
(c)jk
,
ˇ
C
jk
(c)i
) is deﬁned by the coeﬃ
cients
ˇ
H
i
(c)jk
=
1
2
ˇ g
is
ˇ
δ
j
ˇ g
sk
+
ˇ
δ
k
ˇ g
js
−
ˇ
δ
s
ˇ g
jk
,
ˇ
C
jk
(c)i
=−
1
2
ˇ g
is
ˇ
∂
j
ˇ g
sk
. (4.21)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1215
In result we can compute the dtorsions and dcurvatures like on cvbundle or on Cartan
spaces. On Hamilton spaces, all such objects are deﬁned by the Hamilton function
H(x, p) and indices have to be reconsidered for coﬁbers of the cotangent bundle.
5. Cliﬀord bundles and Nconnections. The theory of anisotropic spinors was ex
tended on higherorder anisotropic (ha) spaces [92, 93, 106]. In brief, such spinors will
be called haspinors which are deﬁned as some Cliﬀord hastructures deﬁned with re
spect to a distinguished quadratic form(3.28) on an hvcbundle. For simplicity, the bulk
of formulas will be given with respect to higherorder vector bundles. To rewrite such
formulas for hvcbundles is to consider for the “dual” shells of higherorder anisotropy
some dual vector spaces and associated dual spinors.
5.1. Distinguished Cliﬀord algebras. The typical ﬁber of dvbundle ξ
d
, π
d
: HE ⊕
V
1
E⊕···⊕V
z
E →E, is a dvector space, Ᏺ=hᏲ⊕v
1
Ᏺ⊕···⊕v
z
Ᏺ, split into horizontal
hᏲ and vertical v
p
Ᏺ, p = 1, . . . , z, subspaces, with a bilinear quadratic form G(g, h)
induced by an hvcbundle metric (3.28). Cliﬀord algebras (see, e.g., [28, 61, 62, 63])
formulated for dvector spaces will be called Cliﬀord dalgebras [88, 89, 101]. We will
consider the main properties of Cliﬀord dalgebras. The proof of the theorems will
be based on the technique developed in [28, 92, 106], correspondingly adapted to the
distinguished character of spaces in consideration.
Let k be a number ﬁeld (for our purposes k = R or k = C, R and C are, respectively,
real and complex number ﬁelds) and deﬁne Ᏺ, as a dvector space, on k provided with
nondegenerate symmetric quadratic form (metric) G. Let C be an algebra on k (not nec
essarily commutative) and j : Ᏺ→C a homomorphismof underlying vector spaces such
that j(u)
2
=G(u)·1 (1 is the unity in algebra C and dvector u∈Ᏺ). We are interested
in the deﬁnition of the pair (C, j) satisfying the next universality conditions. For every
kalgebra A and arbitrary homomorphism ϕ: Ᏺ→A of the underlying dvector spaces,
such that (ϕ(u))
2
→G(u)·1, there is a unique homomorphism of algebras ψ: C →A
deﬁned as commutative diagrams.
The algebra solving this problem will be denoted as C(Ᏺ, A) (equivalently as C(G) or
C(Ᏺ)) and called Cliﬀord dalgebra associated with pair (Ᏺ, G).
Theorem 5.1. There is a unique solution (C, j) up to isomorphism.
Proof. See [82, 83, 92].
Now we reformulate for dalgebras the Chevalley theorem [13].
Theorem 5.2. The Cliﬀord dalgebra
C
¸
hᏲ⊕v
1
Ᏺ⊕···⊕v
z
Ᏺ, g+h
1
+···+h
z
(5.1)
is naturally isomorphic to C(g)⊗C(h
1
)⊗···⊗C(h
z
).
Proof. See [82, 83, 92].
From the presented theorems, we conclude that all operations with Cliﬀord d
algebras can be reduced to calculations for C(hᏲ, g) and C(v
(p)
Ᏺ, h
(p)
) which are usual
Cliﬀord algebras of dimensions 2
n
and 2
m
p
, respectively [6, 28].
1216 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
Of special interest is the case when k = R and Ᏺ is isomorphic to a vector space
R
p+q,a+b
provided with quadratic form
−x
2
1
−···−x
2
p
+x
2
p+q
−y
2
1
−···−y
2
a
+···+y
2
a+b
. (5.2)
In this case, the Cliﬀord algebra, denoted as (C
p,q
, C
a,b
), is generated by the symbols
e
(x)
1
, e
(x)
2
, . . . , e
(x)
p+q
, e
(y)
1
, e
(y)
2
, . . . , e
(y)
a+b
satisfying the properties
¸
e
i
2
=−1 (1 ≤i ≤p),
¸
e
j
2
=−1 (1 ≤j ≤a),
¸
e
k
2
=1 (p+1 ≤k ≤p+q),
¸
e
j
2
=1 (n+1 ≤s ≤a+b), e
i
e
j
=−e
j
e
i
, i ≠j.
(5.3)
Explicit calculations of C
p,q
and C
a,b
are possible by using the isomorphisms [28, 61,
62, 63]
C
p+n,q+n
=C
p,q
⊗M
2
(R)⊗···⊗M
2
(R) .C
p,q
⊗M
2
n(R) .M
2
n
¸
C
p,q
, (5.4)
where M
s
(A) denotes the ring of quadratic matrices of order s with coeﬃcients in
ring A. Here, we write the simplest isomorphisms C
1,0
=C, C
0,1
=R⊕R, and C
2,0
=Ᏼ,
where Ᏼ denotes the body of quaternions.
Now, we emphasize that higherorder Lagrange and Finsler spaces, denoted by H
2n

spaces, admit locally a structure of Cliﬀord algebra on complex vector spaces. Really,
by using almost Hermitian structure J
β
α
and considering complex space C
n
with nonde
generate quadratic form
¸
n
a=1
¦z
a
¦
2
, z
a
∈C
2
, induced locally by metric (3.28) (rewritten
in complex coordinates as z
a
=x
a
+iy
a
), we deﬁne Cliﬀord algebra
←
C
n
=
←
C
1
⊗···⊗
←
C
1
. .. .
n
, (5.5)
where
←
C
1
= C⊗
R
C = C⊕C or, in consequence,
←
C
n
= C
n,0
⊗
R
C ≈ C
0,n
⊗
R
C. Explicit
calculations lead to isomorphisms
←
C
2
=C
0,2
⊗
R
C ≈M
2
(R)⊗
R
C ≈M
2
←
C
n
, C
2p
≈M
2
p (C),
←
C
2p+1
≈M
2
p (C)⊕M
2
p (C),
(5.6)
which show that complex Cliﬀord algebras, deﬁned locally for H
2n
spaces, have peri
odicity 2 on p.
Considerations presented in the proof of Theorem 5.1 show that the map j : Ᏺ →
C(Ᏺ) is monomorphic, so we can identify the space Ᏺwith its image in C(Ᏺ, G), denoted
as u→u, if u∈C
(0)
(Ᏺ, G) (u∈C
(1)
(Ᏺ, G)); then u=u (resp., u=−u).
Deﬁnition 5.3. The set of elements u ∈ C(G)
∗
, where C(G)
∗
denotes the multi
plicative group of invertible elements of C(Ᏺ, G) satisfying uᏲu
−1
∈ Ᏺ, is called the
twisted Cliﬀord dgroup, denoted as
`
Γ (Ᏺ).
Let ` ρ :
`
Γ (Ᏺ) →GL(Ᏺ) be the homorphism given by u →ρ ` u, where ` ρ
u
(w) = uwu
−1
.
We can verify that ker ` ρ =R
∗
is a subgroup in
`
Γ (Ᏺ).
