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Lists of Words and Expressions
with English Equivalents
for Reading Aid

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University of Oregon


The enthusiasm and earnestnessof my students at the Univeristy

of Oregon during the past several years gave me the courage, in-
spiration and moral support to write this book, and I would first
like to thank all of them. I am also grateful to those who wrote
me from time to time commenting on my previous two books;
their kind words often gave me much-needed encouragement.
Special thanks go to those who took their valuable time reading
the manuscriptand offering helpful suggestions:ProfessorsStephen
Kohl and Ryoko Toyama; Messrs. Bruce Batten, John O'Donnell,
Michael Powell, Miss Juliet Thorpe, rny husband Robert and
son Ken.

This book is intended both as a Japanesegrammar reference

book and as a reading aid, that is to Say, an effective reference
tool for those who study Japanese,either in a classroom or on
their own. For that reason I have tried to explain the various
grammatical points simply and concisely,avoiding the use of most
technical terms and, rvheneverpossible,comparing Japanesegram'
mar r,vith that of English for clarity. Reference has sometimes
been made to traditional Japanesegrammatical explanations, but
considerable liberty has also been taken wherever necessar)' to
arrive at satisfactory, as well as easily understood,explanations.
It is clear that the problems of teaching Japanesegrammar to
English-speaking studentsare entirely different from those of teach-
ing this grammar to native Japanesestudents. For example, no
Japanese,not even little children,would asl<r,vhichparticle, u)a lt
or ga ri, should be used for a certairr occasion. Nor rvoulcJa
Japaneservonder rvhich rvould be the correct way to form a verb
and adjective te-form,and so forth. These, horvever,are som(' of
the most confusing,if not most difficult, problemsthat non-Japanese
students face rvhenthey study Japanese. Japarresegrammar books
written for non-nativestudentsmust include clear and convincing
explanationsfor these kinds of problems peculiar to the Japanese
langrragc. Traditional Japanesegrammar sometinlesserves well
for this purpose,but at other times it tends to hinder students'
learning by making the JapnneselanguageappearInore complicated
than it really is.
Japanesegrammar may be complex, but it is not as difficult to
learn as many peoplebelieve. Once the basicprinciplesare learned,
the structure of most sentencescan be understood. For example,
main verbs are always at the end of a clause or sentence; any
element which changes the status of these verbs, such as nega'
tive, desiderative,or passive forms, will be attached at the end of
the verb ; and every modifier, whether an adjective, adverb, or
some others, always precedes what it modifies; the position of the

rest of the words, such as adverbial phrases,is very flexible, and

so forth.
Therefore, in spite of the often-heard remark, " Japaneseis an
impossible ianguage,"it is indeed possible for most students to
learn to speak,read, and write modern Japanese. Naturally, the
students need to make a conscientiouseffort, receive effective in-
struction if possible,and use quality dictionaries and reference
My previous tr,vo books, Intermediate JapatzeseReading Aids,
Volume I, Verbs and Verb-following Exbressions, and Volume II,
Particles and Noun-su,pportingWords and Ex\ressiorts,have fortu-
nately been receivedfavorably by many teachers as rvell as students
of Japanese. My original intent lvas to continue the series rvith a
thircl volume rvhich lvoulcl cover adverbs and some other smaller
problems peculiar to the Japaneselanguage. Several users of the
trvo volumes have suggested,however, that I should combine the
third volume rvith the first two, making one comprehensiveJapanese
grammar ref erence book. I am thankful for this suggestion,
because it is a logical step in mahing my work more useable.
The first trvo volumes have been revised i many additional gram-
matical points have been included, and Japanesescript has been
2d6J,ldafter the romanizedwords and sentencesto make the book
more bilin.qual. Further, becausethere are many expressionsin
Japancservhich are clifficult, or sometimeseven imltossible,to find
in the dictionaries,I have added, as in the previous trvo books,
alphirbeticallyarranged lists of sr-ichexpressionsat thc ends of
appropriate chapters.
Ir translatingJapaneseexpressionsinto English, I have tried to
sho\','some literal relationshipsbetrveenthe original Japaneseand
the En.qlishexpressions,r,vhile also trying to make the English
translationsidiomaticallysound. Sometimes,horvever,this was not
possible becauseof the marked differences between the two lan-
guages,in rvhich casethe literal translation is given in the paren-
theses immediately after the more idiomatic equivalents.
Readersmay find some inconsistenciesin the use of.hanj i iX+ and
kana (F.&. For example,the word hoto is usually lvritten in kanji
in such a case as sonnakoto Z ,l/r S " such a thing," but it seems
to be more common to write it in hiragana in such an expression

as koto ni suru a & l'C?-6 " to decide." This variation also depends
I on writers. Although the Japanese government has on several oc-
casions issued guidelines concerning the use of kanji and hana as
I rvell as the readings of kanj i, it seems that even at present no
uniformit,"* exists, and convention in some cases persists, and in
others gives way. Words which are often written in hiragana, but
I sometimes in kanji, depending on the writer, are first transcribed
in hiragana, then followed by the corresponding hanji in parentheses.
I The bool< nolv begins lvith verbs and then goes to adjectives, a
special class of verbs in Japanese. It then proceeds to particles,
nouns, and the remaining parts of speech. f have adopted this
I order because I believe that verbs and particles are the most im-
portant grammatical elements in Japanese, lvhile nouns and other

I parts of speech, though they have tlieir olvn peculiarities, are less
complex than verbs and particles. fhe worK rs conlplete with
cross references and two indexes,one for verb- and noun- following
I expressions, and tire other for grammatical points.
My sincere hope is that this book will prove to be a useful

I reference tool for all those rvho use it.



Dictionary Form of JapaneseVerbs 3
Three Categoriesof JapaneseVerbs 3
f. Vowel-stemverbs 1. -IRU verb 3
2. -ERU verb 3
verbs,ending with -iru or -eru 4
II. Consonant-stemverbs 4
1. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus a
consonant 4
2. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the
consonant-IV . 4
3. Stem consistingof one or more syllables plus the
consonant-T 4
4. Stem consisting of one or more syllables plus the
consonant-S 4
UI. Irregularverbs 1. surt(, ...,............ o... o..... 4
2. huru ..o... 4
3. nasarutype,.r..o............,. 4
4, gozaru ....r................... 5
Verbs ...............
C o n j u g a t i o n so f J a p a n e s e r.... ......... r 5
F u n c t i o n so f S i x B a s e s 1 . F i r s t B a s e . , . . . . . . ....,... 5
2 . S e c o n dB a s g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . 5
3 . T h i r d B a s g. . . . . . . o r . . . . . . . . . . . 6

4. Fourth Base 6
5. Fifth Base 6
6. Sixth Base 6
ConjtrgationCharts . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . 6
I. Vowel-stem verbs ...........r.,.r....o.......o.rt.... 6
i l . C o n s o n a n t - s t evm erbs ................................ 8
I I I . I r r e g u l a rv e r b s . .. .............. r.................. 10
C o n j u g a t i o no f S u f f i x M a s t t , . r . . . . . . . o . . . . o..........o........ 13
C o p u l a s ,D a a n d D g s t t , .................................... 13
C o n j u g a t i o n so f D a a n d D e s u ............o........,.. 15
H o w t o f o r m T a - f . o r ma n d T e - f . o r mo f V e r b s . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . 16
I. V o r v e l - s t g mv e r b s . . . . . . . . o . o . . . ' . . . . . . . r . r . . o . . . . . . . . . LT
II. Consonant-stem
verbs,o...................... L7
III. Exception .......o.................................... 18
ry. I r r e g u l a rv g r b s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . . . 18
T e n s g so f J a p a n e sV e e r b s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o r . . . . . . . . . . . . 1B
Specificity of JapaneseVerbs in Describing an Action . . . . 19
Transitive Verbs (Tadoshi) and Intransitive Verbs (Jidosh) 2T
L i s t o f T a d o s l t ai n d J i d o s h i.. o ., . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
D i r e c t i o n aVl erbs .,.. .,.. . . . , . . . . . . . . ?A,
I . k u r e n l ,k u c l a s a r r l . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
II. )'artt, ugcru 25
III. ?norau,itadahu............. or . . . . , r o . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
D i r g c t i o n aVl e r b sa s A u x i l i a r i e s. . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
I. Yr, hureru, leudasaru,..........,.. r t . . . . . r . . . . . . o . . o . . . 27
II. Y t, )/artt,, agertt 27


ru. Yroro.... r................ or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o...... 3l

IV. V, nAfA .................... o.................. o...... 31
Use of T0hi............. o.. '..... r.. '.. o........ r.. o......... 32
Subjunctive . . . . . . . . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . o. . 33
{ ' i ft '
I. 1. Hypothetical .................. 33
2 . C o n t r a r yt o f a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
II. "f wish..." lVish or Dgsirg.............. r o.......... 34
MiscellaneousConditional Patterns 34
I. Prohibition.....o...................o.................. u
II. Obligation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
m. D e n i a lo f O b l i g a t i o n. . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . . 36
IV. Pgrmission .................................... 36
V. Suggestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
AUXILIARY YBRBS .............o...............o............ 3E

I. Expressionswhich follow the Ffrst Base of the Verb 39
II. Expressionswhich follow the Sacond Base of the Verb. . 47
III. Expressionsrvhich follow the Third Bose of the Verb . . 60
ry. Expressionswhich follow the Fou.rtltBase of the Verb.. 81
V. Expressionsrvhich follow the Fifth Base of the Verb 82
\/I. Expressionswhich follow the Sixth Base of the Verb 82
VII. Expressionswhich follow the Stemsof the Adjectiues E3
\/III. Expressionswhich follow the Copu,larNouns . . . . . . . . . . 86

ADJECTMS ......... r.... t............ o....... r. r............ 87

C o n j u g a t i oonf A d j g c t i v e s1 . - a i , . . . . . . . . . . . . . o............. B8
2. -ii 8B
3. -tti . o. o..... t.................. 88

4, -oi ...............t.....t.o o.o. 89

K u - f . o r mo f A d j g c t i v e s. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9
Kute-f.orm o f A d j e c t i v e s., . . . . , . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . o .o . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 0
C o m m o nA d j e c t i v a T l e n s e s. r . . . . . . . o . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . . . . . . 90

IlI. \ to,ra a a a a . a o a a t a a o . . . . . . . . o . a a a a. . a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a . . . . 31
IV. Va nAfA .. o................... f ................ o... r.. 31
U s e o f T o h i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . o o. . . . . r . . . 32
Subjunctive a a a a a a a a e a a a a a a a a a a l a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a r a a a o o a 33
I. u if" 1 . H y p o t h e t i c a l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2 . C o n t r a r yt o f . a c t . . . . . . . . . . o . . . 33
II. "f wish . . ." lVish o r D e s i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r o.......... 34
MiscellaneousConditional Patterns 34
AUXILIARY YBRBS a a a . . a a I a a . a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a o a a a a a a . a . a a a

I. Expressionswhich follow the First Base of the Verb 39
II. Expressionswhich follow the SecondBase of the Verb. . 47
III. Expressionsrvhich follow the Third Base of the Verb . . 60
ry. Expressionswhich follow the Fou.rtlt.Base of the Verb. . 81
V. Expressionsrvhich follow the trifth Bose of the Verb 82
VI. Expressionswhich follow the Sixth Base of the Verb 82
VII. Expressionswhich follow the Stemsof the Adjectiues 83
VIII. Expressionswhich follow the C o p u l a rN o u n s. . . . . . . . . . 86

A D J E C T I Y E S ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | . . . r . . . . . . . . 87
C o n j u g a t i oonf A d j e c t i v e s1 . - a i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2. -ii 8B
3. -ui a 88
a a a a o a a I t . a a a a a a a a a a . o a a t a .

4, -oi 89
K u ' f . o r m o f A d j e c t i v e s . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . ' . . . . . . ' . . . r o . . . . r . . . r . . 89
K u t e - f . o r mo f A d j e c t i v e s ,. . . . . . . . . . . o . o . . . . . . ! . o . . . . r . . . . . . r . . 90
C o m m o n A d j g c t i v a lT e n s e s . ! . . . . . . . r r . . . . . . . ! . . o . . . . r . t . . . . . 90

C o m p a r a t i v ea n d S u p e r l a t i v eD e g r e e so f A d j e c t i v e s . . . . . . . , . . 9l


PARTICLES ............................ ............ 93

A l p h a b e t i c aLl i s t o f P a r t i c l e sa n d T h e i r F u n c t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4
I N T E R R O G A T I Y EW O R D SP L U S P A R T I C L E S . . . . . . . t . O . . . . . . 1 4 1
A l p h a b e t i c al li s t o f i n t e r r o g a t i v ew o r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . o. . . . . . . . 1 4 1
Interrogativw e o r d * h a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . o .o. . . . . . . . . 1 4 1
Interrogative word *mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . .L42
I . I n t e r r o g a t i vw e o r d* m o * p o s i t i v e v e r b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 4 2
II. Interrogativeword*mo*negative verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .L44
Interrogative word*Vr, mo (demo) ..................145
Convenientthings to rememberconcerningsome forms of
i n t g r r o g a t i vw
e o r d * p a r t i c l e s. . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 7

I. ;;;;.;;;,.;;;.;;;;;;;n;;
II. V a r i o u sF o r m so f J a p a n e s N
e ouns .... ........150
1 . N o u n u s a g es i m i l a r t o E n g l i s hu s a g e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 0
2. Nouns used as adverbswithout changing in form . .150
3. Nouns which are modified not by (verbal) adjectives
but by adverbsor non-conjugativeadjectives. . . .151
4. Nounswhich can be used as adjectivesas well as
a d v g r b s. . . . ....o.......I52
5 . N o u n sw h i c h a r e u n i q u et o J a p a n e s e .....r....o.,.L52
Copularnouns (Adjectival nouns) . . . . . . . . ., . .153
P s e u d o - n o u (nNs o u n si n f o r m ) . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . 1 5 3
III. D e r i v a t i o no f N o u n F o r m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . l i l
1. Tnrg nouns ........o... ....................154
2 . N o u n sd e r i v e df r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f s p e e c h . ! . . . . . . 1 5 4
3 . C o m p o u nn
d o u n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 4
4 . A b b r e v i a t endo u n s . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 4


5. JapanizedWestern words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b5

....... . ..... . .. ...... .. . .r7g
C O M M O NP R O P E RN O U I { . S U F F ' I X E S. . . . .......O ""782
Geographica Nla m e s . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . .... .... ..I82
P e r s o n aN
l ames ........ .... ......................184
AND RELATIYES ........186

I{OUN MODIFIERS.... ............199

PRONOUI{S.... .... .... ........191

I . C h a r a c t e r i s t i cosf J a p a n e sP
eronouns. .... .191
II. CommonJapanesePronouns ..........191
1. Person .... ............191
2, Thing(Demonstrativepronoun).. .... ..I92
3. Place ......I92
4. Direction..... .I92
5. Interrogative ............ .... ..L92
ADVERBS .... ..,. ........ ......193
I . F o r m so f J a p a n e sA e c l v e r b s. . . . . . . . ..........19.1
1. Trueadverbs... .......194
2 . A d v e r b sd e r i v e df r o m o t h e r p a r t so f s p e e c h . . . . . . . . 1 9 4
I I . C o m m o nA d v e r b sa n d t h e i r U s a g e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 5
1 . T i m er . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . ..,...............195
2, Quantity .o....................o........r..........196
3. Degree .............................r..r..o........196
4' circumstance"" "" 'o.. "..""..""" "r97
III. CommonlyUsed Adverbswith Limitations accordingto
Use .,.............. .... ....o.......197
1. Adverbs used only with positive expressions . . . . . .L97

2. Adverbs used only with negative expressions or

n e g a t i v ei d e a s ............,........... ..IgT
3. Adverbs with meanings varying according to use
with positive or negative expressions. . . ., . . o. . . . 198
4. Adverbsused with conditionalexpressions.,......200
5 . A d v e r b su s e d w i t h t e n t a t i v ee x p r e s s i o n .s. . . . . . . . . 2 0 0
6. Adverbs used with negative-tentativeexpressions. .201
7. Adverbs used with expre,ssionsof comparison.. . . . .20I


A l p h a b e t i c aLl i s t o f C o m m o nG i s e i g oa n d G i t a i g o . . . . . . . . , . . . 2 0 2

C0I{JUNCTIOM ...... o..... o... ...r o.. t...,....... r..209

AlphabeticalList of CommonSentence-beginning Conjunctions..208
C o n j u n c t i o nbse t w g e n .........o..........................210
1. It{ouns . . .. ......... oo . . . . . . . . . . . . r.....,..........210
2. Adjectives ..o..........................r...... ....210
3 . C o p u l a rn o u n s . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . r . . . . . . . . . . . t ....210
4. Clauses ........2IA
a. Co-ordinating conjunctions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2I0
b. Subordinating conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2lI

I I { T E R J t r C T I O I ' ., .{ .S. . . . . ......2I3

I. Surprise............ r.. o.. o................ ' o... ..2I3
II. Distress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . . . . . . . . . . o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2I3
III. Address .............. r.... t.. r... r..r........ ro.... ..2I3
ry. Answer............................................ ..213
V. Doubt ................. '.................... o .o . . . . . . . 2 1 3
VI. R e s o l v i n gD o u b t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..213
VII. Admiration .r....oo...............'................ ..213
VIII. U r g i n g . . . o. . . r . . . . . o. . . . . o. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 2 1 4

F O R I V I A L E Y E L O F W O R D SA I { D E X P R E S S I O T.' {oS. . . . . . , . 2 T 5
Lgvgls of Formality in Japangse....... r..... r. !.......... .,..215

I. Informal Level ..........,......... r. r r. r.......,......215

il. P o l i t eL e v e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . 2 1 6
I I I . F o r m a lL g v e l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ....2L6
r y . V e r y F a m i l i a rL g v e l . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . r . . . . . . . . . . . ..216
H o n o r i f i ca n d H u m b l eV e r b F o r m s . . . . . . . . ......o..... ..2I7
I. Honorific Forms Borrowed from Other Verb Forms. . . .zLT
1 . P a s s i v gv o i c ef o r m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....2I7
2 , C a u s a t i v e - p a s sfi o
verm .............. r......... ....2I7
n. R e g u l a rH o n o r i f i ca n d H u m b l e F o r m s , . . . o . o . . . . . . . . . 2 1 8
III. Irregular Honorific and Humble Verb Forms . . . . . . .. ..2I9
Chart of IrregularHonorificand Humble Verb Forms ........220
F o r m a lL e v e l o f A d j e c t i v e s .. . . . . .......... ... o.... ..224
F o r m a lL e v e l o f S o m eC o m m o nE x p r e s s i o n s , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 5
T h r e e L e v e l so f I m p e r a t i v g ...........,.............o.. ..226
H o n o r i f i cN o u n - P r e f i x e sO: a n d G o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....,227
N o u n so f T i m e i n F o r m a l S p e e c h . . . e. . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 9
E x t r e m e l yC o l i o q u i aEl x p r e s s i o n .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....23L

APPENDIX I C O U I { T I N GS Y S T E M . . .... ........ ....233

Numbers ....233
Original Japanesecounting system . .2n
S y s t e mb o r r o l v e df r o m t h e C h i n e s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...233
O r d i n a ln u n r b e r s . , . o . . . . . . . . . ............,.o..... ..,2U
J a p a n e sneu m b e r sa n d E n g l i s hn u m b e r s ........235
Counters...... .... ..................235
Dates ........ .... ........ ....24L
J a p a n e syee a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o .... ..24L
Conversiontable: Modern JapaneseEras/ChristianEra . .2,n
M o n t h so f t h g y e a r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . . , . . . 2 4 3
D a y so f t h e w e e k . . . . . . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..U3
D a y so f t h e m o n t h . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . o . . . . . . r . . ..243
LUnar mOnthS ...r.............r.............r....o... r.W

The Chinese Lodtac.r.r.. .,.... o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,244

Hour of the day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r . . . . . . . .245
D u r a t i o no f t i m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..?A6

APPEI{DIX II PUI{CTUATIOI{....................,..... ...,247


(sIMpLE STEPS TO FOLLOW) . . . . . . . . .249


FOLLO\,VINGEXPRESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . .253

INDEX II GRAMMAR ... ... .. o ... r.. ... o.. .....,,.264



According to their uses in sentences,Japaneservords are divided

into sevenlarge classes,which are again subdividedas shown below.
Some parts of speech are similar to their English counterparts
(e.g. common nouns such as tsu.kuefi[ "desk," or interjectionssuch
as a hb "uh"), some are used quite differently, and other parts
of speechdo not even exist in English. For example, Japanese
adjectivescan be conjugatedand are actually a special class of
verbs, and some groups of nouns,called copular nouns or adjectival
nouns, have no English equivalents. The characteristicsof each
part of speechin Japanesewill be explained later under separate
1. Verbs{Ihi,q<E,L)
Auxiliary Verbs WW|\(D * &') L)
Auxiliary verbs rvill be treated as verb suffixesin this book;
thus they are includedin the section of Verb-followingEx-
2. Adjectiveslft'#A4<hlr.,I ) L)
Non-conjugativeAdjectivesiCJ,f4r;,tl Qt,t/:L . L)
3. Particles IUt7,4(U r L)
4. Nouns ft,i,i|(a,)U'
Nouns &/,;4
Pronounst\&44(ff L')bL.,L)
Copular Nouns- Adjectival Nouns )Vf{frA,l<W! . I 5 nL .,L)
Becausethis sort of noun is always followed by the copula
(da lclesuJ,de, no, etc.), it is treated as an adjectival verb
MEWtX4([-]!'J , E , L) in traditional Japanesegrammar,
insteadof being categorizedas a specialclass of nouns.
5. Adverbs EIJ;4(J-< L)
6. ConjunctionsW,ff"cl4(t=t ( L)
7. Interjections A , L)
ffi6r44(rt,,\, fd&FJ(/j,,\,L 5 L)
If we examine the above Japaneseparts of speech, w€ notice
Parts of Speech

that trvo English parts of speech are missing, namely, articles and
prepositions. Articles, either definite or indefinite, do not exist in
Japanese. Prepositions are sometimes expressedby particles in
Japanese,but particles are always post-positionalrather than pre-
positional as in English. Moreover, Japaneseparticles have a much I$
broader usage than English prepositions, as explained in the sec-
tion "Particles" (pp. 93-140).





Becausethe Japanesesentence often omits the subject, the verb

assumesparamountimportance for the reader. This chapterdeals
with various aspectsof verbs, beginning lvith their conjugation.
In order to presentgrammatical points as simply as possible,horv-
ever, many of these points are included in the section "Verb-
following Expressions." These expressionsare alphabetically ar-
ranged under the six bases of verbs at the end of this chapter (pp.
39-83). For the benefit of those who are not familiar with Japanese
verb conjugations,an alphabetical index of verb-following expres-
sions is provided at the end of the book (pp. 253-63),separate
from the index of general grammatical points.
The expressionswhich follow the stems of adjectivesas rvell as
of copular nouns are also included in this chapter, since many of
these expressionsare very similar to verb-following expressions
(pp. 83-86). Some peculiaritiesof Japaneseverbs rvhich cannot be
briefly explainedin the section dealing with Verb-follorving Ex-
pressions(suchas directionalverbs, miscellaneousconditionalpat-
terns, etc.) are presentedunder separate headings immediatell'
after verb conjugations.


The dictionary f orm of all Japaneseverbs ends rvith u. This

f orm appearsas the third base of the verb conjugationon the
charts that are presentedon pp. 7-16.



L Vorvel-stemverbs
1. -I RU verb (Stem consisting of one or more syllables rvith
the final vorvel -I) _,b,-ffiifi,,ffi(r.4! ''f2ff Lfi'cl , )
e.g.miru (milru) nA "to see"
iru. (i/ru) ! .,6 "to be," etc.
2. -ERU verb (Stem consisting of one or more syllables with
Three Categoriesof JapaneseVerbs

the final vowel -E) T-#iFffi( L 6!.,bff A,h,cI , )

e.g. taberu (tabe/ru) 4,.16 "to eat"
deru (delru) H6 "to go out," etc.
Exceptions: The follorving verbs, though ending with -iru, or
-eru, belong to the consonant-stemverb group.
hairu. (hairlu) ^6 "to enter"
lcashiru(hashir/u) fr.b "to nln"
iru (ir/u) t.,(F) 6 "to need"
haeru (kaer/u) lfr6 "to return"
kagiru (kagir/u) pR6 "to limit"
kiru (kirlu) llJA "to cut"
shiru (shir/u) fuA "to know," etc.

lI. Consonant-stem
verbs fi,&ifrH(4ff Lfi'cf 5)
1 . Stem consistingof one or more syllablesplus a consonant
e.g. aru (ar/u) ha "to be," "to exist," "to have"
kahu (kaklu) ;li ( "to write"
yor?tt((yom/u) *=tlr "to read," etc.
I Stem consistingof one or more syllablesplus the consonant
-Il (This - trtrlis missingfrom the dictionaryform. Thus the
final u, is precededby another vorvel.)
e.g. itt (iw/ ) e't "to say"
ttarau (nararvz/) iI 5 "to learll"
3 . Stenr consistingof one or more syllaltlesplus the consonant
-'I (Dictionaryform of this group of verbs ends - fSU.)
e.g. ntcttsu,(nat/ t 1:i.> "to lvait"
tatsu (tat/ ) -::-c "to stand"
4 . Stem consistingof one or more syllablesplus the consonant
e.g. dasu,(das/u) tilf "to take out," "to mail"

II[. lrregular verbs

1. suruta "to do" *r'frxffii8111(+}
f * ) ^. Lh,( r.:J ,>
2. huru XA "to come"fr'frhffiifi,ffi(t5 r ) ^..Lh,( r.=I ,>
3. ,t(rsartrfs$ 6 "to do" (honorificform of verb suru)
kudasaru T3 6 "to give" (honorificform of verb hureru)
ossharu *; c L r 6 "to say" (honorific form of verb iu) 5

irassltoru L ',b c L t 6 "to be," "to go," "to come" (honorific



Six Basesof JapaneseVerbs

form of the verbs iru, ihu, kurtt) $if,FtJfitrl*ffi(SF4. < a

tiLrJ.? I , )
4. gozaru a"3 6 "to be" (polite form of the verb aru) T*flHtJ
Only the 2nd base is used in modern Japanesewith the
auxiliary masu.
e.g. Koko ni hon ga gozaimasl{. : a ?c6ri j E t. t f.
"There is a book here."
Koko ni hon ga gozaintasen : : l:.+ri - 5t . * ,C/,,.
"There is no book here."
I(oko ni hon ga gozoimoshita.: : lc.+rl:'3't . * L /:.
"There was a book here." etc.


On the follorvingpeges,the conjugationsof Japaneseverbs rvill

be given. The six verb bases in traditional Japanesegrammar
are slightly different f rom the ones presentedhere. Due to tire
changein the leanaztchai IF'X''U,(hcna usage)of verb endings, it
seemslogical to modify somewiratthe traditional conjugationin
order to facilitatethe student'slearning.
It is essentialfor studentsto be well acquainted rvith these six
bases,since nurneroussuffixesmay be attachedto them, creating
broad rangcsof nleaning.

FUI{CTIONSOIr EACII IIASII (The Japaneseterm, the arbitrary

English term, anclthe abitreviationare given rvith each base.)

1. First Basc XlNIt<Jx$ LLIU')-Negative Base(V,)

Negativellase is an arbitrary term, l;ecauseit refers to
only one of the functionsof this base. Horvever,it ma)' lte
helpful to use the term to keep the form in mind, because
it is fairly simple to rememberthe rtai-f.ormof most verbs.
2. SecondBasej{!Jt])it<tLl, I,W!.')-Continuative Base(V,)
This is one of the most used forms. It is the form used
in creating compoundverb forms. Verbal nouns are also
derived from it, e.g. ltongoe-4 L "thought" from hongaeru,
"to think," hoeri t.frD "the way back," from hoeru, "to re-
turn." The SecondBase also functions as a coordinating
conjunction, "and," e.g. OtOto ua uchi de hon o yomi,
Six Bases of JapaneseVerbs

uatakushi ua toshohande benkyd shimaslzita. ffiIJ.z<-C-,+;k

-fr.zxtLli.Egffi(.ffilrtL* "My younger brother read a
book at home, and I studied at the library."
rJ. Third Base {a. ft&hM(L ,o ) Lry ! '')-Conclusive Basel.-,Y .
ib. )gryf9<,lt/"/:L ''tdu',)-Attributive Basel\ 3/
The third base is the dictionary form of all verbs. The
classicalJapaneseverb conjugation divided Conclusiveand
Attributive into trvo separatebases. However, the Japanese
language has experienced fairly extensive grammatical
changes through the centuries, and the conclusive and at-
tributive stems of modern Japaneseno longer have separate
i'orms (Exception: copular da lConclusive],na [Attributive].
Seep. 15.)Studentsshould remember that the suffixesbelong
to the attributive verb f unctions. This rvill help to avoid
confusionrvhenstudentsare introduced to classicalgrammar
later. The attributive form of the verb is followed only by
4. Fourth Base(RfrM(r.(! .'hI!.,)-Conditional (Vo)
The only function of this base in modern colloquialspeech
is to take the ending -bn, which becomessimple conditional
or "when." (Iror conditional-bo,see pp.30, 81.)
5 . Fifth Rascftilt:(r>u .,*rL.,du .,)-Imperative Base (Vu)
As an imperativeform, this is used only in rough speech.
Therefore, the beginner should avoid it. Hor,vever,this
forln is used often enough in sentencesbefore the quotative
to, e.g. Senscini l;oic o shiro to iwarcmaslito. lc,l:rrc.:,fi_*r
Lb LEi2tLt L/:. "f was told to do this by the teacher."
6. sixth Basetelfiv<?r .'D r , ]rtr,,)-TentativeBase(vu)
In traditional Japanesegrammar, the tentative verb tvas
formed from the First Base. Horvever,with use of the new
kctnazukaisince 1946, it seems easier for students to re-
member this f orm if it is separated from the First Base
and defineCas a new base.

I. Vowel-stemverbs
F i

Conjugationsof JapaneseVerbs

1, -IRU verb, ntiru (milru) fr,b "to see"

.t."' base suffix* arbitrary term
formative for base
. -zu
1 . ml Negative

-masu Continuative
-yasui, -nikui, etc.

a.-(desho, daro) Conclusive

(Dictionary Form)
b. Noun Attributive

t. Conditional

t I m perative


2. IIRU verb, t abcru ( t b e/ru) f,X{ )6 " t o eat"

base sufiix* arbitrary term
for base
1T": i ve

Fi "*i *"t,

[i ,*;
-masu, etc. Continuative

Iti-l * a-GeshO d
(Dictionary Form)

t_l_t b. Noun Attributive

l- ig' I re

-ba Conditional



[a i I
Exceptions: Some verbs, though ending lvith -iru or -eru, belong to
the consonant-stem verb group. For some examples,see p. 4.
*For complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83.
8 Conjugationsof JapaneseVerbs

lI. Consonant-stem
1. kaku,(kak/u) g < ,,to write"

suffix* arbitrary term

for base
-nai, Negative

-masu Continuative
-tai, etc.

a.-(desh6, daro) Conclusive

(Dictionary Form)
b. Noun Attributive




2. itt (irv**; € , "to say"

stem base '"".. j arbitrary term

1. lw

| -nai,etc.
for base

I --l
2. |-
I I l - m a s ue, t c . C"",t***-
I %

3. I u d"rcD Conclusive
"-r,deshr, I (Dictionary liorm)
b. Noun
--_l -i r \ t t r i b u t i v e

I e C o n di t i o n a l i





I Imperative

I Tentative
*For complete suffix list, see pp.
**In modern ;
Japanese,the sound representedin transliteration bv
"w" disappearsbefore all vowels except "a."
l, .t

Conjugationsof JapaneseVerbs

3. matsu (mat/) '&c "to wait"

stem I base arbitrary term

formative for base

-nai, etc. Negative

-masu, etc. Continuative

a.-(desh6, dar6) Conclusive

(Dictionary Form)
b. Noun Attributive




4. dasu (das/u) Hf "to take out," "to mail"

stem suffix* arbitrary term

for base

1. I das -nai, etc. Negative

2. aosr' -masu, etc. Continuative

3. I das a.-(desho, daro) Conclusive
b. Noun Attributive

das Conclitional

das Imperative

das Tentative
*For completesuffix list, see pp. 39-83.
Note: The negativesuffix nai is the negativeof the verb a/u, but
nai is in an adjectivalform, and thus conjugateslike an ad-
jective (see pp. 88-89). There is no such word as aranai.
Regardingthe verb aru (consonant-stem verb) and iru (vowel-
stem verb):
Both aru and iru mean "to be" in the sense of "to exist,"
but aru is usedwith an inanimateobject for its subject,while
iru is used with an animate object for its subject.
e.g. Koko ni hon ga arimasu. E : t:# rtib A * t. "There
is a book here (A book exists here)."
10 Conjugationsof JapaneseVerbs

Koko ni hito ga innsu. t a l: ii!.* f. ,,Thereare

people here (People exist here)."
Aru is also used in the sense of "to haver" but distinguish
this aru from motsu "to have."
e.g. Ndto ga arimasuka. / - | nib v)*tflr, .,Do you have
notebooks(in your possessionor to sell)?"
N6to o motte imasu.ka. / - | tfrz(U.* ,,Do
you have a notebook (in your personal possession)?,'

III. frregular yerbs

1. suruta
arbitrary term
for base
i Negative
-seru, -su, etc.

I -masu Continuative
-nikui, -yasui, etc.

a.-(desh6, dard) Conclusive

(Dictionary Form)
b. Noun Attributive
-ba Conditional


*For complete suffix list, see pp. 3g-83.

The verb suru is perhapsthe most often used verb in the

Japaneselanguage.First, it is used as the verb meaning ,,to
do," or "to make** (something)into (something).,'e.g. Ima
shukudaio shite imasu.+EffitL(L't?. "r am doing my
** Distinguishthis "to make" from "to make" in the senseof
"to create.',
e.g. Kyonen kono yofuku o tsuhurimoshite. *+: @i+flR t ft g * L t. uI
madethis dresslast year."
Conjugations of Japanese Verbs 1i

homework now." Kono furui ki o (kitte) maki ni shimashd.

aDfrL'tt$r,ca.)#r]t=Lt ,,Let'smakefirewoodout
L r ,.
of this old tree (by cutting it)." It is also used as the verb
meaning"to cost." Iiono udedokeiua ichiman-enshimashito.
aaffiffi;flf-7tH L t L/;. "This rvatch cost y 10,000."It
is also used for the passingof time, e.g. Ato ni-nen sl,(,rlt,
uchi no kodomowa daigaku o sotsugydshimasu. bL=+i
6 LX.D T&ttt+ X4.#L * j'. "rn two years our child will
graduate from the university."
The verb suru is attachedto many nouns of foreign origin
(whetherChineseor Western),making them into verbs. For
example,ryokd ffift (travel)*suru means "to travel," and
dansu l' > z (dance)* suru means "to dance." Also sucruis
used in some special expressionsrvhich almost cannot be
translatedinto English. For example,Ano uchi wa ontoslziroi
batachio shite imasu *>o>f;0iEl' A\,IVX L(! '* f. means
"That house has an interesting shape," and Ano hito taa
aoi nte o shite imasu &;D/.Iti?t''El tL(L',*f. means
"That personhas blue eyes." Kuchi ni su'ru n ttct b means
"to speak (of)," or sometimes"to eat," and Ano hito tuo
senseio shite imasu. *>D Xtty.r/gi/kt L( L.,* f. means ,,He
is a teacher (He servesas a teacher)." (for more usagesot
the verb suru.,see pp.20-21)
2, huru ,xb ,,to come"
arbitrary term
formative for base

r Ik o -nai Negative

I -rareru

I -saseru,-sasu,etc.

2l* I -masu Continuative

II -nikui, -yasui,etc.

tlt ru a.-(desh6, dar6) Conclusive

(Dictionary F-orm)

I b. Noun Attributive

{i; re -ba Conditional


rFor complete suffix list, see pp. 39-83.
t2 Conjugations of JapaneseVerbs
The character * should be read ho, hi, hu, accordingto
e.g. tfrt,., (&onai),**
the varied forms of its conjugation,
f (imasu), *A (huru),Xhll (krreba),*!., (koi), X I ,
Noie : The verbs iku and kuru are sometimes used in a different way
from the English verbs "go" and "come." When one uses ikzr,
the direction of the action is always away from the location
of the speaker, while with kuru the direction of the action is
always towards the speaker. Therefore, while in English one
can ask, "May I come to your house tomorrow?", in Japanese
one has to say, Ashita otaku ni itte mo ii desu ka, and never


Ashita otaku ni kite mo ii desu Aa, unless one is at the listener's
house, and asks, "May I come here again tomorrow ?" Ashita
mo kie n desu ka. (See also p.55 for Yu ileu, pp.56-57 f.or


Y j" kuru)
3 . nasaru tf 3 6 (honorific form of.suru)
stem base suffix* arbitrary term

formative F
for base il

nasar -nai, zu, etc. Negative i

nasa*x -masu Continuative
nasar -tai
-yasui,nikui, etc.

a.-(desh6, daro) Conclusive

(Dictionary Form)
b. Noun Attributive



.l::: :ffiff:'J.:ffll:,:':,'T;i'il1imper form
ative !
4. gozaru i56
In modern Japanese,
(polite form of aru)
only tJrefollowing forms are used: I
g o z a i m a s ui 5 t ' t f ; o z a i m a s h i t ja3 1 . , * L t : ; g o z a i m a s e n
beftlre .ntasu,.)
g o z a i m a s h dC E L , t L r r . U is dropped T

Conjugation of Suffix ntaszt. l3


Masu is attached to the second base of all verbs and makes the
tone of speech polite. Aside from changing the tone, it has no

stem base suffix arbitrary term

formative for base

1. mas e -n Negative

2. mash I -t€, -ta Continuative

3. mas u a.-(deshd) Conclusive

(Dictionary Form)
b. Noun Attributive

4. mas ure -ba Conditional

5. mas e Imperative
mash i

6. mash o Tentative

Note : Te-f.orm (masltite) and Imperative (mase, mashi) are used only
in a very polite level of speech. Attributive (maar before
noun) and Conditional (masureba)are seldom used in modern
Japanese. The forms masen (negative present), nnshita (per-
fective), masl(.(present), mash| (tentative), ntascn deshita (nega-
tive perfective) are very common.

COPULAS, DA ff AND DI|SU -C'f (Be-verb)

Copula da (informal form) and desu (polite form) may both be
used as follows:
1. As a predicate verb, they show that the subject (A) equals
the complement (B). A complement may be a noun or some
other part of speech.
e.g. Watahushi wa gakt{sei destt. fLl*,'ltl:b,-c'-j*.
"I am a student." (A:B)
Watakushi no jugyo wa ni-ji ntode desu. tLo>fIXtt
..F,?* "My classesare until two o'clock."
L4 Copulas, da and desu

2. As a predicate,da (dexr,)is sometimesusedas a substitutefor

other predicateverbs.
e.g. Boku rva kar6raisuda (ni suru) kedo, kimi wa nan' ni
suru? ffilr fi v - 7 4 zti\ AtrLt{EIt t 6.
"I'll choose(decideon) curry and rice; how aboutyou?
Boku wa sushi da. Htf j'L ff. "I'11choosesushi."
Note: This da is used when the meaning is clear frim the context
as shown above. It often expressesone selection out of many
Watakushitachi no kurasu wa Amerika-jin ga go-nin
de (ite) Furansu-jin ga san-nin desu (imasu). f/.i*a;
, 7 7It7 .t t) fi LniE, t z 7 y 7 Lr:=Atf.
"In our class five are Americans and three are French
(There are five American and three French people).
3. After a placenoun, da and desumean "is locatedat (in)" and
are used in the same way as ni arimasu, or ni imasu.
e.g. Watakushino uchi wa Tohyodesu. tLo>Xttfrfltf.
: Watakushi no uchi lva Tokyo ni arimasu. "My
houseis in Tokyo."
Gakuseiwa hyOshitsu. desu.#&,lt +tf"t:'t i Gakusei
wa hy0slt.itstt.
ni imasu.. "The students are in the
4. After o-Yr, they form the honorific expression.
e.g. Ano kata wa okosanga takusanoari desu. bq:tjttth.
f e ^,ninilf"'e> 0 Tf. :oari ni narirnasu,. "He
has lots of children."
BUT: After predicateadjectives,desu changesthe encling to
the polite level. It shouldbe rememberedthat this desu,
doesnot have a verbal function,sinceJapanese predicate
adjectivesare not only adjectivesbut alsoverbs. Because
predicateadjectivesare the informal verb ending form,
da is redundant,as shown in the following example.
e.g. Kono uchi wa dki; (informalending). a o)Xltt 3 !..
"This houseis large."
Kono uchi wa okii desu(polite ending). : D\<ltx$ u.
ff. "This house is large."
Kono uchi wa dkir da. (Da is redundant and cannot
be used after adjectives.)



