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Q) Meaning and Definition
A business' most important asset is often its people. Training and developing them can be one of the most important investments a business can make. The right training can ensure that your business has the right skills to tackle the future. It can also help attract and retain good quality staff, as well as increasing the job satisfaction of those presently with you - increasing the chances that they will satisfy your customers. Training and development refer to the imparting to specific skills’ ability and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training and development is: “… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.” The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training and Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance.
We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was started earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in the classrooms.
TRAINING AND EDUCATION DIFFERENTIATED : Training Application oriented Job experience Specific tasks Narrow perspective Education Theoretical oriented Classroom learning General concepts Broad perspective
Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes, which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management development programmes, are generally voluntary.
THE TRAINING PROCESS Organizational Objectives and Strategies Assessment of Training Needs Establishment of Training Goals Devising Training Programme Implementation of Training programme Evaluation of Results (1) ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES: The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. . What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources.
Group: Assessment of training needs occurs at group level too. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. job redesign. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. when there is performance deficiency. Needs assessment occurs at two levels: a) Individual b) Group Individual: An individual obviously needs training when his or her training falls short of standards. Faulty selection. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. sell and service the new products. or discharge will solve the problem.(2) ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS: Organizations spend vast sums of money on training and development. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. however. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. Although job transfers are as common as organizational personal demands vary. For example. they do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts. low morale and motivation. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products. improving quality of supervision. organizations would do well to assess the training needs of the employees. Before committing such huge resources. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continuous employment for many individuals. Transfer. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training groups of employees. The problem of performance deficiency is caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. that is. or other problems are diagnosed. Recently. . Employees commonly require an orientation to new facilities and jobs. poor job design.
With out clearly set goals. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programme. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants. Some are useful for organizational level needs assessment and others for individual needs assessment. NEEDS ASSESSMENT METHODS Group analysis Individual analysis Organizational goals and objectives Performance Appraisal Personnel/skills inventories Work sampling Organizational climate indices Interviews Efficiency indices Questionnaires Exit interviews Attitude survey MBO or work planning systems Training progress Quality circles Rating scales Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and Benefits of Needs Assessment: Needs assessment helps diagnose the cause of performance deficiency of employees. Goals must be . after it has been implemented. there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. it is not possible to design a training and development programme and. training and developmental goals must be established. Causes require remedial actions. (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF TRAINING GOALS: Once the training needs are assessed.Needs Assessment Methods: Several assessment methods for are available for assessing training needs. There are specific benefits of needs assessment.
verifiable. and measurable. For example. clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that the programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated. Nevertheless.tangible. . This is easy where skill training is involved. the successful trainee will be expected to type 55 words per minute with two or three errors per page. But behavioral objectives like attitudinal changes can be more difficult to state.
often depends on where the program is held and the skill that is being taught. . For example. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences.(4) DEVISING THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Every training and development programme must address the following vital issues: Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods & techniques? What should be the level of training? What principles of learning? Where to conduct the program? Who are the trainees? Trainees are selected on the basis of: Self Nomination Recommendations of the Supervisor By the HR Department itself Whatever is the basis. rankand-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new process and their respective roles. Who are the trainers? Training and development may be done by: Immediate Supervisors Co – workers Personnel Staff Specialists in other parts of the company Outside Consultants Industry Associations Faculty Members at Universities Who among these are selected to teach. It also helps facilitate group processes such as problem solving and decision – making. 1.
. METHODS & TECHNIQUES OF TRAINING On-the-Job Method Orientation Training Job-Instruction Training Job Rotation Coaching Off-the-Job Method Simulation Case Study Vestibule Role Play Lecture Films & Television Conference/Discussion Programmed Instruction On-the-Job Method (OJT): Majority of industrial training is on the job training type. safety education. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. Training methods are categorized into two groups – on-the-job methods and off-the-job methods. supervisory and managerial education. OJT method is mainly adopted while orienting new employees. introducing innovations in products & services and in special skills training. special skills training. Training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. Off-the-Job Training Method: Off-the-job training is mainly adopted for orienting new employees. administrative. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. technical & professional education and sales. introducing innovations in products and services. Often. The advantages and disadvantages of some of the important techniques of off-the-job methods are listed below: a) Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. it is informal. The most commonly used techniques are shown in the table given below. This method can be made effective when combined with other means of training. creative.What Methods and Techniques of Training should be used? A multitude of methods and techniques is used to train employees.