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1217
The canonical map j : Ᏺ→C(Ᏺ) can be interpreted as the linear map Ᏺ→C(Ᏺ)
0
satis
fying the universal properties of Cliﬀord dalgebras. This leads to a homomorphism of
algebras, C(Ᏺ) →C(Ᏺ)
t
, considered by an antiinvolution of C(Ᏺ) and denoted as u→
t
u. More exactly, if u
1
···u
n
∈Ᏺ, then t
u
=u
n
···u
1
and
t
u=
t
u=(−1)
n
u
n
···u
1
.
Deﬁnition 5.4. The spinor normof arbitrary u∈C(Ᏺ) is deﬁned as S(u) =
t
u·u∈
C(Ᏺ).
It is obvious that if u, u
¹
, u
¹¹
∈
`
Γ (Ᏺ), then S(u, u
¹
) = S(u)S(u
¹
) and S(uu
¹
u
¹¹
) =
S(u)S(u
¹
)S(u
¹¹
). For u, u
¹
∈Ᏺ, S(u) =−G(u) and S(u, u
¹
) =S(u)S(u
¹
) =S(uu
¹
).
We introduce the orthogonal group O(G) ⊂ GL(G) deﬁned by metric G on Ᏺ and
denote sets
SO(G) =
¸
u∈O(G), det¦u¦ =1
¸
, Pin(G) =
¸
u∈
`
Γ (Ᏺ), S(u) =1
¸
, (5.7)
and Spin(G) = Pin(G) ∩C
0
(Ᏺ). For Ᏺ.R
n+m
, we write Spin(n
E
). By straightforward
calculations (see similar considerations in [28]), we can verify the exactness of these
sequences:
1 →
ᐆ
2
→Pin(G) →O(G) →1,
1 →
ᐆ
2
→Spin(G) →SO(G) →0,
1 →
ᐆ
2
→Spin
¸
n
E
→SO
¸
n
E
→1.
(5.8)
We conclude this subsection by emphasizing that the spinor norm was deﬁned with
respect to a quadratic forminduced by a metric in dvbundle Ᏹ
¹z)
. This approach diﬀers
from those presented in [4, 57, 58, 59, 74].
5.2. Cliﬀord habundles. We will consider two variants of generalization of spinor
constructions deﬁned for dvector spaces to the case of distinguished vector bundle
spaces enabled with the structure of Nconnection. The ﬁrst is to use the extension to
the category of vector bundles. The second is to deﬁne the Cliﬀord ﬁbration associated
with compatible linear dconnection and metric G on a dvbundle. We will analyze both
variants.
5.2.1. Cliﬀord dmodule structure in dvbundles. Because functor Ᏺ → C(Ᏺ) is
smooth, we can extend it to the category of vector bundles of type
ξ
¹z)
=
¸
π
d
: HE
¹z)
⊕V
1
E
¹z)
⊕···⊕V
z
E
¹z)
→E
¹z)
¸
. (5.9)
Recall that by Ᏺ we denote the typical ﬁber of such bundles. For ξ
¹z)
, we obtain a bun
dle of algebras, denoted as C(ξ
¹z)
), such that C(ξ
¹z)
)
u
=C(Ᏺ
u
). Multiplication in every
ﬁber deﬁnes a continuous map C(ξ
¹z)
) ×C(ξ
¹z)
) → C(ξ
¹z)
). If ξ
¹z)
is a distinguished
vector bundle on number ﬁeld k, C(ξ
¹z)
)module, the dmodule, on ξ
¹z)
is given by the
continuous map C(ξ
¹z)
)×
E
ξ
¹z)
→ξ
¹z)
with every ﬁber Ᏺ
u
provided with the structure of
the C(Ᏺ
u
)module, correlated with its kmodule structure. Because Ᏺ⊂C(Ᏺ), we have a
1218 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
ﬁbertoﬁber map Ᏺ×
E
ξ
¹z)
→ξ
¹z)
, inducing on every ﬁber the map Ᏺ
u
×
E
ξ
¹z)
(u)
→ξ
¹z)
(u)
(R
linear on the ﬁrst factor and klinear on the second one). Inversely, every such bilinear
map deﬁnes on ξ
¹z)
the structure of the C(ξ
¹z)
)module by virtue of the universal prop
erties of Cliﬀord dalgebras. Equivalently, the abovementioned bilinear map deﬁnes a
morphism of vbundles
m: ξ
¹z)
→HOM
¸
ξ
¹z)
, ξ
¹z)
, (5.10)
where HOM(ξ
¹z)
, ξ
¹z)
) denotes the bundles of homomorphisms when (m(u))
2
=G(u)
on every point.
Vector bundles ξ
¹z)
provided with C(ξ
¹z)
)structures are objects of the category with
morphisms being morphisms of dvbundles, which induce on every point u∈ξ
¹z)
mor
phisms of C(Ᏺ
u
)modules. This is a Banach category contained in the category of ﬁnite
dimensional dvector spaces on ﬁeld k.
We denote by H
s
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, GL
n
E
(R)), where n
E
= n+m
1
+··· +m
z
, the sdimensional
cohomology group of the algebraic sheaf of germs of continuous maps of dvbundle
Ᏹ
¹z)
with group GL
n
E
(R), the group of automorphisms of R
n
E
(for the language of
algebraic topology, see, e.g., [28]). We will also use the group SL
n
E
(R) =¦A⊂GL
n
E
(R),
detA=1¦. Here, we point out that cohomologies H
s
(M, Gr) characterize the class of a
principal bundle π : P →M on M with structural group Gr. Taking into account that we
deal with bundles distinguished by an Nconnection, we introduce into consideration
cohomologies H
s
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, GL
n
E
(R)) as distinguished classes (dclasses) of bundles Ᏹ
¹z)
provided with a global Nconnection structure.
For a real vector bundle ξ
¹z)
on compact base Ᏹ
¹z)
, we can deﬁne the orientation on
ξ
¹z)
as an element α
d
∈H
1
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, GL
n
E
(R)) whose image on map
H
1
¸
Ᏹ
¹z)
, SL
n
E
(R)
→H
1
¸
Ᏹ
¹z)
, GL
n
E
(R)
(5.11)
is the dclass of bundle Ᏹ
¹z)
.
Deﬁnition 5.5. The spinor structure on ξ
¹z)
is deﬁned as an element β
d
∈H
1
(Ᏹ
¹z)
,
Spin(n
E
)) whose image in the composition
H
1
¸
Ᏹ
¹z)
, Spin
¸
n
E
→H
1
¸
Ᏹ
¹z)
, SO
¸
n
E
→H
1
¸
Ᏹ
¹z)
, GL
n
E
(R)
(5.12)
is the dclass of Ᏹ
¹z)
.
The above deﬁnition of spinor structures can be reformulated in terms of principal
bundles. Let ξ
¹z)
be a real vector bundle of rank n+m on a compact base Ᏹ
¹z)
. If there
is a principal bundle P
d
with structural group SO(n
E
) (or Spin(n
E
)), this bundle ξ
¹z)
can be provided with orientation (or spinor) structure. The bundle P
d
is associated with
element α
d
∈H
1
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, SO(n
¹z)
)) (or β
d
∈H
1
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, Spin(n
E
))).
We remark that a real bundle is oriented if and only if its ﬁrst StiefelWhitney dclass
vanishes,
w
1
¸
ξ
d
∈H
1
ξ,
ᐆ
2
¸
=0, (5.13)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1219
where H
1
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, ᐆ/2) is the ﬁrst group of Cech cohomology with coeﬃcients in ᐆ/2.
Considering the second StiefelWhitney class w
2
(ξ
¹z)
) ∈H
2
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, ᐆ/2), it is well known
that vector bundle ξ
¹z)
admits the spinor structure if and only if w
2
(ξ
¹z)
) =0. Finally, we
emphasize that taking into account that base space Ᏹ
¹z)
is also a vbundle, p : E
¹z)
→M,
we have to make explicit calculations in order to express cohomologies H
s
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, GL
n+m
)
and H
s
(Ᏹ
¹z)
, SO(n+m)) through cohomologies
H
s
¸
M, GL
n
, H
s
¸
M, SO
¸
m
1
, . . . , H
s
¸
M, SO
¸
m
z
, (5.14)
which depend on global topological structures of spaces M and Ᏹ
¹z)
. For general bundle
and base spaces, this requires a cumbersome cohomological calculus.
