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# Statistics ST314: Midterm Exam Study Guide

This handout is intended to be an overall guide of what could be covered on the exam. You are able to bring two
double-sided page (8.5X11) of hand-written notes and your calculator (any model) to the exam. Make sure to
bring your ID and a pencil to the exam. The exam will provide you the necessary tables.
The exam is worth 250 points and includes: How to study:

 Multiple Choice  Review this study guide – If you don’t know about
 Matching something covered in the topic then reread chapter
sections and notes from weeks covered.
 Review homework
 Review Data Analyses and feedback
 Complete practice problems with each week and
practice exams

## General Probability Ch. 2 Sections 1-5

Probability

 Define Probability
 Basic Rules of Set Theory
 Understand Independence
o Understand mathematical expressions/definitions
 Conditional Probability
o Understand mathematical expressions/definitions
 Understand the “complement”

## Discrete probability distributions Chapter 3 Sections 1-6

Discrete Random Variables

##  Define Discrete Random Variable

 Define in words and mathematical expression the probability mass function (pmf)
 Define in words and mathematical expression the cumulative distribution function (cdf)
 Calculate the expected value
 Calculate the variance
 Calculate the standard deviation
 Calculate probabilities of events given a pmf or cdf
 Know common continuous distributions: Binomial and Poisson
o when to use them
o their probability mass functions
o their general shapes if plotted
o the parameters that define them
o their expected values and variances/standard deviations
 Calculate expectation and variance for linear combinations of random variables.
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Week 2 Concepts (16% of exam)

##  Define Continuous Random Variable

 Define in words and mathematical expression the probability density function (pdf)
o f(y)
 Define in words and mathematical expression the cumulative density function (cdf)
o F(y)
 Understand how the cdf is related to the pdf
 Calculate the expected value
 Calculate the variance
 Calculate the standard deviation
 Calculate probabilities of events given a pdf or cdf
 Calculate expectation and variance for linear combinations of random variables.
 Know common continuous distributions: Uniform, Gamma, Exponential and Normal
o when to use them
o their probability density functions
o their general shapes if plotted
o the parameters that define them
o their expected values and variances/standard deviations
 Calculate medians and percentiles for continuous random variables.
 Standard Normal Distribution
o Read a z table to find proportions/percentiles/probabilities
o Calculate z scores
o 68-95-99.7 rule
Week 3 Concepts (20% of exam)

Data Collection

##  Identify a population and its parameter values.

 Identify a sample and its statistic values.
 Sampling Methods
o Define Simple random sample, Stratified random sample and Systematic Random Sample
o Know what makes a poor sample
o Define bias
o Define lurking variable and identify the issues they create.
 Know the basic methods for collecting data and their Advantages and Disadvantages
o Observational studies
o Designed Experiments
 Experimental Designs
o Define experimental unit, treatment, factors and response
o Know the Basic Principles
o Define confounding

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Data Displays

##  Know the difference between a categorical and quantitative variable

 Know which types of displays are appropriate for categorical and quantitative variables
 Know the general characteristics of each type of display.
o Stem-n-leaf display
o Box Plot
 Including Parallel Boxplots (side-by-side box plot)
o Histogram
 Understand symmetry and how to describe patterns.
 Calculate and define summary statistics:
o Median
o Quartiles
o Interquartile Range (Q3-Q1)
o Mean
o Standard Deviation
o Variance

## Sampling Distributions and Estimation

Chapter Sections 5.2-4, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4 and 8.5

 Define and explain the law of large numbers, sampling distribution, standard error, central limit theorem
 Based on the Central limit theorem.
o Be able to answer, what is the distribution of the sample mean?
o Understand how the size of a sample, n, affects the standard error of the sampling distribution.
As n increases the standard error….?
 Define and Distinguish between the population distribution, the sampled distribution and the sampling
distribution.
 Define and identify Statistic, Parameter, Point Estimate, Margin of Error., confidence level
 Know what is means to have an unbiased estimate
 Know the general format of a confidence interval
 Understand the definition of confidence interval through repeated sampling.
 Understand the trade off between accuracy and precision when choosing a confidence level.

##  Find Critical values for z procedures

 Calculate and interpret a (1-α) % confidence interval for a mean when the population standard deviation
is known (z procedure)

Hypothesis Testing

## Ch. 8 sections 1, first part of 2 and 4

 Describe the null and alternative hypotheses and how to set up either in order to perform a hypothesis
test
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 Define significance level and understand the reasons behind the selection of one over the other.
 Find and define p-value
 Know the relationship between a (1-α) % confidence interval and a two sided hypothesis test with α
significance level
 Know when to reject the null
 Define and understand the consequence of Type I and Type II error
 Explain the difference between practical and statistical significance.

##  Null and Alternative Hypotheses for test

 Perform hypothesis test
o know equations to calculate test statistic by hand
o look up p-value from a z-table
o Interpret results using the four part conclusion method

## Ch. 7.2, 8.2, 8.4, 9.2 and 9.3

For each of the t procedures: One Sample t, Two sample t and Matched Pairs t procedures.

##  Null and Alternative Hypotheses for significance tests

 Know Conditions for inference. Understand how to evaluate whether they are met.
 Perform hypothesis test
o know equations to calculate test statistic by hand
o look up p-value from a t-table
o Interpret results using the four part conclusion method
 Be able to read and interpret R software output from the command t.test() for both one and two
sample procedures.
 Know how to calculate the degrees of freedom (Conservative and Satterthwaite)
 Calculate and interpret a (1-α) % confidence interval for a mean when the population standard deviation
is unknown (t procedure)
 Understand the pitfalls of each test and when results may not be trusted.
 Be able to interpret type I error when conditions are violated.
 Be able to identify which procedure to use when given a scenario.
 Identify independent and dependent populations.
 Understand the relationship between t distributions and the standard normal distribution.
 Understand sample size conditions for t procedures and when t procedures are robust to conditions being
violated.