Training is offered without the intervention of the trainer. facts. Allowing the person to respond. . but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. Cross – cultural training: Programmes to teach specifics of varied cultures. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to ‘create an environment’ similar to real situations the managers incur. or problems to the learner. video-types. PI involves: 1. It is an attempt to create a realistic decision – making environment for the trainee. The other techniques of training are: Leadership games: exercises to teach different styles of leadership. Team – building games: Exercises requiring collaborative efforts.b) c) Audio-Visuals: Programmed Instruction (PI): These include television slides. 2. overheads. Presenting questions. d) Simulations: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. either in a book form or through a teaching machine. films and LCD Projectors. Communication Games: exercises to build bias – free listening and talking. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers. Skill Games: Tests to develop analytical skills. If the answers are correct. Lateral Thinking: thinking randomly to come up with new ideas. the learner proceeds to the next block. Strategic Planners: Games to test ability to plan ahead. 3. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. 4.
3. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. Orientation Training The goal is skill development.2. Level I The trainee must acquire fundamental knowledge. job satisfaction) are the most powerful motivators. Recognition of Individual Differences LEARNING PRINCIPLES Practice Opportunities Reinforcement Knowledge of Results .g. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. How effectively they are learned depends upon several principles of learning. quality of life. All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. E. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. At the same time the individual must also have the ability to learn. Internal pressures (self-esteem. What should be the level of learning? The inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes can be taught at three basic levels. What should be the Principles of Learning? Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: Employee Motivation Transfer of Learning Meaning of Material Schedules of Training Goals Motivation: Motivation to learn is the basic requisite of making training and development programmes effective. Aims at increased operational proficiency. Level II Level III concepts and relationships involved in it. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language.
The effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. Individual Differences: Individuals enjoy varying learning stimuli. Example: an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his boss. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. Reinforcement: Reinforcement is anything that a) b) Increases the strength of response Tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Goals: Goal setting can also accelerate learning. The reinforcement consists of a positive experience for the individual. Schedules of learning involve: . the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. In negative reinforcement. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. The trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. Feedback about the performances will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. Knowledge of Results (feedback): Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. Schedules of learning: One of the most well – established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. Practice Opportunities: People learn best through practice. Example: if an employee does something well and is complemented by the boss. Reinforcement could be positive and negative. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes.
but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. On site but not the job – for example. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. Transfer of Learning: What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. Meaning of material: A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. . it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. iii. or a conference center. in a training room in the company. Often. Though.a) b) c) Duration of practice sessions Duration of rest sessions Positioning of rest pauses All the three must be carefully planned and executed. The more meaningful the material. 4. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. the better the learning process. Where to conduct the programme? A training and development programme can be conducted: i. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee’s supervisor. At the job itself ii. what is learnt in a training session faces resistance back at the job. a resort. such as in a university or college classroom. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. Off the site. hotel.
Implementation is beset with certain problems: a) Most managers are action oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. the trainers must know the company’s philosophy. perhaps. it needs to be implemented. its formal and informal organizations. b) Availability of trainers is a problem. Training requires a higher degree of creativity than. and the goals of the training programme. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: a) Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities b) Scheduling the training programme c) Conducting the programme d) Monitoring the progress of trainees . In addition to possessing communication skills.(5) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME: Once the training programme has been designed. c) Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. any other personnel specialty. its objectives.
. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. Since huge sums of money are spent in training and development. the personnel manager should accurately assess trainee’s job performance two to four months after completion of training. There are various approaches to training evaluation. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. Two writers have suggested that four basic categories of outcome can be measured. however. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. e) Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. how far the programme has been successful must be judged or determined. To get a valid measure of training effectiveness. A sense of urgency must be developed. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. Finally. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. and their products. their practices. f) Realistic target dates must be set for each face of the evaluation process. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. correcting performance deficiencies.(6) EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMME: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. that is. should it occur. In practice. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the following programmes: a) Evaluation specialists must be clear about the goals and purpose of evaluation b) Evaluation must be continuous c) Evaluation must be specific d) Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness.