5.2.2. Cliﬀord ﬁbration. Another way of deﬁning the spinor structure is to use Clif
ford ﬁbrations. Consider the principal bundle with the structural group Gr being a
subgroup of orthogonal group O(G), where G is a quadratic nondegenerate form de
ﬁned on the base (also being a bundle space) space Ᏹ
¹z)
. The ﬁbration associated to
principal ﬁbration P(Ᏹ
¹z)
, Gr) with a typical ﬁber having Cliﬀord algebra C(G) is, by
deﬁnition, the Cliﬀord ﬁbration PC(Ᏹ
¹z)
, Gr). We can always deﬁne a metric on the Clif
ford ﬁbration if every ﬁber is isometric to PC(Ᏹ
¹z)
, G) (this result is proved for arbitrary
quadratic forms G on pseudoRiemannian bases). If, additionally, Gr ⊂SO(G), a global
section can be deﬁned on PC(G).
Let ᏼ(Ᏹ
¹z)
, Gr) be the set of principal bundles with diﬀerentiable base Ᏹ
¹z)
and struc
tural group Gr. If g : Gr → Gr
¹
is a homomorphism of Lie groups and P(Ᏹ
¹z)
, Gr) ⊂
ᏼ(Ᏹ
¹z)
, Gr) (for simplicity in this subsection, we will denote mentioned bundles and
sets of bundles as P, P
¹
, and, resp., ᏼ, ᏼ
¹
), we can always construct a principal bun
dle with the property that there is a homomorphism f : P
¹
→ P of principal bundles,
which can be projected to the identity map of Ᏹ
¹z)
and corresponds to isomorphism
g : Gr →Gr
¹
. If the inverse statement also holds, the bundle P
¹
is called the extension
of P associated to g and f is called the extension homomorphism denoted as ` g.
Now we can deﬁne distinguished spinor structures on bundle spaces.
Deﬁnition 5.6. Let P ∈ᏼ(Ᏹ
¹z)
, O(G)) be a principal bundle. A distinguished spinor
structure of P, equivalently, a dsstructure of Ᏹ
¹z)
, is an extension
`
P of P associated to
homomorphism h : PinG → O(G), where O(G) is the group of orthogonal rotations,
generated by metric G, in bundle Ᏹ
¹z)
.
So, if
`
P is a spinor structure of the space Ᏹ
¹z)
, then
`
P ∈ᏼ(Ᏹ
¹z)
, PinG).
The deﬁnition of spinor structures on varieties was given in [16, 17]. It has been
proved that a necessary and suﬃcient condition for a spacetime to be orientable is to
admit a global ﬁeld of orthonormalized frames. We mention that spinor structures can
also be deﬁned on varieties modeled on Banach spaces [2]. As we have shown, similar
constructions are possible for the cases when spacetime has the structure of a vbundle
with an Nconnection.
Deﬁnition 5.7. A special distinguished spinor structure, dsstructure, of principal
bundle P = P(Ᏹ
¹z)
, SO(G)) is a principal bundle
`
P =
`
P(Ᏹ
¹z)
, SpinG) for which a homo
morphism of principal bundles ` p :
`
P →P, projected onto the identity map of Ᏹ
¹z)
and
1220 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
corresponding to the representation
R : SpinG →SO(G), (5.15)
is deﬁned.
In the case when the base space variety is oriented, there is a natural bijection between
tangent spinor structures with a common base. For special dsstructures, we can deﬁne,
as for any spinor structure, the concepts of spin tensors, spinor connections, and spinor
covariant derivations (see [82, 83, 101]).
5.3. Almost complex spinor structures. Almost complex structures are an impor
tant characteristic of H
2n
spaces and of osculator bundles Osc
k=2k
1
(M), where k
1
=
1, 2, . . . . For simplicity in this subsection, we restrict our analysis to the case of H
2n

spaces. We can rewrite the almost Hermitian metric [46, 47, 48], H
2n
metric, in complex
form [88, 89]:
G =H
ab
(z, ξ)dz
a
⊗dz
b
, (5.16)
where
z
a
=x
a
+iy
a
, z
a
=x
a
−iy
a
, H
ab
¸
z, z
=g
ab
(x, y)¦
x=x(z,z)
y=y(z,z)
, (5.17)
and deﬁne almost complex spinor structures. For a given metric (5.16) on H
2n
space,
there is always a principal bundle P
U
with unitary structural group U(n) which allows
us to transform H
2n
space into vbundle ξ
U
≈ P
U
×
U(n)
R
2n
. This statement will be
proved after we introduce complex spinor structures on oriented real vector bundles
[28].
We consider momentarily k = C and introduce into consideration (instead of the
group Spin(n)) the group Spin
c
×
ᐆ/2
U(1) being the factor group of the product Spin(n)×
U(1) with respect to the equivalence
(y, z) ∼(−y, −a), y ∈Spin(m). (5.18)
This way we deﬁne the short exact sequence
1 →U(1) →Spin
c
(n)
S
c
→SO(n) →1, (5.19)
where ρ
c
(y, a) =ρ
c
(y). If λ is oriented, real γbundle π : E
λ
→M
n
of rank n, with base
M
n
, the complex spinor structure, spin structure, on λ is given by the principal bundle
P with structural group Spin
c
(m) and isomorphism λ ≈ P ×
Spin
c
(n)
R
n
(see (5.19)). For
such bundles, the categorial equivalence can be deﬁned as
c
: Ᏹ
T
C
¸
M
n
→Ᏹ
λ
C
¸
M
n
, (5.20)
where
c
(E
c
) = P Z
Spin
c
(n)
E
c
is the category of trivial complex bundles on M
n
,
Ᏹ
λ
C
(M
n
) is the category of complex vbundles on M
n
with action of Cliﬀord bundle
C(λ), PZ
Spin
c
(n)
, and E
c
is the factor space of the bundle product P ×
M
E
c
with respect
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1221
to the equivalence (p, e) ∼ (p g
−1
, ge), p ∈ P, e ∈ E
c
, where g ∈ Spin
c
(n) acts on E via
the imbedding Spin(n) ⊂C
0,n
and the natural action U(1) ⊂C on complex vbundle ξ
c
,
E
c
=totξ
c
, for bundle π
c
: E
c
→M
n
.
Now we return to the bundle ξ = Ᏹ
¹1)
. A real vbundle (not being a spinor bundle)
admits a complex spinor structure if and only if there exists a homomorphism σ :
U(n) →Spin
c
(2n) deﬁning a commutative diagram. The explicit construction of σ for
arbitrary γbundle is given in [6, 28]. Let λ be a complex, rank n, spinor bundle with
τ : Spin
c
(n)×
ᐆ/2
U(1) →U(1) (5.21)
the homomorphismdeﬁned by τ(λ, δ) =δ
2
. For P
s
being the principal bundle with ﬁber
Spin
c
(n), we introduce the complex linear bundle L(λ
c
) = P
S
×
Spin
c
(n)
C deﬁned as the
factor space of P
S
×C on equivalence relation
(pt, z) ∼
¸
p, l(t)
−1
z
, (5.22)
where t ∈Spin
c
(n). This linear bundle is associated to complex spinor structure on λ
c
.
If λ
c
and λ
c
¹
are complex spinor bundles, the Whitney sum λ
c
⊕λ
c
¹
is naturally pro
vided with the structure of the complex spinor bundle. This follows from the holomor
phism
ω
¹
: Spin
c
(n)×Spin
c
¸
n
¹
→Spin
c
¸
n+n
¹
(5.23)
given by formula [(β, z), (β
¹
, z
¹
)] → [ω(β, β
¹
), zz
¹
], where ω is the homomorphism
deﬁning a commutative diagramof maps. Here, z, z
¹
∈U(1). It is obvious that L(λ
c
⊕λ
c
¹
)
is isomorphic to L(λ
c
)⊗L(λ
c
¹
).