P" F'




I F.


Conjugationof Copula,da ls

5. dard (desho)after V, of V1a shorvs probability.

I *{

e.g. Kare wa mO sugu Amerika e iku dard, 'r&ltt
, f
(H) ( z ,x r) )t t/ft ( f: b , . "He will probably go

I ti


to America soon."
dar, (deshD after Vs or Vla also indicates a lieht question,
t, when the statement ends with a rising tone.

e . g . A s h i t a i r a s s h a r ud e s h i ' E E F L .b - : L + 6 - C L r , .
lr "Y ou are going tomorrow, aren't you?"




Conjugations of both da and desu are highly irregular.
1. da ff

stem I base suffix arbitrary term
rj, formative for base

de Continuative
t dat

(Dictionary Form)



-' Tentative

4 da- de zru
present perfective tentative

.l positive d a : d e a r u datta: de atta dar6: de ard

i' negative de wa* nai I de rva* nakatta de rvax nai dard
I 1
*A more colloquial form of, de wa f li is ja De


-' f

I =4


16 Conjugation of Copula, desu

2. desu, tf
stem base suffix arbitrary term
formative for base

desh Continuative

des Conclusive
(Dictionary Form)
(na) Attributive

( n a r at Conditional

desh Tentative
*Te-form (deshite) is not commonly used. De often takes its

desu: de orirnasu

present perfective tentative

positive d e s u: deshita: desho:

de arimasu de arimashita de arimasho

negative de wa* arimasen de lva* arimasen de wax arimasen

deshita desho
de wa* nai desu de wa nai deshita de wa nai desho
*A rnore colloquial fornr of. tla u'a is ju.
Differencesin usage:da used in informal prose; informal men's
de aru impersonal; used in formal lvriting such
as newspaper and scholarly articles
desu polite conversational
de urintasu used in such occasions as tormal lectures
and speeches


In classical Japanesetctri-form (modern day ta-f orm) and te-f.orm
lvere f ormed by adding tari and te directly to the second base
ending of all verbs. This is still true with vowel-stem verbs (for
use of ta-f.orm and te-f.orm,see pp. 51-59).

I Formation of ta-f.orm and te-f.orm 1i

I. Yowel-stemverbs-simply add ta or te to the stem,

t secondbase.
to the

third base ta-f.orm te-form

I (dic. form)

iru L .6 i simply add ta or te ita L'/: ite L'{

miru nb mi mita Et: mite tJ.{
deru H 6 de deta ,H/: dete ll (
taberu tabe tabeta tabete
A<a A< /: A{(

II. Consonant-stem verbs-This group of verbs went through

various changes through the years. The f onnation of the
modern tc-f.orm can be divided into four categories as sl:or,vn
belorv, and the one exception (the verb iku) that follorvs.

third base final stem ta-f.orm le-f orn':

(dic. consonant
form) change

yomu yom rr changes to ,Li yoncla 1'onde

;ii (t') add do or da


irv *
D c h a n g e st o z :
add r/a or dc
,t remains:
add r{o or clc

1,,., yonde

iu ;i())

matsu mat
ru changes t o t :
a d d t a or tc
I remains:


\2 r-/ \-2 L/

i:io) add la or tc
wakaru waknr r changes t o / : wakatta rvakatte
't (6) adci tu or te

kaku kal< A changes to t : haita 1u. /: ) kaite (r.'()

lr}(() add ta or te
isogu isog g changes to i : isoida (t''/j) isoide (r't)i
t.( () add da or de

dasu das add ta or te dashita ( L / : ) dashite ( L ()

tit(t ) to the 2nd base

Note: Generally,if the final consonantis voiced, the t-sound of to and te

is changed to a d-sound,da and de.
tExceptions: Some classicalverbs ending with u , which are still in
occasionaluse (e.g. tou f'1 , ) becomestouta F"lI t:. :
1B Tenses of Japanese Verbs

III. Exception

iku & changes to /: itta '{j

itte 'fr -, t
- f:
add ta or te

IY. Irregular Yerbs

i. kuru XA I aid ta or te to the 2nd base I t,itu *f;

() -f
IJ. suru 6 | aCdta or te to the 2nd base I shita L /: I shite L(


Japanese verb forms have tlvo main tenses, the present and the
perf ective (which denotes completion of action and often equals
the past tense in English). There is no future tense form, and the
present tense form servesthat f unction. F or example,such English
expressionsas "I eat," "I shall eat," "I will eat," and "I am going
to eat," can all be expressed in Japaneseby lVatahushi wa talte-
ntosu.. trdltft-.i * f. though in actuality such expressions as
Tabeyd to otrtottc irrtosu. f,X^iIi&,U.c{.t.'*f.
otrtointasu,. ff < 7; .
L,'J.L *
or Taberu to
are more likely to be used. The
Japrnese present tense also expresseshabitual action: .Ii undd shita
ato dr: u)e itsunto yoliu tobemasu. !',!..[EO;l-f:ikTt*.!'p
( t'r^i*f. "After exercising well, we ahvays eat a lot."
({'1tt6;{ I t
Onc has to keep in rnind, however, that the present tense of the
Japeneseverb often implies an instantaneous acticn of the presnt
rather than a prolonged action. F or example, rvhile in English we
can use a simple present tense and say, "f live in Tokyo norv," in
Japaneseone has to use Y,, iru form and s?y, lVatakushi LUaima
Tolryo ni sttnrlc imosu. t?t-+lil;ilc.,H L-CL':I*f. as long as some
duration is involved in the action of the verb. The form Y,, iru
(ita) is mainly used for the tense equivalent to the English (1)
present (past) progressive (for an action occurring at the moment),
and (2) present (past) perfect (for an action that began in the past
and continues into the present). There are several other verbs
besides suntu rvhich are usually used in the V,. iru. form.
e.g. motstt,"to have" Okane o motte imasu ka. *"'#tfr z(!'
t fr.. "Do you have money?"
Specificity of Japanese Verbs r9

tt:, ntotte imasert t.'L.,Af+ c-CL' * -il/v.

'No, I don't." ,
See p. 10 f or more about
I shiru "to knolv" Watalcushi wa ano hito o shitte intastt. tL
$i ItbD/-2.ffi,2T.L'*f. "I knorv him (I

$i came to knorv him, and I still know him)."


k but in negative: Watakushi wa shirimasen. tLtifu 0 *iBL.

$ probabliry
is .*or.r."util":.:i]!"'o*.u (desho)after
the ciic-
$,' tionary form CVr)for the present and the future tenses, and after
s the perfective form (Vro) for the past.
F i:
e.g. present: Yamamoto-san wa ima Tokyo ni sunde iru clesho.
t; rlr+3A,tt+HHtcIEA,tL'6t L r, .
"Mr. Yamamotoprobablylives in Tokyo now."
iii future: wa ntd sugu Nihon ni tatsu desho.
J z 2 ) >3,ttr6, t(tri.)("E#l:rf (it)c-C'Lr i .

"l\11r.Johnson will probably leave for Japan very

past: Suzuki-san wa md Nihon e kaetta desh0. ffi^<8 ,t
tr{)Fl*rl'fr't:tL* 5.
"Mr. Suzuki has probably gone back to Japan al-

Note : As shown in the above examples, the form daro Qlesho)is usually
used for the probability of the action of the third person. F'or a
sentence rvhosc subject is first person, such as "I'll probably
go ton:crrorv," one rvill most lil<ely say in Japanese, ilshito tou
tabun i!;u to*tt'fr -i-. or sirnply Asltitu
< e,U.L. *
ua taburt iliimasu,UAgft|fttl3 * f . rvitirout dar| (desho) at the



The Japanese verb is sometimesmore specificin describing the

action it representsthan is the English verb. That is, in Japanese
one may haveto use severaldifferentverbsfor a certain actionfor
which only one verb can be usedin English. One good exampleis
the Englishverb "to wear." In Englishwe can say, "I wear a dress,"
"I wear a hat," "I wear a pair of shoes," and so forth. But in
Japanese on€ has to changethe verb, dependineon which part of
20 Specificity of JapaneseVerbs

the body the clothing lvill be put on.

I wear a dress. Y6fuku o hirnosu. i+fiRtffi* f.
(put on the body)
I rvear a hat. Bdshi o haburimasu. ffi+tfi,-li(tfi 0 *.
f. (put on the head)
I r,vear a pair of shoes. Kutsu o hakimasu. *{t?t*, (ffi) 5 t f.
(put on footwear)
I rvear gloves. Tebukuro o hamemasu(shimasu).+*t
l*.a)g f. (hanteru,also means to insert)
I wear a ring. Yubiwa o harnernasu(shimosr).
I rvear a tie. Nekutai o slzimenxasu (shimasu). i U
4 fgkfib>t j-. (shimeru means to tie)
I lvear glasses. Megane o haleemasu.[E{$r[ trJ"VJt f.
(kakert,means to hang)
I rvear a sharvl. Shdru o kaken'tosu.! a - )vtfi.l.l*f.
I wear a scarf. S u k a f uo m a l e i t n a s t (7. / 1 - 7 t * . 8 t f .
Qnahumeans to wrap around)
I rvear a badge. B a t j i o t s u h e n t a s u ./ \ v t t c W t f .
(tsukerztalso meansto attach)
I rvear a rvrist watch. Udedokeio sltimasu. tstr.?;t? Ltf.
Another .qooCexample is the English verb "to play," which has
more than half a dozen counterpartsin Japanese.
Children play in the I(odomo tva niwa de asobimasu. ?{Alt
yard. Irc-ctiiut f.
I play the piano. Piano o lrihiruasu. t z .r X jiiiS*f.
(use the verb hihu. for the musical in-
strument lvhich requires mainly the
manipulationof fingers)
I play the drum. Taiko o tatohintasu. tfitt:fu3 *f.
(use the verb tataku "beat" for the mu-
I play the flute. Fue o lukimasu. ffiXry.* t 9-.
(use the verb Ju,ku for the musical in-
strument which requiresblowing)
We play cards. Torampuo shinzasu. F, > JX L*f.
I play a record. Rekddoo hakernasu. Vr- l-:2'r.d*f.
I play the role of Hamuretto no yaku o ertjimaw. ,, A v
Hamlet. ") FDIPA|HU*f.
Tadcshi-Iidashi 21

They are playing Ano gekijo de Hamuretto o joen shite

Hantletat the theatre. inzastt. hDIXtJtEt,. L v .y l- *r -tifr L 'C
t .,* f.
We playx tennis. Tenisu o sltimastir. 7 =zt L*f.
*This verb is applicable to mcst other sports as well.
Note : The verb osobu.means primarily "to a-museoneself." e.g. Kodo-
motachi ga ya,byuo shiteasondeimasu. +uf$ri$li* t U<fijAt!.
-J-. "Children are enjoying themselves,playing baseball." Toran-
. Ptt o shite asonde intosu. | 7 v /tt l-<trijL-CL'* f . "They are
enjoying a card game."


As the Chinesecharactersshorv,taddshi literally means "other-
moving word," while j id0shi means "self-moving word." They
roughly correspondto English transitive and intransitive verbs.
Many Japaneseverbs exist in taddshi and jidoshi pairs rvhich have
the sa,meverbal base,but have different endings (cf. English verbs,
"lay" and "lie"). Special attention should lte paid to the use of
these verbs. Comparethe following three sentences:
1. Mado ga aitc imastt. firijb (ljij)L '{ t . g f. "The windou' is
open." (No agent is involved.) Jicloshi-tcfollorvedby the
auxiliaryvcrb iru is used in descriptivesentences.
I oite is a te-f.orntof ahtt (jidoshi, meaning "to be open")

t Jicloshrr gil loturtttcitttrtstt. t I'ltlrfili & * -tA.t.,* f.

car is parlied."
IIito g,aatsurnattcirte:;tt. Ailili* cT.t.,*f.

ri "
Machigaiga noottcintostt.fltljst',rlL{L cA.t', t f. "Mistakes
-: are corrected."

2. Madoga ahctcorimasu.Ehib (liil)fJ<*>D t-c-.. "The rvindorv
is open." (The rvinclorvh'.rsbeen openeclby someone,and is
f;* i still open.)
follorvedby the auxiliary verb oru is
used in descriptivesentences.
aheteis a te-f.ormof alieru (taCOshi,meaning "to open")
- i

: More examples:

f' Jidoshaga tomete arimasu. HryJ$ri&b<bDtf.

I car is parked."

r; i:
- t

I ]
- l
22 Tadoshi-l id0shi

Hon ga atstutzetearincasu. #fi\X1b5<h 0 t f. "The books

are gathered."
i\{achigai ga rtaoshitearirnaszt. ilfj,€U.'iiffiL<bD * f.
"Mistakes are corrected."
The differencebetrveenthe above two constructions is that in
(1) no agent is implied, but in (2) the action has been done by
soineoneand the state resulting from the action still continues.
Often the translation of the two sentences, Mado ga oite imasu,
and Mado ga aketc arintasu, comes out the same in English. "The
window is open."
3. Mado o aheteirnasu. '&Xe> GilfJ<1 . * f. "He is opening
the rvindol." Y,, (both jidoslti and todoshi)*iru is used as
the progressiveform.
More examples:
\Yatakushi\r:a machigai o naoshiteintAsu. flltfiflSU,,tH
L.Ct''tf. (tadoshi+iru) "I am correctingthe mistakes."
Watakushi wa hoslitte imasu. fAtt tr c T.L. t f.
ti iddshi+ iru) "I am running."
Horvever,Y to+iru has a different use with some motion
verbs (ihu, kurtt, haeru, etc.)
Tanaka-sanga hitc imasu. [I'f' 3 &ri*:C L'* f.
(motion verb*iru) "Mr. Tanaka is here. (Mr. Tanaka
came and is still here.)" t

Tanaka-sanga kite intoshita. m4' S rtrift(1. * L/c.
"lt'Ir. Tanaka was here."
Gakko ni itte inzasu. '+tt\.:fr cT.!'* f.
(motion verb*iru) "He is at school. (He rvent to school


and is still there.)" *

Uchi e kactteimasu^ (motion verb*iru) ff,./',il c\t.,tf. $

Ir t
(motion verb*iru) "He is home. (He came home and F.

is still home.)"



Tarloshi Jidoshi
ageruL.G#,+)W 6 "to raise"
akeru b(W1,F,nry6"to open"
agaruLGk, #) ri 6 "to rise"
aku f', (fifl,Fn)< "to be open"

Tadoshi Iidoshi ?3

Tadoshi Jidoshi
amasu *f "to save, to leave amaru* 6 "to remain,to be left
over" over"
ateru g(6 "to hit" ataru 5 /:6 "to be hit"
atsumeru *b> 6 "to gather" atsumaru f€t b "to be gathered"
azukeru ffid b "to entrust to azukaru mrtr} "to take charge
somgone" of"
dasu Hf "to put out, to serve, deru H 6 "to comeout, to appear"
to take out"
fuku 4< "to breathe" fuku FA< "to blow" (sameas ta-
fuyasu nftf "to increase" fueru ffii_6 "to be increased"
hajimeru ffib56 "to begin" hajimaru*h*.4 "to begin"
horobosuSiiff "to defeat" horobiru ifrtN6 "to perish, to be
& ruined"
fi: ireru x*Lb "to put in, to insert" hairu xA "to enter, to be put
l; in"
i. kaesu :E (lti) f "to give back, to kaeru tr (iiil)zr "to return"
F return"
?: kudaku fF < "to break" kudakeruHfW6 "to be crushed"
machigaerutllliftk-7a "to err" machigaufiilit , "to be in error"
magenr tlit'f 7a "to ltend" magaru tllriib "to be bent"
masu ff/f "to increase" masu tiY/f "to increase" (same
as tad6shi)
mazeruijir"fz; "to mix" mazaruili.Y6 "to be mixed"
rnitsul<cruj,l ? ({.J')
6- 7; "to looli mitsul<aru\Lc ({.J') rt'7c "to be
for, to find" found"
moyasuflii-':j- "to burn" moeru 'plS*-b "to be burnt"
mukeru [i';jf 6 " to turn tolards" muku frl ( "to turn one'shead"
nagasutilf "to let flow" nagarerufr,tLb "to flow"
naosudtf "to correct" naoru ffi-A "to be mended"
natsukeruftc (lrt)Vt6 "to make natsuku k2('tt{) < "to become
someoneattached attachedto"
to oneself"
nokosu yL.i "to leave" nokoru T*,7a"to be left"
okosu f!: f "to raise" okiru €*a "to get up"
otosu 'ftt "to drop" ochiru Wbb "to fall"
oeru /* *^a "to finish" owaru **a "to end"
sageruT lj'6 "to lower,to hang" sagaruTri 6 "to go down, to be
24 Tadoshi-l idasli

Tacloshi tidoslzi
(f*fi)b>6 "to close,"
shimeru Fi-l shimaruffi (f;ffi)
f 6 "to beclosed,"
"to tighten up" "to be tightened up"
shizumeru Ft}($A)b>4 "to calm" shizumaru t'#Gf\)t 6 "to calm
shizumerutrt,&5 6 "to sink" shizumu itt-r "to sink"
sodateruH<a "to bring up" sodatsuHc "to grow up"
sugosu E C=f "to pass" sugiru ,& 5 6 "to pass by"
susumeru i9b>6 "to advance" susumu E"t-r "to advance"
tateru li (€)<6 "to erect, to tatsu li (€) : "to stand, to be
build" built"
tomeru &(g) b54- "to stop" tomaru Jt (tr) t A "to stop"
tsukeru ?(ff')Wa "to attach, tsuku ? ({i') < "to stick to, to be
to light" Iit"
tsumeru ifb>6 "to stuff" tsumaru €t*.6 "to be stuffed"
tsunageru ctrVJ 6 "to connect" tsunagaru ">ftrl\b "to be con-
(tsunagu) nected"
tsutaeru IAk-b "to convey" tsutarvaru {ib 6 "to be trans-
ukaberu l-Y-rJ.d6 "to float" ukabu iY-r.$ "to float"
umerLrl\!-bb "to bury" umaru jlll* z; "to be lturied"
watasu ilfrjf "to pass over, to ryataru ik7">"to go over, to cross
hand over" over"
yaku ,lJ[< "to bake, to roast" yalreru 'IJ1O
zo "to be baked" F:


There are six verbs (three pairs) f or "giving" and "receiving." it
Thc correct usage of these depends on the interrelationships h
(superior t?teueH -f-inferior meslrita tJT relationship according I

to Japanesetradition) betlveenthe first, the second,and the third I

Specialattentionshould be given to the third personrvhenone's
immediatefamily is involved. That is, one should ahvaysconsider
all immediatefamily members (not only one's own children and
younger siblings,but also older siblings, spouse,and even parents)
inferior to the person to whom one is speakingif that person is
not a family member.
Examplesof each instancewill be given below:
Directional Verbs 25

f. .lkureru
{ 1fua
\'::__ I
,, .,_ ? ?, \ f " t o gu
lkudasaruTB 6 (honorificform of kureru))
Su.bject(Giuer) Verb Inclirect object (Reci|ient)
you give(s) me (us)
I lro
he(thev)f { ,o the one rvho is close to me
Neaer I (we) [to you who are close to me
1. When the giver is inferior to the recipient,use kureru.
Ot,otoga uatahushi ni kuremoshita. ffirt\fLlc < h* L/:.
''My younger brother gave it to me."
2, When the giver is superiorto the recipient,usekudasaru.
Sertseiga uatakuslti ni kudosaimasltita. ft'.k-fi\tLl.Tg
!.,* L/:. "The teachergave it to me."
Senseiga ruatahushin0 otdto ni kudasaintashita. ft+.
nif/.DffilaT8 U.'* L/:. "The teachergave it to my
Se.rseiga anata ni ktedasairnashita ka. Sbtk-h\*>fr/:l:
T* !'* L/:i.. "Did the teachergive it to you?"
Senseiga tuatakushino haha ni,*.
,ifl o tll:T 3 L ',* L /c. "The teachergave it to my
3 . lVhen the giver is a direct family member, and one is
speakint to a non-family person, use liureru.
Chichi ga uataleuslti ni hurernashitn. Xh\TLl: < *t* L
/:. "My father gave it to me."
W h e n t h e g i v e r i s a d i r e c t f a m i l y m e n t b e r ,b u t o n e i s
speaking to another member of the family, e.g. to one's
sisters or brothers, one may say :
O tO-san ga uataltushi ni hutlusaimashita. *"'|3 ,t rt\tL
lcTE L,'* L/:. "Father gave it to me "
II. [)'aru f zc I "to give"
laseru LVt b (honorificof yardl
Subiect (Giuer) Verb Indirect object (ReciI ient)
I (rve) I
fto you
you I give(s)
t,o him (them)
he (thev)J
1, yant.
The verb yan( should be used with discretion, since this
26 Directional Verbs

directional verb indicatesthat the recipient is decisivelyin-

ferior to the giver ; that is, the recipient is one's own child,
younger sibling, p€t, or even a plant.
Watakushiwa ot1to ni okashi o yarimashita. ffft#lc*"'H
+X+, * L/:. "f gave a cake to my younger brother."
Chichi wa gohan o yarintasltita. ,a[*,tl: a'fi ,L?+
0 * Lf:. "Father fed the dog."
Haho rva hona ni mizu o yarimashita. fi}ltTe?czjt"t D t
L/c. "Mother gave water to the flower."
2, ageru
In other casesof giving except the above,a,gerushouldbe
Anato wa settseini ringo o ogemoshitaka. btrl:lt'ft4,ll
t) > j(t-ffA)*t-LW t Lfui.. "Did :/ott give an apple to
the teacher?"
Watahushiwa ltaha ni hon o ogemasltita. ff l*,Fllc4X^h.
ft* L/:. "f gave a book to my mother."
Sensei tva galttsei ni enpitsu o ogemoshita. 5h*-]rt+r/rb,lc4)
#trtL't * L/c. "The teacher gave the student a pencil."
Gnlttrceirva senscini hon o agcmashita.rrrt]5.1t|rirj,,,1a:4.tL
d'* L/:. "The studentgave the teachera book."
III. n,:rjil[ "to
of,,0,o,,)l receive"
I"liil,,'1",,, ri)< (honorinc
Su,ltjcct(Racipicttt) Vcrb from wltont (Giuer)
I (rve)
I ...:--^,^\ ffrom'kyolr
i,l,',,n.r,J tfro'r,ni- (them)
x this front is expresseC
by the Japane;l particlesni or hara

1. When the recipient is superior to the giver, use ,norau.

lVatakuslti wa liore o imoto ni (kara) ntoraimashita.
&tr : ,it ttft&la { b L ',* L /:. "I received this from my
younger sister."
aJ.\Ylren the recipient is inferior to the giver, use itodahu.
Gakttsciwa kore o sense i ni (kara)itadaltimashita.+Lk
It : tLtfGlELcL'/:ff * t Lfu. "The student received
it from the teacher."
3. If the giver is a member of the recipient'simmediate
f t---
I DirectionalVerbs as Auxiliaries 27

family, the recipient uses wtzrau when reciting the story

I to a non-family member.
Watakushi wa kore o haha ni (kara) mzrai?nashita.

b L ' t L f t , . " I r e c e i v e dt h i s f r o m m y

lVhen the giver is the recipient's immediate f amily

t member, but the recipient is reciting the story of receiv-
ing to his olvn family member, the recipient may say:

T Watahushi rva kore o oha-san ni (kara) itaclakimoshita.

ff lr r. tx ?*d ff 8 ,L lct ',/cff 3 t L /c. "I received this
from Mother."

T$H Each of the above directional verbs may occur as auxiliaries

f ollorving the Verb te-f.orm. The direction of the action is the

t f

same as in the caseof the independent
I. Yrc lhureru <tLa

lkudasaruT3 6
(Implication-Someone is kind enough to do something

t for someoneelse)
fIaha ga zuotohushini kono hon o hatte leurentashito. Fl
, i T l r : : D 4 : t t T t c - c< i L * L / c . "M;t mother bought
this bool<for me. (MV mother was liind enough to
buy this booli for me.)"
Scnsciga ruataltushino otdto ni hon o yondc huclasoi-
musltitn. )'a,*rt',tLD'|ri:;['k ,t'il" -C-F$ U.':j: L /c. " iVIy
teacher read the book to my younger ltrother. (h{y
teacher was l<ind enough to read the book for my
II. Y,, [yaru f 6
la.gerrt -Ltdb
(Impiication-Someone is doing somebodyelse a favor.)
I. l
Watakushiwa intdto ni lton o yontle larimasltito. f/.lt
tfrt:'4.t"ffiL"Ct 0 *. Ltc. "I read a book to my younger
sister. (I did a favor for my sister by readinga book.)"
I Senseiga Yontamoto-kurt, o tetsu.dattcagetnashita. it*.rt\
tJt;F.&tt+l7.T,kW * Lfu. "The teacher helped Mr.
Yamamoto. (The teacherdid a favor for Mr. Yamamoto
r; by helpinghim.)"

l' t

28 CausativeVerb te-f.ormplus a Directional Auxiliary Verb

I I i . Y ' , f m o r a ut b ( H ) 5
[itactakuL.,i:fi (4t, ]E) <
(Implication-someone is the recipientof someone
kindness. Usually someone asks tor someone else,s
favor before he receives it.)
Imdta ni yofuku o tsukutte n?oraintashita. f*lcp;e
( t b L ,'t L fu. "f lvas fortunate that my younger
sister made a dress for me."
Watakttshi ?t'o otdto wa sensei ni hon o yoncle itaclaki-
ruashita.tLD#1t fr,*U:+ 2ffiLt[ ,foff 5 t L /:.
"My younger brother was fortunate that the teacher
read a book to him."


The directionof the action is the same as in the caseof the in-
This patterrtmeans,"to do someonethe favor of letting him do
something,"or "to permit someoneto do something,'
Vori'el-stemVr yaru morau I
{sasete*I Jkureru
LsashiteJ l.kudasaru ageru itaclakuI
Consonant-stem Vr yaru morau l
{sete'FI Jkureru
lshite J tt<udasaru ageru itadakuI
surtt yaru morau
{sasete't'I Jkureru I
lsashiteJ tkudasaru ageru itadaku)
liurtt .|
fkosasete't l'kureru yaru morau
lkosashiteI tku,l"rrru ageru itadaku)
4 Sasctc and sele forms are more refined
than the sashitc an,Jshitcforms
e.g. Imoto igajitensha ni norasetehuremashita.{,f.tlEtry;iiilc
Irb+l( < *r * L /c. "My youngersisterret me ride her F

Senseiga lvatakushi ni benkyd o tsuzukesasete
{rrcTs L,t L /c.,,Mv
teacherpermittedme to continuemy studies.,,
Im6to ni b6ru o ?ra,qesosete
yarimashita. f*lc.rti_ tu*tg $

Verbs of Directional Restrictioiis 29

if 8t{t 0 * L/:. "f let my youngersister throw my

Tanaka-san ni watakushi no okashi o tabesaseteage-
masltita. Bl+ * LU:fi7^O*"'H+AA-.3 t(-LLt t L/c.
"f let 1\{r. Tanaha eat my cake."
Chichi ni oyogasete rnoraintaslrita.'/,?crkri€( { bU.,t L
l:. "I was permitted, by my father, to swim."
Senseini kosasete itadakimashita. tt&.l:.)RS €( L./c/j F
* L/c. "f tvas permitted, by my teacher,to come."


Besidesthe three pairs of directional verbs just discussed,there

are severalJapaneseverbs rvhich also have certain restrictionsof
direction in their usage. For example,when the following verbs
are used,care has to be taken as to lvhom the rvordsare directed.
-l{'X.rt\6 "to pet,"
karuaigaru "to treat rvith love," directedto
meshita from nteue (see p. 24). e.g. Ano sensei wa hontd ni
yoku ukemochino kodomotachio hauaigarimosu. *>DtE};1t
,4::!ii:.i < '.|f.! t;D+'U\f:'b (iE) 't ,tl"X.TJi, * -t-. "'fhat teacher
-'-, realll' trelts the children in her room nicely."
- -rii- "to
sltitou adore," clirected to Tncucfrom ntcsltitn. e.g.
- _ Dakara koclomot:rchi mo kanojo o taihen slritattc intrisu. /:r.
I .-
bf- f i,l: {.,A:iktt)f[#
adoreher, too."
* f. "Therefore, the children

tattobuit-'ii- totobu "to revcre," directed to flteuef rom mcsltita.

L -

F, e..9.Ano r6jin wa kono machi de hijO ni tattobaretcintastt. *,

rj - i,:
At,^t:: DtnI-C)f,
respectedin this town."
iifl:* *t( L. * J'. "'f hat old man is highly

ulemau tt ) "to respect,"directed to tneue from mcshita. e.[I.

,lI- 4l
Warervare\\:a oya o u:/alnawanoherebanaranai. {ka LitljlttdTL

*>tS.l:-itlt'tfb f"C\. .'. "We must respectour parents."

The folloivingfour conditionalforms are often usedinterchange-
but the -tara conditionalhas
- ably, as inCicatedin the parentheses,

the le:st restrictionin its usage.


, t _ t


30 Conditionals

I. V3 to type conditional
(In most cases the resultant part is an objective state-
ment.) The verb before to is always in the dictionary
form, and its tense always follolvs that of the principal
1. "when"
a. habitual occurrence
Natsu ga yoku yama ni ikimashita.
EriXA LI < r!t:ft39 L/:. (not inter-
changeablewith -ba, -tara, or nara) "When
summer came, we often went to the
b. specificoccurrence
Macloo alzeruto (- aketara)yuki ga futte ima-
shita. "8.X*>ffiiltlt6 LEfi\WcT! .'* L/c.
(not interchangeable with -baor naro) "When
I openeclthe rvindow,it was snowing."
Note: The clausefollorvingVs lo conditional is often
Kore o nal:usrc to (:nakushitara) taihen desu. :*t,
2tt < f Lx'A'C-f-, (not interchangeablewith -ba
or rtara) "lf I lose this, I'll be in trouble."
II. -ltcttype conditional
(ln most cases tire resultant part involves one's lvill or
d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,o r i s a n i n e v i t a b l e occurrencc to the con-
ditional part.)
"if "
Anata ga iheba(:ihu nara) watakushimo ikimasu.
&>tr./crt\'filj{f fl 6 fT3 t f. (not interchangeable
rvith either to or -tara) "lf you go, I lvill go too."
Takakereba (:tahahattorn, tahoi nara) kaimasen.ffi
fJ tud H ! ',* t rL. (not i nterchangeablervith to)
"If it is expensive,I rvon't buy it."
Ashita yul<i nora (:dattara) ikimasen. gXg *trb
'fr (not interchangeable with da to) "If
t E+,1.
it snows tomorrow, I won't go." (Nara (ba) is
the conditionalof the copula da; seep. 15for con-
jugations of copula.)
Conditionals 3l

III. -tara type conditional

"if "
Senseini kiitara (: hikeba,kiku to) rvakarimasuyo.
tr&fcffiu',fub*>rl'(fr) , * f I. (not interchange-
able with naro) "If you ask your teacher,you'll
Ashita ame dottara (:nara) ikimasen. s; n RTff= /c
b'fr 5 * trL. (not interchangeablervith da to)
Note: When the resultant clauseis either imperativeor inter-
rogative, use the -tara conditional. Avoid using the to
or -ba conditionals.
Shitte itara (:iru nara),oshietekudasai.tXJc-6U.t:b*1
Z<T$L'. "If you know it, pleasetell me."
Ame ga futtarn, omukae ni ikimash6 ka. iiffitiffl-rt: b
n'{g *-l=6 3 * L r ) /,. "If it rains, shall I come and
get you ?"

The following three sentences are so similar in mean-

ing that native speakers may not be able to make clear
distinctions. Horvever, slight differences may be de-
S n m u i t o a t a t a k a i y 6 f u k u o k i m a s u . / S L .& f i l r . t . , i +
I\ftXi.i t f. "Whenever it is cold, rve wear warm
clothes." -habitrral occurrence: resultant clause
is an objective statement.
Sarnuherebaatatal<ai yofuku o kimasu. ,!i,rltL{{ltl
i.L'if-llftlg.ti * f. "If it is cold, rve'll rvear warm
clothes." -resultant clause involves rvill, and is
an inevitable occurrenceto the conditionalpart.
Samuhattoraatatakai ydfuku o kimasu. J:I/r'ct:b
[ii.U'i*I[tsif *f. "If it is cold, tve lvear warm
clothes." -plain conditional

IV. Ys [no, n'J nara:no (n') dattara

(Becausenara is a short form of narabcr,the conditional
form of the copulado,Y3 naro is frequently interchangeable
rvith -ba conditional (see II, 1), but the subject of the
nara conditional clause is usually someone(or something)
other than I.) Nara conditional clause is often followed
by an imperative clause.
"if," "in casethat"
32 Toki

Issho ni ikitai naro, sugu shitaku o shinasai. -f,&

3 /cL ''k b, 9-(E) <"flffi*L/rE t,.,. "If you
rvant to go with ffie, get ready right away."
cf. Anata ga iku ?tara,rvatakushi mo ikimasu.
t>fs./ciif1 ( tr btL{ f13 t 9'. "If you Bo,
I'11go, too."
lVatakushiga ikeba (not iku nara), anata mo
ikimasuka. tLrt\'frWifb/r/: t f15 f fr..
"If I go, will you go too ?"
Yomitai nara, kashite agemasho. ffi.Lfcu.'kbHL
<A>(-,L)ki t L r , . "If you want to read it, I'll
lend it to you."
Samui nara, s€td o kinasai. 9.€!.,1rb t -, -ttffijt.
31.'. "If you're cold, put on a sweater."

TOKI ffi
1. Span of time
Yasumi no tohi, benkyo shimasen. (Noun+?to tohi) I 4
DWtAMLt'ltrL. "When it is a holidal',I don't stucly."
Isogashiitoki, konai de kudasai. (Adj,*tolti) ,l'tLt.,ti$X
/r!',tT81.'. "Pleasedon't come rvhen I am busy."
Chiisakattotoki (-chiisaix toki) (Adjn/Adj, *tohi)
ni sundeimashita. ,J.3 fi'c /:ti$Itiif:,f L L-C1.,* L/:.
"I lived in 'lokyo when I was little."
Hana ga kirci rta tolti koen ni ikimasho. (Copularnoun*
,xa toki) 4tfi\$*tt.'(fiT[[) frn.?, *FHt:f13 t L "t 5 .
"Let's go to the park rvhen the flolvers are pretty."
Chichi ga genki na (- datta) tohi, yoku issho ni clekake-
mashita.'tfi\fr.r\ /cl]lr, .t < -frE't:"rc'r.hi
* L/c. "When
my father was well, we often went out toilether."
Nihon ni ir u'F ( - ita) toki Nihongo o naraimashita. (Y ,/Y to
toki) E #tcu' 6F+ H 4i3',E X{o'L . t L/c. "When I rvas in
Japan, I iearne:l Japanese. "
2. Specific tirne
Tegami o kaku toki pen ga irimasu. (V, * tohi) +;'JtX#

* The presenttense of adjectivesor verbs can be used even though the

occurrencewas in the past, and in f.act this usage may be more common.
Subjunctive 33


< ffi,t yiiL.'(F) 0 tf . "When tve write a letter, \r-e

s need a pen."

*fi. Gohan o tabete ita toki, tomodachi ga kimashita. (Y,o+
toki) :'[t LftfifrnaA.^r(L'/:ffi, x]snixt L/:.
* "When we were eating, our friend came."

Note : Specialattention should be paid when the verb rvhich
precedestoki is a motion verb such as iku, kuru, or kaeru.

Nihon e ihu tok,i iomodachi ni aimasu. Eflffi ( ffiX€
l:*L', 9 -d-. "On the way to Japan, I'll see my friend."
Nihon ni itta to,bi, tomodachi ni aimasu. E*Ia'fr2l:Fg
fr.&i:*t', * f . "When I go to (After I arrive in) Japan,
I'll see my friend." Use the perfective form even it
the action will occur in the future.
Nihon ni iku. toki, tomodachi ni aimashita. E4l:ffi ( r+
e$t:*t't L /:. "On the way to Japan, I met my
Nihon ni, itta tohi, tomodachi ni aimashita. E4r lafrct:
B+Aj*l:*t,,* L/:. "When I went to (After I arrived
in) Japan, i met my friend.

I. "if "
1. Hypothetical
(suru,to -f6L
tn )shitara Lt:b \
\ surcbo f*rtf (
lr,rru nura tztfcb I
Iiyoto ni iltu,lo suru to itsu ikimasukKa. (vs t o suru
to) i{#t\lcfT< & f 6 LL .? ({',JttS) ci +
frrJ" -ft' f r/ ).. " I f you
'ou ,,
were to go to Kyoto, lvhen \,vould :y( u ggc : o?! ' '
Kind Nihon o dcta to shitara ima wa rm( I O; AAr.merika n i
iru hazu desu. (Y t,, to shitara) W F THI i/ F tt iIl/: & L
i E
..If (pre-
t c b , + t t 6 5 r t t ) f i t l ! . 6 t t f ( ?!4)) ( .:'f-L
' 9.
I sumably)he left Japanyesterday,h, 1 e SI shro uld be i n
4 the UnitedStatesalready."
: 2. Contrary to fact
1 a. present
B Yasui mono nara (: dattara) kau no ni (kau
- n ' d e s ug a ) . . . * V , Y h k . b H ) o > l : . . . " f f i t
r were a cheap thing, I would buy it (but I

34 Subjunctive

won't buy it, becauseit is not cheap)."

Yasukereba(-la.sukattara) kau no ni (kau n'
d e s ug a ) . . . * W t t r t ' H t D t t a . . . "If it
were cheap, I would buy it (but I rvon't buy
it, becauseit is not cheap)."
b. past
Yasui mono nara (: dattara) katta desh6. *
\,,tIJtr.bH: /ctL r , . "If it had been a
cheap thing, he rvould have bought it."
Yasukereba(- losukattara) katta n' desu ga
. . . * W t t t I H c f : L a . . ? . t J i. . . " I f i t h a d
been cheap,I would have bought it."
II. wish...t'
1. wish for present
Kyd otenki nara (: dattara) ii no ni (n' desuga) . . .
1A *"'Xfl trbL .1. DU.-. . . "f rvish the weather
were good today (but it isn't)."
2. wish for future
Ashita otenki nara (dattora)ii n' desu ga... gng
*Jxfifr.bL.L. L{.T.rtl ... "I hope the rveather
rvill be .goodtomorror,v(but I have somedoubts)."
-Do not use no ni f.or future.
Ashita otenki nara ii desu ne. tlijg *dxi{ trb!.1.t;
f*a. "It rvould be nice if the weather tvere good
tomorrow, wouldn't it ?"
3. lvish f or past
KinO otenki nora (: dattara) yokatta no ni (n' desu
ga) . . . ffrEl*cXllfr.bI /. ct:DI. . . . "It rvould
have been nice if the weather had been good


te raa is the conditionalform meaning "if :' which is always fol-
lowed by a negative idea.
I. Prohibition
1. te (de) tua kotnarilttasu. "We'll be in trouble, if you
Sonna koto o itte ua kontarimzsu. (Yt, u a kornari-
MiscellaneousConditional Patterns JC

masu) + A,fcI LX€ ffi 0 t t. "We'll be in

trouble, if you say such a thing."
Okikute wa komarimosu. (Adjr, wa leomarimasu)
t8 < (ltffi D *f. "we'll be in trouble,if it is
Konna mlno de wa homarinxosu. (Noun de LUa
homorimasu) i Lttth'ctrffi D *t. "We'll be in
trouble, if it is this kind of thing."
2. te (de)wa ihemasen "You may not. . . ," "You must not
. . . "(literally, "if you do . . . , it can't go [it won't do] ").
Sonna koto o itte ua ikemasen. (Yt, wa ikencoser)
+ Llr I LtA c(.lt,L "ki t trL. "You must not
say such a thing."
Chiisahutewa ikemasen. (Adjte wa ikemasen) ,J'8
( <lt!',klt€rL. "It must not be small."
Sonnamono de wa ikemasen.(Nounde wa ikemasert)
4 r+fr.thtltu'B t ilrt. "It must not be such a
3. te (de) ua dame desu "You must not . . . ," "It is not
g o o di f . . . "
Tabeteua datnc destc. (Vrr ua davnedesu) dI".(
It,lft H tf. "You must not eat. (It is not good
if you eat.)"
Chiisahuteua domc clesu. (Adjr, tua damc clcsu) ,J.
S < ([*,qtE{'f. "It's not gooclif it's small."
Chiisai no de wo clatnedesu. (Noun dc rua rlarrte
desu) ,J.3 L.O('tt,EkH tf. "It's not gooclif it's
a small one."