a) Reaction: evaluate the trainee’s reaction to the programme. and the results of this pre-test are compared with results on the same or similar test administered after the programme has been completed. Besides. a test related to the training material is applied. skills and the fact that the supervisor or the trainee wanted him to learn? c) Behavior: Whether the trainee’s behavior on the job changed because of the training programme? d) Results: what final results have been achieved? Did he learn how to work on machine? Did scrappage costs decrease? Was turnover reduced? Are productions quotas have been met? Questionnaires or structured interviews with the immediate supervisors of the trainees are acceptable methods for obtaining feedback on training. pre-and-post tests be administered to the training groups. Did he like the programme? Did he think it worthwhile? b) Learning: did the trainee learn the principles. Prior to the training. The supervisor is asked to rate the former trainee on job proficiency directly related to the training objectives. .
or the inability of the person to adapt himself to technological changes. This can be well measured through the reduction in rejections. Meeting manpower needs: Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. leadership skills. etc. Training and development programs are designed to keep an organization at the front of its industry maximize performance and energize every level of the organization. Improves quality: Better-informed workers are likely to make less operational mistakes. complaints. motivation. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Quality of products or services will definitely increase. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Training and Development is also seen to strengthen the tie between employee development and strategic operation objectives.Q) Objectives of Training and Development Staying ahead in today's business world is more challenging than ever. absenteeism. Even dissatisfaction. Fewer accidents: Accidents. . temperament. which may be due to age. The objectives of Training and Development are as follows: - Efficiency: Employees become efficient after undergoing training.) thus they personally gain through exposure to training programmes. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Personal growth: Training programmes also deal with personality development of the employees (through goal setting. Obsolescence prevention: Training and development programs foster the initiative and the creativity of the employees and help to prevent the manpower obsolescence. Building trust and promoting teamwork are just two expectations of any business leader. Training is an investment in human resource with promise of better returns in future. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well.
• Employee stability: Training contributes to employee stability in at least 2 ways. . Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Further trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Growth indicates prosperity. Flexibility is therefore ensured. which is reflected in profits every year.• Versatility in operations: Training makes the employees versatile in operations. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Growth renders stability to the work force. All rounders can be transferred to any job.
Recognition of individual differences Regardless of individual differences. if action on the following lines is initiated: 1. the individual must have the ability to learn. Besides.Q) Effectiveness and Evaluation of Training and Development Effectiveness of Training Training and Development programmes are most likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles 1. This is what high performing organizations do. Training can be made effective. 2.It should be ensured that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Similarly Hewlet Packard spends about 5% of its annual revenue to train 87000 workers. invest 300 $ million annually or about 2.Employee Motivation-motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Motivation alone is not enough. . 3.Schedule of learning Duration of practice sessions. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what he is taught. 2. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay.It should be ensured that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. For example XEROX.5% of its revenue on training. duration of rest sessions and positioning of rest pauses are the three schedules. which must be carefully planned and executed for an effective training programme. and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. Practice is essential after individual is successfully trained. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills.
This philosophy should percolate down to all employees in the organization.Training can be made effective by making learning as one of the fundamental values of the company. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. The top management rarely plans and budgets systematically for training The middle management. Why Training Fails? The benefits of training are not clear to the top management.And finally to make training effective a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training needs to be prepared so that the shortfalls can be easily looked at. first line supervisors have difficulty in production norms if employees are attending training programmes. .Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists.3. 4.It should be ensured that there is proper linkage among organizational. operational and individual training needs. without proper incentives from top management does not account for training in production scheduling Without proper scheduling from above. The top management hardly rewards the supervisors for carrying out effective training. 5. 6. Trainers provide limited counseling and consulting services to the rest of the organization.
Evaluation of Training Organizations are under pressure to justify various expenses. The last and one of the most important stages in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. Business heads and training managers are under pressure to prove the effectiveness of training Thus it can be seen. • Secondly training programme should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. 2. The training budget is. There are a number of questions raised on the value derived from training programmes—both directly and indirectly. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. if it occurs. . Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. In practice is however seen. often. Evaluation must be continuous. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. • And finally the credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibility from it. how far the training has been useful must be judged/determined. not exempted from this purview. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. that is correctible performance deficiencies. Need for evaluation: • The main objective of evaluating the training programme is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. Principle of evaluation Evaluation of training programme must be based ob following principles 1. The evaluation specialist must b clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation.