We conclude this subsection by formulating our main result on complex spinor struc
tures for H
2n
spaces.
Theorem5.8. Let λ
c
be a complex spinor bundle of rank nand H
2n
space considered
as a real vector bundle λ
c
⊕λ
c
¹
provided with almost complex structure J
α
β
; multiplication
on i is given by
0 −δ
i
j
δ
i
j
0
¸
. Then, there is a diagram of maps which is commutative up to
isomorphisms
c
and `
c
deﬁned as in (5.20), Ᏼ is a functor E
c
→E
c
⊗L(λ
c
), Ᏹ
0,2n
C
(M
n
)
is deﬁned by functor Ᏹ
C
(M
n
) → Ᏹ
0,2n
C
(M
n
) given as correspondence E
c
→ Λ(C
n
) ⊗E
c
(which is a categorial equivalence), Λ(C
n
) is the exterior algebra on C
n
, and W is the
real bundle λ
c
⊕λ
c
¹
provided with complex structure.
Proof. See [88, 89, 92, 93, 106].
Now consider bundle P ×
Spin
c
(n)
Spin
c
(2n) as the principal Spin
c
(2n)bundle, associ
ated to M⊕M being the factor space of the product P ×Spin
c
(2n) on the equivalence
relation (p, t, h) ∼ (p, µ(t)
−1
h). In this case, the categorial equivalence (5.20) can be
rewritten as
c
¸
E
c
=P ×
Spin
c
(n)
Spin
c
(2n)∆
Spin
c
(2n)
E
c
(5.24)
and seen as a factor space of P ×Spin
c
(2n)×
M
E
c
on equivalence relations
(pt, h, e) ∼
¸
p, µ(t)
−1
h, e
,
¸
p, h
1
, h
2
, e
∼
¸
p, h
1
, h
−1
2
e
(5.25)
1222 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
(projections of elements p and e coincide on base M). Every element of
c
(E
c
) can
be represented as P∆
Spin
c
(n)
E
c
, that is, as a factor space P∆E
c
on equivalence relation
(pt, e) ∼ (p, µ
c
(t), e), when t ∈ Spin
c
(n). The complex line bundle L(λ
c
) can be inter
preted as the factor space of P ×
Spin
c
(n)
C on equivalence relation (pt, δ) ∼(p, r(t)
−1
δ).
Putting (p, e)⊗(p, δ)(p, δe), we introduce morphism
c
(E)×L
¸
λ
c
→
c
¸
λ
c
(5.26)
with properties
(pt, e)⊗(pt, δ) →(pt, δe) =
¸
p, µ
c
(t)
−1
δe
,
¸
p, µ
c
(t)
−1
e
⊗
¸
p, l(t)
−1
e
→
¸
p, µ
c
(t)r(t)
−1
δe
,
(5.27)
pointing to the fact that we have deﬁned the isomorphism correctly and that it is an
isomorphism on every ﬁber.
6. Spinors and Nconnection geometry. The purpose of this section is to show
how a corresponding abstract spinor technique entailing notational and calculational
advantages can be developed for arbitrary splits of dimensions of a dvector space
Ᏺ = hᏲ⊕v
1
Ᏺ⊕···⊕v
z
Ᏺ, where dimhᏲ = n and dimv
p
Ᏺ = m
p
. For convenience, we
will also present some necessary coordinate expressions.
6.1. dspinor techniques. The problem of a rigorous deﬁnition of spinors on locally
anisotropic spaces (dspinors) was posed and solved [82, 83, 88, 89] in the framework
of the formalism of Cliﬀord and spinor structures on vbundles provided with compat
ible nonlinear and distinguished connections and metric. We introduced dspinors as
corresponding objects of the Cliﬀord dalgebra C(Ᏺ, G), deﬁned for a dvector space Ᏺ
in a standard manner (see, e.g., [28]) and proved that operations with C(Ᏺ, G) can be
reduced to calculations for C(hᏲ, g),C(v
1
Ᏺ, h
1
),. . .,C(v
z
Ᏺ, h
z
), which are usual Cliﬀord
algebras of respective dimensions 2
n
,2
m
1
,. . .,2
m
z
(if it is necessary, we can use quadratic
forms g and h
p
correspondingly induced on hᏲ and v
p
Ᏺ by a metric G (3.28)). Con
sidering the orthogonal subgroup O(G) ⊂ GL(G) deﬁned by a metric G, we can deﬁne
the dspinor norm and parametrize dspinors by ordered pairs of elements of Cliﬀord
algebras C(hᏲ, g) and C(v
p
Ᏺ, h
p
), p = 1, 2, . . . , z. We emphasize that the splitting of a
Cliﬀord dalgebra associated to a dvbundle Ᏹ
¹z)
is a straightforward consequence of
the global decomposition deﬁning an Nconnection structure in Ᏹ
¹z)
.
In this subsection, we will omit detailed proofs which in most cases are mechani
cal but rather tedious. We can apply the methods developed in [7, 9, 26, 27, 31, 54,
61, 62, 63] in a straightforward manner on h and vsubbundles in order to verify the
correctness of aﬃrmations.
6.1.1. Cliﬀord dalgebra, dspinors, and dtwistors. In order to relate the succeeding
constructions with Cliﬀord dalgebras [88, 89] we consider a laframe decomposition
of the metric (3.28):
G
¹α)¹β)
(u) =l
¹ α)
¹α)
(u)l
¹
β)
¹β)
(u)G
¹ α)¹
β)
, (6.1)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1223
where the frame dvectors and constant metric matrices are distinguished as
l
¹ α)
¹α)
(u) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
l
j
j
(u) 0 ··· 0
0 l
a
1
a
1
(u) ··· 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 ··· l
a
z
a
z
(u)
,
G
¹ α)¹
β)
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
g
i
j
0 ··· 0
0 h
a
1
b
1
··· 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 h
a
z
b
z
,
(6.2)
g
i
j
and h
a
1
b
1
, . . . , h
a
z
b
z
are diagonal matrices with g
i
i
= h
a
1
a
1
=··· =h
a
z
b
z
=:1.
To generate Cliﬀord dalgebras, we start with matrix equations
σ
¹ α)
σ
¹
β)
+σ
¹
β)
σ
¹ α)
=−G
¹ α)¹
β)
I, (6.3)
where I is the identity matrix, matrices σ
¹ α)
(σobjects) act on a dvector space Ᏺ =
hᏲ⊕v
1
Ᏺ⊕···⊕v
z
Ᏺ, and their components are distinguished as
σ
¹ α)
=
¸
σ
¹ α)
·γ
β
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
i
·k
j
0 ··· 0
0
¸
σ
a
1
·c
1
b
1
··· 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 ···
¸
σ
a
z
·c
z
b
z
, (6.4)
indices β, γ, . . . refer to spin spaces of type = S
(h)
⊕S
(v
1
)
⊕··· ⊕S
(v
z
)
, and under
lined Latin indices j, k, . . . and b
1
, c
1
, . . . , b
z
, c
z
. . . refer, respectively, to hspin space
(h)
and v
p
spin space
(v
p
)
(p = 1, 2, . . . , z), which are correspondingly associated to
h and v
p
decompositions of a dvbundle Ᏹ
¹z)
. The irreducible algebra of matrices σ
¹ α)
of minimal dimension N×N, where N =N
(n)
+N
(m
1
)
+···+N
(m
z
)
, dim
(h)
=N
(n)
, and
dim
(v
p
)
=N
(m
p
)
, has the dimensions
N
(n)
=
¸
¸
2
(n−1)/2
, n=2k+1,
2
n/2
, n=2k,
N
(m
p
)
=
¸
¸
2
(m
p
−1)/2
, m
p
=2k
p
+1
2
m
p
, m
p
=2k
p
, (6.5)
where k, k
p
=1, 2, . . . .