II. Obligation
1. nakerebaihemasen. " Yot( must do " (literally,"if
you don't..., it can'tgo").
Ky6 benliyo shinakerebaikemasen. (Yttakereba
sen) # g f{JtfrLtr O furdt',lt t +},L. "You must
study today."
Akaku,nakereba ikemasen. (Adj"anereba ikemosen) fr
1 tdrJ ttt{u ''h1t .if &. "It must be red."
2. nokereba nArintasen. " f must do . . . " (literally, "if I
don't..., it won't become").
36 IliscellaneousConditionalPatterns

Sensei to kanasattakerebanarimasen. Y ttakereba

masen)ft+^L#8 trVfttr,{fr 0 t.t+,L. "I musttalk
rvith my teacher."
3. nakerebadame desu. "You must do " (literally, "if
you don't it is not good").
Kyo kore o sltinakereba dame desn. (Y noknrnbo dome
desu.) 1A: *l. k LfEW*Lt t',EtH ('f. "You have to
do th is today."
" Akahtntakereba darne desu. (Adj"oBereba dame destt')
fr < trTtttf,Et H {.'f. "It has to be red."

III. Denial of Obiigation

1 :*':::,i"i,'J,'{:l;'::T,i: (litera'v'
Kono hon wa yomanakute nxo ii desu. (Ynakutemo
ii desu) a D*ttf ,t-t* tr ( f t L ''L''("f. "You don't
have to read this book."
2. ttakute ,no karnaimzsen.
Ihanahute rnc hantcimasert. (Y rror,ute nto leamaitnasen)
'frh,fr ( ( ^,. "It doesn'tmatter if you
don't go."
IV. Permission
1. tc llto hamaimaserx."It does not matter even if you
I{uita nn kamairnasen. (Yto ,tto ltamairnasen)iTL'
-C .,* t L." It doesn'tmatter evenif you write."
{ f,'hU
I{itonahtttentl ltantaimasett.(Adjr, nn hamuimasen)
i5 < t {f,trt,.,*trL. "It doesn'tmatter even if it's
dirty." ttto kamaimasen.(Noun de rno hamai-
't $ L. "It doesn'tmatter
ntosen) ,J.3 f ',fi{. 6 {,,1i1
if it is a small book."
2, tc mo ii tlesu. "You may do . . . "
Koettc nro ii desu. (Y,u nxo ii desu.) t'itcT. {>!',1.t"
f. "You may go home."
I{aette mo ii desu ha. ')il. ( 6 L.!'tfr..' "May I
go home?"
Answer: positive-Hai, kaettemo ii desu.[tL',
l',ft.( 6 ['!.tf. "Yes, you
n r-l f'|

may go home."
negative-Iie, kaette wa ikemasett. \,r
! ''.i-, lfr cA.ftL .VJ*t,t.
"No, you may not go home."
Chiisakutemo ii desu. (Adjr, mo ii deszt) ,J.8 < (
t!.,1.'(..f. "It's all right if it is small."
Chiisai uchi de mo ii desu. (Noun de mo ii desu)
,{>L''!.'(*f. "It is all right even if it is
a small house."
V. Suggestion(not a conditional pattern)
' ',''
ho ga ii clesu.."It is better that you do.. . "
Sono hon o yonda ho ga ii desu yo. (Yto hd ga ii
dcsu) t D4;t i'tLtifrfiiu',1 '-c'f I. "It is better
to read that book."
Sorosorokeklion suru ( : shita) hd ga ii dcsu yo.
(Yt/Y to ho ga ii desu) + bZ{tff 5fifi\L ,,!'-C
f f . "It is better to marry soon."
Ot<iiho ga ii desu yo. (Adj, ho ga ii dest) t 3 r.'
hn|-L',!'('f .|. "It is better to have a big one."
Note : Ho ga ii is not e conditional pattern, but it is easy to
remember it rvith other conditional patterns. H0 ga ii
can be precededeither by the third base or the ta-f.orm
of the verb.

Auxiliary verbs are verbs that give additionalmeanings to main

verbs. They are included in the section of "Verb-follor,vingEx-
pressions"(pp. 39-86),because they all may be attached to the
end of the main verb or adjective. Some of the functions of very
common auxiliary verbs are negative, desiderative,passive, per-
f ective, potential, and causative. All these forms conjugate the
same as main verbs or adjectives. Some auxiliary verbs are in
verb forms (e.g. rareru, and saseru,),and others are in adjective
forms (e.g. nai, tai or rashii).

The phasesof the Japaneseverb are shown by adding a variety

of suffixes. A broad range of meaning can be derivedby supply-
ing the appropriate endings or combination of endings. Some
endings, such as -nai kL,' or -tai /:L', are adjectivalin nature,
and thus tal<e further endings lvhenever necessary(e.g. Ikitaku,
nakatta. 'i18 /: ( frnr z ft. "I didn't want to go.").
The expressionsare alphabeticallyarranged under six basesof
the verbs, adjectives,and copular nouns,in order to be easily ac-
cessibleas a reading aid. As mentioned in the section, "Holv to
Form Ta-f.ormand Te-form,"on p. 16, both ta-f.ormand te-f.orm
were formerly made from the seconCbase of the verb. Therefore,
the expressionswhich follolv ta-f.ormor te-form are listed in this
volume under secondbase.
Someendingsusedin very familiar speechhavenot beenincluded.
I ' I
If one learnsthe meaning and use of the endings listed in this
book, one will be able to deal with most problemsof verbs rvhich

J -
appearin mcdern Japaneser,vriting.
Informal endingsof the verb (Dictionaryform) are usedfor the
headingsof the verb-follorvingexpressions, but in the accompany-

ing examples,both polite (ntosu,clesutype of endings)and informal
(de Aru, da, rniru, taberu,yont.u,hahu type of endings)are used.

First base,secondbase, third base, fourth base,fifth base,and

t [,
sixth baseof the verb, adjective,and copular noun, are hereafter
il abbreviateC Vr, Vr, Vr, Vao(Vl* ba),Yi*pcrarive (Vu),Vt.*',"tiu"
I and Cop. n., respectively. In the headings,the rvord in the
parentheses( ) shows that it is interchangeable rvith the previous
f rvord, e.g. (ni) shite mo: ihu, to shite rrr0or ihu ni shite ?n0,
:* and the rvord in the brackets t I shows that it can be added
I after the previousrvord, e.g. ka shiraltl: leoshira or ha shiran.
It I. Bxpressionswhich follow the First Base Xtf.M<4ld,lklt.) of
ft the verb.
-mai * U' (tentative negative)follows the lst base of vowel-stem
verbs and irregular verbs slfft( and -mai follows the 3rd
base of consonant-stemverbs (see p. 68 for more -mai). It
I has two functions:
40 -,7' Vr-following Expressions

1. negative will, e.g. Sonna hoto wa ?no sltimai to kesshin

slzita.Z,+/s$ttt rL*L',&r*,il.,L/:. "I decidednot to
do such a thing any more."
2.negative probability, e.g. Sorttta hoto ?ila md shimai.
+,Ltr$fi t ) L * L'. "Perhaps he won't do such a thing
any more."
'n' L (tentative): -rnu speaker's conjecture, €.g. SO naran to ,tegau.
+, trbLLffir. "f hopeit will turn out to be so." (negative):
-nai- -nu,e.g. Sa ua ihan. + 5 t*,1.i'A,,."It won't work out
that way."
-nai kL. (informal negative ending) conjugates as an adjective:
naku for ku-f orm, and noherebafor conditional, nakatta for per-
fective, e.g. Tabenai. A-{flL.. "I don't eat." "I won't eat."
- n a i b o k a r i d e u ) a n a i / r u . , t f i . , " i C . ' l t f r L .n, o f o n l y d o e s h e n o t . . . ,
e.g. Ano hito wa tabako o nomanai bcthari de ua naktt, osakemo
rtomimase,x.bDAtt y't\= (ffH\ t D* trL.,tt'r. D(*lt tr < fr.ffi6ft
e * trt. "l*lot only cloeshe not smoke cigarettes, he doesn't
drink saheeither."
-nai doke de ua nai /"cL',
t:W (t) tttlru. : -nai bakari de tua nai,
e.g. Kono kodomowa gohan o tabenai dahe de LUonohtt, rnizu mo
notnimose ) *"cL',':ri ttt rr < , zKt
n. a D-Fgttt:'tt L Wnfrn
fik& * +1,t. "Not only does this child not eat rice, he does not
drink water either."
'ttai cle fCL't :'ztt. ni instead of, rvithout. . . ing, e.g. I{yO gctkhO
tti ihanai de uclti ni imashito. 1A*tr!:'fri./rt.,t'-z{tr.L'* L/:.
"Without going to school,I stayed home today."
nai de hoshii k!',t'?'fiL1. :-nai de morai toi I do not want you
to do..., e.g. Sonna kototua shinai de hoshii. tr<,1g,tJltt,Lff
!'t?fiL!'. "I do not rvant you to do such a thing."
nai de kudasai trL''tTtU.'. please don't, e.g. Tabenaide huda-
soi. 'fr"{lxL.,-CT8 L'. "Pleasedon't eat."
-nai tle morai tai kL't 6 b (Ft) L.fu1 .' : -nai de hoshii Ano hito
ni uo sore ni tsuite hanasanaide morai tai. *>DLt:lithrtc-c
L.(,#S bL'fu!'. "I do not want you to talk about it to
-nai de sumu trt.tffitr get by without doing something,e.g. Kyo
senseiga lasunda no de benhtd shinai de sumimashita. 1Afr,+.
niffiLtiDtffi#,Lflt''tHAt Lt:. "Becauseour teacher was



$ V1-following Expressions -nai to ua kagiranai 4I


absent today, \ve got by without studying."

- n a i h a z u u a n a i / r L . , l i f ( g ) l * , / r 1 . , t h e r e i s n o r e s s o nn o t t o . . . ,
it's likely that..., e.g. Atto hito ni korega uakaranai hazu uta
arimasen. t>0>Xlc : *Lh\fr btt t .,[].f lt b D t i+,t. ,.There is no
reason f or him not to understand this." "It is likelv that he
-nai hd ga ii it\,,frhi1.1. it is better not to do.. ., e.g.Kyo uA
yo. 4?]ttftrt.frL.frrt\U.'1"'icfl.
ihanaiho ga ii desu. "It's bet-
ter not to go today."
-nai kotuari ni /gL.i'LtD U:- instead of, e.g. It{ihone ikenai kazuori
ni Fttransu,e ihinzastt. B! .i.*: 0 l:7, > z^.'63 * 9-
"Instead of going to Japan, I'll go to France."
-nai koto ua rtai lt!.: & ltfr!' It's not that I don't . . . , e.g. Eiga
o minai koto uo arirnasenga amari minai no desu. ni(m|nltL''
; & ltb, tt Lrt\bt (fl 0 sLkL.,DTt. "It's not that I don't
see movies; I don't see them very of ten."
-nai moc ni kL',ilf l: :-nai uchi rti before. . . , e.g. Ame ga
furanai mac ni dehcthemash|. Ff,Irill'tbtr.t',ilUf:tfi'W * L r , .
"Before it rains, let's go out."
N o t e : T h e J a p a n e s ee x p r e s s i o n is negative, but the English idea is
p o s i t i v e . T h i s e x p r e s s i o nis used only rvhen the speaker wishes
t h e v e r b b e f o r e - u o i n n e ni not to occur until he finishes the
action after -nai ilutc tti, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d i n c o n v e n i e n c e .( c f .
noc ni, p.67)

-nai nora k!', frb if not, e.g. Anata ga ikonai ?Laroruataleushi

nto iltitnasen. bttt:fi,'frh'kL'k F2fL6113 t tA,. "lf yoLl don't
go, I rvon't go either."
-nai shi...nai iIL'L...tst,. n o t o n l y d o e s( h e )n o t . . . , ( h e )d o e sn o t
jf . . . either, e.g. Yamatnoto-san. mo konai shi liimurl-s(In nrc honai
- t
' A

clestt.*#S ,t 6 tr<kl. L^{-f S ,t 6 jKlrt',tf. "Not only is N{r.

Yamamotonot coming,Mr. Kimura isn't coming either."
l I

-naito frl'& unless...,if not..., e.g. Ashita no asa hayaku

-. ohinai to shiclri-jino hisha ni maniaimasenyo. nng D*fi+ < €3
:* /xL'& -ba?Dfi#l:f|illcf! . * t,L I. "Unlessyou get up early to-
morrow morning, you won't be on time for the seven-o'clock
t t ,

,' -nai to ua hagiranailtL.&ttpflblrU'

t t \ it is not impossible,it may

I be . . . , e.g. Sonnahotomo okoranaito wa kagiranai. + LfxS {, *;
lII i
' F

;f F


42 -nai uchi ni V,-following Expressions

:bkL.&tipfi.bfrL',. "It may be that suchathingcouldhap-

pen too."
-nai uchi ni /xL',8i,:.:-fiai mae ni before..., e.g.Samu.kunara-
nai u,chini niua o kirei ni shinakerebanarimasen. *< trb/rL.
A lc53A 8 *t1 .,(#Iffi) tc L trbltttt k 0 * +t,t. "Before it gets cold,
we have to clean up the yard."
-?tatuake rua (ga) nat /"cL.,*2fJ li /r L. there is no reasonnot to
. . . , e.g. Ano hito ga tkanai cuahewa nai desL(, !o. bD xrt\'fr
i. /r L. *: hi t*./"cL.,('.f j . "There is no reason for him not to go,
you know."
-nai wake de ua nai tr.\,,*>tt-C.'tthL.'it doesn'tmean that I don't
. . . , e.g. IVihongoga hanasenaiwake de wa nai ga, atnari umoku
ua hanasemase?t. E#i,*rtiFf;+r/rt'bhlt'ltls[.'fi, *>t D ) * (F)
< l*,f,S+f 'U
* &. "It doesn't mean that I can't speak Japanese ;
but I can't speakit too well."
-nai taakeni ltua) ikanai lct'*:hllctt L.,i./"c1., can't very well not
do something, e.g. Tetsudawanaiuake ni ua ikimasendeshita.
+k-Irfrt .bhll:liu ''3 * € L-e L/c. "f couldn't very rvell not
help them."
'nai yd ni lrL.I ) U= in order not to, e.g. Gakhoni ohttrertai yo
ni ltayohu,okimastt. tfi:l:;8ttfs.L,J 5l:? < r€* *f. "f ger up
early in order not to be late for school."
-nohattofri. cf: (perfectiveof nai)
-nahattara/ci. cf:b (negativeconditional)if not . . . , e.g. Iiyo
oiuoraTtakattora md ososugimasu, yo. 4A#,v:b/ci. =t:b { ) j/if 5
t f J . "If you don't finish it today,it will be too late."
-nahcrcbatrhl*tl{ : -noliattara
-naherelsa ileenai /rhtirtf U.,df"c!' lou must (often used lvith the
second person), €.9. Yoku.benleydsltinakcrebaihemasen!o. I <
fiJffrLtc?tttf.L',hf *+| LJ.. "You nrust study hard!" See p. 35
for more examples.
-naherebanaronoi tt?tttf fr b/rL, I must (often used rvith thr
first and third person),€.g., Ashita shihengo oru hara, hlo ben-
hyo shinakerebanarimasen BEg ffi,ffiri *>art,b+ E f,hffi,Lfrkl*r-tf
tr? ttx,. "BecauseI have a test tomorrol, I have to study
hard today." See pp. 35-36for more examples.
'nahute /r ( ( becausenot . . . , e.g. Chikagorogohan ga taberare-
nahute homatte imosu. trq a'0t A.,(ffirn ,iA{ btLtc ( ( ffi z ( L.
t ?. "Lately I haven't been able to eat, and I am having
Vr-following Expressions -reru 43

trouble (becauseof it)."

-nahu.terno /r ('tC 6 even if you don't..., e.g. Neko wo nannichi-
kan mo tabenahutemo shinanai sd desu. trHtt{4Hfd6€'^fr < (
6 iElr k ! ''+ 5 "Cf. "I heard that cats won't die, even if they
don't eat for many days."
-naku.te ?no ii /f ( ( 6 L.L' need not, do not have to, e.g. Sono

hon tua yomanakute nxo ii desu,. ZD+tttffit /r ( ( 6 !',1.,t.f.
g "You don't have to read that book." See pp. 36-37 for more ex-
-nahuto mo fc ( & t :-nahute mo
-neba naranoi *aif frbkL. :-naleerebo naranai (-neba is the con-
ditional form of rtu.)
-nut R (negative suffix) frequently contracted to -n as in arinxasen.
-rareru btLA this form is attached to vorvel-stem verbs, e.g.
taberareru,and to the irregular verb huru, *6 horareru, and has
three separate f unctions. It will generally be clear f rom the
context lvhich meaning is intended.
1. sign of passive,€.9. Watahushi wa hyl haha ni shikarare-
mashita. tLIt+ El[]l:nvbtL*. Lft. "I was scolded by my
mother today (and I suffered frorn it)." In Japanesepas-
sive voice, the sub;ect often suffers f rom the action
expresseclby the passive verb. The agent lvhich takes
"by" in English is expressedby the particle ni in Japanese
(See p. 122).
Note: a. Dircctional verbs are not made into passiveforms.
b. Intransitive verbs can be made into passiveforms in Japanese.
Kyo isogashii no ni totnodachi ni korarete homatta. /.i F t1i
Lu',Ol:frjf lc)KbtL<iEc/:. "I was busy today,but my
friend came and I had trouble."

2. as an honci:ific, e.g. Senseiga taberarentashita.trr*,nlf,1..l

btL:I Lfu. "The teacherate it." (Seepp. 2LT-23)
3. as a potential,e.g. Anata Lua Nihon no tabemonogo tabe-
raremosu ha, &>fr/clt E 4: o>tt'ttrlrtift{ btLt fr.. "Can
you eat Japanese food?"
./€/u fLb this f orm is attached to consonant-stem verbs, e.g.
Yomareru,anCto the irregular verb suru,t a sareru,and has two

44 -saserareru V1-follorving Expressions

1. sign of passive, e.g. Minna ni Luarou)aremashito.'&U:y1t

tLt L fu. "l \,vasiaugheC at by everybody."
2. as an honorific, e.g. Sensei ga tua2'aluare?nashita. ftHrt',X.
btL* Li:. "The teacher laughed (or smiled)."
Note: A consciitnt-stemverb has a different potential form, e.g. Lua-
raer4 "can laugh," ),olncry "can read," haleeru"can write," etc.
The irregular verb suru, has a potential form, dekiru "can do."
The verb iku. has two potential forms, ikeru (regular) and ika-
reru (irregular),"can go," both commonly used. Ikarerit, besides
being used as the pctential form, has a siang usage, meaning
be touched in the head," e.g. Aitsu wa konogoro mattaku iha'
rete iru na. tD!.':tt. aA (t)trF+ ( L./, tL<U',6 /t. "Something
is really wrong rvith that guy('s head) lately."
The verb nziru has two potential forms, mieru. (irregular), and
nirarcrtc f passiveform) : the former means "is visible," and is
more commonly used. e.g. Kono mado kara Fuji-san ga mie-
masu. :Df^l'bf,i*l!rit?^ k-*t. "Mt. Fuji is visible (We can
see r\{t. Fuji) from this window." Mirarerll, besidesbeing used
as the pctential form, has a slang usage, meaning "can bear
to look 3t," e.g. Kare no l<aita e wa mazukute totemo mirareta
ff':"J;"|,:- 3,r.r
The verb kihtc has two potential forms, kihcru (regular) and
hihocru irregular); the latter means "is audible." e.g. Nihonjin
no oku wa cru, to dru no chigai ga kihcmcsen. fl/;)xz>* ( lt:r
)v t 7 - )i l)ji}t' nildrt *. t L. "Many Japanese cannot hear the
d i f f e r e n c eb e t w e e n a n d " r . " I i o n g a k u g a l t i h o c m a s u .U . L . i T
fjlillH: r: * f, " G o o d music is audible." "I can hear good
m u s i c ."
-soseroreru* +l bnb : -sasare
ru (causative-passive) vowel-stent
verb, tsttzulcesoserareru(tsuzultcsosarcru). It has trvo functions:
f. is caused(forced)to, e.g. Tsuinaranaishigotoo tsttzuhesase-
raremashita. ot bts.u.'t[:]jittft]ilJ3 rt b,tL* L/:. "I was
forceclto continuea boring job."
2. high form of honorific,e.g. IIeiha ga soreo tsuzuhesaseroreto.
EfTf l +tL?ffifj{ rf btLlc. "His N{ajestydeignedto continue
it." (Seep. 218)
-saseru 3 *f 6 : -sest(,(causative),both f orms are attached to
vo'ffel-stemverb, tabesaseru(tabesasu),makes one do . . . , e.g. I
Kodornoni gohan o tabesasemashita.+ffilcit*,,L (ffign tA'{8
{}* L/:. "I made my child eat," or "f fed my child." I

V,-following Expressions -sete ageru 45

Y-saseteogeru * € (-L,t b - -saslziteageru -sasete form

is more
refineCanCpreferred. Allorv somecneto do something, e.g. Tonto-
dachi tti tsuztchesasete agemaslzita. tr)eil,ffift*-if (-Ltf t L/c.
" I a l i o , v e Cm y f r i e n d t o c o n t i n u e . "
*-saseteitodahu 3 *3( L '/:ft ( : -sashite itadaky be permitted to
do something, e.g. Oishii mono o tabesaseteitaclakimashita. h-!,
L L ' '{ , c ? A ^ S €(L'/:/.-F t L/c. "f was permitted to eat the
tasty food."
*-sasetelzudosaru * t}-CTS 6 --saslzite huCasaru, allorv me to clo
son:thing, e.g. Sensei ga hurabesasete. kudasaintashita. fr,flfi\ffi.
'{t -'.r{T* L.* L/:. "My teacher allowed me to compare."
*-saseteltttreru, 3 {f { : -saslt.iteleurerrr meaning same as
< tLb
above, e..9. saleuben dekakesasztekurentashita. !Z\t;1:
f l f t , i t iJ , ( A ) l l S t - C < i L * L/c. "My father allowed me to go our
last night."
*-sase te ntyrou, 3t"C { b (ilt) 5 --sashitc t}nrau meaning same
as 'sasate itolohtc, e.g. Mdo o ohcsasetemorutte ii clesu ka. fr
ttijil;t 3 +( t b c-cL'1.("fi.. "Am I perrnitted to (may I)
open the rvinclorv?"
*-sasete. r(trt(. *\ ll:-rp 6 : -sosltitcyaru melning Same aS -sase te
Q,qaru,e.g. Ko:l,urt't rti ohnshi o tobesosctcyarimashito. 7=Ut:li;l;
lii.F tft-tJ U{''i') :i Lfu. "f allorved my chilcl to eat cancly."
'ScrZr(:ru -g i: ft.7a : -sQrCf tc Cattsative-p3ssive,these forms, at-
taclred to consonant-stemverb, yornaserarerr((yotttasarcru),have
trvo functions:
f. is caused(fo:ced) to, e.g. Tsrtntaranailtott o yolttasorcmesltita.
2t b'tr.L'.'f' lt ,?,'i*S,fL * L /c. "I lvas forcecl to read an
u n i n t e r e s tni g l t o o l i . "
2. hish form of ltonorific, e.g. IIcilto ga sore o yotttascroreto.
VtT tt\:c *t*titii* *f b;ltt:. Majesty read it." (See p.
'scru,{} A ('slr) (causative),these forms attached to consonant-stem
verb, )'0mascru (yotnasu), e.g. Imdto tti hon o lotnascmashita.
fi,k]rc4*t,frf -U* L/c. "f made my younger sister read a book."
* -sete (tgerIt 't (-[i'(f : -shite ogeru -setc form is more refinecl

* For a more detailed explanationon the use of causative verb

plus directionalverbs, see pp. 28-29.
46 -sete itadaku. V1-follorving Expressions

and preferred. Allorv someoneto do somethirg, e.g. Kono hon

o yornaseteagemasu,.a D#tffi,t t(-tkt * f. "I'll allorv you
to read this book."
*-sete itadahu €( L./cff ( : -shite itadahu. be permitted to do
something,e.g. Senseini ihaseteitadakimashita. fts.!::5i.qf(
!',ft,ff*g L/c. "I was permitted to go by my teacher."
*-sete kudasaru,'U(Tt 6 :-shite kudasaru, allow me to do
something,e.g. Senseiga watahushini kakasetekudasaimashita.
ft,&fi\TLlc#l.t:(T8 L''* L/c. "My teacher allowed me to
*-setekureru t( <tLb :-shite hureru meaning same as above,
e.g. Ototo ga watakushi ni hon o tsuhawasetehuremashita. #
nifAtc#t{frbt( < *r* Lfu. "My younger brother allowed me
to use his book."
*-sete??xorau, t"i( t b ffi) ) :-shite morau meaning same as -sete
itatlaku, €.9. Tard ni norasetemoraimashita. tFl3l:* bt( { b
L * L /:. "f was permitted by TarO to ride."
*-seteyartt {}(.f 6 : -sltiteyaru meaning same as -sete ageru,
e.g. Tard ni yornasete yarirnashita. tHIStc;t*+lt+ D * L/:.
"I allowed Tard to read."
-zeru o enai 3 6 )tli|k!. cannot help . . . ing, e.g. Ohorozoru o
enaltotta. #,bE 6t|\'trrJ,ct:. "I couldn't help being angry."
-zu.f another negativeending,the same as -nai
- z uj i m a i f U t t ' ( f l t $ ) e n du p r v i t h o u t . . . i n g ,e . g . I i y T u a a m o r i
iso.tosl'tiltute ichinichi-jil tobezujimai datto. iiWfi) * (, ), {t
L < (* E +ft{f U * t 'ij z fu. "f rvasso busy all day today that
I had no time to eat (I endedup rvithout eating)."
-zt(.rti -f riC :nai de without.. . ing, e.g. Goharto tabezuni nete
irnasu. a'lt L (ffiin ?A{f fc.f;( L. * f. "He is sleepingrvithout
having eaten dinner."
-ztt.tti ftua) ohanai flc*s (tilfi.ftLr csnnot help but to..., e.g.
Iiono hon ua dokushao tniryd sezu ni wa ohanai. L D#ttt;ivt
lctt*"'i.k!',. "This book cannothelp but fascinatethe t
-ztt shite f U< :-zy, ni:nai de I
* For a more detailed explanationon the use of causative verb fe-form
plus directional verbs, see pp. 28-29.
t I
V1-following Expressions -d6shi 41

II. Expressions whichfollow the SecondBasegHM<faLI t ltt.)

of the verb. Someof ttre words listed below may alsobe used
as independentverbs.
-agaru *Lni 6 Uiddshi, see pp. 2L-24)
1. . . . up, e.g.,.},riD t Llc. "I stoodup."
2. finish,e.g. Sakubunga kahiagarimashita.f?Xrig$-fti,
t L/c. "The compositionis finished."
-ageru.}:td 6 (tadoshi,seepp. 2L-24)
1. uP, €.8, Bdtoo mizusohohara hihiagernashita.df- l. A/(Er.
bu..*l,klt L/c. "'Wepulledthe boatup out of the water."
2, finish. . . ing, e.g. Sonoshigotoo shiagemashita.+DtL#t
fflktt Llc. "I finisheddoing that work."
.Asartrbg (tfi) 6 do something-ina frenzy, e.g. Kya Kanda de
hon o kaiasarimashita.f1#mtf2,H!,&>E ',Today
, * Llc.
I boughtbooksin a frenry in Kanda."
o-asobasu ld Vz trlff high form of honorific,e.g. Osuwari aso-
bashimashita.ld{b Dfflf L t Llc. .,Shesat down.',
'bae 0{ ffi) .t- shown(heard)to advantage, e.g. Ano tenranhaiwa
mibaega shita, *rDRN*ltF,X *-fi\Lfu. "That exhibitionwas
much to look at." Kikibaeno shinai ongahufn* )fr,*-0)Vlrt'H
# "music not pleasingto hear"
o-dats Vz tj (colloquialhonorific)=oYz ni naru Anata wa gakko
no oshigotomo oari da shi,hodomo-san mo oari da hara oisogashii
desh|. btctctt#ffio*.'tt$ 6 *dbD ff L +U\3,t t f"-t, D ftrt. b$
{tL!'TL r ,. "Perhapsyou are busy,sinceyou not only have
your.schoolwork, but you havechildren,too."
1. ...out, e.g. Oshidashimasu. #flLHL*f. "I pushit out."
2. start. . . ing [involuntarily],€.g. Aruhidashimashita. f I H
L * Llc. "I started walking."
Note: The latter usageis the morecornmon.
-de ga aru (ni&) 6 be substantial, e.g:. Kono hon wa yomidega
arimasu. co#ltffi,A?rtih, ,,It takes one a long time
*?. to
' read this book through."
'doshi A, L keep. . . ing, e.g. Asa kara ban made hyo wa tachi.
dilshideshita.#i. bfti (.+E l1f b E , LtL/c. ,.Today
I kept
standing from morning till night."
48 -enai V2-following Expressions

-enai *-(H lxL. is not possible, e.g. Sonna hoto LUaarienai. Zlv
/r$ltE D19ftL.. "Such a thing can't be possible." positive of
-enai, u,rtt.,p. 59.
-gachi nif2 tend to. . . , e.g. Amari atsui no de namahegachi ni.
narimasu. t)t (*) D Ev.otRff rt\+>l=tt? tf. "Becauseit is
toc hot, w€ tend to get lazy."
-gai ryt worth . . . ing, e.g. Ano ko ua nan' de mo yoku oboeru
Ieara,oshiegaiga aru,. *>o>+1t,1'"It6 r < H k-brt,b*.LF*riF)
6. "Becausethat child can learn everything well, it is worth
teaching him.'t , '' ;' :
-gatai ii/: (ffi) t,. difficult to: nikui (-gatai is more literary)
-ge Vf seaming condition of others, e.g. Totemo imi arige na hao
o shitewatahushi
o mirnashita.L<6H*b 0WtrffitL<tL?n
, t Llc. . "He looked at me with a face :that seemed to hold some
-hajimzru ffia>6 start . . . ing, e.g. Tabehajirnemasu. A{fi6b t f.
"We start eating.'
-hatasu jftfuf finish, . . .llpe e.g. Ohane o suhhari tsuhaihatashita,
*"'AAt crt, Dfru'R/c Llc. "I used up all my money."
-hateru X,< 6 end uF, be finished, €.9. Kyo u)a. isogashikute
tsuharehatete shimaimashita.+ Ett,ftL < <{EtLXrC(L*U'* L
/c. "I was so busy that I was exhausted."
o-itasu *c V, fft humble form, e.g. Odenwao ohaheitashimashita.
*d€ffit*"'n',Vf*L * L/c. "f called you." (Seep. 218)
-haesu;Ef re- . . .ing, do again, e.g. Yomihaeshimashita.ffi,Art.
k-Lt L/c. "I read it again." Iikaesu Efu.,i..i-f. "talk back."
Note: kaesumeans to return (taddsftl,see pp.2t-24), (cf. Vz naosu, p.50).
-haherufirfb start. . .ing [but soon interrupted], €.8. Benley0
shihaketatohoroe tomodachiga kimashita. fuffiLrt,Wtc & E'5^.
A.*tt*t L/c. "When I startedstuclying,my friend came."
-haneru#*aA be hard to, e.g. Mdshikanemasu ga... F L#iat
f r i . . . " I t ' s h a r dt o s a y ,b u t . . . "
-hata fr manner, way, how to, e.g. Ano hito no Nihongo flo I
wa suhoshiohashiidesu. *>o>XDE*AScffil-fr&r,
'iHis way is a little funny."
.o{speakingJapanese I
Shihataga nai. trfirtiffLi "Nothing can be done aboutit." "It
can't be helped." (cf. Y, l!6, p.-.60)
Vr-following Expressions -nagara 49

-hireru W|LA run out of, e.g. Kind uridashita no ni, md u,rihire-
te shimaimashita.
FFgfr,\ HUlcDp=, 6 , fr DTJJfiL<LtL.,t
/c. "Although they just started selling it yesterday,it is already
sold out."
-hiru 5 a be through, completely, e.g. Kyo wa ichinichi-jfi. iso-
gashikutetsukarekitteshimaimashita. iAlt-E +1tL < (trtr*
cT L*L'* L/c. "I was so busy all day today that I am now
all tired out."
f. in, into,e.g. Hon ni hakihomimashita.
*lcg$;trAt Lft.
"f wrote in the book." Pilru ni tobihomimashita. / - )vla-
ftU[4t Lfr. "I jumped into the pool."
2. to settle firmly in the state of preceding yr, e.g. Kare wa
soho ni suwarikonda. '{RW? C-}c& 0 :/,LtC. ,,He sat down
there (and did not move)."
o-hudasoih' vz T3 t,. polite imperative, e.g. onomi hudasai. *o-
*4T* !'. "Pleasedrink."
o-hudasaimase *.; V, T8 L. * t more polite imperative than above.
Ohahe hudasaimase.*dr.hlT 8 U't € "Would you please sit
-masu.*f (polite suffix), see p. 13. €.g., Ihimasu. {T5 tf. ,,1
will go."
' suru t, ... tf 6 do both... and..., e.g. Ano hitowa
Nihongo o yomi mo haki mo shimas*. *>o>xlt F +a# xffi,4d "#
8' {, L * f. "He reads Japaneseand writes it as well."
-mo shinai 6 U lf,L. don't even do, e.g. Mi mo shinakatta.
F, d
Lft.rt'z t. "She didn't even look at it."
- m o s u , r e bY a2 m o s u r t ( { f h l t ' V z 6 f A d o b o t h . . . a n d. . . , n o t
o n l y . . . b u t a l s o . . . , e . g . A n o h i t o u a y o h u t. a b em o s u r e b an o m i
mo shitnAsu. *>0>xlt J < A'{ 6 fhtt ffi.46 L * f. "He not only
eats a lot, but drinks a lot, too."
-mono f)71thing, e.g. tabemonolt,+rJ "thing to eat,,, "food"
-nagara trrt\b simultaneousstate or action of the same person
(cf. V3 aida, p. 60)
1. while, e.g. Rajio o kikinagara tabahoo nomimasr!,. 2 i*t
ffi*fxri bl ^ I (tgH)tDA*f. "While I am listeningto
the radio, I smoke."

50 -naoszt V2-following Expressions
2. though, €.9. Shitte inagara nani mo iimosen deshita. ffi cT
L'frii bfq 6BL. t rf ^,t L/c. "Although he knew, he didn't
tell me anything."
-naostt,Hf f€-..., e.g. Kahinaoshimasu.g$trUt9'.
write it." (naosu means "to correct," cf. V z haestt., p. 48)
-nareru {Htr 5 get used to . . . ing, e.g. Kahinareru to kanji mo
yasashihu narimasu. gF ttll-6 LiH" 6hL ( tr 0 tf.
you get used to writing, Kanji gets easy, too."
"When I
-nasai fr*L', imperative, e.g. Kakinasai. gSkEL'.
Often attach honorific o before the verb, Oyominasai. *"
"'W'rite." t
8 u., "Read!"
-ni tc + verb of motion, indicates purpose, e.g. Eiga o mi ni iki- t
mashd. ERIEt n](?afr8t L r , . "Let's go to see the movie."
-ni kakaru ?3i.i.6 start . . . ing, [with some effort] e.g. Kare wa
sassohuhahaoya o nagusarlreni hakatta. 'isal!+tr&*f,Affiblcir
hr->fc. "He started comforting his mother right away."
o-ni naru. *; Vz lSfr6 honorific form. e.g. Senseiga ohahi ni nari-
mashita. tr&ri*$gSlclf D t Llc. "Teacherwrote." (Seep. 218)
-nikui ?r.< (S&)u.' difficult to, e.g. Kono hon wa yominihui desu.
a o)*ttffiAl: < !.,tf.
nihui hon.ffi,41: < !',f
"This book is difficult to read." yomi-
"a book which is difficult to read." (Op-
posite of -yasui, p. 60)
-otosu I&f fail to, e.g. Machigai o miotoshintashita. f"1i€!.tn#
L* L/:. "I failed to see the mistakes."
-oluoruWA finish. . .ing, e.g. Iiowaru. E U'f46. "I finish say-
ing." Though the verb ou)ar?,c is a jidoshi (p. 23),as a suffix it is
used like a taddshi.
-sae sureba 8 *-f*t,lf emphatic, if only, e.g. Ohane ga ari sae l
str.rebahotoshi Nih,on e ihu n' desu ga. . . *d$nib D 8 L-ffuff.
++g 6^fl I ,ttfri
Japan this year,
. . . "If only I had money, I would go to
but . . . "
-shidai kffi as soon Ers,e.g. Tabeshidai ikimashl. A{nffiff*
* L r 5 . "Let's go as soon as we finish eating."
-sd da Z , ti, -so-na ? J tt, look as if it will (seemsimminent),
e.g. Ame ga furisd desn. FffiriWD Z ) tf. "It looks like raln."
Ame ga furisT na soramoyddesu. NniEF0 + ) /r$,Hffi-ef.
"The sky lookslike it will rain." ;

T Vr-following Expressions -ta(-da)bakari ni Sl

-sd'mo nai ? ) 6 lrt . : -sd' ni nai it looks as if one won't even

! do.. ., e.g. Ano hito wa hyOkisd mo arimasen. bo>Xlt+BX
k r 6 t> D t t A.,. "It looks as if he won't even come today."
! -sd ni narn + ) lc lf Zr almost . . . , e.g. Kesa pilru de oboresdni
narimashita. +#n/ - tutffiluZ , ?cfc D t L/c. "This morning I
almost drowned in the pool."
T - s o b i r e r u + U t a b f a i l t o . . . , l o s e a c h a n c et o . . . , e . g . D a i j i n a
hoto o iisobiremashita. f$tr$XEt',tLNtrt Lt:. "f missed a
t to
chance say an important thing."
-sohonauffits.5 fail to do . . . , e.g. Kden o hihisokonatta. i#ifi"

T "I missed hearing the lecture."

-sugiru r&S 6 over-. . ., e.g. Kind tabesugimashita.FfgA^ff

T * L/c. "f overate yesterday."

-sugiru hirai ga Aru. ? (E) S a I bt.'(m) rt\b6 there is a ten-
dency to over- . . . , e.B. Ano hito wa hanashisugiru hirai ga art(.
T "She has tendencyto talk too much." *>o>xltffiLf 5 a 3 bt.
T -ta (-da) /: informal perfective ending, €.9. Hon o yonda. *X
'ffi,Lf:. "f read
a book." Nihongo de saku,buno kaita. F ,tBSt

T tFX"fltL',/c. "I wrote a compositionin Japanese." Ta-f.ormis

also used as a noun moCifier. e.g. hind mita eiga ffVARlcWrE
"the movie that I saw yesterday."
T Note : For formation of ta (da)-f.orm,see pp. 16-18; when to use ta-
form, see Noun Modifi€r, pF. 189-190;informal level,pp.215-16.
-ta (-da) ato de t:4*t
T a'tt,L (ffifrfr)
dekahemashd. tA{
after . . . ing, e.g. Gohan o tabeta ato de
f:1ktHi. (ffi)kl * L r t . "Ler's
go out after eating dinner." Note the use of ta-f.ormbefore ato
T de, even if the time referred to is the future.
-ta (-da) baai lwa) tc$* :-tara conditional,if, in case..., e.g.