Learning Learning measures assess the degree to which trainees have mastered the concepts. Each group is randomly elected. IV. Measures of reaction.3. II. knowledge and skills of the training. I. 4. Behavioural change Behavior indicates the performance of the learners. Evaluation must be specific. one to receive training and the other not to receive training. Techniques of evaluation Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organizations. Organizational results The purpose of collecting organizational results is to examine the impact of training on the work group or the entire company. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. Reaction measures reveal trainees’ opinions regarding the training programme. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. The following are the techniques of evaluation: 1.Experimental and control groups. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation. 6. III. It may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which the evaluation can be done. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves 5. . Criteria for evaluation. HR professionals should try to collect four types of data while evaluation training programmes. A sense of urgency must be developed.
This is a difficult task. (E. that change has occurred as a result of training and not another variable. but it is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of the training.Longitudinal or time series analysis Measurements are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. the training programme is labeled as successful. If the gain demonstrated by the experimental group is better than those by the control group. pieces produced per hour etc) before and after training for both groups. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of training effort. To further validate. . The benefits to be compared to the costs are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainee’s performance. their behavioral change and the longevity of the period during which the benefit would last.The random selection helps to assure the formation of the groups quite similar to each other. trainers cost during the training period. it is important to assess the costs and benefits associated with the programme. programme development costs. a control group can be included. salaries of training department staff. 2.-words typed per minute. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme.g. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment costs. purchase of equipment. Measures are taken of relevant indicators of success.
productivity. However. The follow up technique will increase the probability that learning and behavior changes will "stick" back on the job. supervisors. On the whole. service providers and others responsible for implementing the performance improvement interventions. . Follow-up is the key to ensuring that interventions improve performance. Here. Even suitable modification / improvement in the training program is possible after analyzing the results available from such evaluation. evaluation helps determine the results of training and development program. the training program is already completed and the trainees go back to their departments or positions and start doing the work assigned. Management will like to know actual results / benefits of training. Training is essentially for achieving certain objectives. high morale. For this. follow-up of training in the form of evaluation training is essential. follow–up action is required to ensure implementation of evaluation report at every stage of training. many organizations overlook this important step in the training process. Unfortunately. These techniques are easy to use. Various follow-up approaches in the work place are used to support trainers. This indicates the effectiveness of the training. the management feels that training / development is a means and not the end in itself.Q) Follow – Up of Training Following-up is the last step in the training process. suitable facilities required for evolution of training are not available. For this. don't require large amounts of time or organizational integration and cost very little. critical evaluation of training program is essential. In some companies. cordial industrial relations and so on. In brief. They can be added on to existing training or designed with new training. Management spent huge amount of money on training of employees and this expenditure should give positive return in terms of higher efficiency.
Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. complaints. Even dissatisfaction. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. All rounder can be transferred to any job. Growth renders stability to the work force. There is greater stability. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. They seldom leave the company. Further. Accidents. Training and development is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Nobody else but well trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an organization. . A company’s training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Flexibility is therefore ensured. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. absenteeism. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. They are absorbed after course completion. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Training and development is an investment in human resources with a promise and it serves as an effective source of recruitment. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Future need of employees will be met through training and development programmes. and (3) Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors.Q) Importance of Training and Development Training and development programmes help remove performance deficiencies in employees. At the same time. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. Growth indicates prosperity. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. This is particularly true when (1) The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform (2) The individual(s) have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn to do the job better. the employee’s personal and career goals are furthered. Ultimately. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge.
Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs.training Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. job redesign.ample. Transfer. It is necessary that the employee be trained to acquire new skills. however. Needs assessment occurs at two levels group and individual. Deputation to a part-time MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. a needs assessment exercise might reveal that less costly interventions (e.hey do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. Faulty selection. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards. when there is performance deficiency.g. For ex. economic forces . The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. organizations would do well to assess the training needs of their employees. poor job design. Although job transfers are common as organizational personnel demands vary. that is. improving quality of supervision. Figure illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Before committing such huge resources. selection. or discharge will solve the problem. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.How to identify training needs? Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. compensation package. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or knowledge Other Causes Training Non. . Recently. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills.
. Jobs have disappeared as technology.4. As shown in Fig. or other problems are diagnosed. For example. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. Although training is not a cure-all. Group or Organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objectives Personnel/ skill inventories Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Quality circles Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Benefits of Needs Assessment: As was pointed above needs assessment helps diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees. when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment and others for individual needs assessment. Causes require remedial actions. low morale and motivation. Needs Assessment Methods: How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly trained work force. there are certain specific benefits of need& assessment. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. sell and service the new products. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. They are: 1. This being a generalized statement.have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. 9. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. foreign competition. and the force of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry.
2. . 3. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programme.