The Cliﬀord dalgebra is generated by sums on n+1 elements of the form
A
1
I +B
i
σ
i
+C
i
j
σ
i
j
+D
i
j
k
σ
i
j
k
+··· (6.6)
and sums of m
p
+1 elements of the form
A
2(p)
I +B
a
p
σ
a
p
+C
a
p
b
p
σ
a
p
b
p
+D
a
p
b
p
c
p
σ
a
p
b
p
c
p
+··· (6.7)
with antisymmetric coeﬃcients C
i
j
= C
[
i
j]
, C
a
p
b
p
= C
[ a
p
b
p
]
, D
i
j
k
= D
[
i
j
k]
, D
a
p
b
p
c
p
=
D
[ a
p
b
p
c
p
]
, . . . and matrices σ
i
j
= σ
[
i
σ
j]
, σ
a
p
b
p
= σ
[ a
p
σ
b
p
]
, σ
i
j
k
= σ
[
i
σ
j
σ
k]
, . . . . Really,
1224 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
we have 2
n+1
coeﬃcients (A
1
, C
i
j
, D
i
j
k
, . . .) and 2
m
p
+1
coeﬃcients (A
2(p)
, C
a
p
b
p
, D
a
p
b
p
c
p
,
. . .) of the Cliﬀord algebra on Ᏺ.
For simplicity, we will present the necessary geometric constructions only for hspin
spaces
(h)
of dimension N
(n)
. Considerations for a vspin space
(v)
are similar but
with proper characteristics for a dimension N
(m)
.
In order to deﬁne the scalar (spinor) product on
(h)
, we introduce into consideration
the following ﬁnite sum (because of a ﬁnite number of elements σ
[
i
j···
k]
):
(:)
E
ij
km
=δ
i
k
δ
j
m
+
2
1!
σ
i
.i
k
σ
i
.j
m
+
2
2
2!
σ
i
j
.i
k
σ
i
j
.j
m
+
2
3
3!
σ
i
j
k
.i
k
σ
i
j
k
.j
m
+··· , (6.8)
which can be factorized as
(:)
E
ij
km
=N
(n)
(:)
km
(:)
ij
for n=2k, (6.9)
(+)
E
ij
km
=2N
(n)
km
ij
,
(−)
E
ij
km
=0 for n=3(mod4),
(+)
E
ij
km
=0,
(−)
E
ij
km
=2N
(n)
km
ij
for n=1(mod4).
(6.10)
Antisymmetry of σ
i
j
k...
and the construction of the objects (6.6), (6.8), (6.9), and (6.10)
deﬁne the properties of objects
(:)
km
and
km
which have an eightfold periodicity
on n (see details in [61, 62, 63] and, with respect to locally anisotropic spaces, [88, 89]).
For even values of n, it is possible the decomposition of every hspin space
(h)
into irreducible hspin spaces S
(h)
and S
¹
(h)
(one considers splitting of hindices, e.g.,
l = L⊕L
¹
, m= M⊕M
¹
, . . . ; for v
p
indices, we will write a
p
= A
p
⊕A
¹
p
, b
p
= B
p
⊕B
¹
p
, . . .)
and one deﬁnes new objects
lm
=
1
2
(+)
lm
+
(−)
lm
, `
lm
=
1
2
(+)
lm
−
(−)
lm
. (6.11)
We will omit similar formulas for objects with lower indices.
In general, the spinor objects should be deﬁned for every shell of anisotropy, where
instead of dimension n, we will consider the dimensions m
p
, 1 ≤p ≤z, of shells.
We deﬁne a dspinor space
(n,m
1
)
as a direct sum of horizontal and vertical spinor
spaces, for instance,
(8k,8k
¹
)
=S
◦
⊕S
¹
◦
⊕S
¦◦
⊕S
¹
¦◦
,
(8k,8k
¹
+1)
=S
◦
⊕S
¹
◦
⊕
(−)
¦◦
, . . . ,
(8k+4,8k
¹
+5)
=S
Z
⊕S
¹
Z
⊕
(−)
¦Z
, . . . .
(6.12)
The scalar product on a
(n,m
1
)
is induced by objects (corresponding to ﬁxed values
of n and m
1
) considered for h and v
1
components. We present also an example for
(n,m
1
+···+m
z
)
:
(8k+4,8k
(1)
+5,...,8k
(p)
+4,...,8k
(z)
)
=S
Z
⊕S
¹
Z
⊕
(−)
¦(1)Z
⊕···⊕S
¦(p)Z
⊕S
¹
¦(p)Z
⊕···⊕S
¦(z)◦
⊕S
¹
¦(z)◦
.
(6.13)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1225
Having introduced dspinors for dimensions (n, m
1
+···+m
z
), we can write out the
generalization for haspaces of twistor equations [61, 62, 63] by using the distinguished
σobjects (6.4):
σ
¹ α)
..γ
¦β¦
δω
β
δu
¹
β)
=
1
n+m
1
+···+m
z
G
¹ α)¹
β)
¸
σ
..γ
β
δω
β
δu
, (6.14)
where ¦β¦ denotes that we do not consider symmetrization on this index. The general
solution of (6.14) on the dvector space Ᏺ looks like
ω
β
=Ω
β
+u
¹ α)
σ
¹ α)
..β
Π
, (6.15)
where Ω
β
and Π
are constant dspinors. For ﬁxed values of dimensions n and m=
m
1
+···+m
z
, we must analyze the reduced and irreducible components of h and v
p

parts of (6.14) and their solutions (6.15) in order to ﬁnd the symmetry properties of a d
twistor Z
α
deﬁned as a pair of dspinors Z
α
=(ω
α
, π
¹
β
), where π
β
¹ =π
(0)
β
¹ ∈
`
(n,m
1
,...,m
z
)
is a constant dual dspinor. The problemof the deﬁnition of spinors and twistors on ha
spaces was ﬁrstly considered in [101] (see also [86]) in connection with the possibility
to extend (6.15) and their solutions (6.16), by using nearly autoparallel maps on curved,
locally isotropic or anisotropic, spaces. We note that the deﬁnition of twistors has been
extended to higherorder anisotropic spaces with trivial N and dconnections.
6.1.2. Mutual transforms of dtensors and dspinors. The spinor algebra for spaces
of higher dimensions cannot be considered as a real alternative to the tensor algebra as
for locally isotropic spaces of dimensions n=3, 4 [61, 62, 63]. The same holds true for
haspaces and we emphasize that it is not quite convenient to performa spinor calculus
for dimensions n, m>4. The concept of spinors is important for every type of spaces.
We can deeply understand the fundamental properties of geometrical objects on ha
spaces, and we will consider in this subsection some questions concerning transforms
of dtensor objects into dspinor ones.
6.1.3. Transformation of dtensors into dspinors. In order to pass from dtensors
to dspinors, we must use σobjects (6.4) written in reduced or irreduced form(depend
ing on ﬁxed values of dimensions n and m):
σ
¹ α)
·γ
β
,
σ
¹ α)
βγ
,
σ
¹ α)
βγ
, . . . ,
σ
¹ a)
bc
, . . . ,
σ
i
jk
, . . . ,
σ
¹ a)
AA
¹
, . . . ,
σ
i
II
¹
, . . . .