T Ame ga fittta baai wa ihirnasen. f$riK -ttcLfi*ltffi5 * -trt. "If

it rains, we won't go." For V3 baai, p.60.
-ta (-da) bahari /c[fi. D has just, e.g. Ima kita bahari desu. +
T */:fn. t ff. "I have just come now." For Ysbahari, p. 60.
-ta (-da) bahari ni fu(t'i. , lc. just because,e.g. Bydki datta bahari
T ni nahatoshi no tomodachino hehhonshihf. ni derarernasendeshita,
ffifrff z /;tfi. Dlc{f H,L Dfrr€-offiffi{lcHbtL* t,tt Llc.
I "Just becauseI was ill, I couldn'tattendmy good friend's wed-

T /
52 -ta (-da)ga saigo V2-following Expressions

-ta (-da) ga saigo fcfi\ffith. :-tara saigo once you do..., e.g. Itta
ga saigo,kaettekimasen. 'fr.f:h\ffi1k|fr. (Xg€,L. "Once he
goes,he'll never come back."
- t a ( - d a )k i r i / c F t 2 j u s t d i d . . . , a n d . . . ( i m p l i e s f i n a l i t ye) . g . O k a n e
o karita hiri mada haesanai. *;#tffi 9 f:.8 D * ftEE fc!.'. "He
just borroweCmoney and has not returued it yet."
-ta (-do) koto ga aru /:L &ri*>6 experience up to the present,
e.g. Nihon ni itta hotoga arimasu.ka. F,6U.afrctc:. &nib 0 t,
fr'. "Have you ever been to Japan?" For Y3 hotoga aru, p.66.
-ta (-da) hoto ga atta fu : & ,i b c lc past experience, e.g. Sore
made Nihon ni itta koto ga arimasen deshita. ZtL*t'H#U:'fr.
/: L Lh\*> D t € Lt Lfo. "Until then I had never beento Japan."
For V3 hoto ga atta, p. 66.
-ta (-da) koto ni suru /:C LUtg6 assume,€.9. Koho ni ita hoto
n i s h i m a s h O .a : l C L ' / : L & l : L t L f 5 . " L e t ' s a s s u m et h a t w e
were here." For V3 koto ni suru, p. 66.
-ta (-da) mama /c * t ({ift) as it is, e.g. O motta mama o itte huda-
sni.,Ez/:t t"F c(.T*!'. " P l e a s et e l l m e j u s t a s y o u t h i n k . "
-ta (-da) mono da fu 6 Dfi habitual occurrencein the past, e.g. :T

Chiisai tohi watakushi tua yoku,otdto to kenka shita rnono desu. *$


,J.* t .,ffiTAlfI < # Lfl LrJ.(rfjrtl$)L /c t ot f.


"l ofren used to :5


fight rvith my littie brother rvhen I was little." For V3 mono ..$

da, see p. 68. 'i:

-ta (-dct)obocga aru i:X k-rt\t>6 rememberthat. . ., €.9.Sonnahoto t..

o yonda oboeLuaarimasen. +Llrr LX{i(.Lff'}'&.t-tt*>0 tt}4,.

"I don't rememberif I read about such a thing."
.to (-da) tameshigo Qua)nai t:FJfi\lr!' have never..., e.g. Ano
hito wa ohottatameshiga arimasen.hl> ttffi -:f:$[rt]&>0 *{f ,t.
"He has never been mad."
-ta (-da) tokoro tdal /:& ab :-ta (-da) balzari have just, e.g.
Ima hita tokorodesu. 4;Kf:&: btt. "I havejust come." For
V3 tokoro, pp. 77-78. tokoro emphasizes the situation, while
balzariemphasizesthe time.
-ta (-da) tokoro de /c & a bt even though, €.9. Yonda tokoro de
wakaranai deshd. ffi,A,ff & a btft btrL.'(" L r , . "Even if he
reads it, he will not understandit."
-ta (-da) tokoro ga /c & a b/r\ : -ta (-da) Sa when (often the fol-
V2-followingExpressions -tara (-dara) 53

lowing clauseexpressessomething contrary to normal expecta-

tions), e.g. Osashimio tabeta tohoro ga oishii deshita. *d3 L4
?A{ft&:5ri*dL'LL'tL/c. "When I ate raw fish, it tasted
good-to my surprise."
-ta (-da) tsumori (da) /cp 6 (ffi) , I am under the impressionthat
..., €.9. Tegamio dashitatsumoridesu9a... +*fttH Lfua'{
D agtrti. . . "I am under the impressionthat I mailed the letter,
but . . . " For Vr tsumori, p. 78.
-ta (-da) ue de /:tt after. . . ing, upon . . . ing, e.g. Hanashita ue
de kimemashT.ffiLft-lti*Ot L r ,. "Let's decideafter talk-
ing it over."
-tagaru tii 5 rvish of someoneelse other than the speaker,want
to, e.g. Kodomowa itsu mo okashi o tabetagarimasu. +&ttL',
I -2 (ffi) { *"'Hf?A{lcii D * f. "Children are always wanting
to eat candies."
I -tai /:1. desiderative,
"I want to go."
want to. . ., e.g. Ikitai desu. 1T* fu! .'tf.

I Note z .tai conjugatesas an adjective; taku f,or ku-f.orm, takereba for

conditional, tahatta for perfective. -tai cannot be used as an

I independentword. It is always used as a verb suffix. cf. hoshii,

p. 107.

-tahutel: ( ( te-f.ormof tai

I -tahu.tetamaranait:< (/:* bfrL' See-kutetamaranAi,see p. 85.

I -tamae*h*- an imperativesuffix used by men on a friendly level

in modernJapanese, e.g. Ano hon o yomitamae. *>D-rFXffi\*b
*-. "Readthat book."
I -tara (-dara) fc?'> colloquial conditional,if, when, e.g. Ashita ame
ga futtara ihinr.asen. gng ffiriK: /: b'fr* t trL. "If it rains
I tomorrow,I won't go." For more details on conditionals,see pp.
(interrogativeword)-tara(dara) ii ha wakaranai tcbL.!.i,*2fi,(ft)
bft1.. :(interrogative) Yu ii ha waharanai don't know (what,
t etc.)to do . . . , e.g. Do shitara ii ha uaharanai. E , Vt:bL',1'
rtrl2lSrblr!'. "I don't know what to do." Doho e ittara ii ha
waharanai. t'; ('fFjro)^.ffi ->l:b!'U'i.*zir f fg! '. "I don't know
t where to go."

54 -tara (-dara) saigo V2-following Expressions

-tara (-dara) saigo f:bffiLh. :-ta (-da) ga saigo

-tari (-dari) tcD
1. with two (or mo re) tari, action in alternation, notv doing this,
notv doing that, e.g. Kind asonCaribenkyoshitari shima-
shita. FFgffi,ltiD ffiffiLf: A Lt L/c. "YesterdayI played
and studied."
Note: Last tari (dari) is usually followed by the verb st(,ru,which it-
self does not mean anYthing.

2. one tari, representativeor typical actions, do such things as

.. ., e.g. Natsu,wa umi ni, oyogini. ittari shimasu. HttiE
l:irk5ll6 cfcD L*f. "During the summer we do such
things as go to the seashoreto swim."
Note : tari (dari) is usually followed by the verb suru.
-te (-de) f for the formation of te-f.orm,see pp. 1G18. Te-f.orm
hasno tenseof its own; it usuallyfollowsthe tenseof the final verb.
1. conjunction for sequenceof actions, and, e.g. Toshohanni
itte, benhyoshimashita. tr*HHl.ft -:Tfuyh,L t Llc. "We
went to the library, and studied."
2. conjunctionfor simultaneous actions,while, e.g. Hon o londe
utaratte irnasu,.#Xffi,l,;C€,c(,!.* f. "He is laughing
while reading."
3. how the action of the main verbs is perforrned,e.g. Densha
ni notte ihimashita. €Hlc* c(.'fr*'* L/c. "I went by
(riding a) train." Aruite gahho ni iltimasu. {; !,'(#,ffi1:
'fr*tf. "We schoolon foot."
4. because,the causeof the main verb, e.g. Koko wa ichinen-
ju atatahakutetotemo sumiyasuideyt. : :0t-++ffir. (
-C.L( L'tf. "Becausethis place is warm all
yetr, it is very easy to live here." This usage is similar
to the English participial phrase, " Being u)arrn, it is an
easy place for lreopleto live."
5. sentence-endingin colloquialwomen's speech,(1) Mild im-
perative,e.g. Ashita hite (nq. EEH*<. "Come tomorrow,
OK?" Q) I understandthat. . . ! e.g. Atto kata m0 Osaha
e irasshatta n' desu,tte."f heard that she has already gone
to Osaka." Other than this usage, te-f.orntdoes not come
at the end of the sentence.
V2-following Expressions -te (-de) iku 55

6. after, often used before the time word, e.g. Kurisumasu no

lasumi ga owattesugu shihenga aru kara yasumi-chtTmo
isogashii. , t) z< AD{fr4riK cA.9 f ilffi rt\b5rt, bW4
+ tftLu',. "Even during the vacationI am busy, because
we'll have examsright after the Christmasvacationis over."
x-te (-de)ageru <b(I) W a ( I ) do a favor in doing something,
e.g. Tomodachini hon o yonde agemashita. Er€fc.+ tffi,Lt'b
ti * L /c. "f read a book (did a favor in reading a book) to my
friend." (cf. -te yaru, p. 59)
-te (-de)aru <hA taddshi*te aru, describesan action which has
occurred and is still in force, e.g. Mado ga aketearimosu. frl:
e)(ffi)fl<h0 tf. "The window is open(The window has been
openedand is still open)." See pp. 2L-22.
-te (-de)baltari iru -(1t'rr I L .6 always, e.g. Tabetebahari imasu..
A,<([fi. DU,'*f. "He is always eating."
-te (-de)hoshii <'M,LU', :-te moraitai want someoneto do some-
thing, e.g. Ano hito ni atte hoshiin' desu. br>Llc* c(.0tLL,'
/.,'Ct. "I want you to meet him." -nai de hoshii, see p. 40.
(interrogativeword) -te (-de) ii lnol ha ualearanai (!'!',i.f bk
! r don't know how (what, etc.), e.g. Muzukashii ji o do shite
mitsuheteii ka walzaranai. l4fLU.'?X A 5 L(.R^oW(1.\,rt,frb
kU',. "f don't knolv horv to find difficult characters."
-te (-de)iku ({T < (oppositeof -te kuru, p. 56)
1. directionof the action when it is away from the locationof
the speaker,e.g. So iinagara heya o deteihimashita. + )
-H' ''
U lr Di (/il b [fi!E*sH <'fr * * L t. "Saying that, he went
out of the room." Kyo kodomoo gakko ni tsu,reteihintashi-
ta. 1\+tF?V'lfft:illtr<'fr* * Lfu. "l tookmy childto
school today." Obentd o motte ihimashl. *dtF*laf.t c\
ffi 3 * L r , . "Let's take our lunch." tsttrete ileu is used
to take a person or pet along, while motte ihu, is used to
carry some object along.
2. verb of learning or performing a skill * te iku refers to the
performanceof an action from the present or some future
point in time onwards, e.g. Kore kara sd' shite ihimasu.
LtLrt'bZt L(fl$tf. "I'll do it that way from now
on." (cf. -te huru, p. 57.)

* For a more detailed explanation on the use of te-f.orm*directionalverbs,

see pp. 27-28.
56 -te (-de) irat V2-following Expressions

-te f-d4 irai <D)* since. . ., e.g. I{ihon ni itte irai Nihon ga suhi
ni narimashita. F #tt6 ->T,D)*H#rt\W I fc k 0 * L /:. "Since
I went to Japan,I came to like Japan."
-te (-de)iru (1.6
1. taddsh;*te iru progressiveform, continuative action, doing
something,e.g. Tegamio haite imasu. +ftft?#!.(!.tf.
"f am writing a letter." See p. 22.
2. jiddshi*te iru descriptivemeaning, e.g. Mado ga shimatte
imasu. finiFFt c(L',tf. "The window is closed." See
p. 2r.
*-te (-de)itadahu -iCt.fuff(ffi, lH) < (to be fortunate) to receive
someone'sfavor, e.g. Senseini eigo o oshiete itadahimoshita.
fc$3:Xi*X#.*_<1 ./:ff8 * L/c. (I am fortunate that) my teach-
er taught me English." (cf. -te ntorat(,p. 58).
-te (-de) hara <rt'b after, e.g. Gohan o tabete hara, gahkd e
ikimasu. ittl, (ffifrntA{:c rt,b#tf :nft* t f. "After eating
a meal, I go to school."
-te (-de) hoso<a+ only when, e.g. Sonna muzuhashiikyohu ga
utsuhushihuhihetehoso,idai na ongahuha to ieru. kr+frffiL!.
ffiri* L < tifki( :' +&X.frff#N & E *-6. "Only when he can
play such diftrcult music beautifully, can we say he is a great
-te (-de)hudasai(T3 u' mild imperative, e.g. Yonde hudasai.
ffiLfTS!' "Pleaseread." -nai de hudasai,p. 40.
*-te (-de)hudasaru(T3 6 (he)is kind to do somethingfor (me),
e.g. Senseiga uatakushi ni hon o hashite hudasaimashita, ,U*.
/r\tLl.#t ft L (T3 L. * L /c. "My teacher was kind enoughto
Iend me a book." (cf. -te hureru, see below)
-te (-de) kure ( < h abrupt imperative used by men, Kore o shite
kure. L *t X V'C < lt,. "Do this (for me)."
*-te hureru ( < tLb same as -te kudasaru e.g. Imdto ga yi/uku
o tsuhuttehuremashita.ffirii$nt.XrccT. < tt,* L/:. "My younger
sister made a dressfor me. (My youngersister was kind enough
to make me a dress.)"
-te (-de)kuru (*6
1. verb of motion* te huru direction of the action when it is T
towards the speaker, €.9. Heya ni haitte himashita. Str
lc,l. c(.*,* Llc. "He came into the room." (cf. -te iku,
p. 55).
v2'following Expressions -te (-de)mo kamawanai s7

2. verb of learning or performing a skill * te huru, refers to the

performanceof an action beginning at any point in the
past and continuing as far as the present, but not beyond,
e.g. Ima made s6 naratte himashita. +t f + , E: (Xt
L/c. "f have learnedit that way up to now." (cf.-te iku,
p. 55).
3, some jidoshi*te huru begin to..., Ame ga futte kimashita.
ffiniFA=T.X* Lfu. "It has begun to rain.,,
- t e ( - d e ) m a d e( t t even going to the extent of ..., e.g. Hito
no ohaneo tsuhattemade sonna hoto ga shitai desu ha. ),.o>*d$
tffi-c(.ttt Ltr.: &riL/:!'tfi.. "Do you want to do such
a thing, even at the expenseof other people (even going to the
extent of using other people'smoney)?"
-te (-de) mieru (-F, *-b appearsas if, e.g. Kono ydfuhu o hiru to
futottemiemasu.c oi+nnaH 6 Ltz (-F,*_t.t. "when I wear
this dress, I look fat (it appearsas if I were fat)."
-te (-de) miru. <46
1. try doing something,e.g. Furansugoo benkydshite mimashita
ga muzuhashisugimashita.7 t >^liEXMffAL(4t Llcii
flEL?5 * L/c. "I tried studying French, but it was too
2. to do something and see what happens,e.g. Kono hon o
yonde mimashd ka. a o)#X*jtl,t.& t L r ) fi,. "Shall we
read this book (and see what kind of a book it is)?"
-te (-de) mo ( { even if, e.g. Anata ga itte mo watakushi wa
ikimasen. bkt:rti'fr c\ t fAltffi*' * {t4,. "Even if you go, I
won't go."
(interrogative word)-fe (-de) rno ( t no matter how (what, etc.),
e.g. Ano hito wa donna ni tabete n'to |hihu narimasen. bo>X
&ALtrl:ft"i(6XI<ttD *trt. "No matter horv much he
eats, he doesn't get big."
-te (-de) mo ii ( t L.L. you ffi?y, e.g. Sore o tabetemo ii desuyo.
+tL?.&,.{(6!.'L.tfj. " Y o u m a y e a t i t . " ( s e ep p . 3 6 - 3 7 )
-te (-de) mo kamawanai (6lf:#.b/t!., It doesn'tmatter even if you
do . . . , e.g. Yarnetemo hamaimasen. +}b( t fi$L',* lfAr. "Even
if you quit, it doesn't matter." (see p. 36)
* For a more detailed explanation on the use of te-f.orm* directional verbs,
see pp. 27-28.
58 Ae (de) /?toYnakutetno Vr-following Expressions

' t e ( - d e ) f t ' t o Y n a f t a s s(m

t Vot c ( ( 6 w h e t h e ro r , e . g . K o n n a
koto wa shite rny shinahutemo hamaimasen. aLfrr. &ltL(6
L/r ( "iCtfffiL.*t4,,. "It doesn'tmatter whether you do such a
thing or not."
-te (-de)moraitai ( 6 b (H) L'/:1 , :-te hoshii want someoneto
do something, e.g. Kodomo ni hayahu dhihu natte moroitai desu.
?frlc+ <t8 ( fr cTt bL,,/cu.':ef. "I want my child to grow
fast." -nai de morai tai, p. 40.
*'te (-de)morau ( 6 b (H), ( I am fortunateto receivesomeone's
favor, e.g. Ane ni yofuhu o tsuhutte moraimashita. fiflc;$,gTtt?
c?t bL.* L/c. ("I am fortunate that) my sister made a dress
for me." (cf. -te itadahu, p. 56)
'te (-de)naranai <rr Prk!. :-te (-de)shiyo ga nai.
-te (-de) noheru <Dff A manage to do, e.g. Hidoku muzuhashii
shigotoo umahushitenoheta. Lhl'<ffiLt.fl$XJ * (F) < L<A
Wtc. "f managedto do a very difficult job well."
-te (-de) oku (*". <
1. do something for future use, e.g. Tomodachiga kuru ltara
okashi o hotte ohimasu. A;$riX bt),b*d#+tH c(S I
t f. "I'll buy cakes becausemy friend will come.',
2. leave it or let it go at that, e.g. Sa kotaeteohimashita. +
, EZ<h.$ * Lfu. "f ansrveredthus, and let it go at
.te (-de)ori "ic*d, =-te ita (conjunctive) is doing. . . ancl e.g.
Clt.ichiwa ima Tokyo ni ryohd shite ori, haha wa Kyoto ni nokctte
t, &tiHtilSltDacT.h.D*t.
"Father is traveling in Tokyo now, and Mother remains in
-te (-de) sae Y u ( * .t- V {f only if, e.g. Yohu benkyd shite
sae ohebadaijObudesu. J ( tr5fiL($.i-*"-tltt'tt*ff. ,,Only
if you study hard now will everything be all right."
-te (-de)shimou.( L t ) completionor finality of an action, e.g.
Wasu,reteshimaimashita. HitiC Lt!.t L/c. "f completelyfor-
got about it."
-te (-de)shiyo (sh6) ga nai (frffi(L r ) )rilr!. :.te naranai
couldn't help . . . ing, e.g. Nahete shiyo ga nahatta. if kt (ttffi
iihi. e /c. "I couldn't help crying hard."
V2-following Expressions -wa shinai Sg

-te (-de) ua (tt conditionai form of the pattern, if A, then a

negativeconsequence.Examplesare below. See also pp. 34-35.
-te (-de) uta ihenai :CttU."rllXU., (prohibition) literally, it can't go
it you do somethirg, therefore, you may not, e.g. Mite wa
ihemasen. -Etltt .'hlt €rt. "You may not look." See p. 35.
-te(-de)ruairarenai<tt!', btLkL. be unableto bear..., e.g.Totemo
mite wa irarenahatta. L< 6 -E:cttL. b}t,ki. u /c. "r couldn't
bear to look at it."
-te (-de) wa homaru (0tffiF. we will be in difficulty if you 66 . . .
Sonna hotoo shite wa komarimasu. Z,<,lrr. Lt L:cttK , * ?.
"You distress me (inconvenienceme) by doing such a thing."
See pp. 34-35 for more examples.
-te (-de)ua nararxai <tttr bfct., (prohibition) we must not, e.g.
Nihongo ',xo hurasu de ua gigo o tsuhatte wa naranai no desu.
B FSD, ? zt0tX** Xf.cT,lt l"cbttL'ot?. "We musr not
use English in our Japanese class."
*-te(-de)laru (t6 ( I ) d o a f a v o r in doing something, e.g.
Kodomoni hon o hatte yarimashita. ?!*llc-*.tqz(tD * L/:.
"I did a favor in buying a book for my child." (cf. -te agerx(,
p. 55)
'tsukusuI < f finish up, e.g. fuIotteiru. monoo zenbuuritsukushi-
mashita.f+ cA.L.6 t O t*fr$ft,, ,S < L t L/c. "I soldeverything
that I had."
-tsutstt,o2 : -fiogafa while, though, €.9. Warui to shiritsutsu,
saseteshimaimashita. ,&! ,' Lffi0 ccs {n.icL * L.'t L/c. "Al-
though I knew it was lvrong, I let him do it."
-tsuzukeru*it|f 6 continu€.. . ing, e.g. Benleyoshitsuzukeru.
Lf,'ftirf6. "He continues studying."
-uru 1+6 be possibleto . . . , e.g. Sonna hotoga ariuru hazuga nai.
'++btff (g)
t rLfr : Lfi\h 0 ,ifrr, , "Such a thing cannot pos-
sibly occur." negativeof uru,, enai, see p. 48.
-we shimai lt L t !', (negativetentativ€),e.g. Sonna mono wa m i
wa shimai. ? rrtc 6 eltfllt L t u'. "Perhaps he won't look at
such a thing."
-wa shinai lt L fx! ,, (emphatic negative),e.g. Sonna mono wa ari
* For a more detailed explanationon the use of te-f.orm* directional verbs,
see pp. 27-28.
60 -yasui Vr-following Expressions

wa (arya) shinai. +,1/r6Olt.b?0tLfrL'. "There isn't any

such thing."
-yasui tf (h)v, is easy to... (oppositeof -nihui, p. 50) e.g.
Kono fen wa kakiyasui desu. aD^s TttgItfU.'{.'f. "This
pen is easy to write with." hahiyosuipen g I tf t,r'( 7 "a pen
which is easy to write with."
-y0 I , (ffi) way of . . . ing, e.g. Sonna mono u)a tabeyd ga nai.
k ,<,/r6 Olt Ad I , ,ikL '. "There is no way to eat such a
thing." (cf. V 2 hata, p. 48) Y z td is often used with verbs aru
or nai.

III. Expressions which follow the Third Base f&JLffi<L,E, LW L'),

BtrM<ttfu/:L'dL') of the verb and someadjectives.
-aida Ff, while, all the time when, e.g. Haha ga haimono ni itte
iru. aida, watahushiua hon o yondeimashita. #rt\HWJU.ftcT.
!'6Ffi, fAtt#tffi,r+tL.* L/c. "While my motherwas out shop-
ping, I rvasreadinga book."
Note: In a sentenceusing -aida, subjects for the principal clause and
the subordinate clause are usually different. For the same sub-
ject, it is more common to use V2 nagarA, see p. 49.

-baai WA when, in the caseof ..., e.g. Nihon ni iku baai, hihdhi
de ihimasu. EI*lt6<W*, tt{ffi,ffifffi**f. "When we go to
Japan,we'll go by airplane." For Y to baai, see p. 51.
-bakari (Ii. D
1 . only, e.g. Taberu bakari de shigoto wa shimasen. ft-{ 6l{
rt, D (.'ff #lt L t "$rt. "He only eats, and doesn't do the
2. be about to..., e.g. Taberubahari no tokoro e Toda-sanga
himashita.A'{bttfi'} 0>&: b-.-FH8 furt\X* L/:. "Mr.
Toda came just at the time when we were about to eat."
For Y to bahari, p. 51.
3. to the extentthat . . . , practically,almost, €.9. Kanashikute
munega saherubaharideshita. tHL < (fi@r\l{c?'-fi. t tL/:. +i
"f was so sad that my heart almostbroke." +,r
'1' I
-baharide wa nai tIi. D fltk!. not only that . . . , e.g. Nihon e $'
itta bakari de wa nahu Taiwan e mo ihimashita. E 4^{T a /cf f '{'.
rt,Otlt,lr ( 6i4^6{T* t Llc. "Not only did he go to Japan, ,#
but he also went to Taiwan." I
! {'*."
I Vs-following Expressions -dohoroka 6I

-beharazaru {(4) fi,b3'6 (precedesnoun) that which should not

I be... ed, e.g. Sorewa yurusubeharazarzt.
b 3 6 & ff. "It is a thing
koto da. ZtLttt-#f^r.
which should not be permitted.',

T -bekarazu{(q') rt,bt negative of behari (beshi),prohibition in

bungotai(literary form) don't, must not, e.g. Hairu bekarazu.
x6{i. bt. "Don't enter!',
I -behi'{3 attributive form of beshi of bungotai (literary form)
meaning must, should, e.g. Kore wa dare mo ga yomu beki

T hon da. : irtt?E 6 riffifu-{ Ar'Aff. "This is a book everyone

should read." Behi is alsousedbeforethe copulada (desu). Ashita
ihu behidesu. gng'41<-{gi'rf. "You should go tomorrow."
T Note: For the verb suru both suru beki and su beki (ru is omitted) are
used. e.g. Konna hoto wa ima subehi hoto de wa nai. i- Ltt, a z.
I It,+f ^ 3: e rttfuL'.
"This kind of thing should not be done

T -daheti\ (t)
1. as much 4s, e.g. Taberarerudahetabetehudasai. A,{ btL6
til,tA{(T31.. "Pleaseeat as much as you can eat."
I 2. only,just, e.g. Taberudahedeshigotowa shimasen. A.{ 6 ff
WttLt.Ftt L t t /u. : Taberubakari de shigotowa shintasen.
I "He only eats,and does no tvork."
-daheatte f:Whc\ :-dake ni

t -dakede ua nai ffklflilc!.' :bahari de wa nai

-dake ni ffl.l l: : -dahe atte as might be expected, e.g. Ano
otohowa itsumo ohashinahotoo jiman suru.daheni dohoka tari-
T nAi. hDyJlt!',p('f''IFif)
d*"'r.LlrxrtH,lpf 6t:rrlcl'ri"E Dtt
! r. "That he is somewhatweak in the head might be expected
t from the fact that he is always bragging about strange things."
'dard t:b , : -deshd probably, e.g. Ima hare wa uchi ni iru
I dard. +,
-deshTtL r , :-dard
6tib ,. "He is probablyhome now."
see p. 14 for more darT (desh|).
-dokorode wa nai &': bacftku' :-dohoro no hanashi de wa nai
T :'dohoro no sawagi de wa nai emphatic, f,ar from . . . , e.g.
Isogashihutehaimononi ihu dohorode wa nahatta. ,ft L < ( HWJ
t Iaafr< &'zbtttlci. ctc. "I was so busythat I couldn't go shop-
ping (far from having time to go shopping).'
'dohoroka &': brt, far from . . . but, not at all . . . but, e.g:. Kyo
b2 -furi o suru. Vg-following Expressions

u)a arnari isogashihutehon o yornu dohoroha, gohan o taberuhirna

mo arilnase?x deshita. + Bttb* (*) D,[tL < (#tffit:&': bfi,(
tt,L (ffiAE)AAd 6 HH6 *> 0 t t A,t L/c. "I was so busy today
that not only was I unableto read (far from having time to read),
but I didn't even have time to eat."
-furi o ytru J, (ffi) 0 *tb pretend, €.9. Kare wa watohushio mite
tno itsumc minai furi o shimasu. 'tlLIttLX-E"tCt !',:6 -E/tL'"g,
D 2 L t f. "He always pretends not to see ffie, even if he does
see me."
-ga ,i conjunctiveparticle, but, horvever,e.g. Kind u)asamuhatta
ga ky0 wa atatahai.. EFg lt*r. =tcfi\4E ttffi!.1.. "It was cold
yesterday,but it is warm today."
Note : Sometimes-ga may lose all adversative implication, in which
iase it is best to translate it as "and."
-ga mono wa nai ,i 6 DItlxL ' there is no need to. . . , e.g. Kufn
suru,ga mzno tta nai. I*f 6ii6 oltlgL.. "There is no need
to think it out."
-goto ni a'& (@)l: every time (with each occurrence,progressive
increaseor decrease),e.g. Otanjobi ga huru goto ni hitotsu.toshi
o torimasu. h'ro/!b,E ri* 6 i Ll:-ctFX L D &t. "Every time
a birthday comes,we get one year older."
-hozu ltf (g) (normal expectation)supposedto, expectedto, e.g.
Ky0 ihu, hant desu. 1Aft < ltftf.
- h a z ug a ( z u a n
) ai ltf (*)fifulr
"He is supposedto go

it is not likely that..., thereis

no reasonto expect that, e.g. Ano hito ga sonna koto o iu, hazu
ga nai. hl>Xrl\trtlrL LtE ) fifrilg!'. "There is no reason
to expect
p. 4L)
that he would say such a thing." (-nai hazu u)a nai,
-hazumi ni ttf&lc :-hy1shi ni in the act of, e.g. Kaidan o
oriru hazu,mini ashi o suberasemashita.PWWTWDblff4l:,E
Xfil bt* Lfu. "He slippedin the act of descendingthe stairs."
-hi ni wa B lclt if, in case, e.g. A shigoto bahari shite iru h; ni
t/)a tsu,harehitte by0hi ni natte shimau dard. e>b+L#t{r. D L<
!.6 B lcltff tL*, (ffifltck cA,L*, tib r. "ff he workslike
that all the time, he will probablybe exhaustedand becomeill."
-ho fr literally "direction," side, one as comparedwith or opposed
to another, e.g. Chihatetsude ihu ho ga basu de iku yori zutto
Vs-following Expressions -ha 63

havaidesuvo. trT$*rfl <frt:zrz ac'fr< I Df , L+1 .(..f r.

"It is much faster to go by subway than to go by bus."
Note : It is convenient to remember that when hd is used, adjectives
should be translated as comparative. e.g. Kono hd ga ii desu.
a Dfi rtiU.L't f . "This is better."
-hOga ii (yoi) frrt\!.1. it is better to. . . , e.g. KyO ihu hO ga ii
desu,yo. iA'fr <firt\L.,L.T?I. "It is better to go today.', (-nai
ho ga ii, see'.p.41)
-hodo lt l. (E) : -hurai to the extent that, so much so that . . . ,
e.g. Atto hito wa suteru hodo ohanega arimasu. jaDx]rtffi<b
l* &'*.'Ari*) 0 t t. "He has so much money that he can afford
to throw it away (He has money to the extent that he throws
it away).'
-hodono hotowa nai l*&'(fg) Da tltkL.' there is no needto, it's
not, e.g. Sonnani ohoru hodono hotowa nai desho.
+ ,\,lrt:/gi 6l* E q>: & ttfr! .t L r 5 . "It's not worth being so
mad about, is it ?"
-hoha lwa) nai l&ltfr!' :-!ori hoha lwal nai, see.p. 81.
-hyOshini tfr}l:- : -hazumi ni in the act of, e.g. Tachiagaru
hyoshi ni ocha o hoboshimashita.trb-b,ri A+rt+tc*".#X: {f L *
Lfu. "ln the act of standing up, I spilled the tea."
-igai lni, ua) Utl except that . . . , e.g. Tanaka-sanga huru igai
taa dore mo konai desh6. E+SA,riXaUtllt;tEtXfcf .'tLr ,.
"Except for Mr. Tanaka (Exceptthat Mr. Tanaka comes),perhaps
nobodywill come."
-ijo ltua] IJ,h so long as...1€.g. Ihite iru ijd wa na?tiha shinaherebo
naranai. e,8 (U " 1i,.l:ttt,f''Ir.LlrWttlf fr blf,!,'. "So long as we
live we have to do something."
-ka fr
1. interrogative particle, e.g. Ashita gahho ni ihimasu,ha. gng
Ytftl:6* t ?r.. "Do you go to school tomorrorv?"
Note : Traditionally there was no question mark in Japanese,but
around 1887it made its first appearance,and in conternporary
Japaneseit is quite frequently used.

2. rhetorical question,e.g. Ano hito ga sonna hoto o suru mono

desuha. hD/rrt\Z fuh: LXta 6 otfi.. "Hewon'tdo
such a thing!" "Do you think he would do such a thing?
64 -ha dd ha Vg-following Expressions

No, he wouldn't!"
3.uncertainty, e.g. Tanaha-sanga itsu huru ha shirimasen.
E+E A,iit,?(,1'"1ffi)X6i.H 0 t tL. "f don't know when
Mrs. Tanaka will come."
-ha dO ha firE 5 fi, :-ha Yr", ha whether or not, e.g. Ihu ha d0
ha shirimasen. ffi < i. &' J r1,ffi0t + /-. "I don't know whether
he is going or not."
-ha dO ha ni yottei.&'5rt'?cl cA. :-ha Yro; ha ni yotte
'ha ftto shirenai fi. { LhhL '. : -ha rno shirenu DZIY, possibly,
literally, cannot know even whether, e.g. Ashi,ta ihu ha mo shire-
tnasen. gng 'fr < i.6 VtLt tl". "I may go tomorrow."
-ha mo shirenu i.d Lhn :-ha mo shirenai
-ka Yno;ha fr V irf ',i. :-ha d0 ha lku ha ihanai ha shirimasen.
'fr "f don't know whether he is going
<rt,afrh.ft1'i.fi1, tt,t.
- h a Y n o ;k a n i y o t t e i . V l g L . f r | : J z ( d e p e n d i n go n w h e t h e r . . .
or not, e.g. Ano hito ga ihu ka ihanai ha ni yotte himemAsu.
hDLrri?1 < /r,'frrt./r!' I : (I*b t f. "f will decide,depend'
ing on whether or not he goes."
-ha shiraln) rtrLb I wonderif ..., e.g. Ano hito u)a Nihongo
ga yohu hanaseru,ha shira(n). &>o>XltE #t$ri I ( ff&+f6fi'U b,
"I wonder if he can speakJapanesewell ?" (Used by women,)
ka to omou to fi,LE ) & :-k,a to omottara when I thought that
. . . , as soon ?S,e.g. Kita ka to omou to md itte shimaimashita.
* t : h . & , u . , & i , ) ' f r c a . L t ( 7 ) r , . , * L / : . " A s s o o na s h e c a m e ,
he left."
-kagiri h,* 0 as f,ar ?s, e.g. Watahushino shitte iru hagiri hare.
wa shdjihimonodesu. tLr)fucA.1.6i.5 D, 4&ttEH#<t. "As as I know, he is an honestman."
-hanheijo Ht{-L, due to the fact that . . . , e.g. Koho wa natsu de
mc kihd ga sanuri hanhei j0, shohu.butsu ga yohu sodachimasen.
:: (ftt&)ttErtxEri*r,.'ffif*Ih1+hh\r
<Hb*t,L. "Dueto
the fact that it is cold here even in summer,plants do not grow
-hara firb because,since (placesemphasison the result, cf. -no
de, p. 72) e.g:. Md su,guihu hara matte ite hudasai. 6 ) ? (H)
+{1 ( r. b'ft2(u'(T3[.. "Pleasewait for rr€, becauseI will
Vr-following Expressions -koto 65

come (go) very soon."

-hara hosort'baZ (emphatic)preciselybecause,e.g. Watoleushi
ga, ihu kara hoso,kare mo iku, n' desu. t|rJ\'fr ( ,. b a Z'6fr.{'fr <
,ttf. "PreciselybecauseI go, he goestoo."
-hara ni wa fi,bl:lt now that, since, if, e.g. Yaru learani wa ii
shigotoo shinasai. t 6 rt, blc.ttL 'L .ft$ t L/r 8 ! .,. "If you do it
at all, do a good job." Kimi ga iu, hara ni u)a hontd ni chigai-
nni. FnlF 5rt..blalt+*llgL.'k!'. "If you say So,it must be
-hara to itte fi'b L€ c-C. just because,€.9. Tsukoretahara to itte
netebaktzriiru wahe ni m0 ikimasen. {Ellutch,bLE.<W.(ll
r t r DL ' 5 * 2 W l C t U ' 8 t g ' , L . " J u s tb e c a u s Ie a m t i r e d ,I c a n ' t v e r y
well sleepall the time."
-hawari ni fir*t| rtc- in place of, in exchange for, e.g. Ky0 wa
gahh0 e ihu. howari ni machi e ikintashita. iAtt#&rffi< fi'L>
D l:rj^.ffi$ * Lfu. "Instead of going to school,I went to town
'heredomo6ta[ L :-keredo but, horvever,more colloquial than
-go, e.g. Arto hito ua olzanega Aru keredontoleechide chittomo
tsuhairnasen.*>D /.Jt*d*r:*>a6tL&'6 , vJr2t'b c e 6'[tL .'* t
Au, "He has money, but he is stingy and doesn't spend it at
-ki ga oru 9\rS',&>6have a mind to . . . r e.g. Anata ni sore o
suru hi ga orehashite nto ii desu. *>tr/cl:-i ttl i,t6='x\hi*>*tlf
L( {>L',!''-C.'f. "lf you have a mind to do that, you may do it."
-ki ga sunt \\t\iz; h a v ea f e e l i n g t h a t . . . , f e e l l i k e . . . i n g , e . g .
Ky7 ua gahko e iku ki ga shimasen. l?tt#,ffrffi < 9UlLt{f
lu. "I don't feel like going to schooltoday."
-ki ni naru j(,1:tr.6 come to feel like . . . ing, e.g. Atatakaku
natte kita no de, niwa de hatarahu hi ni nottc himashita. ffitr. <
trc ( 5 f:DT, ffiacffft < fll:/c c(.3 * L/:. "Since it's getting
warm, I am beginningto feel like working in the yard."
-hirai ga oru * bt.' (ffi)rt\*>6 :'sttgiru' kirai ga aru, p. 51.
-hoto : & literally "thing" in the abstractsense(cf. -mono,p. 68)

1. causesthe verb which precedes

it to be changedinto a noun,
e.g. Oyoguhotoga suki desu. ii( <'C,& rt\*T* tf. "I like
66 -koto ga aru Vs-following Expressions

Note: Koto often is interpreted as "fact" or "act." Koto is inter-

changeablewith no, in this usage, except when koto is used
in set phrases (see the following several expressions).