(6.16)
It is obvious that contracting with corresponding σobjects (6.16), we can introduce
instead of dtensors indices the dspinor ones, for instance,
ω
βγ
=
σ
¹ α)
βγ
ω
¹ α)
, ω
AB
¹ =
σ
¹ a)
AB
¹
ω
¹ a)
, . . . , ζ
i
·j
=
σ
k
i
·j
ζ
k
, . . . . (6.17)
For dtensors containing groups of antisymmetric indices, there is a more simple pro
cedure of their transforming into dspinors because the objects
σ
α
β··· γ
δν
,
σ
a
b··· c
de
, . . . ,
σ
i
j···
k
II
¹
, . . . (6.18)
1226 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
can be used for sets of such indices into pairs of dspinor indices. We enumerate some
properties of σobjects of type (6.18) (for simplicity, we consider only hcomponents
having q indices
i,
j,
k, . . . taking values from 1 to n; the properties of v
p
components
can be written in a similar manner with respect to indices a
p
,
b
p
, c
p
, . . . taking values
from 1 to m):
σ
i···
j
kl
is
¸
¸
symmetric on k, l for n−2q ≡1, 7(mod8),
antisymmetric on k, l for n−2q ≡3, 5(mod8),
(6.19)
for odd values of n, and an object
σ
i···
j
IJ
σ
i···
j
I
¹
J
¹
¸
is
¸
¸
symmetric on I, J (I
¹
, J
¹
) for n−2q ≡0(mod8),
antisymmetric on I, J (I
¹
, J
¹
) for n−2q ≡4(mod8),
(6.20)
or
σ
i···
j
IJ
¹
=:
σ
i···
j
J
¹
I
¸
¸
n+2q ≡6(mod8),
n+2q ≡2(mod8),
(6.21)
with vanishing of the rest of reduced components of the dtensor (σ
i···
j
)
kl
with prime/
unprime sets of indices.
6.1.4. Fundamental dspinors. We can transform every dspinor ξ
α
= (ξ
i
, ξ
a
1
, . . . ,
ξ
a
z
) into a corresponding dtensor. For simplicity, we consider this construction only
for an hcomponent ξ
i
on an hspace being of dimension n. The values
ξ
α
ξ
β
σ
i···
j
αβ
(n is odd) (6.22)
or
ξ
I
ξ
J
σ
i···
j
IJ
or ξ
I
¹
ξ
J
¹
σ
i···
j
I
¹
J
¹
¸
(n is even) (6.23)
with a diﬀerent number of indices
i···
j, taken together, deﬁne the hspinor ξ
i
to
an accuracy to the sign. We emphasize that it is necessary to choose only those h
components of dtensors (6.22) (or (6.23)) which are symmetric on pairs of indices αβ
(or IJ (or I
¹
J
¹
)) and the number q of indices
i···
j satisﬁes the condition (as a respective
consequence of the properties (6.19) and/or (6.20), (6.21))
n−2q ≡0, 1, 7(mod8). (6.24)
Of special interest is the case when
q =
1
2
(n:1) (n is odd) (6.25)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1227
or
q =
1
2
n (n is even). (6.26)
If all expressions (6.22) and/or (6.23) are zero for all values of q with the exception of
one or two ones deﬁned by the conditions (6.24), (6.25) (or (6.26)), the value ξ
i
(or ξ
I
(ξ
I
¹
)) is called a fundamental hspinor. Deﬁning in a similar manner the fundamental
vspinors, we can introduce fundamental dspinors as pairs of fundamental h and v
spinors. Here we remark that an h(v
p
)spinor ξ
i
(ξ
a
p
) (we can also consider reduced
components) is always a fundamental one for n(m) < 7, which is a consequence of
(6.26).
6.2. Diﬀerential geometry of haspinors. This subsection is devoted to the diﬀeren
tial geometry of dspinors in higherorder anisotropic spaces. We will use denotations
of type
v
¹α)
=
¸
v
i
, v
¹a)
∈σ
¹α)
=
¸
σ
i
, σ
¹a)
,
ζ
α
p
=
¸
ζ
i
p
, ζ
a
p
∈σ
α
p
=
¸
σ
i
p
, σ
a
p
(6.27)
for, respectively, elements of modules of dvector and irreduced dspinor ﬁelds (see de
tails in [88, 89]). We will interpret dtensors and dspinor tensors (irreduced or reduced)
as elements of corresponding σmodules, for instance,
q
¹α)
¹β)·
∈σ
¹α)
¸
−0
¹β)
, ψ
α
p
γ
p
β
p
·
∈σ
α
p
γ
p
β
p
·
, ξ
I
p
I
¹
p
J
p
K
¹
p
N
¹
p
∈σ
I
p
I
¹
p
J
p
K
¹
p
N
¹
p
, . . .
¸
. (6.28)
We can establish a correspondence between the higherorder anisotropic adapted to
the Nconnection metric g
αβ
(3.28) and dspinor metric
αβ
(objects for both h and
v
p
subspaces of Ᏹ
¹z)
) of a haspace Ᏹ
¹z)
by using the relation
g
¹α)¹β)
=−
1
N(n)+N
¸
m
1
+···+N
¸
m
z
×
σ
¹α)
(u)
αβ
σ
¹β)
(u)
δγ
αγ
βδ
,
(6.29)
where
σ
¹α)
(u)
νγ
=l
¹ α)
¹α)
(u)
σ
¹ α)
¹ν)¹γ)
, (6.30)
which is a consequence of formulas (6.3), (6.4), (6.6), (6.8), (6.9), (6.10), and (6.11). In
brief, we can write (6.29) as
g
¹α)¹β)
=
α
1
α
2
β
1
β
2
(6.31)
if the σobjects are considered as a ﬁxed structure, whereas objects are treated as
carrying the metric “dynamics” on higherorder anisotropic space. This variant is used,
for instance, in the socalled 2spinor geometry [61, 62, 63] and should be preferred if we
have to make explicit the algebraic symmetry properties of dspinor objects by using
1228 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
metric decomposition (6.31). An alternative way is to consider as ﬁxed the algebraic
structure of objects and to use variable components of σobjects of type (6.30) for
developing a variational dspinor approach to gravitational and matter ﬁeld interactions
on haspaces (the spinor Ashtekar variables [5] are introduced in this manner).
We note that a dspinor metric
ντ
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ij
0 ··· 0
0
a
1
b
1
··· 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 ···
a
z
b
z
(6.32)
on the dspinor space =(
(h)
,
(v
1
)
, . . . ,
(v
z
)
) can have symmetric or antisymmetric h
(v
p
)components
ij
(
a
p
b
p
), see objects. For simplicity, in order to avoid cumbersome
calculations connected with eightfold periodicity on dimensions n and m
p
of a ha
space Ᏹ
¹z)
, we will develop a general dspinor formalism only by using irreduced spinor
spaces
(h)
and
(v
p
)
.
6.2.1. dcovariant derivation on haspaces. Let Ᏹ
¹z)
be a haspace. We deﬁne the
action on a dspinor of a dcovariant operator
¯
¹α)
=
¸
¯
i
, ¯
¹a)
=
¸
σ
¹α)
α
1
α
2
¯
α
1
α
2
=
¸
σ
i
i
1
i
2
¯i
1
i
2
,
¸
σ
¹a)
a
1
a
2
¯
a
1
a
2
=
¸
σ
i
i
1
i
2
¯i
1
i
2
,
¸
σ
a
1
a
1
a
2
¯
(1)
a
1
a
2
, . . . ,
¸
σ
a
p
a
1
a
2
¯
(p)
a
1
a
2
, . . . ,
¸
σ
a
z
a
1
a
2
¯
(z)
a
1
a
2
(6.33)
(in brief, we will write ¯
¹α)
= ¯
α
1
α
2
= (¯i
1
i
2
, ¯
(1)
a
1
a
2
, . . . , ¯
(p)
a
1
a
2
, . . . , ¯
(z)
a
1
a
2
)) as
maps
¯
α
1
α
2
: σ
β
→σ
β
¹α)
=σ
β
α
1
α
2
=
σ
β
i
=σ
β
i
1
i
2
, σ
β
(1)a
1
=σ
β
(1)α
1
α
2
, . . . ,
σ
β
(p)a
p
=σ
β
(p)α
1
α
2
, . . . , σ
β
(z)a
z
=σ
β
(z)α
1
α
2
(6.34)
satisfying conditions
¯
¹α)
¸
ξ
β
+η
β
=¯
¹α)
ξ
β
+¯
¹α)
η
β
, ¯
¹α)
¸
fξ
β
=f ¯
¹α)
ξ
β
+ξ
β
¯
¹α)
f (6.35)
for every ξ
β
, η
β
∈ σ
β
and f being a scalar ﬁeld on Ᏹ
¹z)
. It is also required that the
Leibnitz rule
¸
¯
¹α)
ζ
β
η
β
=¯
¹α)
¸
ζ
β
η
β
−ζ
β
¯
¹α)
η
β
(6.36)
holds and that ¯
¹α)
be a real operator, that is, it commutes with the operation of
complex conjugation:
¯
¹α)
ψ
αβγ...
=¯
¹α)
ψ
αβγ...
. (6.37)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1229
We now analyze the question on uniqueness of action on dspinors of an operator
¯
¹α)
satisfying necessary conditions. Denoting by ¯
(1)
¹α)
and ¯
¹α)
two such dcovariant
operators, we consider the map
¯
(1)
¹α)
−¯
¹α)
: σ
β
→σ
β
α
1
α
2
. (6.38)
Because the action on a scalar f of both operators ¯
(1)
α
and ¯
α
must be identical, that
is,
¯
(1)
¹α)
f =¯
¹α)
f, (6.39)
the action (6.38) on f =ω
β
ξ
β
must be written as
¯
(1)
¹α)
−¯
¹α)
ω
β
ξ
β
=0. (6.40)
In consequence, we conclude that there is an element Θ
γ
α
1
α
2
β
∈σ
γ
α
1
α
2
β
for which
¯
(1)
α
1
α
2
ξ
γ
=¯
α
1
α
2
ξ
γ
+Θ
γ
α
1
α
2
β
ξ
β
, ¯
(1)
α
1
α
2
ω
β
=¯
α
1
α
2
ω
β
−Θ
γ
α
1
α
2
β
ω
γ
. (6.41)
The action of the operator (6.38) on a dvector v
¹β)
= v
β
1
β
2
can be written by using
formula (6.41) for both indices β
1
and β
2
:
¯
(1)
¹α)
−¯
¹α)
v
β
1
β
2
=Θ
β
1
¹α)γ
v
γβ
2
+Θ
β
2
¹α)γ
v
β
1
γ
=
Θ
β
1
¹α)γ
1
δ
β
2
γ
2
+Θ
β
2
¹α)γ
1
δ
β
1
γ
2
v
γ
1
γ
2
=Q
¹β)
¹α)¹γ)
v
¹γ)
,
(6.42)
where
Q
¹β)
¹α)¹γ)
=Q
β
1
β
2
α
1
α
2
γ
1
γ
2
=Θ
β
1
¹α)γ
1
δ
β
2
γ
2
+Θ
β
2
¹α)γ
1
δ
β
1
γ
2
. (6.43)
The dcommutator ¯
[¹α)
¯
¹β)]
deﬁnes the dtorsion. So, applying operators ¯
(1)
[¹α)
¯
(1)
¹β)]
and ¯
[¹α)
¯
¹β)]
on f =ω
β
ξ
β
, we can write
T
(1)¹γ)
¹α)¹β)
−T
¹γ)
¹α)¹β)
=Q
¹γ)
¹β)¹α)
−Q
¹γ)
¹α)¹β)
(6.44)
with Q
¹γ)
¹α)¹β)
from (6.43).
The action of operator ¯
(1)
¹α)
on dspinor tensors of type χ
β
1
β
2
...
α
1
α
2
α
3
...
must be constructed
by using formula (6.41) for every upper index β
1
β
2
. . . and formula (6.43) for every lower
index α
1
α
2
α
3
. . . .
6.2.2. Infeldvan der Waerden coeﬃcients. Let
δ
α
α
=
δ
i
1
, δ
i
2
, . . . , δ
i
N(n)
, δ
a
1
, δ
a
2
, . . . , δ
i
N(m)
(6.45)
be a dspinor basis. The basis dual to it is denoted as
δ
α
α
=
δ
1
i
, δ
2
i
, . . . , δ
N(n)
i
, δ
1
i
, δ
2
i
, . . . , δ
N(m)
i
. (6.46)
1230 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
A dspinor κ
α
∈ σ
α
has components κ
α
= κ
α
δ
α
α
. Taking into account that δ
α
α
δ
β
β
¯
αβ
=
¯
αβ
, we write out the components ¯
αβ
κ
γ
in the form
δ
α
α
δ
β
β
δ
γ
γ
¯
αβ
κ
γ
=δ
τ
δ
γ
τ
¯
αβ
κ
+κ
δ
γ
¯
αβ
δ
=¯
αβ
κ
γ
+κ
γ
γ
αβ
, (6.47)
where the coordinate components of the dspinor connection γ
γ
αβ
are deﬁned as
γ
γ
αβ
=δ
γ
τ
¯
αβ
δ
τ
. (6.48)
We call the Infeldvan der Waerden dsymbols a set of σobjects (σ
α
)
αβ
parametrized
with respect to a coordinate dspinor basis. Deﬁning
¯
¹α)
=
¸
σ
¹α)
αβ
¯
αβ
, (6.49)
introducing denotations
γ
γ
¹α)τ
=γ
γ
αβτ
¸
σ
¹α)
αβ
, (6.50)
and using properties (6.47), we can write the relations
l
¹α)
¹α)
δ
β
β
¯
¹α)
κ
β
=¯
¹α)
κ
β
+κ
δ
γ
β
¹α)δ
,
l
¹α)
¹α)
δ
β
β
¯
¹α)
µ
β
=¯
¹α)
µ
β
−µ
δ
γ
δ
¹α)β
(6.51)
for dcovariant derivations ¯
α
κ
β
and ¯
α
µ
β
.
We can consider expressions similar to (6.51) for values having both types of dspinor
and dtensor indices, for instance,
l
¹α)
¹α)
l
¹γ)
¹γ)
δ
δ
δ
¯
¹α)
θ
¹γ)
δ
=¯
¹α)
θ
¹γ)
δ
−θ
¹γ)
γ
¹α)δ
+θ
¹τ)
δ
Γ
¹γ)
¹α)¹τ)
(6.52)
(we can prove this by a straightforward calculation).
Now we will consider some possible relations between components of dconnections
γ
¹α)δ
and Γ
¹γ)
¹α)¹τ)
and derivations of (σ
¹α)
)
αβ
. We can write
Γ
¹α)
¹β)¹γ)
=l
¹α)
¹α)
¯
¹γ)
l
¹α)
¹β)
=l
¹α)
¹α)
¯
¹γ)
¸
σ
¹β)
τ
l
¹α)
¹α)
¯
¹γ)
¸¸
σ
¹β)
τ
δ
δ
τ
τ
=l
¹α)
¹α)
δ
α
α
δ
¯
¹γ)
¸
σ
¹β)
α
+l
¹α)
¹α)
¸
σ
¹β)
τ
¸
δ
τ
τ
¯
¹γ)
δ
+δ
¯
¹γ)
δ
τ
τ
=l
¹α)
τ
¯
¹γ)
¸
σ
¹β)
τ
+l
¹α)
µν
δ
µ
δ
ν
τ
¸
σ
¹β)
τ
¸
δ
τ
τ
¯
¹γ)
δ
+δ
¯
¹γ)
δ
τ
τ
,
(6.53)
where l
¹α)
¹α)
=(σ
τ
)
¹α)
, from which follows
¸
σ
¹α)
µν
¸
σ
αβ
¹β)
Γ
¹α)
¹γ)¹β)
=
¸
σ
αβ
¹β)
¯
¹γ)
¸
σ
¹α)
µν
+δ
ν
β
γ
µ
¹γ)α
+δ
µ
α
γ
ν
¹γ)β
. (6.54)
Connecting the last expressions on β and ν and using an orthonormalized dspinor
basis when γ
β
¹γ)β
=0 (a consequence from (6.48)), we have
γ
µ
¹γ)α
=
1
N(n)+N
¸
m
1
+···+N
¸
m
z
Γ
µβ
¹γ)αβ
−
¸
σ
αβ
¹β)
¯
¹γ)
¸
σ
¹β)
µβ
, (6.55)
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1231
where
Γ
µβ
¹γ)αβ
=
¸
σ
¹α)
µβ
¸
σ
αβ
β
Γ
¹α)
¹γ)¹β)
. (6.56)
We also note here that, for instance, for the canonical and Berwald connections and
Christoﬀel dsymbols, we can express dspinor connection (6.56) through correspond
ing locally adapted derivations of components of metric and Nconnection by introduc
ing corresponding coeﬃcients instead of Γ
¹α)
¹γ)¹β)
in (6.56) and then in (6.55).