2. exclamation,emphatic ending, €.9. Ano hito wa yoku taberu

koto. *>0>X0tI < A"{ b a L. "How that man eats!"
3. with verbal adjective of time, for a period : -aida e.g.
Nagai hoto orne ni hakarimasen deshita. FL,, I & td H lci.
rt'D *t LfL/:. "I haven't seen you for a long time."
-hotoga aru : & rt"*>b there are occasionswhen . . . , e.g. Nihon
ni iku hotoga ArimAsn, ka. B+U=ft <: &rib D *t/t,. "Do you
have occasionto go to Japan?" For Y u koto ga arlt, see p. 52.
-kotoga atta:&rt\hcfc t h e r e w e r e o c c a s i o n sw h e n . . . , e . g .
Mtchashiwa yoktt Nihon ni ihu. hoto ga arimashita. #lt J < B
#Ul6 < : & rt\h D * L/c. "Formerly there were many occasions ;
when I went to Japan." For Y to hoto ga atta, see p. 52.
-kotoga dehiru : &rit$'(HX) 6 it is possibleto, can..., e.g.
Nihongo o hanasu leotoga dekimasn.kA. E ##tt"%f : & ,it 3' T
: Nihongoga hanasemasuka. "Can you speakJapanese?"
-hotoni (to) naru : & lc./16 it is decidedthat..., it is arranged
t h a t . . . , i t h a s c o m e a b o u t t h a t . . . , e . g . O t O t og a A n t e r i k an i
huru koto ni narimashita. #ni7 / t) )1?:X 6 :. & lc tr.0 t L /c.
"It is arrangedthat my brother will come to America."
-kotoni (to) natte iru : & ?:lr c(,1 .6 this is the practice, it is
customary that . . . , e.g. Mainichiyo ane no uchi rti ihu koto ni
natteimasu. ffinfrtttfrDXV.afr < : LU=ft c { L '* f. "lt is custom-
ary that I go to my sister'severy Sunday." ;
- l n t o n i ( t o )s h i t ei r u : & l c L i ( u . 6 m a k e i t a p r a c t i c et 0 . . . , e . g .
Mainichi suhoshisanposuru hoto ni shite imasu. @AbVf*1lt
every day."
" I m a k e i t a p r a c t i c et o t a k e a s h o r t w a l k T
.kotoni suru a & la-{--b decide,e.g. Kotoshi no natsu, Nihon ni
ihu hoto ni shimashita. ++DE.F#ll.afr ( : &tcL* L/c. "f de-
cided to go to Japanthis summer." For Vro koto ni suru, see p.
-hoto to omou : & &,9, t :-to ontolt. I think that, e.g. Kyo
Yamada-sanga kuru koto to omoimzsn,. # g tlt E 3 ,Ini* b a L
& ,8,!. t ?. "I think Mr. Yamada comes today."
-hotowa Ys r, &tt Vs-Vs ni wa Vs repetition of the same verb,
Vr-following Expressions -mae ni 67

as far as. . . is concerned,it is all r i g h t , b u t . . . , e . g . Taberu hoto

wa tabernasuga amari suki de u)a arimosen. Adb I' & ttA{=
fris)* (*) Dftt*rlrb0 *r,r. "I eat it all right, but I don't
particularly like it."
-hurai < bt. ({il) - -gurai:-hodo to the extent that. . . even,so
much so that e.g. Sonna hanashi mo a,ru kurai desu. Z L
/rffi 6 b 6 < b!'tf. "There is even such a story (It is to the
extent that even such a story exists)." Ano hito wa Nihonjin
to machigaeroreruhurai Nihongo ga jozu desu. &>o>XrtfE+ &
f6€ k-btL6 < bL.E6*gri*L,+tf. "He is so good in Japanese
as to be mistaken for a Japaneseperson (He is good in Japanese
to the extent that he is mistaken for a Japaneseperson)."
'huse ni ( + (ffi) lc although, always followed by a negative idea
or feeling of contempt (cf. -no fti, p. 73) e.g. Yomanahattakuse
ni, yonda yd na koto o itte imashita. ffithi. ctc( tltfiilA,tjl
) tc : & XE c T,L . * L /:. "Even though he did not read it, he
talked as if he had."
-mo mo naku fHt tr ( without having time to do . . . , e.g. Kesa
nani o suru ma mo naku uchi o denaherebanarimasendeshita.
fllj{>fx < f; X Htr.Wttt{h D* t,tt
+'i,lltE?.-l.6 L/c. "Withour
having time to do anything, I had to leave home this morning."
-made * t until, e.If. Anata ga huru madernatteintosu. btri:
, i X 6 * t q i c A . U . * f . " I ' l l be waitinguntil you come."
-madem0 nai * t t fcu', goes without . . . iniT,e.g. Sonnahotorca
i u m a d em o n o i ( h o t o )d e s u . + A , / c : & l t l i t t t t t r L , L & t f .
"It is needless to say such a thing."
-madeni * tlc by e.g. Kare ga kuru ntaden.i otuatteiru to omoi-
rnAst(. MrtVK7a t ti:f;,S c\.1 .6 &,[t,U. * ?. "I think it will be
finishedby the time he comes."
-nraeni fiilil (sequenceof action) before. Use of mae and mae ni
are sometimesinterchangeable,but ni often pinpointsthe time
more definitely. That is, without ni the perioC before may be
more indefinite,but with ni emphasisis on the time just before,
e.g. Nihon ni ihu, rnae ni Nihongo o naraimashita. B # !=:It <
Bflc E##XE!. t Lft. "I learned Japanesebefore I went to
Japan." Arnerika ni kuru mae Nihon ni sunde imashita. 7 , t)
n lc* 6fr1Ef U.E/.,tL . t Ll:. "Before I came to America, I
was living in Japan."
68 -mai Vs-following Expressions

-mai t !. (tentative negative)oppositeof tentative forms, -0, -yO

(see Sixth Base,tentativ€,pp. 82-83); follows the 3rd base of con-
sonant-stemverbs. -mai follows the lst baseof vowel-stemverbs I
(see pp. 39-40). The irregular verbs suru and huru may take this
ending with both the lst and 3rd base with no change in mean-
ing (see pp. 39-40).
1. negativetentative, e.g. Sonna hon wa yzmumoi. Z /-fl#tt
ffi-b t L'. "Perhapshe won't read such a book."
2, negative will, e.g. Konna n?onowa nto haku,rnaito omotte
iFnosu.aA"rrtott6 ) g( tr,,&,8=(,t.,9f.,,I am
thinking I won't write such things any more."
- n t a is h i t L ' L : - n a i h a r a ( e m p h a t i c ) b e c a u s e ( h e ) i s n o t .e. . ,g . I
Kodomo de wa arumai shi konnayasashiikoto ga waharanai hazu
ua arimasen. +&:J-tttbb t !'L, a LtrSS LL'r Lrt\brt'(f)
bftt.[tf (tr)ltb D t+rL. "Becausehe is not a child, he should
(There is no reasonfor him not to) understandsuch an easything."
'mama ni * * (ffi) t: just 3S, e.g. Otnoumama ni hahemasen. ,9. I
, t * l:ghl * t,L. "f can't write just as I think (want)." For
Y ro nXAmA,p. 52.
-mitai ;r/:t t :-!d appearsas if, e.g. Kodontotochiwa mina yoku
nete irer, mitai desu. T{At: b [*.E*f < *i:C L. 6 4t:L ,tf.
seemsas if all the children are sleepingwell."
"It I
-mono 6 o literally "thing" WJ or "person" #' in the concrete
sense(cf. koto, pp. 65-66). I
1. person,e.g. lvataleushioua Tanahato itt.mono desxr. &ttm
+ L !' ) *'Cf.
"I am Tanal<a (I am a person called I
2, thing, e.g. Nani ka taberu morxoga arimasu ka. tEn A{6
{, Oll t> 0 *.trt. "fs there anything we can eat ?"
3. obligation, e.g. Kodorno u)a hayaku neru,mono desu. +gtlr
+ < T[F.6Otf. "A child shouldgo to bed early."
4. reason, e.g. Mada hodomoda ,nono. ,. t ff+ffifi t D . ,.
"Becausehe is still only a child . . . "
5. emphatic, e.g. Anna hon wa yomeru mono de wa nai. b
,Lttf.Ifffibb 6oflthL.. "You can't read that kind of
book!" For Vro mono, see, p. 52.
-monode mo nan'de tno nai 6O:et,Flf{>/rL, nothing of that
t Vr-following Expressions -nari Y, nari 69

sort, e.g. Taberu mono de mo nan' de mo nai. Ad6 LO("6

I ,fnlftk!.. "It is not food or anything of that sort."
-rnono(mon')de wa (ja) nai 15Otlt ltL', shouldnot, e.g. Sonnaleoto

t o suru rnonode wa arimasen. ZLlrL Ltt6

tl. "You shouldn't do such a thing."
6O(.'tib? tri

-mono no {0>0> although,e.g. Itsu mo sd shiyOto omou mono no

I nahanahadekimasen. U'?(1-"1ffi) 6t , Ll , &,9,.t t o ofEi./ri.
(4a )t8t€,t. "Although I always think I would like to do
that, I can never do it."
-n' ,l short form of -flz, see pp. 7L-72.
-na lr
1. (prohibition)e.g. Sonna hon wa yomu nA. Z rLfr4ltffit_r/t.
"Don't read such a book!" Inf ormal negative imperative,
used only by men.
2. sentenceending used by men, e.g. Sonna hon LUayotnitahu
nai na. + A,tr'f.Itffi4/; ( kL,,ft. "I don't want to read
such a book, you know."
-nd tr.h (exclamation)how ! e.g. Kare wa hontd ni atama ga ii
nd. 'rRIt+*lcg-Hpiu.!'/xS>. "How bright he is !"
-Ynai ni yotte V fx L.13I z ( : -ka dO ha ni yotte depending on
whether. . . , €.9. Anata ga soreo suru shinai ni yotte watakushi
mo dd suru ka himemzsu,*>tr,forittrXt6 Uk!'lcr z'ictAt
A )t 6r.Xb*?. "I'll decide
whatto do depending on whether
you do it or not."
-nara(ba) trb (conditional)if, e.g. Anata ga iha nara, watahushi
mo ihimasu. htttcfi\T ( lrb, fA6ffi3 t?. "If you Bo, I'll go
too." For more nnra, see pp. 31-32.
-nara Y s de tsb Vr t (emphaticconditional)e.g. Suru nara surxt
de ii shigotoo shinasai. tak,bt6re, !.,L.ft$XLlxEu'. "If
you do it, do a good job."
-nari tr0
1. as soon ?S, e.g. Asa ohiru nari uchi o demashita. $J1€5 a
iS.DXXHf Ll:. "As soon as I got uP, I left home."
2. just 3s, :-tlri Chichi no iu nari ni shite imAsu. XDA 5 k
D ]rcL(1.*f. "I am doing just as my father says."
-nari Ys nari trD Vs frD either...orl e.g. Ihu nari tomaru nari
suhi na ld ni shinAsai. 'fi<ttD iHt 6-ft?*T*'fxJ ) lcLtr8L..
70 -ne Vg-following Expressions
"Either leave or stay, do as you like."
-ne *" (final particle) implies that the speaker wants the hearer
to agree; n'est-cepas? e.g. Ky0 wa otenhi ga ii desu ne. 4g
l*,*JX'frtiL.t.'t..f*a. "It's a beautiful day, isn't it?"
-rti atatte lCg cA. :-tti atari at the time when, e.g. Kono shigoto
o st{ru ni atatte hitohotoiitai koto ga arimLsr,t,. L 4'tt#xt6lc I
is one thing I want to say."
tf. " A s w e b e g i n t h i s r v o r k ,t h e r e
-ni chigainai lLrg!.,h1. there is no doubt that, it is certain that,
e.g. Ano hito wa Amerika-jin de aru ni chigainai. *>o>/ .ltz
t ,) lJ (.'b 6 f:.$!'lxL .'. "There is no doubt that he is an
-ni kagiru lcFR6 is limiteC to, is the best, e.g. Nihongo o narau. i
nora Nihon e iku ni hagirimasrt El##tE
D * f. "If you want to study Japanese,
J kb E #^{1 ( lc.pp
it is best to go to Japan." i
-rti koshitahotowa nai lL: (,EX) L/c: &ttlrL,, nothing can be bet-
ter than..., e.g. Shite miru ni koshitakoto cya nai. L(Abl=

: L/:L & ltlt!'. "There is nothing like trying it." "It is best
to try doing it."
-rti mo kahawarazu, ?:6 li'fi..b(fiI bt in spite of the fact that...,
e.g. Isshokenmeibenkyoslcru ni mo hakawarazu,ano gakusei wa
amari yoku dehinakute,hinodohu desu. -4,mf,p'ffi1e-f b!:ti.r.
*)bt, *>D-#trt1t)*(*) DJ < H*/r ( rx,o>firtf. "ln spite I
of the fact that he studies hard, that student does not do too
*'ell, and I feel sorry for him."
-ni oyobi ?:*"'J (&)Lt: :-ni oyonde:ni atatte
-ni shihu.t/)a nai ?cftE ( ttfr!' nothing like, nothing as good ds,
e.g. Yojin suru ni shiku wa nai. ,H,L.f 6rcAp( ltlx!.,. "It is
best to be cautious."
-rti shinobinai lcd.tli/t!,, do not have the heart to..., cannot al-
lorv oneself to . . . , e.g. Miru ni shinobinai. n5l:d.tNk! '. "f
don't have the heart to look at it."
-ni shiro iral-b even if, e.g. Nihon ni iku. ni shiro sonna ni sugu
rti toa ihimasen.B#t 'fr ( l: LbZ,+tctcf (H) (.r:&:fr* trl,L. I
"Even if I go to Japan,I won't go that soon."
-ni shiro Ynoini shiro l=l-b V Lb whether.. . or, e.lT. Iku
ni sltiro ikanai ni shiro tomohahu shirasete hudasai. 'tt<l.Lb
L b L (tr,)6 i. < (A)*E(fub) e(TS u.. "Whether
Vs-following Expressions -no 7L

go or not, pleaselet us know anyway."

-ni shita tohoro de ?CL /c & a bf even if , e.g. Uchi o hau ni
shita tokorode takoi uchi LUahaimasen. N{1H ,lcLtc& abt
HU,,filt,Ht.,ttrL. "Even if I buy a house,I won't buy an ex-
pensive one."
-ni. shitagatte ]1aafr.cT. in proportion to, e.g. Toshi o toru ni
shitagattechichi wa yasashihu natta. +t L 6U:ca#.c(!rtltE L <
fE-: tc. "With age (as he grew older), my father becamegentle."
-ni shite nn ?C.L(6 :-ni shita tohoro de even if, e.g. Nihon ni
iku to shitemo kotoshiua ihimasen.E+ulfr< & L:c64€ltffi
8' * t^,. "Even if I go to Japan, I won't go this year."
-ni suginai l:?(E)5 frt' nothing but, no more than, e.g. Ichinichi
ni ichi-peji o yomu ni suginai. -B lc-*- ,Uffiiu-lc?SlrL,.
"He reads no more than one a
.page day.',
'ni tsuite l3?!'( concerning, e.g. Kono shigoto o suru ni tsuite,
haiime ni iwanaherebanaranai koto ga arimasu. : OftS Xt6
?cpL.(, uh5l:F*:trft*ttf kblcu,,r & rt\*>, tf. "As for do-
ing this job, I have something that I must say first."
-ni tsurete l3:*t'i( in accordance with, in proportion to, e.g.
Kodomoga dkiku n(rru ni tsurete hima ga dehimasu. +dtrit3
( frblzcn(EHritS(rHX)t?. "The olderour childrenget,
the more time we can have."
-ni wa l:1,: in order to, e.g. Daigahu ni ihu ni ua ohane ga
^+l?afr ( l:lti"'arir.i.
kalearimasu. Dt?. "It takesmoneyto
go to a university." Konohon o ireru ni ua ano hattotila chiisa-
sugimasu.a D#X xtLA lctt *>DffiIt,J.S f(;&) 5 * -j.. "That box
is too smallto put this book in."
-ni wa Ys lc?t V3 :-hoto wa Ys repetitionof the sameverb, as
far as. . . is concerned,e.g. Hon ga aru ni wa arimosilga,ii hon
u)aarimasen.*t: *>6lctt b0 t frit.U,,f tt *>Dt g.A,. '.There
are booksall right, but there are not any good books."
-ni lwa\ oyobanail:X.0f lcL' unnecessaryto do . . , , e.g. Ashita
huru ni u)a oyobimasen.nng X 6lctt&.U t t^,. ',ft's unneces-
sary for you to come tomorrow."
-no D norninalizes the precedingverb
1. one who, e.g. Asohoni iru no ga Yamada-sandesu. b7'c
ICL'A DrtiilJH * A,tf. "The one who is there is Mr.
72 -no da Vs-followingExpressions
2. fact that, e.g. Muzuhashiino ga shinpai desu. WU1 ',4rpi,L.
EEtf. "The fact that it is difficult worries me."
3. time when, e.g. Ano hito ga hita no ua gogo sanji deshita.
baLfii*lco|t+4k=ffitL/c. "The time when he came
was three o'clock in the afternoon." I
Sentence-ending particle:
1. colloquialsubstitutefor ha, e.g:. Ihu no. 'fr10>. "Are you
2. women's speech,€.9. Ihu no. ft 1 o>. "f am going."
-no da Df :-n' da it is a fact that..., e.g. Ashita ihu no (n')
desu. EEE ft < Dtt.
we'll go tomorrow)."
"We'll go tomorrow (It is a fact that I
Note i -no da is a simple sentence-endingphrase, and often does not
have to be translated. I
-no de Dt
since,because,literally "fact being that" . . . (emphasis
on the reason, cf. -hara). -Pg no!, usz no de when the resultant
part is interrogative,impeiltive, or tentative. In these casesuse
kara (See p. 64). e.g. Ashita shihen ga aru no de hyd isogashii
desu,. gng frffirib 6 o><+ F,lt Lt'ff. "Because I have an
exam tomorrow, I am busy today."
-no de ii oT!.1' it is all right with the one that . . . , e.g. Soko I
ni aru no de ii desu. t: lc$) 6 "It is all right
with the one that is there."
-no de lno nan'de mo nai Dttl'"TftlfU. not doing anything of
that sort, e.g. Benhydshite iru no de mo nan'de mo nai. ffiffiL
( L. b 0>t { fft { l"cL.. "f am not studying or doing anything t
like that."
-no de wa nai Dac|tfl[. it is not the fact that . . !, negative of
-no da, e.g. Kare wa seijika ni naru no de wa arimasen. 'lf<lt
WtAX.?clrZ /)'|.D tt,t. "He won't becomea politician (It
is not the fact that he will becomea politician)."
-no de wa nai dard ka orltfr!'ff b , /5, I wonder if . . . not, e.g.
Ano koto o shitte iru no de wa nai dard ha. hD$zfucac!.5 ;
O-CltlrL.iibrrt,. "f wonderif he doesn'tknow that."
-no de wa nahu(te)Oftttr( it is not the fact that..., but, e.g.
Ano hito wa seijiha ni naru no de wa nahu, gahushani naru sd
desu. br>xtrwtefucfraorfttr ( , ##uc-tr6+, Tf. "r
Vr-following Expressions -rashii 73

understandthat he won't become a politician, but will be a

-no ni DtE
f. in order to, in the processof doing, . . , €.g. Tegami o haku
no ni hami ga irimasu. +ffitg 1 o>tcfftrit.,(g) D t.t.
"We need paper in order to write letters.,'
2. although,e.g. Kono hodomowa atama wa ii no ni chittorno
benhv,shimasen. a D+4#rtgHttr.L.orcr2 c L LfgifrL t t
L. "Although this child is bright, he doesn'tstudy at all.',
3. (at the end of a sentence)expressesregret or impatience,
e.g. Koho ni ireba aeru no ni , . . I' : lct.'trtt'* k-A DU.
.. . "We could see him if only he were here (too bad he
-no ni taishite D]la*t L( as opposedto, in contrast to, e.g. Ototo
ga yohu benhyosuru no ni taishiteani rua zenzenshimasen.
J < frffitb Dl.*t L(,t ttA*& L t tl,. "In contrasrto the
youngerbrother who studieshard, the elder brother doesn'tstudy
at all."
'no wa betsuto shite DITEUL L< = -t4oLUatomokaku to say noth-
ing of
-no wa tomohahulto shiteJDIt& (ff) di.( (A) : -n0 wa tonihaku.
[ t o s h i t e ] t o s a y n o t h i n go f . . . , s e t t i n ga s i d e . . . , e . g . S e n s h t t
no shiken no waruhatta no Lla tomohahu,ltonshn no u)a motto
yoku ben@oshite ii oten o totte hudasai. ,Etroffi,Ft DWrt,cl:D
It,&ti.(, +,IflD[t6, & J.<MbAL(!.,1'*d,#.X
L c(,T*u,.
"Your test last week was bad, but setting that aside,you should
study harder and do well on this week'stest."
-nomi narazu,D\ttbt not only . , . but, e,g. Ano hito rua yoleu
benhy0suru nomi narazuatama mo ii. foD/r|tl < fuffit6D4
lr bfffr t !.! '. "Not only doeshe study hard, but he is very in-
-osorega aru #tartihb there is the risk that..,, be in danger
of . . . , e.g. Ano hoho wa shippai suru osorega aru. hDfr*,tt;-
XKt6,il.tLfiiba. "That methodis in dangerof failing."
-rashii b L t,' : yd da it seems that, gives every appearanceof
(rashii comes from the classical rashi, auxiliary verb meaning
" to conjecture."; e.g. Ano hito wa Nihongo ga yomeru rashii
74 -sa Vs-following Expressions

desu. h0> l..rtfE +;S fi\ffib>6 b L L ,ff. "ft seems that he can
read Japanese."
-sa 3 (sentence-endingparticle) indeed, you know, e.g. Sonna
hoto wa shitte iru. sa. t A,fCi & ttfu cA,U'6 3. "f certainly
know such a thing." Used by men.
-sai ffi when, e.g. Sonoshigotoo suru sa'i lwa) watahushi ni rno
rnae mottesddanshite kudasai. +DttF-?tbHfa}ltHf 6 r(DJ)
<ffi;ft.L(T*L'. "\Yhen you do that work, please also consult
me ahead of time."
-saichn ni &.f lc in the midst of, e.g. Niwa de shohuji o shite iru
saichfi ni ame ga futte kimashita. trtAStU'iCL.6FFlcffiti
W.(X* L/c. "In the midst of eating dinner in the garden,it
started raining."
-sei da €1. (EF#$) ff it is because. . . , €.9. Ano hito no seisekino
warui no wa chittomobenhyoshinai'sei desu. br>XDFXffi,O,€!'
Ott b c & 6 ffi\eL trt '€L .?f. "ft is becausehe doesn't study
at all that his grades are bad."
-seiha €L'(FFre)r. perhapsbecause :-hara ha e.g. Kyo ichinichi-
jil isogashikattasei ha totemotsuharemashita. 1A-El +,[t Lfi,c
/ctL.i. L< {f;h* Lfo. "Perhaps becauseI was busy all day,
I got very tired."
-shi L not only, but also, and, e.g. Nihongo mo yotneru shi,
Furansugo//tolomemasu. E#E*6ffiO 6L7 , > KAStffiO*?.
"Not only can he read Japanese,but he can also read French."
-sd'da +, f: I understandthat. . ., e.g. Tanaka-sanwa Furansu-
go ga hanaseru,so-desu^ EFg &ltz 7 > xF$riffit+b + , Tf.
"I understandthat Mr. Tanaka can speak French."
-tabi ni /cU (E) lc each time, e.g. Haha ga uchi ni huru tabi ni,
ohashio motte hite hu.remasu.&riXl:X6l;Ulc*dHTXftcT
*( <*t,tf. "Every time my mother comes to our house,she
brings us cakes."
-tame ni /cb (.K)lc
1. purpose,in order to, e.g. Hon o lomu tame ni toshokanni
ikirnasu. #tffitr/caDlcgg;ffi166* tf. "In order to read
books, I go to the library."
2. reason,because,e.g. Ame ga futte iru tame ni uchi ni imasu.
NriE cTL,blc4llcfilCl .tf. "I am stayinghomebecause
it is raining."
Vg-followingExpressions -to iu hoto da 75

-to L
1.. (conditional)if, when, e.g. Miru to wakarimasu. nb LL)rt,
6) 0 t f. "If you see it, you'll understand."
2. Whenever,if a certain condition occurs,something happens,
e.g. Haru ga huru to atatahakunarimasu. #rift b LIE2.
( ir D *.t. "Whenever spring comes,it gets warm."
3. (time sequence)e.g. Uchi e hoeru to haha ga hite imashita.
LEnit:CL'* L/c. "When I returned home, rny
mother was there." (The part after lo conditionalwas not
For a more detailed explanation on conditional forms, see pp.
4. (sign of closing quotation) no clear distinction is made in
Japanesebetween indirect and direct quotation. -to may
be separatedby several other words from the verb of
speakingor hearing, or thinking (examplesbelow).
-to iebaieru &Eitt$ k-6 if you want, you can s?y..., e.g. Ano
hito wa benhy0hada to ieba ieru. desh6. hl>Xl''fdrlfrXtj&E *-
lt'E *-6t L r , . "If you want, perhapsyou can say that he is
a hard worker."
-to iu L€,
L. say that..., €.g. Sumisu-sanga Tohyoni ihu to iimashita.
z i x * ,Lni*Hl.'fr < & E L.,* L/c. "He said that Mr.
Smith would go to Tokyo," or "Mr. Smith said that he
rvouldgo to Tokyo."
2. which is called, who is called, e.g. Yamamoto-santo ite
h i t o o s h i t t ei m a s uk A . d J f * r t & ! . ' r Xffic\!.*-7-.rt..
"Do you know Mr. Yamamoto (a man who is called Mr.
Yamamoto) ?"
3, definedas, e.g. 'Hdken-jidai' to iu kotobao shitte imasu ha?
flf€ffiftj L L. , E # Uffic(.1 . * fi.. "Do you know the
word definedas 'feudalism'?"
-to iu hanashi da & L. (E ) J ffiti : -to iu koto da
- t o i u h o t od a & ! . t : & r u I h e a r t h a t . o . , I u n d e r s t a ntdh a t . . . ,
e.g. Ano hito wa muhashi gahkOno senseidatta to iu hoto desu.
'oDNrf+fr Dfr,*tiz fc& !' , c LTf. that he
"r understand
was a schoolteacherbefore."
76 -to iu koto dakede wa Vs-following Expressions

-to iu koto dahe de wa & U.,, a Lffl-t (;f) (..0t :-to iu dake no
hoto de ua if it is only because. . . , €.g. Atama ga ii to iu koto
dake rlewa nahanahashusseLua muzuhashii. EHtiu.,1.& L .,t : &
ffklt"tt/ (#,t ) Htrltffi L L',. "If it is only becauseone
has (one has nothing but) a good brain, one can't life
- t o i u y d n i & ! . ' ) I ) l c i n s u c h a m a n n e rt h a t . . . , e . g . A n i g a
ikeba otdto ,no iku to iu yd ni ano hyodai wa noka ga ii desu.
tff ( &u.,) J 5 u:5Dn#tt{+niL.,L.<'.f.,,Those
brothers are close in such a manner that if the older brother
goes, the younger one goes,too."
-to iwan bahari (ni) &L''b,rtt'i. D (lc) as if to s&y, e.g. Mo kon-
gori (da) to iwan bahari ni atama o futte ita. 6 ) c. D { D (rj)
LEb'LtIi. D UtFF'kffi.c(, "He was shaking his head as if
to say that he had had enough."
-to ha Lfi. followed by verbs such as iu, hiku
1. something to the effect, e.g. Sumisu-sanga Nihon ni iku to I
ha hihimashita. x i xg L7J\861.'fr< Lfi.,lfl** L/c. "r
heard Mr. Smith is going to Japan,or somethinglike that."
2. ...or...; e.g. Kd suru to ha d ka nani o itte iru no
ka uakarimAsen.: ) f b Lrt,*>btb Li.f'TX*J cA,L'6 Dh,*trt,
(ft) D t.t L. "Doing this, doing that-I don't understandwhat
he is saying. (He had better make up his mind what he is go-
ing to do.)"
- t o h i h u & F f l ( I h e a r t h a t . . . , e . ! I . Y o m a m o t o - s a n u a k ybdy o k i d a
to hihimashita. dI+ S ,ttt+ E fififf & EA3 * L ft. "I heard that
Mr. Yamamoto is sick today."
-to mieru L n*-b it looks as if, e.g. Yamada-sanu)a totemo
tsuhareteiru to miete kaoiro ga amari yoku arimasen deshita. IIJ
H*,tlt L< 6tr*r(!',6 Lnk-<!H@,t',*0I
<b D*t&tL/c.
"It looked as if Mr. Yamadawas very tired, and his complexion
was not very good."
-to rno & t
1. (conjunction)even if..., €.9. Ikani taku,sanhon o lomu to
/n0, sore o konasu hoto gd dehinaherebayahu ni tatanai.
u.i. (fnf{)t:iRdJavffitr& t +tLt: tcf : &rit* (H*) tr
WtLlt'&l:il/cfxt... "Even if you readlots of books,unless
Va-followingExpressions -toki lni) zT

you can digest them, it won't be useful."

2, (sentence-ending phrase)of course, e.g. nlo.
ffiffii 6 & 6 . "Of courseI will study!" UseCby men.
-to mo nashi ni & t /c L lc : -to m0 naku, does not mean to do
something,e.g. Miru to mo nashi ni mimashita. nb & t tr L
lc-E* L /c. "I didn't mean to look, but I just happenedto see
-to no hotoda L0>: & ff :-to iu hotoda I am told that..., e.g.
Ano hito ua Nihon r ihu to no hoto desu. ho>X1tgf^'fr< L
D a & tf. "I am told that he is going to Japan."
-to shite L V< granted that . . . , decidingto, e.g. Kono uchi o
hau to shite, ihura hurai dasu tsumori desuka ? a DNXH 5 L
L(1.'< (ffi)b < b!'Htct (ffi) Dt?r'. "If you decideto buy
this house,how much do you'intend to pay?"
-to (-ni) shite mo L L( 6 =to shita tolzorode even if, e.g. Ashita
iku to shite tno gozenchfrni u)aihimasen. nngft< & L(t+Bf,{T* *t&. "Even if we go tomorrow,we won't go in the
(hypothesis)if, e.g. Moshi Nihon ni iku to
-to shitaraL Vtcb shitara (-to sureba,-to suru. to),taitei rainen
-to sureba& ftttl desho.
t UE#u.'fr
< & Lt:b/:1.(!.(xftr)
-to suru to Lt z">L *c[:1; L r ) . "lf we ever go to Japan,
perhapsit will be next year."
-to wa ie & [ig,t- :-to uJaitte nto even if . . . , e.g. Uhural iso-
gashii to ua ie, sonokurai no hototaa shite kurete mo ii ,to tti
. o . , t t L L . & l t , s . t - ,t 0 > < b t ' , ( { i l )0 ) a & 0 t L ( ( * r ( { > r , ' L . o l c .
. . , "Even if he is busy,I wish he would do that much for ffie,
but (he won't)."
-to lzual kagiranai & pRb lr U. it does not necessarilymean that
. . ., e.g. Nihonjin dahara ii Nihongoga u)a.hagira-
nai. Efi ffi. b!'!. Efe$nif$+6 & lt[fi,bk!.. "Just because
a personis Japanese, it doesn't necessarilymean that he can
snprk good .Ia,oanese." l-nai lo uto hqgi
791rAryAt,i qep nn t
- - -
f f l
- - ,

-to wa nashini & ltlrLlc :-to rno nashi ni

-tohi lni) ffil: See pp. 32-33for the use of tohi. See also p. 67,
mae ni, f.or the differencebetweentohi and tohi ni.
78 -tokoro lda) Vs-following Expressions

'tokorolda) L.b
1. location,the place where, e.g. Koho wa gohan o taberutohoro
desu. : : tta'tt/L (ffifrnAA^ 6ffiac? "This is the place
where we eat our meals."
2. point of time, the time when, e.g. Ima uchi o deru tohoro
desu. +, X{r'Hb & : bft. "'We are about to leave
home." For Vro tohoro, see p. 52.
3. situation, in the situation, e.g. Ima benhyoshite iru tohoro
desu. +, ffitfrL:C1.5 & : btt. "I am studying now
(Norv I am in the situation of studying)."
4. extent, so as : -hagiri e.g. Watakushi no shitte iru
tokoro de wa ano hito wa hehkonshite imasen. tLDfucA.
!'5 & : baclt.*roAltffiMV( !'t €,L. "As far as I know,
he is not married."
5. thing, e.g. Anata no iu toleorowa mottonto desu.. btttcD
A 5 L :- bI}-6 , L (fr) t "ie?. "What you say is reasonable."
-tokoro no & : b o> (relative pronoun) used mainly to translate
relative pronouns in f oreign languages into Japanese,it often
sounds awkward, e.g. Kore wA ima jibun ga yonde irct,tokoro no
hon de aru. c,fi,lt+ Aftrt\ffi,Ltt ,6 L a b D#th6. "This is
the book rvhich I am now reading." See also p. 189.
-tdri i8 D :-flafi just 2s, e.g. Senseino iu, tdri ni shinasei. fr,
tt D-3 ) & *; D t:L fr S ! .. "Do as your teacher says."
-totan ni & /:,I (6ffi) l: no sooner than, e.g. Ano hito ua toho ni
tsu,ku(tsuita) totan ni nete shimaimasu,. fcDL|tffil.if < &t,t
1ga*XL t L
.'* -|.. "No sooner does he go to bed than he falls
ni ?1.,t (t) ll while doing A, [we] will also do B. e.g.
Toshokan de rehishi no hon o yornu,tsuide ni chiri no hon mo
trgHBtm-*,D#xffifuau .,tlctrry D+6 ffiA * L/c.
"While at the library to read a history book,I also read a geog-
raphy book."
-tsumorilda) ":6 (ffi) D showsintention,e.g. Ashita iku tsumori
desu. gf g fr <p 6 Dtf. "f intend to go tomorrow." For Vro
tsumori,see p. 53.
-uchi ni 5 bl= while, while A is in progress,B will occur, I
Vs-following Expressions -ya lina ya) Z9

Haha ga kaimono ni itte iru uchi %i, ohashi o tsuhurimashita.

=T.!'6 , b?c*.'H+trFDt L/c. "whilemy morher
was gone shopping I made a cake." -nai uchi ni, p. 42.
-ue ni -ht:
f. in addition to, e.g. Ano hito wa Nihongo ga dehiru ue ni
mo dekiru. bD/'& B+ASritS (HX) ,btrc.ry
tr#6:e5 a. "fn additionto beingableto speakJapanese,
he can speakChinese,too."
2. when, e.g. Shobaio itonamu ue ni taihen taisetsuda. ffifr,
tH'b-b, I.*AxtJJti. "When you managebusinessit is very
-wakelda) *2W
f . it means that . . . , e.g. Ifure ga shita to iu waleedesune.
& B ' bvl(,f*a. "It meansthat he did it, right ?"
2, reasonvrhy, e.g. Nihon ni ita hara Nihongoga yohu hana-
seruwakedesu.Eltlcu'lci'b E+esri I <#rt 6bvlac?.
"Becausehe was in Japan, that is why he can speak
Note : -wake da is a sentence-endingform, which often does not
have a distinct meaning, and thus cannot be translated into

-wakede wa nai iz}tltltL' it doesn'tmean that..., e.[f. Akui

de suru uake de uA arimasen. #fftf bbflfltb D *.+,\,.
"It doesn'tmean that I do it out of spite." -nai uahc de ua nai,
see p. 42.
-waheni ftuo)ihanai biutL'i.hL' can't very weli do something,
this won't pass, e.g. Sonna hoto o suru wahe ni wa ikintasen.
+rllrl LXtTa*ttl:t*,t,'* *trL. "I can't very well do such a
thing." -nai wahe ni iltanai, see p. 42.
-wari ni #ryrc in proportion to, considering, e.g. Sfrgakttga kirai
da to iu wari ni yohu.dehimasu. ffi'#riffi1 .,ff&!,5 SU?cI < f 8
(HX) tf. "Consideringthat he says.he doesn't like mathemat-
ics, he is good in it." Kare u)a toshi ga ihanai wari ni morxowa-
hari ga ii. ',Mt+rti1 ,,f rlg \,,$U!=ryn|cfir
0 rt\L,,1'. "He understands
things well for his young age."
-ya iino yal t as soon 8s, e.g. Uchi e haeru ya toho ni tsukima-
shito. X^'1fr6+tr1c6;* t Llc. "As soonas I got horl€,I rvent
80 -yara Vyfollowing Expressions

to bed."
-yara S b expressesuncertainty, e.g. Shimizu-san wa itsu Nihon
ni haeru yara waharanai. HzK* ,tltL .= (FIffi) F 4 U.lfrA t b*2
fi"(ft) bkL',. "We don't know when Mr. Shimizu will go back
to Japan."
-yara...yara fb....pb w h a t w i t h . . . , e . g . B e n h y ds u r u y a r a ,
uchi o hirei ni suru yara, anata wa zuibun isogashiidesu ne. ffi
ffit 6 + bNA 3 *t L' (ffiffi) lc? 6 t b ffift 'ltL !',t-fia.
"What with studying and cleaning the house too, you are pretty
' busy, aren't you ?
'y0 da I , (ffi) ru, -N na I ) (ffi) fr for attributive form; it looks
like, as if (but is not necessarily) ; yo means appearance,e.g.
Ame ga futte iru yd desu. ffiriK c(,U'5J , (.'f. "It looks like
rain." Dare demo dehiru yd na yasashii shihen deshita. ;Ef {
t5 (H*) 6 I J tt& Lt',E{,mtL/c. "It was an easy examination
which it seems,everyone could pass."
-td ni j )lc
1 . just 3S,e.g. Amerika ni Nihongo o hanaseruhito ga taleusan
iru y0 tti, Nihon ni //to Eigo o hanasent,hito ga takusan
imasu. 7 / t) )1t:El***a3frt 6 riXdr ! . 6 J ) u=B4ta t
XmA;f;t 6 rindr ! . t -j.. "Justas therearemanypeople
who can speak Japanesein the United States, there are
lots of peoplein Japanwho can speak English."
2. in order that ..., Shu.jinga benhy0 dekiru yo rti ashita wa
hoclomoto ichinichi-jfi gaishutsu,suru tsumori desu. */rii
M?et56I 5 uc-an
Flt?tr L-H+rlHf 6c t , rf. "rn
order that my husbandcan study tomorrow, I intend to
go out all day with my child."
3. somethinglike, e.g. Nani ka sowta hotoo itte ita yo ni obo-
eteimasu. Nrt,ft,\,tt: & tA c TL'/c J 5 l:y*-<U'* f.
"f rernemberhe said somethinglike that."
4. wish for others, e.g. Ii hurisurnasuo sugosaremasuyo ni. , .
! . ! ' 2 t )z z x t : 6 : ' * h t ? t 5 lc... "I wish you (will
have) a nice Christmas."
-yd ni iu' J ) l:F ) (indirect command)e.g. Gakusei ni sono hon t
o yomu y0 ni iimashita. #Hlc-ZD*XffitJ J ) lcB!,,* L/c. ,'I
told the studentsto read that book." ;

V.-following Expressions -ba ii no ka 81

-yd ni naru I 5 ?ctc6 comesabout so that the statementbecomes

true, e.g. Konogoro Nihongo ga yolneru yo ni narimashita. a
(Jtr)DWB#FSriffiO6I 5!=ts.0 * L/c. "Lately I have become
able to read Japanese."
-y0 ni suru t 5 Ucta makes it so that the statement beco:nes
true, e.g. Heya o hatazuketemina ga hoho de asoberuyd ni shi-
rnash,. Ht frffry'icl$ri: :. (trfu)t.ffi{ 6 I ) l: L t L r, .
"Let's clean up this rocm so that everybody can play here."
-yori i. 0 than, e.g. Sd suru yori kd suru ho ga ii desu.
+ , i
6 i.D a rtafrnlL"L.Tf. "It is better to do this than that."
-yori hoha lni, wa) nai J , {&frL' there is nothing else to do but
. . . , e.g. Kyo wa jiddsha ga nai hara aruhu yori hoha arimosen.
latiH&tHrihL.'i'b# ( r D+uhat-rt,{,. "sinceI don'thave
a car today,there is nothing else to do but walk."
-yori hohalniJ te ga nai J D,f&+r!fx!,, :-!o/i hokalwal nai
-yori shihataga nai f D l|frrt\l"cL,, :-!ori hohalwa) nai
-yoshilda) fi I am told that . . . , e.g. Raishani wa sorega wakaru.
yoshi da. *;Et:ltttrrtibrt,(fr) 6Hff. "r am told that we'll
find out next !veek."
-yotei f.da) plan to, e.g. Ashita haragalekoe ihu yoteida. slJ
"E < "I plan to go to schoolstartingtomorrow."
-zo + (sentence-ending
"trff. particle)emphatic,e.g. Kore wa muzuka-
shii zo, : *rttffiEL ! . t. "This is difficult,I tell you." Usedby

IV. Expressions which follow the Fourth Base IEfrIV<i.(!'l-i

!') of the yerb.
-bAlf seeconditionals, pp. 6-L2.
-ba Vs hodo[{ V3 l* &' : -ba Y s dahe the more. . . the more, e.g.
Tahusantaberebataberuhododhihu nnrimasu. iftilJA<ir.ft'ft{
blt EX8 < fr? * f. "The more you eat, the bigger you get."
-ba ii n' desuga lf U.!'&ffri -V3 to ii n' desugA. . . wish,
e.g. Ashita tomodachiga hurebaii n' . . . EEg Ai*rire
*r,tt'L.L.&t?ri . . . "I wish my friend would come tomorrow."
For a more detailedexplanationof the subjunctive,seepp.33-34.
(interrogativeword) -ba ii no ha tf !',\,,Drtr :(i.w.) *Ytoroii no ka
how (what, etc.) to do . . . , e.g. Do shite honohanji o shirabereba

82 -ba ii no ni Vr-, Vu-following Expressions

;; no ha wakarirnasen.E 5 L(: DW+AiEdfuif L.,t,,Drt.bD.
(ft) D t trL. "f don't know horv to look up this Chinesecharac- ;
-ba ii no ni l{t,.'!'o?c wish, e.g. Haha ga ireba ii no ni..., E
,iu',*tlfL''L',OVc... "I wish my mother were here." For a more
detailed explanationof the subjunctive, see pp. 33-34.
-ba koso ft':t -V3 kara koso emphatic, e.g. Anata o shinjireba ;
hoso ihasete age,nashita. bf3..t:*{E D,*r,1t'a+'frrt.-$'iCb (-L) k} t
L/c. "Precisely becauseI trusted you, I let you go."
V. Expressionswhich follow the Fifth Base fr+M<&)!,,txt 'hlL')
of the Yerb.
-to iu LE J (indirect command) to tell someoneto do something,
e.g. Ototo ni hore o shiro to iimashita. #U=a*LtLb&FL.t
L fu. "I told my younger brother to do this." Sensei ni kono
hon o yome to iwcremashita. fts.]l=a D+tffi,b5 LE-.bta* Llc.
"I was told by my teacher to read this book." t
VI. Expressionswhich follow the Sixth Baae t&&ffi (f t' D l ,
Ltt.) of the verb. t
-yd I ) (-d) (*d) , -yd with vowel-sternverb, -d with consonant-
stem verb.
Functions: 1. one'swill 2. imperative,usedby men "let's ..,"
3. probability, in case of copula ;
(interrogativeword) -yd (-6) Sa (to) J t ,i : (i.w.)* te (de) mo no
matter how (what, etc.), e.g. Iha ni benkyo shiyo to, sonnA //ptztt,-
hashii shihen ni wa uharu hazu ga arimasen. L,i. (fnf!l) lcffijfi,U
il L, 4,LtrX#Lt,'ffi,&t:ttRr.6ttf (€:)rt\ho *.t/-. "Nomat.
ter how hard he studies,he can't possibly pass that kind of dif- ;
ficult examination."
'yd (-0)Sa (to)hamawanai J , rt\rt't (f#)*utrL' it does not matter
if something happens,e.g. Ano hito ga shin6 to kamawanai. *>
DLrtl.ft,0>5 Lt.**:k1,,, "It doesn't matter if she dies."
'yd ('d) ga (to) Ymoisa (to) J , ri v t!.ii whether... or not,
e.g. Ano hito ga iho ga ikumai ga watahushi no shitta hoto de
jfi\ft < tr.rifl.Dfuzlc:
ua naL *>0)l..'fii{T: &:etthL..
"Whether he goes or not, I don't care (it's not my business).',
- y 0 ( - d )g a ( t o ) . . . y d ( - 6 )S a ( t o ) J r r i l evenif ...or..., e.g.
Ame ga furd ga yuki ga fur6 ga ihu tsumori desu. ffiniFFb , rig
Adjstem-followingExpressions -ge 83

rt\Wbrrt\fr ( ={ (ffi)Dtt. "Evenif it rainsor snows,

I intend
to go."
-10(-d) ni ,n0 I ) t: {, even if you want to . . . , e.g. NagusameyO
ni mo nagusameru.subeo shiranAi. ff&) I ) ?c{ E{O b'ffizfiilt>fr
! r. "Even if I want to comfort her, I don't know how to."
-yd (-6) to omou (kangaeru)J. , L,g ) I am thinking of doing. . . ,
e.g. Motto benb0 shiy0 to omotteimasu. 6 , LffiffiL I ) &,8 ,
iCL',* ?. "f am thinking of studying more."
-yd (-d) to suru J , & ta
f . is about to do something (but not accomplishingit), e.g.
Dekahe!6 to shite iru tokoro e tomoCachiga himashita. ffi
,. (#f)lf I , LL(1. A L . b^X$ri* t L/c. "My friend
came just as I was about to go out."
2. trying (unsuccessfully) to do something,e.g. Okiyo to shima-
shita ga amari nemukuteohiraremasendeshita. € 3 I , &
L t Ltiib * (*) DnR< (€* bht e ,Lc L/c. "I triedto
get up, but I was too sleepy and tvas unable to get up."

VII. Expressionswhich follow the Stema of the Adjectiues IVE

r , L).
Since Japaneseadjectivesare a form of verb, many of the suf-
fixes which attach to the dictionary form of the verbs also attach
to adjectivedictionary forms as shown earlier. Therefore, some
of the special suffixes which only attach to adjectivesare given
The follorvingsuffixesattach to the stems of adjectives. To make
the stem of an adjective,delete the last i from the dictionaryform.
e.g. osoi i8!. "to be late" is a dictionary form, while osois a stem.
-gari rti 0 a personexceedinglysensitiveto the quality described
by the adjective,e.g. samugari tgrl , "a person sensitive to the
cold," howagari tfrrt\0 "timid person, coward"
-garu fii6
1. conjectureabout the feelings or emotions of someoneelse
other than the speaker,e.g. Kodomoga terebi o mite omo-
shirogatte irnasu. +U+rt\7 v € X R (ffi'H ri c \! 't f. "A
child is amusedwatching TV."
-ge W : -.ed seeming condition of others, e.g. Totemo ureshige
ni hanashiteimasu. L<6ffit-WltffiL(L'*f. "He is talking
B1 -haro Adj.t"--following Expressions

very ha-opily(looking very happy)."

-hard rt,b , - Adjs dard (tentative). -kard-form is not as com-
monly useCas Adj, * dard (desho).
(Interrogative word) -hard ga (to) tJ'b ) tl :(i.w.) * Adjpup,no
no matter how (what, etc.), e.g. Donna ni takakardga hau tsu-
ntori dssu,. ELlrlcHr"b ) riH J":t D (.'f. "No matter how
expensiveit is, I intend to buy it."
-kattara tJ,cfct> (conditional)if, e.g. Takakattara kaimasen. H
rt'cf:bH[.'*t4,. "If it is expensive,I won't buy it."
-ke 'n makes an adjective into an abstract noun of the quality
described by the adjective, e.g. nernetke BRfi "sleepiness."
Hanashiteiru, u,chini nemuhega sasltintashito.ffiL(!.'6+lcHR
fitl8 Lt L/:. "While I was talking, I became sleepy." Kaze
o hiita no ha sanr.uleega shirnosu. RW2UL.'/cOr'g$f,riLtf.
"Probably becauseI caught cold, I feel chilly."
'kerebaWtttt' (conditional)if, e.g. Ikitakerebaitte mo ii desu yo.
8 t:rtfu',ffT=a.6 L',1'Tf I. "You may go if you want."
1. makes an adje:tive into an adverb, e.g. Takahunarimashita.
rE < fr? t L/c. "It becameexpensive." "He becametall."
2. also makes a few adjectives into nouns, e.g. Chihaku jfr <
"neighborhood," t7ku, jS < "distanc€,"etc. For more ku-
f orm, see pp. 88-89.
-hu mo Adjpu mo nai
hu mo hiku,humo aritnasen. fS < t{t_t< 6b 0 *.tL. "lt is neither
high nor low."
-hu,tno noshi Adjlu mo nai
,tto nai
'kunai ( lr! .' (negative), e.g. Kitanakun,ai desu.
iE < fi!.rf.
"It is not dirty."
'kute ( f tu-f.ormof adjectives;the functionof kute-f.orm is similar
to Vy,
1. (conjunction)and, e.g. Ataroshikuteii uchi desu. ffiL ( <
L'L'Xtf. "It is a new and nice house."
2. (cause)becaus€. . . , €.g. Furuhedetsuleaimononi narinzasen.
fi < (fft', t Olcfx 0 t t&. "Because it is old, we can't
use it. Use hute-f.ormonly when the resultant part is an
Ad j.t"--following Expressions -sugiru kirai ga aru 85

objective statement with no implication of one's will or

desire. e.g. Tahahute kaemosen.H < (H k-t tl".
Becauseit is expensive,I cannot buy it." If one'swill or
desire is implied, use kara (p. 64) or no de (p. 72). e.g.
Tahai hara kaimasen. HL 'r' b H ! . * t^,. "Becauseit is
expensive,I am not going to buy it."
-kute mo < ( 6 :-kuto lno at Adjrup"rlativer e.g. suhunahutemo
,, < ( 6 "at least,"chiisahutemo ,J.8 < ( 6 "at the smallest,"etc.
-kutesurnu < (trfu get by..., e.g. Inaha ni sulnu to yasukute
sumimaset. HAlcfrtJ L* ( -iCffi4tf. "If we live in the coun-
tfy, rve can get by cheaply."
'/ -hute
tanraranai( </ct (fe) bfcL' is so...that it is unbearable,
e.g. Ano eiga ga mitahute tamarimasen. bO$REni.E t < (/: *
D t trt. "I really want to see that movie." want to seethat
movie so much that I can't stand it,"
'/ -nte
b attacheCto the stem of adjectivesof quality or degree; it
expressesthe possessionof this character, e.g. Sukoshi hayame
ni hite hudasai. ,t'L+blc*(Tt L'. "Pleasecomea little early."
-sa 8 makes an adjectiveinto an abstract noun, e,g. atarashisa
#i L * "newness."
-sd'da + , f:, sd'lte ? 5 tt for attributive form; it appears,e.g.
Are zuataltasddesu.. tr}t"ltffi Z t Tf. "That lool<sexpensive."
Are ua oisltisdna ringo desu. bhtt*"'t.'(*4)L+ Jtrt) > J(+*
{S)tf. "That rs a dehcrous-looking apple." Exceptton: When
the stem is one syllable,insert sa between stem and sd, e.g.
nasasd (nalsalsd), Nani mo n,asasddesu. 'fEI6/r 3 + , ('?. "It
seemsthere is nothing." yosasd(yolsa/sd),yosasdna hito "t S
+ J trA "man who seemsnice."
-sttgi mo sezu.(shinai shi) Adj-stem (copular noun) sugi mo shinai
f (ie) g't*ff Adj-stem?(ffi) 5 6 L/rL. neither... nor, e.g.
Nihon LUaAjia Tairiku, hara tdsugi tno sezu(shinai shi)chihasugi
moshinai. E+tt 7 i 7x!ftfi. bgfs 6rlffrf5 { LtxL'.
"Japanis neithertoo far from nor too closeto the AsianContinent."
-sugiruf (ir,X)5a too..., e.g. Ano uchi wa 1hisugintasu.*>0>8.
Itt*f 5 *f. "That houseis too big."
-sttgiru hirai ga aru ?(E) 5 amt'rib6 there is a tendencyto
be too . . . , e.g. Ano hito u)a urusasu,giru hirai ga arimasu. S)
OAlt, 63f 5 r-ffil.,iib D tf. "He has a tendencyto be too
E6 -yagu Cop. Noun-following Expressions

-yagut + become,€.9. Ano hito wa konogorohidoku wahayaide
kimashita. bo>Xr*: (ft) D\HUU < #t!.t* * Lfc. "She is
getting to look very young lately."

VIII. Expressionswhich follow the Copular Nouns MEAAil(klU'

J ) &)t,'L)
-garu ,i 6 See Adj-stem* garut.,p. 83.
-na /r makes a copular noun into a modifier of another noun, €.9.
Kirei na hito 8hU', (ffiffi) trA "a pretty person." For more
about copular nouns,see pp. 152-53. For more na, seepp. 117-18.
na is ofien used after foreign adjectives,e.g. Ano hito wa tote-
mo chdminguna hito desu. *>o>/rlt&(6f ?- i >r'lrAt?.
"She is a very charming person."
-ni ?c makes a copular noun into an adverb, €.g. Genhi ni nari-
mashita. jifllcfr D t L/:. "I became well." Kirei ni shite
ku,dasai. t ttt '(ffiEE)l: L (TS L'. "Pleaseclean it (Pleasemake I
it clean)."
-sa 8 makes a copular noun into an abstract noun, e.g. Kireisa
3 irt,', (ffim) 3 "quality of being pretty, or clean."
-sd da + ) t:, -so-na t 5 tr for attributive form, it appears, e.g.
Arto hito wa totentogenki sd desu,. hl>Xlvt& ( tfrfrt , tf.
"FIe looks very healthy." genhi so na hito rtY\Z ) /rA "a person
who looks healthy." I
-sttgi mo lsezu) Copularnoun (Adj-stem) su.gimo shinai ?(ffi) 5
titf Cop. n. f (ffi) 5 6 Llt!' neither . . . r1or, e.g. J0zu sugi
,no heta sugi mo shinai. -b+?g'tT+?*'6 L/s!.. "He is nei-
ther too skillful nor too unskillful."
-sttgircr,f(;e)Fa too..., e.g. Ano hito u)a otoho ni shite wa
kirei sugimasu. *>DXltglc L(lt8hu .'(ffiEU)f5 tf. "For a
man he is too pretty."
-sugiru kirai ga aru ?(ie) 5a * bt'(ffi) fi\hb there is a tendency
to be too..., e.g.Jozu sugiru,hirai ga arimasu. t,+f S a I b
L e>D t f. "He has a tendency to be too skillful."
-zuki *f 5 personwho likes..., e.g. Ano hito wa totemohireizuhi
desu,.bl>Xlt & ( 6 *ir[,'(ffiH) tr8 tf. "He is a personwho
likesto keepthingsvery neat." kireizuhina hito I }tt ',ff I tcA
"a tidy person"
J ' L>

As attributive adjectives,Japaneseadjectives function like their

English counterparts-that is, by preceding the nouns they modify.
But as predicate adjectives they differ from English in that they
function as verbs. For example, akai in the sentence Kono hana
wa akai. I. OT[ltfiu.'. "This flower is red," means not just "red,"
but "is red." In the sentence,Kono hana u)a ahai desu.,desu does
not have a copulativeverb function, but rather is used to make
the ending level more polite (See Copulas, pp. 13-14). Because
Japaneseadjectivesare thus a special classof verbs, they conjugate.
The conjugation partially parallels that of ordinary verbs, but is
much simpler. Dctionary forms of adjectivesend in -ai, -ii, -ui., or.
-0i, but neuer -ei. (Kirei is not an adjective, but is a copular noun.
It is, therefore, possibleto say, Kono hana ua hirei da, see p. 14.)
The stems of adjectivesare the form without the final i. The
function of the adjectivestems is very similar to the secondbase
of the verb (Seepp. 5-6). That is, the stem can be used to create
compound words, such as chikamichi ;Eif "shortcut," or naga-
gutsu EHt "boots." Many suffixes are also attached to the stem.
They are found in the Expressions which follow the Stems of
Adjectives(pp.83-86). The adjective stems of some colors become
nouns. That is, aha from akai is the noun "red," and ao from
aoi #!' is the noun "blue."
88 Conjugation of Adjectives

'i (
t{ '- \
,, -i -;'

1. takai HL' "(is)high" I

stem base suffix arbitrary term

formative for base

1. taka ku* -nal Negative

-te, takakatta (con-
2. taka ku/ Continuative
traction of takaku
3. taka I 1. -(desu, deshita, Conclusive
deshd) (Dictionary Form)
2. Noun Attributive

4. taka kere -ba Conditional


6. taka kar6 (contraction of takaku ard) Tentative

2. at arashii
h i i ffi LU. ls) new
l. atarashi ku -nal Negative

2. atarashi ku -t€, atarashikatta Continuative

3 . atarash i 1. -(desu, deshita, Conclusive

deshd) (Dictionary Form)
2. Noun Attributive

4. atarash kere -ba Conditional


6 . atarash ka16 Tentative

3. hikui {ftt"., "(is low"

-te, hikukatta Continuative

1. -(desu, deshita,
(Dictionary Form)
2. Noun Attributive

hiku I kard Tentative
*Explanation of. ku-f.orm, see
f r /
lr -\l , a
+-"4,/1 A
- / // r ; "rt (_ 1'l )
I ,/ *-.

Ku-form of Adjectives 89

4. aoi H! '' "(is) blue, green"

1. ao ku -nal Negative

2. ao ku -t€, aokatta Continuative

3. ao I 1. -(desu, deshita, Conclusive

desh6) (Dictionary Form)
2. Noun Attributive

4. ao kere -ba Conditional

6. ao kard Tentative

Note: Both ll and yoi "good" are usel in th: attributive form, but
in all other conjugated forrns, only loi is used, i.e. yoku,
yokatta, yohereba,yokard, etc.

KU-FORM OF ADJECTIVES (See also p. 84)

Ku-f.orm (identical in both lst and 2nd base) of adjectives has
an adverbialfunction. It mcCifiesverbs. Someadjective ku-f orms
modify other adjectivesand copular nouns plus ,ta or ni.
e.g. Kono uchi wa furuleu narimashita. a D6<lnf < ts D * L /:.
"This househas becomeold." (firultu modifiesthe verb
Kono uchi wa su.gohufurui desu. aDrittf J ( t5!.tf.
"This houseis extremely old." (sugoleu modifiesthe adjec-
tive furui)
Sugokukirei na hito desu. -tC < 3hL'(f,ff.[) frA-icf.
"She is an extremely pretty person." (stt.;ohumodifies
the copular noun plus fle, hirei na)
Kono kozutsumiuJa hidoku ranbd ni toriatsu,hatuareto rashii.
a D,J.&tttl' U < frL#l:[q&n'*2tLf:b LL .. "This package
seemsto have been treated very roughly." (hidokumodifies
the copular noun plus fli, ranbo ni)
For some adjectives,the ku-f.ormhas the function of a noun
as well as an adverb.
e.g. Ano hito wa kono chikahu ni sunde imasu. *>o>XttI' o)fr
( tcg6t!'*?. "He lives in this neighborhood."
Daigaku wa eki kara tdku ni arimasu. x+0t,6Rrt,bffi( i:
*>D tf. "The university is locatedfar from the station."
Otu no hito wa sore o shirimasen. * <o)lr|t+tLtm, t
Kute-f.orm of Adjectives

€1,. "N{any people do not know it."


Kute-f.ormis the te-f.ormof adjectives. Like the verb te-form, it I

functions asthe conjunction"and." (For more hute-f.orffi,seepp. 84-85)

tahai H!., "high, tall" I


\ | present perfective I tentative perfective

:ormality \l
polite I Takai desu Takai deshita I Takai deshd I
Takakatta desu I Takak atta deshd

Takai Takai dar6

Takakatta dard
formal* I (O)tat<6gozaimasul(Orakd)
(O)tako gozaimashd t
(O) takd gozai-
mashita desh6 I
-'\\- tense
present perfective tentative
t"lt" Takakunai desu
Takakunai deshita Takakunai deshd
Takaku arimasen Takaku arimasen Takakunakatta
Takaku nakatta
deshd t

informal Takakunai Takakunakatta Takakunai dard

formal* (O)takaku (O)takaku gozai- (O) takaku gozai-
gozalmasen masen deshita masen deshd
(O)takaku gozaima- I
sen deshita desh6
* Formal level of adjectives, see pp. 224-25.
Comparative and Superlative Degrees of Adjectives 9l


The word hd is used to expresscomparatives(See pp. 62-63for

more details)
e.g. Kotto /dAsha no h0 ga (ano /ddsha yori motto) 1hii desu.
aDHffiHl>frtl: (ho> HF,bHJD dro &) lq8t,.'"ief. "This
car is bigger (than that car)."
The word ichiban is used to expresssuperlatives.
e.g. Kono jidosha ga (kono naka de) ichiban ikii desLt,.a DH$J
Hf i (a D+t) -#xii t.t?. "This car is the biggest
(among these)."
ADJECTIVESE6;e < fu ,1/cL.'L >

As stated in the previous chapter, Japanese adjectives are a

special class of verbs and thus conjugate. They are, theref ore,
more appropriately called verbal adjectives. Japanesealso has an-
other kind of adjective which does not conjugate. The number of
these non-conjugative adjectives is limited. Some of them cor-
respond to English pronominal adjectives.
Following are some examples:
Kono-type words Konna-type words
kono a D "this" konna L ,{,tr "this kind of "
sono t 0> "that" sonna k /,tr "such"
ano h0> "that" anna &>i-tr. "that kind of"
dono E 0> "which" donna E/,tt "what kind of"
Differences of ho, so, a, and do
Ko indicates that the object referred to is close to the speaker.
So indicates that the object is close to the listener, or was pre-
viously referred to.
A indicates that the object is reasona ly distant from both.
Initial do often shows that the word is interrogative. I
There are many more sets of words that start with ho, so,a, and
do (See Pronouns, p. I92), but in each case the initial syllables
carry the same basic meaning.
Besidesthe above types of words, there are several more non-con.
jugative adjectives. I
Some of the very common ones re listed belorv:
arayuru *> bt| 6 "every"
aru hFil b
"a certain"
saru *6
"a certain"
kano rtrD "thatt'
(more literary than ano)
kakaru fi,fi, b " this kind of "
(more literary than aru)
taishita /cL .,L /c "great" I
tonda L Lti "outrageous"
fmore literary than honna)
"awful" t
Such words as dkina f,* tr "large," chiisanarJ.,Elt "small," oka-
shina *s,i.Ltr "funny," are also considerednon-conjugative adjec-
tives. They cannot be classifiedas copular nouns (pp. 152-s3),
even though they end with flo, becausedhi, chiisa, and okashi
without na can neither be used as noun forms nor be followed by
the copula da (desu).


Japaneseparticles are non-conjugativervords which attach to

words, phrases,or clauses,and indicate the relationship of the
precedingword(s)to the following word or to the rest of the sen-
SomeJapanese particleshave functionssimilar to English equiva.
e.g. Yamada-sanno b6shi dJE 3 ,L Dffi+ "Mr. Yamada'shat."
zo (possessive)is similar to English " 's."
Tanaka-sanlo Shimizu-sanE + 8 ,t & iHzJ<B ,t "Mr. Tanaka
and Mr. Shimizu." to (conjunction), "and," connectstwo
Other Japaneseparticles have functions similar to English pre-
positions,but differ in that the Japanese particlesare post-positional,
rather than pre-positional.
e.g. Tokyo e ikimasu. HHrfiS tf. "f go fu Tokyo."
e (motiontowards),"to," indicatesthe directionof a motion.
Tokyo kara kimashita. HHi'bX* L/:. "I came from
Tokyo." kara (motion away from), "from."
Still othershave a peculiar usagewhich is not found in English.
These particlesindicate the relationshipbetween the preceding
word(s)and the rest of the sentence.
e.g. Watakushiwa gakuseidesu. Att+/*,t-j.. "I am a student."
ua (topical)indicatesthat the precedingword is the topic
of the sentence.
Eiga o mimashita. E*EXil* Llc. "I saw a movie."
o (accusatival) indicatesthat the precedingword is the
direct object of the verb.
Most of the particles, however, are multi-functional. This sec-
tion is intendedto assistreadersin becomingfamiliar with as many
of these f unctions as possible,and also for use as a reference
manual in reading.
In the f ollowing pages, correspondingEnglish translations are
suggestedin the parentheses,while brief explanations,whenever
needed,are given without parentheses.Also, the following abbre.
viationsare used:
94 bakari Particles

Y ror-nai-form of the verb

Y 2-2nd base of the verb
Vg-3rd base of the verb
Y oo-ba-conditional of the verb
Vt"r,t"ti,r"-tentative of the verb
Y to-ta-form of the verb I
Y tr-te-f orm of the verb
Cop. n.-copular noun i
BAI(ARI lt'r' ,
(bahhari,bakashi,andbakhashi,are more colloquial
f. (only; merely; just): dahe
Noun*baleari Jibun no hotobahari kangaeteimasu. Hftl>
C & l{i. DZ k-([ . * f.
"He is thinking only about I
(Vr* hakari) Benky6 suru. bakari de hoka wa nani mo
shimasen. fffiet6tf.rt. Df{1[lt{''I6 L t 'l|A,. "He only
studies,and doesnothing else."
(Y to*bahari) Kangaetabakari de mo zotto shimasu. *
thought of it."
" I s h u d d e ra t t h e m e r e
Adj.*bakari Takai bakari de yoku arimasen. ffit .'lIr. D t
I < b , * if &. "It's just expensive, not good."
Cop. n.* na*bakari Kirei na baharide yaku ni tachimasen.
l"c[ri. 0 f' tA,. "It's just pretty,
3'fr,t', (ff"TEE)
not useful." I
II. (always)
Noun*bakari Byoki bakan shite imasu. ffifrlfr. t L(1"
t ?. "He is always ill."
(Y t'*bafeari) Byoki shite bakari imasu. ffif, L rclfrr ) ! . ;

t f. "He is always ill."

(Vs* to bahari omou) Kekkon suru to bakari omotte ima- ;
shita. ffiffif 6 Ltfi. D,E c(,!. * L/c. "I always
thought they were going to marry."
(Yu* to bahari omou) Shinda to bahari omotteimashita. T
I Particles bakari 95

mhf& lt'r' , ,KcTL'* Llc. "I always thought he

I had died."
Adj.*to bahari omou Ano uchi wa motto 6kii to bahari
omatteimashita. hr>Xlt 6 : LN.* u'l lt'r. D,E,e(!.
I t L/c. "I always thought that house was bigger."
III. (about; approximately)
I Number*bahari Sanjfr-nenbahari mae ni Nihon ni ikima-
shita. =*+|1lzl. , Bfl. EI#lt6* * L/c. "r went to
Japanabout thirty years ago."
I Goja-en bahari haraimashita. t+Hllt'i. 0 tLv.* L/c.
"l paid about fifty yen."
T IV. (with only this little bit of . . . )-little sum, little quantity
Kore-typeword+bahari Kore bahari no okane de wa nani

I mo kaemasen. hl{t.
? o*oatl*,{-"I 6 H zt ti^,.
With only this little bit of money, \rye can't buy
T Sorebakari de wa kodomono ydfuku mo tsukuremasen.
tfuttn D(.lt?ffiOi+'X&tf?}t*tli,. "With only that
little bit of material,we can hardly even make a dress
T for a child."
V. (to the extent that . . . I virtually ; practically; almost): hurai
T Vr*bahari Naku bahari ni tanomimashitagd, kiite kure-
masen deshita. if ( lf t. D l:f,fia * L tii, .( < *t
"She practicallycried asking it of him,
T *€rttLl;.
but he did not listen to her."
Kanashikutemune ga soherubakari deshita. {i1L < tfifo
T rt',*lfl6lIi. DtLlc.
almost burst."
"I was so sad, that my heart

T VI. (be about to . . . ): tohoro (seep.52 for the differencet

Vr* bahari MO hikkoshi suru, bahari da kara uchi no naka
ni wa nani mo arimasen. 6 , BlffiLtAtIr' D tCft,b
T X0) f lclt;'1d b t t €'L. "Since
move, there is nothing in the house."
we are about to

I VII. (have just done)-action just completed:tohoro

Vro+bakari Ima gohan o tabetobahari desu. +(lt,\'(ffi
t tf. "I have just eaten dinner."
t fin tfi{/clfi.
VIII. fiust because...)
Verb *bahari ni
I (Vg* bahari ni) Ano hito wa okane ga aru bahari ni itsu

96 bahari Particles

mo hito ni damasaremasu.h0>X1gtc$r\5..btt'i. 0 rtc

!'? (,f"-Jffi)
6 l:f: * 3 h* f. "Just because he has
money,he is .alwayscheatedby people."

"':f g;::l,r::.;\:{:;";:"lT;J'":ilT'Lll,lt"i
was one minute late, I couldn't see him."
Adj. *bahari ni Uchi ga 0hii bahari ni itsu mo okyaku ga
takusanarimasu. T<rt\x$ t,.'lfi. D ?:L',? 6 *d#r!?RL!*)
D t f. "Just becausetheir house is big, they always
have many guests."
Cop. n.*na*bakari ni Binbo na bakari ni itsu mo kur6
'? t #tr L t f.
shimasu. RZlrtt'i. D]rc-L "Just be-
causeshe is poor, she always has trouble."
IX. ( o n t h e p o i n to f . . . ; j u s t s h o r to f . . . )
Vr* *bahari ni Nahan bahari ni yorokonda. ifi'A,tfi. DUc
E Lti. "She was so happy that she was on the verge
of crying."
X. (thinking that it is the best time to . . . )-best chance
Noun*to bahari (omotte"thinking" is omitted after bakari)
Kono toki to bahari kanojo ni hanashikaketa. I. Afit
& tfn,0'4Lkl:;fr Li.hifc. "Thinking that this is the
time (the chanceI had been waiting a long time for
had finally come),I talked to her."
Noun* ka to bakari (omotteis omitted after bahari)
Inta ha to bakari machikamaeta . th, & l{A , D'ft brt,t i-
ft. "l waited, thinking that the chance would come
up at any minute."
XI. (thinking that it was only . . . )
Noun* ka to bahari (omotteis omitted after bakari)
Yume ha to bakari yorokonda. Urt'&l{21. D#A,t:.
"Having thought that it was only a dream, I rejoiced
to find it was real."
XII. ( n o t o n l y ,b u t a l s o . . . ) : d a h e
Verb *bahari de wa naku, . , . mo
(Vs*bahari de wa naku, Gakkd e itte iru bakari
de u)a nahu, nijrl-jikan lrro hataraite imasu. #ffi^
* n is a short forrn of, nai. The effect of this expressionis very sirnilar
to the positive verb form, Vr* bahari, see BAKARI, V, p. 95.
Particles dahe 97

'fr.icL.6t{rt.Dttt,tr ( -+ffir66ffi1'(L'*f. "He

not only goes to school, but also works as many as
twenty hours."
(Y to*bahari de wa nahu, . . . mo) Nihon e itta bakari de
wa nahu Chugoku e mo ikimashita. g 4^{T: /ct{
fi,9 tlt/r ( +trl{f13 t L/c. "He not only went
to Japan, but also went to China."
DAKE riki (f)
f . (only)
Noun* dahe
a. dake in this usage is precededby a noun and followed
by both positive and negative verbs (cf. shiha, pp.
L32-33,dahe shiba, pP. 98-99).
b. dahe usually replaces o, ga, u)A,except for special em-
phasis,in which case dahe is used with them (Seethe
following examples).
c. dahe never occurs with the particle mo.
d. dake appearswith other particles such as fli, de, ftl,
e, made, kara, to, etc.
e. dake either precedes or f ollows the other particles,
except emphatic o, ga, wa, which dahealways precedes.
dahel 'l
e.g. Yamamoto-san Ini misemashita' dr4 8
l';"ut" ;l
L, []c.ffk]l -Ee* L/c. "I shorved
it onlyto
Mr. Yamamoto."
rokyo *i*ashita.HH l(ffkll ru=
If"f:yr) tffl'it,|
t Llc."I saw it only in Tokyo."
[to dahel I
Tanaka-san hanashimashita'
E + 8't
V";; ;;l
ILft]rTI:., Lrc. "I talked only to Mr.
Yamada-sandahelsal kimashita. dJEl8 ,t tiV
[ri]** Llc. "OnlY Mr. Yamadacame."
Okashi dahe lol kaimashita. t"'H+trWlX)H
L. * L t. "I bought only a cake."
Sore dahelwalkirai desu. +tLtC?tttlffiL'tf.
98 dake shika Particles
"I dislike only that (. . . but I don't dislike other

(as much as; as many as)
Vs* dahe Moteru dahe motte itte kudasai. f$-tC5tiTfr c
<'fr a'iCT8 !.. "Please take as many as you can I
carry." I
Y to;* dake Tsuhaitai* dahe tsukaimashita. ,ff t'ft,1 'tjki&
L '* L ft. "f used as much as I wanted to use."
III. (just; only)-bahari
Verb * dahe
(Vs*dake) Taberu dahe de shigoto wa shimasen. A^6
ffkttftSlt L * tirL. "He only eats,and doesn't work."
(Y to* dake) Okane o harita dake de orei mo iwazu ni
kaerimashita. *dAA{S DtctiVJr*d+Lt E *2f u.'}frD*.
Llc. "He (just) borrowed the money and went home
without even saying 'Thank you."'
Adj.*dahe Takai dahe de yoku arimasen. HL'rukt(l
*> D t €^,. "It's just expensive, not good."
< I
IV. (the more... the more):hodo
Y u Vs* dake (repetition of the same verb) Taberebataberu
dake suki ni narimasu. A^*rlfA^
?. "The more I eat, the more I
6fevj*73'l:tr 0 t
get to like it." I
Nihongo wa benkyd sureba suru dahe omoshiroku
narimasu.E4*Srtro5fi?hr{?6 ffk}ffiH < tr.0t f.
"The more I study Japanese,the more interesting it


(only; nothing but)
Noun * dake shika* negative verb
a. dake shiha is the same as shika, but more emphatic.
b. dahe shiha is only followed by negative verbs. I
c. dake shika always replacesparticles o, ga, wa.
* When the final verb is in the perfectiveform (Y to), the first part can I
be in the perfectivefornr also,but it is more common to use the present-
form (Vr).
e.g. Tsuhaitaidaketsukaimashita.&t,./:1. t:td&1.* L/:. is more corl-
mon than Twhaitahnttadaketsukaimashita.&!'l: ir a t 1j l-t&t . *
L l:. I
Particles dano 99

d. daheshiha appearswith all the other particles,such as

fli, de, flo, e, made, kara, to, etc,
f. dake shiha follows the above particles, or sometimes
these particles can be placed between dahe and shiho.
e.g. Ocha dake shiha nomimasen. *J#/jki Lrt'ffi.4
* trL. "He drinks nothing else but tea."
dahe shihal
Yamamoto-sa [ni tegamio kaki'
" 1;";; n 'n;i"|
L llc ffLt Li'.l
masendeshita. dJ+ 3 .r
S*'tr{,tL/c. "I wrote a letter only to Mr.
shikal .,. r i.. **[l.
rokyo deshita.
{3:;:Z,:i;i"likimasen ftrl
rid:u'l "r went onlv to
rLi. J
Verb * dahe shiha* negative verb
(Vg* dahe shiha*negative v.) Ano kodomo wa taberu dake
''. "That
shikanOga nai. &>D+#+ttA{ Ft:C Lrt,fiErtifsr.,
child has no other talent but eating."
(Vro* dake shika* negative v.) Tsukatta daheshika kaeshi-
masen deshita. {rtjz /:ffh} Li.rE L t'tt^,t L fu. "I re-
turned only what I used."

(and; or ; and the like; and so forth ; and what not)-often
used in pairs.
Noun* dano* Noun* dano Ano uchi ni wa inu dano neko
dano ga imasu. *>D*t:0t^ff D\thtiofi\L'* f. "There
are dogs, cats and more in that house."
A-type word * dano* kd-type word* dano A dano ko dano
to hontd ni urusai hito desu ne. b*>f:o) a , tlD L# E
lc, 6 S !'Atf*a. "He is always saying this and that,
and is such a nuisance,isn't he ?"
Verb*dano*Verb *dano
(Vg* dano*Vg *dano) Kore o suru dano are o suru dano
t o i i n a g a r as h i m a s e n . a t L x t b f t D * > t L ? . ? . a € D LE
!'lrii bL* tA,. "Although he says he will do this and
100 de Particles
he will do that, he does not do it."
(Y,"* dano*Y to* dano) Asoko e itta dano koko e itta da-
no to itsu mo ibatte imasu. b+ I rfi: /cff D a a ^{T
z /cff D L L.? (f'jffi) { t .'lf c T,L'* f. "He is always
bragging that he has gone here and there."
Adj. * dano+ Adj. * dano
(Adj, * dano+ Adj3* dano) Are mo hoshii dano kore mo
hoshii dano to itte hontd ni yokubari desu. *>fL6 AkL I
1.ffD.*ttaftLL.'ffD LE .<+*lcg11 D(..f. "He
says he wants this and wants that, and is truly greedy."
(Adj, * dano+Adiro* dano) A sureba yohatta dano ko
surebayohatta dano itsu mo k6kai bakari shite imasu.
*>b?tLlf I rJ,c /:ff D a ) fir,lt'I i.: i: tio> L,? r"4klfr I
lfi.0 L(!.*f. "She is always regretting that she
did not do this or she did not do rhat.,, I
Some de are particles,while others are the second base as well I
as the te'f.ormof the copula da (See p. 15). De as a particle has the
meaning,"in the state of . . . " With this meaning in mind, per-
haps we can analyzesome sentencesas follows :
Kore wa hon desu. r, htt#Tf.
desu-short form of de arimasu.
"This is a booli."

Then: "This existsin the state of a book."

Thus: "This is a book."
Ddzoogenhide (ite hu,dasai). A, t*rciljifit. (ite huda.saiis
often omitted)
"Pleaseexist in the state of good health."
Then: "Pleasestay in gooChealth."
As shown below,one should choose an appropriateEnglish equi-
valent in each case.
[. Noun* de (occasionallyNoun* other particle+ de)
1. (by meansof)-instrumental
Enpitsu de kakimashita. ffi.+tg*
with a pencil."
* L/c. "I wrote
Kami dahe de tsukurimasu. ffifjd ttF 0 t t. .we
make it only with paper."
Eigo de hanashimasu.XFgtffi L t f. "'We speak in

Particles de 101

Fune de ikimasu. ffi'C'fr* * f. "'We go by boat."

Rajio de kikimashita. , t z'tffi* * L/c. "w'e heardit
on the radio."
2. (according to; by)
Jihan de haraimasu. ffifdt+A[ , * f. "'We pay you by
the hour."
3, (in exchangefor; for)
S a n b y a k u - edne k a i m a s h i t a . = E : H l t H L . t L / c . , , W e
bought it for three hundred yen."
4. (at; in)
a. location of action (cf. fli, location of existence)
Kyd toshokande benkyd shimashita. iAB#fBf
ffiffiL* L/c. "I studied at the library today."
Kodomo ga niwa'de asonde imasu. +ffih\reacffi,\.,
CL't f. "Children are playing in the yard."
b. time consumedfor a certain action
Ichi-jikan de ikemasu. -Sffitftfftf. "We can
get there in an hour."
Ihka-getsude dekimasu. -b.EfHXtf. "I can
do it in a month."
5. (among;between;within; in)-limiting the condition
Sekai de ichiban Okii desu. trnt-#t *- L .tf. "It is
the biggest in the world."
Ky6 hitori de ikimasu. 1A- tffiS*?. "I will go
alone today."
san-nin de kore o shimashita. =Arc tLt L* Llc.
"The three of us did this."
Kore to sore (to) de dochira ga suki desu ka ? a h L +
il,f Abbfi\ftT$tfr.. "Which do you like better,
this or that ?"
6. (at the age of)
Nijus-sai de shinimashita. -.+tacft!a* L/c. "He died
at the age of twenty."
7. (with)
Ano hito rva hadashi de gakkd ni kimasu. &>oAtilt
ffLre+ffilc**f. "He comes to school barefoot."
II. (so)
Beginning of a sentence: De ddshita n' desu ka ? (.'U )
102 de Particles

L/: Lttfi'. "So, what did you do?"

DE may be consideredeither as the secondbase of the copula
o r a s a particle.
Byoki de nete imashita. f,f;(.-tr(U.t L/:. "BecauseI
was ill, I was in bed," or "I was ill, and was in bed."
Kono uchi wa kirei de hont6 ni ii desu ne. a DNII 3*r,
t. (ffiH) ('4 * lcL'['-iC.f*a. "This house is pretty, and
it is very nice, isn't it ?" or "Becausethis houseis pretty,
it is very nice, isn't it ?"
Note z de meaning "because" is used only when the resultant clause is
an objective statement. If one's will is implied, use hara.
e.g. Kono uchi wakireide ii desu ne. aDXIrStrL.tL.u.t
t h, "Because this house is pretty, it is nice, isn't it ?,'
Kono uchi wa dleisugiruhara kaimasen. :.O)Nttt3 ?
3 5 7),t, ii t ' * t rf . "Because this house is too big, we
are not going to buy it."
Korede ii desuka? I.fut!'L.ffr. "Is this OK?"
(...or something)
a. demo replacesthe particles o, go, ua.
b. demo appears with such particles as fli, de, flo, e,
made, kara, to, etc.
c. demo follows the above particles.
Oclta dentoip-pai ikaga desu ka ? *d#-C 6 -f6r, r/rf i (dgf'l)
Cfr.. "How would you like to have a cup of tea or
I n u n i d e m oy a r i m a s h dt.l c t d f i2tLr ,. "Let's give
it to the dogs or something."
V z demo suru to (shitara) Otto ni shinare demo shitara
hontd ni taihen desu. *lclt/c.tL(. 6 L t:b-,Fy\=a,pt?.
"It would be really awful if my husband should die or
something like that."