6.2.3. dspinors of haspace curvature and torsion. The dtensor indices of the com
mutator ∆
¹α)¹β)
can be transformed into dspinor ones:
αβ
=
¸
σ
¹α)¹β)
αβ
∆
αβ
=
ij
,
ab
=
ij
,
a
1
b
1
, . . . ,
a
p
b
p
, . . . ,
a
z
b
z
, (6.57)
with h and v
p
components,
ij
=
¸
σ
¹α)¹β)
ij
∆
¹α)¹β)
,
ab
=
¸
σ
¹α)¹β)
ab
∆
¹α)¹β)
, (6.58)
being symmetric or antisymmetric depending on the corresponding values of dimen
sions n and m
p
(see eightfold parametrizations). Considering the actions of operator
(6.57) on dspinors π
γ
and µ
γ
, we introduce the dspinor curvature X
γ
δαβ
as to satisfy
equations
αβ
π
γ
=X
γ
δαβ
π
δ
,
αβ
µ
γ
=X
δ
γαβ
µ
δ
. (6.59)
The gravitational dspinor Ψ
αβγδ
is deﬁned by a corresponding symmetrization of d
spinor indices:
Ψ
αβγδ
=X
(α¦β¦γδ)
. (6.60)
We note that dspinor tensors X
γ
δαβ
and Ψ
αβγδ
are transformed into similar 2spinor ob
jects on locally isotropic spaces [61, 62, 63] if we consider vanishing of the Nconnection
structure and a limit to a locally isotropic space.
Putting δ
γ
γ
instead of µ
γ
in (6.59) and using (6.60), we can express, respectively, the
curvature and gravitational dspinors as
X
γδαβ
=δ
δτ
αβ
δ
τ
γ
, Ψ
γδαβ
=δ
δτ
(αβ
δ
τ
γ)
. (6.61)
The dspinor torsion T
γ
1
γ
2
αβ
is deﬁned similarly as for dtensors by using the dspinor
commutator (6.57) and equations
αβ
f =T
γ
1
γ
2
αβ
¯
γ
1
γ
2
f. (6.62)
The dspinor components R
δ
1
δ
2
γ
1
γ
2
αβ
of the curvature dtensor R
δ
γαβ
can be computed
by using relations (6.56), (6.57), and (6.60) as to satisfy the equations
αβ
−T
γ
1
γ
2
αβ
¯
γ
1
γ
2
V
δ
1
δ
2
=R
δ
1
δ
2
γ
1
γ
2
αβ
V
γ
1
γ
2
. (6.63)
1232 S. I. VACARU AND N. A. VICOL
Here dvector V
γ
1
γ
2
is considered as a product of dspinors, that is, V
γ
1
γ
2
=ν
γ
1
µ
γ
2
. We
ﬁnd
R
δ
1
δ
2
γ
1
γ
2
αβ
=
X
δ
1
γ
1
αβ
+T
τ
1
τ
2
αβ
γ
δ
1
τ
1
τ
2
γ
1
δ
δ
2
γ
2
+
X
δ
2
γ
2
αβ
+T
τ
1
τ
2
αβ
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
γ
2
δ
δ
1
γ
1
. (6.64)
It is convenient to use this dspinor expression for the curvature dtensor
R
δ
1
δ
2
γ
1
γ
2
α
1
α
2
β
1
β
2
=
X
δ
1
γ
1
α
1
α
2
β
1
β
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
β
1
β
2
γ
δ
1
τ
1
τ
2
γ
1
δ
δ
2
γ
2
+
X
δ
2
γ
2
α
1
α
2
β
1
β
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
β
1
β
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
γ
2
δ
δ
1
γ
1
(6.65)
in order to get the dspinor components of the Ricci dtensor
R
γ
1
γ
2
α
1
α
2
=R
δ
1
δ
2
γ
1
γ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
δ
2
=X
δ
1
γ
1
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
γ
δ
1
τ
1
τ
2
γ
1
+X
δ
2
γ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
γ
1
δ
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
γ
2
(6.66)
and the following dspinor decomposition of the scalar curvature:
q
←
R =R
α
1
α
2
α
1
α
2
=X
α
1
δ
1
α
2
α
1
δ
1
α
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
α
2
δ
1
γ
δ
1
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
+X
α
2
δ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
2
α
1
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
2
α
1
α
1
δ
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
α
2
. (6.67)
Using (6.66) and (6.67), see details in [61, 62, 63], we deﬁne the dspinor components
of the Einstein and Φ
¹α)¹β)
dtensors:
←
G
¹γ)¹α)
=
←
G
γ
1
γ
2
α
1
α
2
=X
δ
1
γ
1
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
γ
δ
1
τ
1
τ
2
γ
1
+X
δ
2
γ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
γ
1
δ
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
γ
2
−
1
2
ε
γ
1
α
1
ε
γ
2
α
2
¸
X
β
1
µ
1
β
2
β
1
µ
1
β
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
β
1
β
2
β
2
µ
1
γ
µ
1
τ
1
τ
2
β
1
+X
β
2
µ
2
ν
1
β
2
µ
2
ν
1
+T
τ
1
τ
2
β
2
β
1
β
1
δ
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
β
2
¸
,
Φ
¹γ)¹α)
=Φ
γ
1
γ
2
α
1
α
2
=
1
2
¸
n+m
1
+···+m
z
×ε
γ
1
α
1
ε
γ
2
α
2
¸
X
β
1
µ
1
β
2
β
1
µ
1
β
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
β
1
β
2
β
2
µ
1
γ
µ
1
τ
1
τ
2
β
1
+X
β
2
µ
2
ν
1
β
2
µ
2
ν
1
+T
τ
1
τ
2
β
2
β
1
β
1
δ
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
β
2
¸
−
1
2
¸
X
δ
1
γ
1
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
γ
δ
1
τ
1
τ
2
γ
1
+X
δ
2
γ
2
α
1
α
2
δ
1
γ
2
+T
τ
1
τ
2
α
1
α
2
γ
1
δ
2
γ
δ
2
τ
1
τ
2
γ
2
¸
.
(6.68)
We omit this calculus in this work.
Acknowledgments. The work of S. Vacaru is supported by a NATO/Portugal
fellowship at CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon. The author is grateful to
R. Ablamowicz, John Ryan, and B. Fauser for collaboration and support of his participa
tion at “The 6th International Conference on Cliﬀord Algebras,” Cookeville, Tennessee,
USA (May, 20–25, 2002). He would like to thank J. P. S. Lemos, R. Miron, M. Anastasiei,
and P. Stavrinos for hospitality and support.
NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS AND SPINOR GEOMETRY 1233
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Sergiu I. Vacaru: Centro Multidisciplinar de Astroﬁsica  CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica,
Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa 1049001, Portugal
Email address: vacaru@fisica.ist.utl.pt
Nadejda A. Vicol: Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, State University of Moldova,
Chi¸sinˇau, MD 2009, Republic of Moldova
Email address: nadejda_vicol@yahoo.com