DO(MO) a
(but, though, and yet)
Verb * do Utedo(mo)tatahedo(mo)zenzenhenji ga nakatta.
Particles ga 103

fi< &'/c/ckl&'Af^E+rikzl. cf.. "He knocked and

knocked, but no one answered."

(to)-motion towards
Noun+e W'atakushiwa Nihon e ikimasu. fz.lrs+^fTF
t f. "I'll go to Japan."
Kore wa chichi e no tegami desu. :lt?trC^.oS
*fttf. "This is a letter to my f ather."
Note : e is often interchangeablewith ai.
Nih"" ikimasu.
H+t;los*f. "I'll so
to Japan."
(Strictly speaking, however, fli emphasizes arrival,
while e emphasizes action of going.)
Correct Incorrect
e.g. chichi e no tegami chichi ni no tegami
!a. o+*& lt: D?ffi
"the letter to my father"
Note : ni.+no is never possible.

The word which precedesga is the subject of the sentence
(cf. wa)
Noun+ ga
1. When the subjectis emphasizedin a sentence(or clause)
Kono kata ga Tanaka.sandesu. aDfirt\H+ * ,\,Tt.
"Tlns is Mr. Tanaka (whom I told you about)."
Kono kata wa Tanaka-sandesu. e 0>fiBE + s li, T'.r'.
"This is Mr. Tanaka." (no implication)
Watahushiga kakimashita. ATDiS* * Llc. "^fwrote it."
2, IMhen no contrast is involved.
Koko ni hon ga arimasu. L C lc#r.t) 0 t t, "There
is a book here." (no implication)
Koko ni hon ara arimasu L I' tc#ftb D t f. "There is
a book here (. . . but there is perhapsno notebook,or
pencil, etc.)."
Soko ni Yamada-sanga imasu. t: ?crltE 3 ,Lrit. t f.
104 ga Particles

"Mr. Yamada is there." (no implication)

Soko ni Yamada-sanwa imasu. k c ?cdJEl3 ,Ltt!.t f.
"Mr. Yamada is there (. . . but perhaps Mr. Shimizu is
not there)."
Note : In a positive sentence in which no contrasting element is in-
volved, ga usually precedes the verbs aru and iru, instead of

3. When an interrogative pronoun is the subject of the

sentence,it is always followed by ga, never by tpa.
Dare ga kore o kakimashita ka. -#ri:ir?r#*t Llc
f r. "'Who wrote this ?"
Dore ga Yamamoto-sandesu ka. &'}1riilA$ rt(?i..
"Which one is Mr. Yamamoto?"
4. The subject of a relative clausetakes ga (or no); it never
takes wA.
Watakushi ga (or no) kyonen katta jiddsha wa Toyota
desu. Ari*+H./:Hfi€tt l. = f tf. "The car
which I bought last year is a Toyota."
Anata ga (or no) yonda hon wa dare ga kakimashita ka.
t>tttcfi\ffi,Lfj*ttF€nig8 t L/ci.. "Who wrote the
book which you read (As for the book which you read,
who wrote it) ?"
5. The subject of a subordinateclause normally takes go,
provided the subjects of the subordinate and principal
clausesare different.
Watakushi ga itta toki, ano hito wa mada nete imashita.
tLrl\fr, /cffib D^ttt ffE(1. * L/c. "WhenI went
there,he was still asleep."
Watakushiwa Nihon e iku toki, itsu mo hikOki de iki-
masu.fz.ttEl4^{1 ( ffir,,,?(,|'olffi)
6 rofTffitff * t f.
"When I go to Japan, I always go by airplane."
6. The subject of a conditional clause normally takes ga,
provided the subjects of the subordinate and principal
clausesare different.
Anata ga bydki ni nattara, watakushi wa omimai ni
ikimasu. *>trtcnilEftlrfr -:tcb, f4tt*d-E*u=63 t
Particles ga 105

?. "If you become ill, I'll come and visit you."

Watakushi wa bydki ni nattara uchi ni imasu. TAttffi
filc tt = tcb*U:L . * f. "If I become sick, I'll stay
home (As for ffi€, if I become sick, I'll stay home)."
Bydki ni nattara, watakushi wa uchi ni imasu. )Eftlc
ttct:b, tLI1XlaL.*?. "If I become sick, I'll stay
Bydki ni nattara, uchi ni imasu. ffiXlclr ct:bfilcu'
t f. "If I become sick, I'll stay home."
Note: The last sentence omits the subject completely. As long as
the subject is clear to both the speaker and the listener, this
type of sentence is most common among native speakers.

II. Conjunction
1. (but)-adversative
Verb+ ga
(Ys*ga) Toda-sanwa koko ni imasu go, Niki-sanwa
imasen. F El* ,Ltt;' ;' ?CL',
t ?ri, 4=*3 ,ttt!'* rf
L. "Miss Toda is here,but Miss Niki is not here."
N,o+ ga) Watakushiwa ihimashitaga, Takahashi-san
wa ikimasendeshita. T/.ltfT* t L ftri, Hfiff3 ,t tt
fi* * "BLt L fo. "I went, but Mr. Takahashidid
not go."
Adj.+ sa
(Adjr+ga) Kyo wa isogahiildesu,) ga, ashitawa hima
desu. 1A lt,lt L!'ii, gng lttlHtf. "f am busy
today,but I will be free tomorro'w."
(Adjr,+ ga) Ano uchi wa mae wa shirohatta ga, ima
wa aoi. bl>XltHfttHi. ->/cii, *ltH!.,. "That
housewas white before,but it is blue now."
Note: Often the clause after galis omitted.
e.g. Watakushi mo ashita ikitai to omotte imasu ga. . .
, . I t o o w a n tt o
go tomorrow, but (. . . I don't know if I can)."

2. (and)-no adversativeimplication
Verb+ go
Ns*ga) Watakushi mo yoku ihimasu ga, ii tokoro
106 ga Particles

desu. Atf <fl$tfr!, L'L.F[1"f. "I too go

there often, and it is a nice place."
(Y t"+ ga) Watakushi mo yonde mimashita ga, totemo
omoshiroi hon deshita. tLt ffi,t TL(R) t L/cii,
L< 6m'Ht'f tL/c. "I read it too, and it was a
very interesting book."

III. (whether . . . or not . . .)-ga after Vtentative

is interchangeable
with to
Vtentativege. . . Vj"ntative ga .. . (contrasting idea)
Katd ga maheyd ga kamawanai kara tomokaku ganbari-
mash6.WL ) riAl.i J, rt\ffiblxL,irb L6 r. <Effi Dt
L t , . "It doesn'tmatter if we win or lose. Let's do
our best."
Adi,"r,tativega .. . Adir"ntativega . . . Tahahard ga yasuharT Sa
kau tsumoridesu. Hrt,b, rt\Xfi,b J rip J ct Dalf.
"Whether it's expensive or inexpensive, I intend to buy
Vturrtativega..ctoiga,.. Ano hito ga ihO ga ikumai ga
watakushi wa ikimasen. bo>Xnifi: , rt\ft ( t t,iifl.ttf?
3't t't. "Whether he goes or not, I am not going."
Sorne verbs, adjectives,and copular nouns normally take the par-
ticle ga instead of.o for a direct object marker, except those involv-
ing contrasting elements in which case wa replacesga.
1. like, dislike
watakushi wa kore ga suki desu. falt atL/r\*TStf. ,,I like
this (This is likeable to me).',

IV'atakushiwa kore wa suki desu. r, hltffi g tf. ,,f
like this (. . . but I don't like that, etc.)."
Watakushi wa kore ga hirai desu. TArtc,trriffiL'.1ef. "r
dislike this (This is dislikeableto m*g)."
2, necessity
W'atakushiwa yoi jibiki ga irimasu. {A}t J U.?5ltiU . (tr) ,
* f. "I needa good dictionary." cf. watakushi wa yol
jibiki wa irimasu. fattrr,.?5lltu. D tf. "I needa good
dictionary (. . . but I don't needa bad one, etc.)."
Particles ga 107

Gaikokugo o yomu toki, iibiki ga hitsuyO desu. fl-tr;S tffi,

fuffi, +}|rt\,X,Ftf. "When we read a foreign language, a
dictionary is necessaty."
3. potential
Nihongo ga hanasemasct.E##fii3ft*f. "r can speak
Japanese." cf. Nihongo wa hanasemasu. E A#ltffi"u * f.
"f speak Japanese(. . . but no other language,etc.).',
Nihongoga wakarimasu.H##rt\brt.(tr) Dtf. "r under-
stand Japanese."
Note: waharu ftA means "[something] is divisible," that is, ,,[some-
thing] is clear," hence one "understands[something]." Some-
times it can also be translated as "to knol." cf. shiru, which
means "to know a fact" or "to get acquainted with.,,
€.9. Ashita iku ka d6 ka mada ( /,p
) /t* t:bi, ? t X L. "I don't know (Ir is not clear
to me) yet, if / will go tomorrow or not.',
Ashita iku ka dd ka shirinusen. WEfj ( /r&' ) rtrfuu)
* .$ rL. "f don't know (for a fact) if. he will go
tomorrow or not."
Ano hito gawaharimasen.bDLrtihb, * € L.ldon't
understand him; I have no understandingof him.',
cf. Ano hito o shirimasen.&>o>/1tfuu)*t L. ,'I don't
know him; I am not acquaintedwith him."

4. desiderative
Nihonshokuga tabetaidesu. B 4AriA{/c!'t?. "I want
to eat Japanese food." cf. Nihonshokuwa tabetaidesu. E
*AltA{lc!'tf. "f want to eat Japanese food (. . . but
not Italian food,etc.)."
Motto okanega hoshI desu. 6 c L*"'Ariffi L t'-iCf. "I want
more money." cf. Motto okaneua hoshii desu. 6 , & *b-
A0i?ikLt''?f. "f want more money(...but I don't want
any troublewhich comeswith money,etc.)."
But: before-tagaru(the 3rd persondesiderative), Ieavethe
particle o. Ano hitg.wa Nihon no kamerao kaitagatte
imasu. *>DXlt E# D )r / t tHL./czli c(.1 .t ?. "He
wants to buy a Japanese camera."
5. fear
Obake ga howai desu. t;lh?fiifif t,'Tf. "I am afraid of.
monsters." cf. Obakewa kowai desu *d,ftBlttftU.,t?.
I08 giri particles

"I am afraid of monsters (. . .but I am not afraid of any.

thing else,etc.)."
6. envy
Ano hito go tffayamashiidesu. &>'l Xni#t Lt.,"i('.f. .,f envy
But: Minna ga ano hito o urayamashigaiteimasu. l$ri
t#* Lrl ca.t.'t?. "Everyone is enviousof him."
GIRI 5, (seehiri)
GURAI +b1.,(see kurai)
HODO 11r (rg)
r. (to the extent of ..., to the degreeof ...)-comparative
1. Noun* hodo-ppositive verb (as . . . as)-This f orm is not
used as often as Noun * hodo* negative verb (see z,
Yamaguchi-san wa Taleada-sanhodo takai desu. rlrEr
3 A,ttHE 3 L|t.&. ,Et.'tf. "Mr. yamaguchi is as
tall as Mr. Takada."
2. Noun* hodo* negative verb (not so . . . as)
Kotoshi wa hyonen hodo samuku arimasen. . Ftrt*
4-l* &'t-€< b D *.€.4,. "This year is not so cold as
last year."
Noun* hodo* negative verb (nothing is more . . . than)
-This hodo is interchangeablewith kuroi.
Nihongo hodo muzukashii mono wa arimasen. E 4*r
It EWL L ',t a;0tt) t *-tiA,. "Nothing is more dif-
ficult than Japanese."
Verb* hodo* negative verb
Nihongo o hanasu no wa yomu (no) hodomuzukashiku
nai desu. E+;F *#t D|tffitrl* &'ffiL < r{ L,tf.
"To speak Japaneseis not as difficult as to read it.,'
3. Verb* hodo da (so . . . that) .,,.
Ano hito wa atama ga yokute mittsu no toki ni m6
honga yometahododesu. t>o>xltEHrir< \zco
ffil: t ) +riffioftt* &'('f. "He is so bright that
he could read a book when he was three (He is
bright to the extent he could read a book when he
was three)."

Particles ka 109

Y n a ; * h o d o( s o . . . t h a t . . . f l € g a t i v e )
Ichi-gy6 mo yomenai hodo nemui desu. -'t16 ffibrr
u.'l1a'.HRI,.'tf. "I am so sleepythat I can hardly
read a line."
II. (about): kttrai:bakari
l-lumber*hodo Mada mittsu hodo nokotte imasu. * ff=
2ltEl>Lu(L,*?. "There are still about three
Go-nin hodo kite imashita. fi t= &'xrL'* L/c.
'About five peoplewere there."

III. (the more . . . the more): dahe

Y oo+Vs* hodo Yomebayomu hodo omoshiroku narimasu.
ffi}blfffitr0*&'ffiH < frD *f. "The more I read, the
more interesting it becomes."
Nihongo o hanasebahanosu,hodo jdzu ni narimasu. E
*F$"f&ttfffifl* &'t,+tclr 0 t-t. "The more you
speak Japanese,the better you become."

KA fr
I. Sign of interrogative
a. ahvaysplacedat the end of the sentence.
b. never placedafter the copula da.
Verb * ka Ashita gakk6 ni ikimasu ha. nng YffiUcft* *
?r. "Are you going to school tomorrow?"
Ashita iku ka. efrA'tt 1rt,. "Are you going?" (not as
polite as the above; women should not use this
Ano hito wa gakusei desu ha. &>0>xtt+r4,r?i'.
(never: Ano hito wa gakuseida ka.) "Is he a student?"
Ano hito wa gakusei deshita h; *>o>/...rt+4,t L/ci..
"Was he a student?" Ano hito wa gakusei datta ka.
-permissable,but not, as polite as the above.
II. Rhetoricalquestion-emphatic,always at the end of a sen-
Ys*ka Sonnakoto ga dekimasuka. tr+frsiif 5 (S1X)
t fi.. "I can't possiblydo such a thing, can I ?"
III. Uncertainty
Vtentative*ka Sd desho ka. +, "if L t ) i', wonder if
110 ka Particles

that's so." Iku dard ho. ft < tib J rtr. ,,f wonderif
he is going."
Noun* ka Bydki datta no ldarlf ha yasetemiemashita.
frfrff2/:Oi'Ht<n*-t Ll:. "I wonderif she has
beensick; she lookedskinny."
Verb* ha*waharanai (shiranai)
(Vs* ka*wakaranai)-f.or the lst person
Itsu kekkon suret ha wakarimosen. L.? ({'rlffi)ffiffit
6rt'*2rt.(f) 0 t {*lL. ,,f don't know when I am
getting married."
(Vs* ha*shiranai)-f.or other than the lst person
Kyonendoko ni ita ka shirimasen. *+&'C ([1fu)V=
L'lci.fu D t t /w. "f don't know where he was last
IV. (or)
Anata ga iku n' desu ha,lsoretomo] anata no oniisan ga
iku n' desu ho. blc/ciifi< ,LTff ', b/rtcoh-Jilt
/-rti'fr ( ,Ltj2.. "Are you going, or is your brother
V. ( e i t h e r . . . o r )
Noun* ka* Noun Are wa Shimizu-san ha yamamoto-san
desu. birlrl#rfis A,rt,il*s,t?f. ,,Thatis either
Mr. Shimizu or Mr. Yamamoto."
Ani ka watakushi ga ikimasu. nrt,tAfi\'fr* * ?.
"Either my older brother or I will go."
VI. ( w h e t h e r . . . o r n o t )
Noun * ka do ka Kare ga gahusha ka do ka shirimasen.
&' , rt,X1, * {f &. "I don't knorv whether
he is a scholar or not."
Noun * ha* Noun* de nai ha Kare ga gakushaha gahusha
de nai ha shirimasen.'iLfi\+#rt,+*ffs,L., , t "t}
L, "I don't know if he is a stholar or not.',
Kare ga gakusha ka gahusha de nakatta ka shirimasen.
/ci.ff Dt ti,. "I don't know
if he was a scholaror not."
Verb* ha do ha
(Ye*ha do ha) Ihu ha do ha mada wakarimasen.ft<
i. &' 5 rt,t fi*2r. (f) D Xt&. "f don't know whether
Particles hara 111

we will go or not."
(Y to* ka do ha) Itta ha do ha kiite kudasai. ft./:i.
E , IJ.m!''iCTt 1., "Please ask him if he went or
Verb* ha Y na; ha
CVs * ha Y ha) Ano eiga o miru ha minai ha kiite
mimash6. hl>U*,trt?F,6fi,F,lgL .,f.ffiL.(4 * L r, .
"Let's ask him if he is going to see that movie or
(Yt"*ha Ynahatta ha Ano eiga o mita ha minahatta ha
kiite mimashita. hl>U*EtX R fui..fl, ki. c tctj.ffi L.(
at L/c. "f asked him if he saw that movie or not."
VII. (somethingto the effect)
Noun*fo ha Yamada-santo ha iu hito ga kimashita. dl
EE LLfi.B, Di** Llc. "A person called some-
thing like Mr. Yamada came."
Verb*to ha kihu (iu)
(Vg*fo ka hiku) Toda-sanga ashita huru to Fa kikima-
shita. FmSrIrig6HXA Li.Ff,8t Lft. "f heard
something to the effect that Mr. Toda will come
(Vro*to ka hihu) M0 Nihon ni itta to ka kikimashita.
{ ) g -#lt:6 zl;&r.8fl8 t Lft. "r heard something
to the effect that he had gone to Japanalready."
KA !, Colloquialform of shika
Go-nin&a konakatta. E r.Xlti.: t. "Only five peoplecame."
KARA rt,b
I. (from)
Noun* kara
1. spatial watakushi wa Nihon kara kimashita. tL
It g #i. b** Llc. "I camefrom Japan."
2. temporal Kyo hard koko de hatarakihajimemashita.
1afi,0>r. r.r@3tt ubt Llc.
"I started working here today."
II. (afterdoing...)
Vrr+ kara Gohan o tabete hara benkyd shimasu. gltr{,
(ffigfi)?A^rcrt,bfuffiL t?. ,,Aftereating
112 keredo (mo) Particles

dinner, I am going to study."

III. (sinceo. ., becaus€
Verb * hara
(Vs* hara) Shigoto ga takusan aru kara, kyd wa iki-
masen. frsniiRilb 6rt"b+ E ?rfl*'t {+,L. "since
I have lots of work to do, I won't go today."
(Yt"* kara) Kind ame ga Jutta kara, ikimasen deshita.
f?EffiriK cfctJ'b'fr5 t t,ttL/c. "Because it
rained yesterday,I didn't go."
Adj. * hara
(Adir * kara) Kono uchi wa Thii hara takai desu. . D
XIiXS L'i. bHu',("f. "Because this house is bis,
it is expensive."
(Adjr' * hara) Ano uchi wa kitanahatta kara kaimasen
deshita. *>Dfit&ttrt, c /:i.6 H U, t {f & t L /c.
"Becausethat house was dirty, we didn't buy it."
Y noi* kara
(Yna;* hara) Nihongo ga hanasenaikara komarimasu.
E+A$riffitlc1.r. b K D* f. "I am havingtrouble
becauseI can't speak Japanese."
(Y nakatto+
kara) Kyonen ihanakatta hara kotoshi wa iki-
masu.*+'frrt'lti. z /ci rb++lf ?T5t f. "Because
I didn't go last year, I'll go this year."
(but)-functions like the conjunction ga, but is more col-
Verb * keredo(mo)
(Vr * keredo(mo)) Kyoto e wa iku keredo Osaka e wa
ikimasen.H#l3rltffi < ldir, &'tF&rt&:frS t t,{,.
"I am going to Kyoto, but I won't go to Osaka."
(Y u+ keredo(mo))Yamada-sanwa hita keredo Toda-san
wa kimasen deshita. ilJEl8 ,{"0,t*/cWtL A F H S A,lt
**tA,tLlc. "Mr. Yamada came, but Mr. Toda
didn't come."
Adj. * heredo(mo)
(Adi, * keredo) Kyo wa samui heredo ashita wa atata-
kaku narudeshd. l?tt*L,,Bh ttffi ( tc 6tL
r 5 . "It is cold today, but perhapstomorrow it will
Particles kurai 113

(Adjr"* heredo) Ano uchi wa aokatta keredo ima wa
shiroi desu. *>o>Xlt€r. : /ckifu A+W H t .tf.
"That house was blue, but now it is white."

KIRI *,0
Number* kiri Ichinichi-jt hitori hiri de sugoshimashita.
- E F-A * DfE i L t L/c. "I spent the whole day
all alone."
Kore-type word * kiri
1. quantitY: dahe Kore kiri desu. L ix ..r tf.
"That's all."
2. time Sore hiri kimasen. +fL* , X t {lrL. "He
hasn't come since then."
KOSO r't
I. emphatic
Noun* koso Anata koso ojlzu desu. btt/c C t*d-b,+t..f.
"You are the one who is skillful."
Noun*particle* hoso Tohyo ni hososunde iru ga nani mo
omoshiroi koto wa shimasen. *Htc a+lLr<,'ie!. brt:
t6H L'L & lt, L t €,L. "I do live in Tokyo all right,
but I do nothing particularly interesting."
II. fiust because...)
Y l,o*hoso Okane ga ireba leoso isshdkenmei hataraku n'
desu. *d-&rit.'(3F)
hlf : t*&,mdFffi< A,r.t. "Just
becauseI need money, I work hard."

KURAI < bt'(tr) (guraiis morecolloquial)

I. (to the extent that, so much so that, almost, even)-degree
Verb* hu,rai
(Vs* hurai) Onakaba ihku naru hurai tabemashita.
*dHtitff < fx 6 < bL'Adt Llc. "I ate so much that
my stomachhurt (I ate to the extent that my stomach
Nto*hurai) Sonnahanashimo atta kurai desu. tA,ft
ffi 6 b t/c ( b t .'f?. "There was even such a story,

114 made Particles
Adj, * hurai Mada jfrgatsu na no ni mo samui hurai desu.
* (t) ff+,E txDlc 6 t +u' < bt.'(*f.
still October,it is almost cold."
"Althoughit is I
Nahitai hurai deshita. & * /cr, ' < b L.:f L/c. "I felt like
crying." "I was on the verge of crying." I
Noun* huroi Ano hito kurai atama ga yokereba iikeredo
. . . bDl..-< b!',gFrildittf!,'L,WtL&'. . . "It would be
nice if I were as bright as that person."
II. (as much 3s, that much)
Noun * hurai lwal Hiragana hurai kakemasu. +ffi& <
bt.,gki*?. "I can write as much as hiragana (...
but no more). I
Kono-type word * kurai sono hurai nara dekimasu. t o>
< bL',fx bt*t?. "f can do that much."
Kore-type word *hurai sore hu,rai nara dekimasu. +tL
"I can do that much."
< bL,'fx bt**?.
III. (about)-approximate quantity, approximatenumber I
Interrog. word * hurai Dono hurai koko de matte imashita
ka. E0>< bL'r atffi cTL.t Llci..
have you been waiting here?"
"How long I
ka. A fu< b L,,rumL t L
/:i,. "How long (How much)did you study?" I
Number*kurai Mittsu hurai tabemashita.=2 < bL.,ft
-{* Llc. "I ate aboutthree."
Mainichisan-jikanhu,raibenkydshimasu. {*g=r+Ffl <
b\,fu1fi,Lt ?. "I study aboutthreehours a day."
MADE *f,
r. (as as)
Noun*made Tohto made ikimasu. HH *.f.'fr* tf.
"I will go as far as Tokyo."
sanjuf-pejimadeyomimashita.=+Httffi4t L/c. I
"I read as far as Page30.i
II. (until)
Noun of time*made Ashita made koko ni imasu. EEg
trrI' l:L't?. "f will be here until tomorrow."
III. (even) a. madeis alwaysfollowed by positive verbs (cf.
sae,which is used with both positive and nega-
tive verbs).
t_f particles mo fis
JT b. made il this usage replaces the particles rua,
I.f.! I
| ga,o.
c. rnade generallyfollows other particles such as
I - I ni, de, no, e, kara, to, etc.
) . Noun+made Matsumoto-san madekimashita. t1*t,Lt
L I -C*t L/c. "Even Miss Matsumotocame."
E I Noun+particle+made Fujita-san ni mademisemashita.
a t #E*,L?.*"eF..t*Llc. "I evenshowedit to Mrs.
I - I Fu_,rra.
) I Inakade madeutte imasu. E€"C*ffi:tr.,*i.
"They evensell it in the counrry.,,
t I Yu*made Ano gakuseiwa gakk6o yasundemadehono
l_ | yomimasu.h0)+&:t}-+ffiAft,L"etr"+2ffi,4tt.
I | "That student reads so much that he even skips
. " I schoolto do so."
!, I Okane o karite made Nihon ni ikitai desu ka. *-.+?
- | ffiD<j.-ea4lcfi$/ct.retrt. "Do you wanrro go
I I to Japan,evenif you must borrow money?"
If Mo 6 a. rzo replacesthe particleswa,ga, o.

i theseparticles.
'l -
I. (also,too)
*o"n.ffi,o1"::: ka. btr/ctll* L/ci..
h r,"'Iiyashita
L II. (asmanyas,as muchas)
It Number+aroMittsumo kaimashita.=.:6Ht,,* Llc.
J "I boughtas manyas three."
I Ji-nin mo kimashita. +/\6*t Llc. "As manyas ten
III. (even)=5as
T= Noun+zco+negative verb Aisatsu mo shinai de itte
shimaimashita.t)t,'3 ? (f*ts) 6 Lfr t.,(.fi e rc L * !.
* Llc. "He went away without even greetingme."
L ry. (do not evendo... )
f Yz*no shinai-moreemphaticthan V;oi
Bydki de mikka-kangohano tabemo shimasen.ffifrac

116 tno Particles

= F Fdjlt ,L(ffifrnAA^ t U * €,t. "He hasn'teven

eaten for three days becauseof his illness."
Watakushi no koto o mi mo shimasen deshita. tLDH
*nt L*-trttLfr. "He didn't even look at me.',
V. (both...and)
Noun*mo*Noun*mo+positive verb Hon mo zasshi mo
kokoni arimasu.4 6*Etet : : f:'b Df f. "Thereare
both books and magazineshere."
Yz*tno lshi) Vz* lno suru Ano ko wa yoku tabe mo nomi
mo shimasu. bl)?trtI < A'{6ffkAt Ltf. "That
childbothe(t\ (N (r\nKt \\EK:'
. . nor)
Noun *mo* Noun * mo* negative verb
Hon n?o zasshi mo yomimasen. # 6 *Enfi6 ffia * qf ,L.
"He reads neither books nor magazines."
Y z* mo fsezu,shinai shi) Y r* mo shinai
Hatarahi mo asobi mo shinai. @ * 6 #Ul 6 L fx ! .. "He
neither works nor plays."

VII. (whether...or)
Y,r+rtto*Ynahute*moltte nlo ihanakute mo ii desu.
( d < ( 6 u,'!.tf. "It is all right whether you
go or not."
Adjwtr* mo+ Adjnohutu*mo-If. the secondadjectiveis not
a negativeform, it is an adjective of contrast to the
Yokuterno yokunakutemo (waruleutemo) kaimasu. H.
-iC L't
< ( t H.( tc ( 6H ?. "Whether it's good or not
good (bad),I'll buy it."
VIII. (even if)
Y u+ mo Kore o tabetemo ii desuka. L ir?A{( 6 L.L''
t?i.. "Is it all right even if I eat this ?" "May
I eat this?"
Kyd itte mo anohito wa uchi ni imasenyo. #gfic\
6 b o)/.ltfilc!.* tlrL .t. "Even if you go today,he
won't be home."
IX. Doubleparticles
Noun*particle+mo Tohyoni mo ikimashita. HHlc 6ff
3 t Llc. "f went to Tokyo, too."
a Particles na 117

h Tonaka-sonto mo hanashimashita.E+ E ^, & t -# L t

L /c. "f taked with Mrs. Tanaka,too."

h NAh
End of a sentence

h 1. (don't)-prohibition
vg* na (mostly usedby men) ohoru na! **6 rr. ,,Don't
get mad!"
h 2. (you know, you see, don't you think so ?)

Verb*na (mostly used by men)
({*na) Ano onna wa kirei da nA. bo>f1r6*}1U.
(ffiE ) fffc. "That woman is pretty, isn't she?"

I Nu*na) Yoku yatta na. r <sz/clr.

didn't he ?"
"He did well,

h (Adj, *na) Kono uchi wa dkii na. a Dxt(tt g ! .,/s.

"This house is big, isn't it ?"
(Adjro*na) Tokyo wa atsuhattana. HHtt*rt,=/clr.
"Tokyo was hot, wasn't it ?"
3. (I wonder)
h Verb * ka na
(Y*ha na) Ano hito wa ihu ka na. *>o>xlr{T( i,lr.
"I wonder if he would go."
* (Yt"* ha na) Mo hita ha na. 6 ) X/ci'k. "I wonder

+ if he has come already."

Interrog. word* ka na Are wa dare ha na. b}1lt;ftr.
ft. "I wonder who he is."

+ K0-type word*ka na So ka na. +, i.lx. "I wonder if

it's so."
4. Imperative-vulgar speechonly

fi Yz*na lhi na. fi8/r "Go!" Tabena. A^lr "Eat!"

NA lr
This na is not a particle, but the attributive form of the copula
da. It comesfrom the classicalcopula form nari.
Cop. n. * na (attributive phrase)

Ano hito wa leirei na hito desu. &>o>Xlt*txt,,(ffiffi)trA:Cf.
"She is a pretty person."
Koko ni wa suhi na hito ga takusan imasu. r,:, lrltffStrA

118 na Particles

niiRdtL',*f. "There are many people whom I like here."

Foreign lang. adj.*na (attributive phrase)
Ano hansamuna hito wa dare desu ka. bo>t,29 a tfAlti$
"Who is that handsomeman ?"

NA fr.*> I
I. Exclamation (used by men)
Verb * nd I
(vs*na) Yoku amega furu nd. I < ffinlp+6tlj ,,.
"How hard this rain pours!"
(Yt"* na) Yoku sonnakoto ga ieta nd. J < Z r+/r t &
iiF *-fcts,*>. "How could he have said such a thing!"
Adj'*na I
(Adjr* na) Kitanai nd. i5u ,,fr.t>."How dirty !',
(Adjr'*na) Ano ko wa hawaihattand. ho>+ltElgtu.
fir->l;lcb. "How cute that child was!"
II. Wish
Y:oo*ii nd Ano hito ga ky6 kureba ii nd. bo>xtigg
X*tlf u"!'&&>. "I wish he would cometoday."
Ys*to ii nd Ano hito ga ky6 kuru to ii nd. *>D/trt\+
E * 6 L ! 'L'ftt>. "I wish he would cometoday."
III. Informal salutation
it so?"
NADO he'
(such things ?s, for example,and the like, something like)
a. nado usually replaces wa, &e, o, except for emphasis.
b. nado appears with other particles such as fli, de,
flo, e, made, hara, to, etc.
c. nado precedesthe above,particles.
Uchi de wa inu nado katte imasu. Nttttfr &.FJcT
u'* ?. "At our house we raise such animals as dogs."
Haha nado sonna koto o itte imashita. efr E+ hft:-
LXgcT,U.* Llc. "Mother, for example, said such
a thing."
Tohyonado e ikimashita. HHtr&.rffi5* ,,'We
Particles nagara 119

went to such places as Tokyo."

Watakushi wa neho nado [ga] suki desu. tAlttrffitr U*T
* (.f. "f like such things as cats."
Verb * nado
(Vs* nodo) Rainen Nihon ni iku nado to itte imashita.
X+HAtcafr( fr E LE.TL.,t Llc. "He saidsome-
thing to the effect that he was going to Japan next
Nto+nodo) Kind ichinichi-jfl benkyd shita nado to itte
imashita.f?n-E +MffiL/ctr&'&E cTL't Llc.
"He said something to the effect that he studied all
day yesterday."
(Adir*nado) Ikitakunai nado to iwanai de kudasai. fr
* tc ( lru .k &'LE*>ftU'tTt !'. "Please don't say
such things as not wanting to go."
(Adiro*nado) Tsumaranahattanado to itte imashita.
=t blf i.: /cfr A LE c'iCL't L/c. "He said some-
thing to the effect that it was uninteresting."

NAGARA fxri b
I. Simultaneousaction of one subject
1. (while)
Vz* nagara Rajio o hikinagara benkyd shimasu.
t t * ?-En
* lrii bfuffiLt f. "Whilelistenins
the radio, he studies."
Note: If two different subjects are involved, the expression
Ys*aida should be used.
e.g. Kare ga hon o yonde iru aida, watakushi wa
tegami o kakimashita. |&.rtif.tffi,L:c!'b ffi!, tL
tt+fftt$3 t Lt. "'While he was reading a
b o o k ,I w r o t e a l e t t e r . "

2. (although) r
Vr* nagara Shitte inagara oshiete kuremasen.
futrC!.trii b#.L< < *r,*€rL. "Although he
knows it, he won't tell me."

Note: If two different subjects are involved, the expression

Y6 no af should be used.
e.g. Kare ga shitte iru no ni, kanojo wa shirimasen.
L20 nari Particles

0)E:t&fttffi u)t.t L. .,Althougb

he knows it, she doesn't know it.,,

Noun*nagara Jibun nogara iya ni narimashita.

Hftlriibt,.tlc/c D t L/c. "Although it is
about myself, I became fed up." "f hate
Fuyu nagarq koko wa minami na no de, tenki
sae yokerebaatatakai. 4trni b: : ?tffitro
-iexfi8 .i- J kthtfffiu.,. ,,Althoush it
winter, this place, becauseit is located in the
south, is warrn when the weather is good.',
II. (all)
Number*ftagara Kodomo wa go-nin nagara,mina deki ga
ii desu. ?frftEA/rii bv&H*fiU,'1.'iC?. "All five
children are doing well (academically)."
III. Before and now
Some nouns of time +nagara Muhashi nagara no oshaberi
desu. #tcii b o>f; L r "{ D tf. "She is just as talka-
tive as she was before."
Vr* nagara Umare nagara no geijutsuka desu. &,*r.lrni
bo)X'ffiX.: J.t. "He is a born artist."
I. (whether. . . or, either., . or)-nari can be used, but
more often it is used in duplication.
Va* nari+Vr* nari lhu. nari yameru nari hayaku okime-
nasai. ft <trD {b&)btt D+ < *"'tltDl.(SU'. "Whether I
you go or not, decidequickly."
Noun* nari +Noun * nari Matsuda-sannari Yamada-san
nari ni kikinasai. f,AHS,t ts 0 r! E 8 .t tr 0 lcEflI fr 8
! r. "Ask Miss Matsuda or Miss Yamada."
(as soon as)
Vg* nari Asa okiru nari uchi oodemashita. Sfl€ I a fr. D
Xt H t Llc. "As soon as I got up, I left home." I

III. Conditionsunchanged :malna de

Y,o+nari de Uchi o kitanaku shita nari de detekimashita.
XX1E ( L/ch DtH(*t Llc. "I left home, leaving
it as dirty as it was.
articles ni tZt

IV. (no matter what [how, etc.])

Interrog. word*nari to Nan nari to kaite misetekudasai.
f"IrrD& €L'(-E t(TE L'. "Pleasewrite anything
and show it to me." "No matter what it is, just write
and show it to me."

r. (n'est-cepas?Fseeks confirmationof the statement.
End of a sentence
Ky6 wa ii otenki desune. l1ltL't'*dxflt?ia.
"It's a beautifulday today,isn't it ?"
II. Showsspeaker'sfamiliarity to listener.
Betweenclausesor at end of sentence
Md kaer6 ne. S 5 ,lfrb J *a. "Let's go home,OK?"
Kokowa ne,k6shiy6ne. I, :lt*e, c, LJ ) ie.,,L€t's
do (it) this way here, OK?"
I. Noun*ni
1. (in, at)-locationof existence(cf. de,locationof action)
Shimizu-san wa ima heya no naka ni imasu. HrK
ti,lt+Strl)+lCL't?. "MissShimizuis in the
room now."
Matsumoto-san wa ima Tokyozi sunde imasu. th
#8,tlt+KHlc1g6tL"tf. "Mr. Matsumoto
is living in Tokyo now."
2. Point of arrival
Tohyoni tsukimashita.Hlfilc6tS * L/c. "We 8r.
rived in Tokyo."
3. (at)-designatestime
Ichi-ji ni kimasu. -FSl:*tf. "He will come at
one o'clock."
Note : When gor0 is use{, either take ni out, or place ni after
goro. e.g. Ichi-ji goro kimasu. -ffitfi** ?. or Ichiji
goronf kimasu. -ffitrtc*t t. "He will come around
one o'clock.o

4. (per)
Ichi-jihanni san-doruharatte kuremasu. -Fffllc
= l.')v(#)*Lc( < *atf. "Theypay us three dol-
122 ni Particles

lars per hour."

5. (in, into)-entering motion
Heya ni hairimasu. SEfc;t 0 t?. ,,f go into
6. (into)-change of situation, status
Senseini narimashita. ft4.]t=t[,0 t L/c. ,,Hebecame
a teacher."
Kono ki o halto zi shimasu. .a*tffitcLtf.
will make this wood into a box."
7. (against)
Chichi ni hantai shimashita. 1tlcgryL* Ll:.
opposedmy father."
watakushi ga iku no ni, ano hito wa ikimasen. tL
rt\'fr( o>l.E.D/Jlt.:fr
* t €,L. "fn spite of the
fact that I am going, he is not going."
8. (to)-indirect object
Yamamoto-sanni hon o agemashita. il+$/Llc*
z.}.Tt L/c. "I gave Mrs. Yamamoto a book.',
sensei ga uatahushi ni hon o kudasaimashita. fr,
&fi\fLtt:lrrLTtL.'t Lt. "The teacher gave me
a book."
Note: Usually an indirect object precedesa direct object.
9. (as): to shite-purpose
Ano hon o hyokashoni tsukatte imasu. *>D#X*.
ftl'flfla'[t c\!.* f. "We use that book as a text-
10. (and):to-connects two nouns
Yamada-sanni Tanaha-sanni Matsumoto-san
dara dOdesh6ka. il E * ,tlcH + 3 L](.+hF'E,tt
o eran.
il$/rff b E ) tL r 5 tr,. "What would you think
if we chose Mrs. Yamada, Mrs. Tanaka, and
Mrs. Matsumoto?" i
1 1 . a. agent of passiveverb (by)-the one who actually
performs the action of the passiveverb
Haha ni shil<araremashita.Sl:rg btL* Lfr.
"I was scoldedby my mother." I
b. agent of causative verb-agent who is causedto
perform the action of the causativeverb
Imdto ni yomasernashita. ffilcg6 t rt t L lc. "f
t Particles ni 123

made my sister read."

T c. agent of causative-passiveverb (by)-agent who
forces the subject to perform the action of the

t causative-passiveverb
sensei ni muzukashii hanji o kakaseraremashita.
"r was
t 5EHircWLt',iH?t#rt.{t b;1t L/c.
made to write difficult Chinese charactersby
my teacher."

I d. with the verb, itadaku (morau)-one who is giving;

the one who receives is the subject; this ni is
interchangeable with kara.
I Ane ni (kara) hon o moraimashita. tfrl:6.A 6
b(Ff)L't Lft. "I receiveda book from my

t elder sister."
with Y ,r+ itadaku (morau)-one who performs
the act of.Y tr; the one who receives the act of
t Y t, is the subject.
Senseini tegami o kaite itadakimashita. ft&U=

I +fftAgL .iCL ./cff 3' t Lft. "My teacher was

nice enough to lvrite a letter for me." (I
asked her to do it first.)
: Note: For the particle usedwith the other directional verbs,
ageru (yaru), hudasant (kureru), see 8 of the particle

I e.
ni, p.122, for the indirect object.

agertc (yaru),
with Vcaur^tivc-te+ hudasaru (kureru,)
-the one who is permitted to perform the action
of the Yu

t Watakushi wa Hanako ni eigo no benkyd o

tsuzukesaseteyarimashita. tL|tlt+l:*V,*o>
ffif{sjrbftrf8{ttt D *. L/c. "I allowed Hanako
t to continue her study of English."
Sensei ga uatokushi ni sono hon o yomasete

t I
fr,hrt\tL!.4D#Xffi* {t(T
3 1.'t L /:. "The teacher allowed me to read
that book."

+itadaku (morau)-the one who
f. with Vcausative-re
permits the subject to perform the action of,Y t,

t I
Watakushi wa haha ai suki na ydfuku o eraba-
sete moraimashita. Alt&}.*TS fr#fEt:Slt'

124 ni Particles

t( t b (H) L't L/c. "f was permitted by

my mother to select the dress I like."
II. Vz* ni*motion verb (in order to . . . )-purpose
Nihonshokuo tabe ai Nihon no rydriya ni ikimashita.
H#At€{lc.E+OFI-4EI:{T*t L/:. "I went to a
Japaneserestaurant in order to eat Japanesefood."
III. oYz*ni naru-makes an honorific verb
M6 ocha o onomi ni narimashita ka. 6 , *d#A*"'Hk4?c
ttD t Lti.. "Have you drunk tea already?"
IV, Vz* ni*Verb-emphasis, duplication of the same verb
Hashiri ni hashirimashitaga oitsukimasen deshita. ft.D
tc€ D t. LtciirE.L.?* t€:^,tLlc. "I ran and ran, but
I couldn't catch up."
of the same verb (can'
V. Vg* ni*Vnee'tive-potentiar-duplication
not do even if we want to)
Iu ni iwarenu ii keshiki desu. A,U.AbfuHlL.t',fret
f. "It is an indescribably good view." "It is a good
view which we cannot describeeven if we want to."

Verbs and adjectiveswhich should be remembered rvith the par-

ticle ni.
NI AU E* t tneet,e.g. Kyd Tanaka-sanni aimashita. 4 g m
rfr$ Liae:l .* Lfu. "f met Mr.'fanaka today," or "I saw Mr.
Tanaka today."
Note: ni au is used for meetinga new friend or seeingan old acquaint-
ance. In Japanesethe verb miru is not used in this context.
Miru means "to look at" and takes a direct object particle o miru.
e.g. Tanaka-sanni aimashita. "I saw Mr. Tanaka."-actually
exchanged gfeetings with Mr. Tanalca. cf. Tanaka-san o
mimashita.E+ 3 A,t-B* L/:. "I saw Mr. Tannftn."-The
subject saw Mr. Tanaka, but Mr. Tanaka did not see him.

NI (:leard CHIKAI l:.itL' be closeto, €.g. Watakushino uchi

wa gakk6 ni chikai desu.tLaK0tijrff l:tr1''(f.
near the school."
"My houseis
NI HANSURUu:-ntb be against,oppose, €.9. Oya no il<enzi
hattshitekanojoto kekkon shimashita. *noff-n l:E L (',{Y<kL
ffilS L t L/:. "Opposingmy parents'opinion,I married her."
NI HANTAI SURU ?:trfffb :ni hansuru, t
h Particles

NI (to) HITOSHII l:S L u. be equalto, e.g. Nihon no menseki

ni 125

h wa Kariforunia-shflno mensekini hitoshii. E4OE'ffiIt )1 t) 7

t )V:7 fljoffiffif:.$LL.. "The size of Japan is equal to the

h size of California."
NI KAGIRU tcFR6 is the best (literally, limited to), e.g. Nihon-

h shoku nara ano ry6riya ni hagirimasu. B +A frb&>DffiIHE lc

FF,, * f.
the best."
"If it's Japanesefood (you mean),that restaurant is

T NI KAKARU rcfi,fi,b start, e.g. Shigoto ni kakarimash1. tt

Sl:i.r'D*Lr r . " L e t ' ss t a r t o u r w o r k . "

h NI KAKERU rqfi,tt 6 hang, e.g. Uwagi o kugi ni kahemashita.* L/c. "I hung my jacket on a nail."

I NI KANSURU lcffif6 concerning (attributive) e.g. Nihon ni

liansuru hon o kaimashita. E tlcffif 6tAH U't Lfo.
bo'.rghta book concerning Japan." cf. ni kanshite (adverbial)

t Nihon ni hanshitebenky6 shite imasu. E4tcf*J L<frfrfu.L'iCL.

* f. "'We are studying about Japan."

T NI KATSU l?Y#2 win, e.g. Oregon Daigaku ga Washinton

Daigaku ni kachimashita. t vJ>tr'#Al 2 >> | >X+:t.ll\ib
t L/:. "'lhe University of Oregon rvon over the University of
t Washington."
NI KIKU lctlfj< ask someone. e.g. Yamada-sanni kiitara
oshietekuremashita. drm 8 & lclitJL,'/cb*r.*_< ( iL * L /c.
: "When I askedMr. Yamada,he taught (told) me."
NI KIMERU l:l*,y) 6 decideotr, e.g. Kore ni hintemashdka.
I Clx?cr^b* L * 5 fi,. "Shall we decideon this?"
NI KURUSHIMU lcifLtr be puzzLednt, e.g. Rikai ni huruc-
I shirnimasu. Wiilc#LLt
cf . ByOhide hu,ru,shinde
f. "f find it hard to understand."
imasu. Fr'nt :$ L La'"U'* f. "He is
sufferingfrom illness."
I NI MAKASERU ?cflt 6 entrust, €.8. Jimu o subete musuko
ni mahasemoshita.flXf.frt?d(f;'d)(,H.+t:ffql* L/:. "I en-
tl trusted my businessentirely to my son."
NI MAKERU lrAW6 lose, e.g. Ano hito ni maheteshimaima-
I shita. *>o>Xlcfthi( L * !,t Lft. "I lost to him."

I 1.. become,e.g. Senseini narimashita. ft,Htcfr D * Lfu.

126 ni Particles

"He becamea teacher."

2. be (:ni atoru), e.g. Ano hito wa watakushi no itoko ni
narimasu. &>o>XtttfAOL'&:?cfrDtt. "He is my
NI (to) NIRU IEMA resemble, e.g. Yoshio-san wa ot6-san ni
nite imasu. Rffi 3 ,tlt*rJa 3 LV=.p1(L. t f. "Yoshio resembles
his father."
NI NORU U.*6 get into a vehicle, ride in a vehicle, e.g. Kin6
denshani notte Shibuya made ikimashita. FFB €Hlc*:'iCi*
A* acfr$ t Llc. "Yesterday I went to Shibuya by train."
NI oDoRoKU }lH < be surprised 3t, e.g. Tori no naku koe
ni odorokasaremashita.,* OqB< F U=K,tJ.**r,t L /c. "I was sur-
prised at the song of the birds."
NI (to) ONAJI tcFI U same as-perhaps /o is more common, but
sometimesni is used, e.g. Kodomo o omou no wa watakushi
mo anata ni onaji desu. +ffi?r,8. ) a;ltTAtt)/r/:f:Fl Utf.
"I think of my children just as you think of yours."
NI OYOBU lcn'J: reach,amount to, match, e.g. Hiy6 ga jflman-
en ni oyonda. ltfflri+Tn!:&.A,1:. "The expensesamounted
to Y 100,000."Saind no ten de kare ni Luaoyobanai. *flED,F.
t'tlil:lt,&t{/g!.'. "I can't match him in talent."
NI TOMONAU ?:fF ) keep step with, e.g. Shfinyri ni tomo-
nauanai zeitaku na seikatsu o shite wa ikemasen. tlX,r.lal+f,)
/rt'fff,titr4,.rt?L(lt!',ldttA,. "Don't lead a life of luxury
out of proportionto your income."
NI TSUKAIIRU lcft *_6 serve someone,e.g. Watakushi wa
moto yrimei na kazoku ni tsuleaemashita.ffltt e H&tr1+gfftl:
+L*-* Lft. "I served a famous noblemanof old."
i{l TSUZUI(Ut:frt <
1. follolv,e.g. Chichino shi ga hahano shi ni tsuzuhimashi-
to. 'tDnTJig'atfr,u=t,ft3'*
Lt. "Father'sdeath fol-
lowed mother's death." 'e
2, be connectedto, e.g. Kono michi wa daigaku no seimon
ni tsttztt,ite
imasu. r. oif ttx+ 4r.rlrc,tftL
"This road ieads to gate
"rcL'* f.
the front of the university."
NI YORU lt j (8, ffi) 7a dependor, e.g. Ashita iku ka ikanai
ka lva tenki ni yorimasu. nf g ft < i.fii.h!'i.ttXfrlc J D*
?."lYhether we go tomorrow or not will dependon the weather."
Particles no LZz

L a. (of, 's)-possessive(or the noun before no modifies the
noun after no)
Noun* no watahushino uchi wa Tokyo ni arimasu. tto>
.,My houseis
filtffiHtqbA *.t. in Tokyo."
Yamamoto-san no heya no rajio wa 6kii desu. Ut
3 ,t DED 2 , t ftt8 t,,:ef. "The radio in Mr.
Yamamoto'sroom is big."
Note: The final noun can be omitted, if it is clear to both speaker
and listener.
e.g. Are wa Tamura-san no desu. t>ttltffitt E A,a;ft.
"That is Mr. Tamura's."
b. The noun beforeno modifiesthe noun after no, e.g. Kono
hon no hylshi no iro. aD#Df<lrf'p&. "the color of the
cover of this book."
|iote: In Japanese ilo may be used many times in one sentence.
e.g. watakushi zo uchi no daidakoro no todana no naka no
chawan L(w). "thebowt
insidethe cupboardof the kitchen of our house"
Though this is a bit exaggerated, it is not uncommonto see
zo used many times in one sentence. In this usagenormal
Japanese orderis from largeto small, or generalto specific;
thus, uataliusltino uchi is bigger than daidohoro,daidohoro
is bigger than todana,etc.
II. Apposition
Noun*no*Noun Ano hata lva isha no de,
hono hatu \va scnsetno Tanaka-sandesu. bo)-hlt
Ii.l'tal$r+rS llT, aDhlt,h$:Dttl +8 /uTt. "'l'hat
is Mr. who is a doctor, and this is Mr. Ta-
naka, who is a teacher."
III. The noun lvhich preceoesilo is the subject'of the relative
clause. (This no is interchangeable with the particle ga.)
Noun*no*Verb*Noun Watakushino (Sa)katta ndtowa
okii desu. ILDH,ctc /t - l. lt^* u',tf. "The note-
book rvhich I bought is big."
lVatahushi,rc (Sa) itte ita !{ohko wa yama no ue ni
arimashita. ttl>'fr ct U'fufp,ffltdlD-Lfcb D t L/:.
"The schoolI went to was on the top of the hill."
Doubleparticles-no alwaysfollowsthe other particle, the
nounplussomeparticlebeforeno modifiesthe noun after no
Noun*particle+no Kore ga chichi e no tegami desu. E
itiiltrO+fft(f. "This is the letter to my father."
Sorewa Tohyo hara zo kisha desu. tfi,l:.RHi'bc)fi.
128 no Particles

Ht?. "That is the train from Tokyo."

V. Nomin alizing verbs
ve*no:vs*hoto Asobu no ga suki desu. ffi.sio>nlfl*c
?. "f like to play.,,
VI. As a noun-In some casesthis no is contractedto n,.
L. fact Watakushi wa ihu n' desu. tLt&ft ( i,.ie-j,-.
"I'll go." "It is a fact that I'll go."
Kyd tsuharetano de uchi ni imashita. ilffi.tL
tcD:CfilcL.t L/c. "Because(the fact being
that) I was tired, I was at home today.',
2. thing Koko ni aru no ga watakushi no hon desu.
: : y.b6 Drt\tLD*Tf. ,,The one which
here is my book."
3. time Kono mae Nihon e itta no wa san.nen mae
deshita. r, Dffi Er*^4Tz /c Dttt.=+Hf r L/c.
"The last time I went to Japan was three
years ago."
4. person Asoko ni suwatte iru, no ga Tanaka-sandesu.
bZ r l.& TL'6 Di\E+B rttf. "The
one who is sitting there is Miss Tanaka."

Note : As shown in the above examples, 2, 3, and 4, in a sentence

ending with the copula (desu,do, deshita,etc.),the noun which
directly precedesthe copula tells what the subject no represents.
e.g. Ichiban sei no takai no ga Matsuda-sandesu. -#rfl o>
ffiL',Drtit fl*,{,tt. "The tallest personis Mr. Ma-
tsuda." (Matsuda-sanis a person, so no refers to a
person, too.)
Nihon ni itta no wa sakura ga saite ita toki deshita.
H*I='11-t t:0)lrtxri rxL,( L./: rf r L t. .,when we
went to Japan it was the time when the cherry blos-
soms were blooming." (Tohi is a time, so no ref.ersto
a time also.)

Cop.n.* na+no
one Kirei na no ga suki desu. gir,U,(ffiEg)
3 tf. "I like pretty ones."
I Particles o lZ9

one Ohii no o kudasai.^* 1.4)tTt

I give me a big one."
1,. "Please

VII' Sentence-ending-colloquial,used more often by women

I f. interrogative-takes the prace of ha
Ashita iku no. EEg .fi I o>. ,,Are you going tomor-

I row ?"
2. softens the tone

I Ee, ashita iku no. *-*_. EEn

ft 1 o>.
I,ll go

VIII. (whether...or)
I Verb*no*ynai no to litte\ Ihu no ihanai no to
kesshin < Dtjrt,fx1,D L F a11,L.,
Lt t
I ,1. "saying that he will go, and then that he won,t
go, he does not easily make up his mind."

I NOMI D4:dahe, bahari. (only, merely)

Noun*nomi sonnashigotoo nashiuruno wa hare nomi
da. +
,I tr ft$ * kL {S6 a>r{&.D Lti. "He is the only one
I who can do such work."

I Noun* o
r. The precedingnoun is the direct object of the verb,
I except
when contrast is involved, in rvhich case this o is replaced
by ua.

I Sonohon o yomimashita.Z0)#X-#t4* Lft. ,,I readthat

book." cf. Sonohon wa yomimashita.Z D#If
ffi4 *
L/c. "I read that book(. .. but I didn'treadthis uotr.).;
I shigotoo shimasu. fr$ * L* f. ',we'll do our work.,,
cf. Shigotowa shimasu. ffslt L t ?. ,,We'll do the
I work (. . . but we won't do anythingelse,etc.)."
Direct object of a passivesentence
Okane o doroboni toraremushita. *"'a?Lw#rc
I fc. "My money was stolen by a thief."
L btL* L
Direct object of a causativesentence(usedparticularly when
I the verb is intransitive)
Taheoo tsukai ni ikasemashita.fiffi?&{? L/c.
I "f made Takeo go on an errand.,'
Direct object of a causative-passive

130 o Particles

Nigai husuri o nomasaremashita. #!.'HXffi.f Strt Llc. ',.]"..
"f was madeto take bitter medicine." iriel
.. i.i.1+
I I . Routeof motion i,dd:

Hikdki ga sora o tobimasu. ffifrtffifigtftC*f. "The

. ri)r:.i:
i t i i

airplane flies through the air." . l'tl;:.i'

., :i$.i
Michi o arukimasu. €?S 5 * ?. " I walk along the ''.;';,o,

street." +?*b

III. Point of departure r,t:.

Uchi o demasu. Xtfit f. "I leave home."

Heya o demasu. StrA H t f. "f go out of the room."
Kyonen gahk0 o sotsugyo shimashita. *++ffA+* L
t L/:. "I graduated from school last year."
Some verbs which should be remembered with the particle o
O DERU ?i'ffiA start, leave, e.g. Uchi o demasor,.x".Htf.
"f am leaving home."
O GAMAN SURU t+fttgtb bear, suppress, e.g. Kurushii no
o gaman shintashita. # LL.OAfI'E L t Llc. "f suppressed my
O KIKU < hear something, e.g. KinO sono nyflsu o hiki-
"tliJ[f g :c Dr ;1- z :Lfffl5 * L/c. "I heard that news
yesterday." t
O MATSU X|r'lic wait for, e.g. Suda-sano matte imasu. l*m
3 ,t *tf.?c A.L'* f. "I am waiting for Mr. Suda." I
O SOTSUGYOSURU t+X-f-6 graduare from, e.g. Daigaku
o sotsugy1shimashita. f+X+XL*
the university."
L/c. "I graduatedfrom I
o SURU 2t 6 Seethe verb sruu,,pp. 10-11.
o TASUKERU XHIW6 help someone,e.g. Kyo kawaisd na
rOjin o tasuheteasemashita.iAEtrt
L fc. "I helpeda pitiful old man today."
O TATSU Xft(:l): leave,start, €.9." Kind Tokyo no hikdjdo
tatte Amerikani kimashita.FFnHHDfrfrWtftcT7,
?a*t L/c. "I left Tokyo Airport yesterday and came to
t) l1 t
O WARAU XX., laugh 3t, e.g. Hito no koto o waratte wa
ikemasen. l-0)4tfl-.,T-ltt',ki * {+4,. "You must not laugh
at others." I
Particles sae 131

O 1VATARUX'tf?b cross over, e.g. Igirisu Kaikyd o watari-

ntashita. 4 #, zffi'WXtH.Dt L/c. "f crossedover the English

f. sentence-endingor phrase-ending particle-slight emphasis,
sometimesa slightly boastful feeling.
Noun*sa Kore ga hon sa. :hrt+S. "This is the book
(. . . which I told you about)."
(Ve*sa) Ashita ihu sa. nf g ffi < g. "I'll go tomorrow
(. . . naturally)."
(Yto*sa) Kind itta sa. VfA'fr./c* "I went yesterday
(...of course)."
(Adjr*sa) Okii sa. x *' ! .3 . "ft's big (. . . you should
see it yourself)."
(Adjr"*sa) Takakattasa. Hf .e ft,8. "It rvasexpensive
(...of course)."
Cop.n.*sa Daisuki sa. X*T3 S. "f just love it."
II. makesan adjectiveor a copular noun into an abstractnoun.
Adj.t.. *sa 6kisa x* * "bigness,size."
Cop. n.*sa shiat.kasaili?tr.3 "quietness."

SAE 3.i.
a. sac alrvaysreplacesthe particles ga, u)o, o.
b. sae appearsrvith all the other particles such as ni, de, flo,
e, tnAde,kara, to, etc.
c. sae ahvaysfollows the above particles.
d . sae is sometimesusecl with nxo; lvhen used with it, sae
precedesrno, and is more emphatic than sae alone.
e. sae is used with both positive verbs and negative verbs.
I. (even)
Noun*soe Ugoku kotosaedekimasen. e} < I' & t it*
(H*) ttrL. "I can't even move."
Yamaguchi-san ni sae misemashita. rlrEr* &?c*.t--R^t
t L /c. "I showedit even to Miss Yamaguchi."
Senji-chfl tabemono ga nakute niwa no husa sae mo
tabeta sd desu. Fjffi#k#znifr ( <re.eE* .i- tA</c
132 shi Particles

+ , rf. "I understandthat during the war, because

there wasn't enough food, people ate even the grass
in the yard."
II. (only if)
Noun*sae*Yto Ano hito wa osakesae nomebamanzoku
shite imasu. bo> Xlt*cff * k- gkb1fffi,E L:C! , t ?.
"He is satisfiedonly if he drinks sake.,,
Vz* sae sureba Ano hito wa osake o nomi sae sureba
manzoku shite imasu. bo> Xtt*".iE t ffi.48 eflr,lfffi
E. L ( L't f. "He is satisfiedonly if he drinks sake.,,
Y tr+sae ireba Ano hito wa osake o nonde sae ireba
manzoku shite imasu. &>o>Xttf*"-igt*.A,-6'S .t-L.;i
lfffiE. L (L'* ?. "He is satisfiedonly if he drinks

SHI L (V, of.suru,) v, has a conjunctive function, see pp. b-6.

(and, not only. . . but also)-connects two clauses(cf. to which
connects two nouns)
(Vg* shi) Ano hito wa e mo leakushi, uta mo utaimasu.
b0>xtrffi t ,. < Ltr t siL. t f. "He paintsas well
as sings."
(Yn+ shi) Uchi mo katta shi, iirtosha mo kaimashita.
XtH.t/cLH&J4i6H!'tL/c. " H e b o u g h tn o t o n l y
a house,but also a car."
(Adir*shi) Ano uchi wa okii shi kirei desu. &>Dfltd
x 3 ! ' L 3 *tu ' (frjEff)
Tf. "That houseis big and
(Adj,' +shi) Kare \ya yasashikattashi, omoiyari mo atta.
z /: L, ,EL.f , 6 t, cfc. "He was not only
gentle, but was also thoughtful.', t
SHII(A Li, (cf. dahe)
a. shika always replaceso, go, u)a.
b. shika never occurs with the particle mo.
c. shiha appearswiih all other particles such as fli, de, I
fl7, e, made, kara, to, etc.
d. shiha always follows the above particles. ;


Particles tari 133

e. sh.ihais always used with negative verbs.

(only, nothing but)- dake shika
Noun* particle* shiha* negative verb
Ocha'shikanominto,sen.*J#Lr.ffiAt€rL. "I drink
nothing but tea."
Zosshi shiha yomimasen. *ffiHLtJ,ffi4g trL. "He
reads nothing but magzzines."
Tohyo ni shiha ihimasen deshita. Htrtc L rt,'fr*'t t,L
t L /c. "f went only to Tokyo."
Toklo de shiha mimasendeshita. HHtLr.F,tt&t'
L/c. "I saw it only in Tokyo."
Miura-san to shika hanashimasen =iffi$,t LLr.;f;L
t tA,. "I'll talk only to Mr. Miura."

SURA tb (:sae)
Noun* su.ra Sonna koto sura shimasu. +$Xf bL*.
?. "He even does that sort of thing."
Sonnakoto sura shimasen. +rLtrSTf bU*t&. "He
doesn'teven do that sort of thing."

TARI lc D -Contrary to the way most particles are used, this

particle never follows a noun. See pp. 53-54.
I. (sometimesdo this, sometimesdo that)-action in alternation
(duplicationof the same verb)
Y tor;*Ytori$uru) Itsumo tattari stnuattariochitsukanai
hito desu ne. L',?({r[fff)6tr2/c D&.z/; Df&ffit.h1,,
tf*a. "He is a restlessperson,always standing
up and sitting down, isn't he ?"
Adjtor;* Adjtori$uru.) Samukattari atatakakattarishimasu.
9$r'cfe\W/l'D.z fc\ L*f. "Sometimesit is cold,
and sometimesit is warm."
II. (do such things as)-representativeaction
Ynri suru Natsu yama ni ittari shimasu. l:.O
L t f. "During the summer we do such things as go
to the mountains."
Note z tari is often followed by the verb suru, which itself tras no
specific meaning.
134 te Particles

In traditional grammar, te is considereda particle, but it is bet-
ter thought of as a verb ending (see pp. lO-18, S4-bg). I
I. (and)-connects only nouns and pronouns, never connects
Noun*to*Noun Pen to enpitsu ga arimasu. .sy&ffi'g I
,i*) D *.t. "There are pens and pencils."
Dore to dore ga anata no desu ka. EtLL Afufiibfr/c
Of-ffir. "Which ones are yours (which one and
which one are yours)?"
II. (togetherwith):to isshoni I
Noun*to Suzuki-santo ikimasu. ffi*8 ,t Lft* * f.
"I'll go with Mr. Suzuki."
III. Comparative
Noun* to* Noun* to Kono hon to sono hon to dochira ga
6 k i i d e s uk a . . D # L + D F L Ebbri^*L.,-iCfi..
"Which one is bigger, this book or that book?"
IV. Quotative-use before such words as iu, hiltu, omou.,etc.
Verb * to iu. (kiku, etc.) Yamada-sanga ashita huru to
iimashita. dJE 3 i,riFn B X 6 LRL ,,* Llc.
Yamadasaid that she would come tomorrow,."
Noun*to iu (hiku,,etc.) Ano kata ga byoki [da] to hilti-
mashita. hDfirJ\ffifl & ffl* t L/c. ,,I heard he is ill.', ;

V. (if, when)-conditional (see pp. 29-30for more details)

Vs*fo Natsu Nihon ni iku /o totemo atsui desu. H.E# ;
la:fr< & & (t#u','ief. "ff you go to Japanduring
the summer, it is very hot."
Adj: *to Atsui to umi ni ikimasu. *!'& ifitc{T$ t ?.

it's hot, we go to the beach.',
(is about to do something) t
V,.r,*ri"e* to* suru' Dekaheydto shite iru tokoro e tomo-
dachi ga kimashita. Hr.LlI , & L(L.6Ff^fir$ri*
* L/c. "My friend came just as I was about to go
(trying [unsuccessfully]to do something) I
to*suru Ohiyo to shimashita gz, okiraremasen
t Particles tomo 135

deshita.€8 r , LLt L/cii€8 birtt tureLl:. ',r

tried to get up, but I couldn't."
(whether.. . of, even if)

I Vtent"tiue* to* %"r,t" tive* to

Yuki ga /urd to arare ga furd to iku tsumori desu.
ETJiWb1.L&rJ\Wb, L'fr ( =6 D -iCf. "f intend to
I go even if it snows or hails."
e* to*Y *o;* to (rnai is a negative tentative form,

I see pp. 39-40,68)

Kare ga ikd to ikumai to kamaimasen. '{Rfi\'fra J Lft
( t u',t f'ffiu',
t €'L. "I don't care whether he goes
T or
IX. (in the manner of)-adverbial
I Atto odorokimashita.*>t&ffi**L/c.
aback." (Oh! was I surprised!)
"f was taken

Nikotto rvaraimashita.?:: . LXL,,* L/c. "He smiled."

I Verbs, adjectives, copular nouns which should be remembered

T with to.
TO CHIGAU &;$ ) be different from, e.g. Watakushi no iken
wa anatano to chigaimasu.fAoffiF^ltfr/r/:0)LS!',t?. "My
tl opinion is differentfrom yours."
TO HITOSHII L{f, LL' :ni hitoshii be equal to, see p. I25.

F TO NARU Lb.6 :tti naru to naru is more literary, see pp.


TO ONAJI & H U same ds, e.g. Anata no to onaji y6fuku o
kaimashita. htrt:D & IFIUi+Jjlittil.L.t Lfu. "I bought the
same dress as yours."

t (and, or, such as)-used in duplication

Noun* toka* Noun* toka Hon tolza zasshi toka takusan
I Ar&r.tfitt:&r.i^rlJHL'* Lfc.
"I bought lots of things, such as booksand magazines."

t TOMOe 6
I. (either. . . orl between)
Noun* tonto* Noun* tomo Yama tomo umi tomo miwake
I ga tsukimasen. dJ& 6 t& L rdnftWrti2* t tl,. "We

136 tomo Particles

can't distinguish between the mountains and the

(of course)-emphatic
End of a sentence Kind benkydshimashitaka. Shimashita
tomo.r?g furfrLt L/ci.. Lt L/c& 6.,,Didyoustudy
yesterday?" "Of course I did."
III. (at*Adjrup"rlative) I
AdjB"* tomo Su.kunakutomo kyO wa kore dake shinakere-
ba narimasen.,t' < & 6latt: rLx,Ltrwttlt'fr D*{r
A,. "At least I have to do this much today."
Osoku tomo go-ji made ni wa kite kudasai. E < & t lf
ffit tlclt*(T8 u'. "Please come by five at the
ry. Of his status
Noun*tomo Daigaku no sensei tomo ar6 hito ga sonna
koto o itta n' desu ka. ^+ Df6,*.& t t>b 5 /-rt\? rL
hc, Ld*.F cfcA,tfr.. "Did a person who is a
university professorsay such a thing ?"
V. Uncertain number
Number*tomo Nanbtahu-nin tomo kazoerarenaihodohito
sa 6zeiita. {"Itr' & d W.*_bfLfru,,t*
U (fg)Ari*Sr,.,
ft. "There were several hundred people there-so
many that I could hardly count them."
VI. (all)
Number*tomo San-nin tomo kyd wa kessekideshita. =
& 6+Elt^ffi'tL/c. "All three of them were ab-
sent today."
VII. (no matter... ) emphatic
Noun* tomo Zehi tomo goisshoshitai desu. fdF& t 'ffi-
r wantto
Interrog. word*tomo (:te mo) ponna ni isogashikutomo
suru koto wa shinakereba naranai. ErLtr?c'ltL< &
6?6#?t Ltr?ttlf tr bkL.'. "No matter how busy
we are, we have to do what should be done,"
VIII. (eventhoughnot...):te mo
Ynohu*tomoKonahutomoyoi desu yo. Xfr < & t I U'"ic
f t. "You don't haveto come,yoLlknow."

T wA rr
Particles ua 137

t I. Topic-The word which precedes tna is the topic of the


I a. ua isolates the noun which precedes it from other

b. u)a in this sense functions similarly to the English
I expression,"as for."
1. The word which precedes wa can be treated as a
I subject.
Watakushi u)a gakusei desu. elt+4.Tf. .,I am

I a student."
Kore wa hon desu. f, il,lt+ff" ',This
is a book."

t Note: In this sentence structure with the copula at the end, the
word preceding wa is nbither emphasizednor contrasted with
any other element. (cf. ga, pp. 103-105).

t 2. Contrastingelement
a. Single particle wa
I Watakushi wa gakuseidesu ga, anata ua sen-
seidesu. f[lt+4[tfri, b/ctttJ6/,L,t?.

t "I am a student,but you are a teacher."

Kono hon wa yomimashitaga, ano hon ua
yomimasendeshita. : o){rtt$ia* L/cii,
I *>D7#ltfrtAgt} A,tLt.
"I read this book,
but didn't read that book."

I Note: In the second sentence,both wa replace the direct object

marker, o.

I b. Double particles
Tokyo ni wa ikimashita gd, Osaka ni wa iki-
masendeshita.frffl:ttfT$ * Ltri, ^fsT
I lclt{1* * t'tt L/c. "f went to Tokyo,
but I didn't go to Osaka."

I Hik6ki ni wa norimashita Ed, densha ni ua

norimasendeshita. tftffffrlclt*, t L/:ii,
EHrcrt*, *.€,!tLlc. "I rode in the
I airplane, but I didn't ride in the trolley."
Note: The secondclauseis oftenomitted" Tbat is, the contrast.
I ing element is often implicil


I38 wa Particles

Kono honwa yomimashita. LO+tt,ffi,a* L/:, "I read

this book (. . . but I didn't read some other book, etc.).'
In the case of double particles, wa always signifies ? con-
trasting element.
Tokyo ni ikimashita. HH l'fr 3 * L t. "I went to
Tokyo." cf. Tokyo ni wa ikimashita. HHt:ttfl3
* L /:. "I went to Tokyo (. . . but I didn't go to some
other place, etc.)."
Ashita kara shigoto o shimasu. nXA rtrt>.f-t$t l-*?.
"I'll work from tomorrow." cf. Ashita kara wa
shigoto o shimabu. EXE i, t2ttft$ t l- * -d.. "fll work
from tomorrow (. . . but perhaps not from today,

Frequently wa is used with negative verbs. Here too,

the negative idea is in contrast to the positive idea.

II. (as far as . . . is concerned,it is all right, but . . . )

Noun*wa*Noun da Hon, wa hon desu E&, amari ii hon
de wa arimasen.*ttfit?rir)* (+) DU',t'*a;l3,$
t trL. "It's a book all right, but it is not a good
Vg*ni (-hoto) wa+Verb Yomu ni uua lomimashita ga
amari ornoshirokuarimasen deshita. ffit_rlcttf;f4t L
fuiib* (*) ?ffiH < *>D *{f ,LfL/c. "f read it all
right, but it wasn't too interesting."
III. Emphasis
Vz*LUasuru Nomi wa shimashita E&, tabe u)a shimasen
deshita. ffi40t L * LtiiA^tt, L t € lLt L/c. "I did
drink, but I didn't eat."

WA b Colloquialsentence-ending particle for women

Verb *wa Ashita kore sctrt{,t/)a. EEg I. *tf 6*). "I'll do this

I. (suchthings ?s, and so forth)-inexhaustiveconjunction
Noun+ ya* Noun Tsukueya isu ga arimasu. t/Lf f6+ri
*> 0 t t. "There are suchthings as desksandchairs."
II. (as soonas)
Y*ta+(ina ya) Tsuhuya (ina ya) sugu kare ni denwa
o < tf (H) ({&lcgffi?rt,ff * Llc.

Particles yri tgg

"As soon as I arrived, I telephonedhim."

III. End of a sentence
Person'sname+ ya Tomokoya X++ "Tomoko." (ad-
e* la MO tsumaranai kenka wa yomeyO ya. t ,
?* btrt,,W,Lrt'(€rS)lttb I , +. "Let's quit our
trivial fighting." (toneof light urging) Used by men.
I. Sign of uncertainty: ha
Interrog. word * lara Nani yara kaite imasu. {-"lt bgt. "He is writing something."
Nan' no koto lara zenzen wakarimasen deshita. IolD a
t+ b+**rrt,(ft) Dt tA,-iCL/c. "r didn't understand
at all what that was about."
II. Conjunction: ya
Noun* yara* Noun* lara Are yara kore yara suru koto
ga takusan arimasu. trirt b : il,t bt 6 a- & ,iiX Llre>
t * f. "What with this and that, we have so many
things to do."

End of a sentence
Verb+ lo Mado ga aite imasu.yo. ffirib (fB)! .( U't ? J .
"The window is open, you know."-giving informa-
tion to others, rnild emphasis.
Ashita iku yo. (used by men) rrJg ffi ( I. "I'll go
Ashita iku wa yo. (used by women-wa is inserted
between the verb and Yo) Waft < b i.. "I'll go
Yama yo. t! J. "You, mountain."
Noun+ yo (addressing)
Usedmainly in poetry or literary writing.

I. (than)
Noun*yori Kono hito wa ano hito yori sei ga takai desu.
;O ltbo;Xl trHriHU,,t?. "This man is taller
than that man."
140 ze Particles

II. (from)-more literary than kara

Noun * yori Tar, Wri-cornmonly used at the end of a
letter. *HFj D.
III. (more)
yori+ Adj. Kono hd ga yori tahai desu. a-Dfrrti J DHu,,
"iff. "This is more expensive."

(you know)
End of a sentence Kyd iku ze. (used by men) 11'fr<
d. "I'll go today, you know."
End of a sentence Muzukashiieo. (used by men) ffi L
L.Z. "It's difficult."

< S 6,t t->

The following interrogative words are sometimesfollou'ed by the

particles ka and mo, and the resulting combination producesentire-
ly new meanings. These interrogative words also may be followed
by the verb or adjective te-form plus mo (Y u ilo, Adjmrcmo), or
by de mo (copular te-form*mo), again.producing a new meaning.

Liat of Intercogatiue Words

dare 3ft who
dochira A b b which of the trvo-more polite than dotchi
doko t'r (1tT{&) where
donata l/r/c rvho-more polite than dare
donna*noun E A,tt what kind of (noun)
donnani A Lkl: to rvhat extent
dono* noun E 0> rvhich (noun)among many (three or more)
do Et how
dore Afu which among many (threeor more)
dotchi E c b rvhich of the two
ihu* countert^S (A) : naft'* counter how many (noun)
ikura t. ( (f[) b horv much
ihutsttt ( (tJl)? how many
itsu !.? (ltiJrlt) when
nan'* countelfi,J :
(A) iliu'* counter horv many (noun)
nant:flafl' {r{ horv many (noun) (n' ls used beforethe
consonantsb, p, d, t, n, r, z)
naze lr€ (,ftjt&) why

Interrogatiaeword+ka "gome.. . tt
dare ha 'ttrnr sorl€one, e.g. KyO.dare ha kimashita. 9A3{Ei.X
t L/c. "Sorneone came today."
dochiraka EbbtJ' either one, e.g. Dochiraha [oJ otori ni natte
kudasai. Abb .*o LD]tc-ttc(T*1.. "Pleasechooseeither
one of the two."
rD rt, somewhere,e.g. Haha wa kyo doko ka e
dohoha U I' ('f-'I
ikimashita. &lt+ E gL i.r{f I * Llc. "My mother went
142 Interrogative Words plus Particles

donota ha |tr/:i. someone, e.g. Donata ka irasshaimashita.

&'if /ci.L. b c L s L.,t L/c. "Someonecame."
donna*noun*ka (non-existent,except for case I, pp. 147-48)
donna ni ka E Llf tci. how very much, e.g. Oka-samamo donna
ni ka oyorokobidesh6. *ref*t U i-fsrci.*s$Ut('-L r t .
"How happy your mother must be !"
dono*noun *ha (non-existent,excepi for case 1, pp. 147-48)
do ha-dd ni ka t5rt' somehow,e.g. Dd ka nareba ii desu ga
. . . E , rt,tr}1tt'U.,L,a'fri. . . "ft would be nice if it works
o u t s o m e h o wb, u t . . . "
dore ka Afurt, one of many, e.g. Dore ha kudasai. Uhr.TE
! r. "Give me ong.t'
dotchi ka E . brt, either one, e.g. Dotchi ka [o] erande kuda-
sai. E c t2r.ErttT8!'. "Pleasechooseone of the two."
iku+counter*ka ffi-r. several, €.g. Ihu-nin. ka kimashita. &
Ar.Xt Llc. "Severalpeoplecame."
iku,ra ka L' < (ffi) bfi, sone amount, e.g. Ikura ka hanasemasu.
L. < br'ffit*f. "I can speak a little (some)."
ikutsu ka U' ( (#€)crtt some quantity, sorne number, e.g. Ihutsu
ha kaimashita. !. ( pi.Hu.t ,,I bought some.,'
itsu ka L '? (1'"iB)r. some time, e.g. Itsu. lea Nihon ni ikitai to
omotte imasu. L.?i'E*](aafr5tct,.&,8 cT.L'tf. "r am
thinking that I rvould like to go to Japan some day."
nad *counter*ka {E-/rr s€v€ral,e.g. Nan-nin ha iku to omoi-
masu. FJxrt.'fj < & ,U,U't?. "I thinl< several people will go."
nani ko {qnr sofflething,e.g. Nani ka tabetai desu. ,[4i.ft^l: "I want to eat something."
noze ka /r€ (FIll1)r. somehow, e.g. Naze ka kono uchi wa
amari suki de wa arimasen. /c€n.I Ofitt b*. (ft) 0 *T* ttt
bD *trt. "SomehowI don't like this house very much."
Note: When other particles are used, they always follow ho, and
never come between the interrogative word and ka.
e.g. Dare ka ni agemashita ka. ffi:.irl:-b Vf *. l-lc/'. "Did
you give it to someone?"

Interrogative word+ mo
An interrogative word* mo has two separatemeaningsdepending
on rvhether it is followed by a negative verb or a positive verb.
I. Intemog. roord*mo*poaitive uerb "every.. . " (inclusive)
dare mo iE 6 everyone, e.g. Sonna hoto u)a dare mo ga
Interrogative'Words plus Particles r43
shitte iru. ?,+tr$tt;6 6 ritr cT,L ,6 . ,,Everyoneknows
such a thing."
dochira mo Eb b 6 both, e.g. Dochira mo ii desu,. Ab
b 6 L., "Both are good."
dohomo &'C (,f-"Ite)6 everywhere,e.g. Doho mo konde
imashita.&': 6ift,ttL.* Llc. "It was crowdedevery-
where (Everywherewas crowded)."
donata mo &'/r/; t everyone, e.g. Donata mo eigo ga
oiOzudesu. &'/r/: {1X;*ri}o.-.b+11?. "Everyone speaks
English well."
donna* noun* mo E L/"c- 6 every kind of, e.g. Donna
hito mo imasu. E A.,/rA 6 u.'* ?. "Every kind of person
is here."
donna ni mo (non-existent)
dono*noun*mo UO-6 every, e.g. Dono hon mo muzu-
E D#t ffi L?(ie) S t f. ,,Everybook
is too difficult."
d0 mo (non-existent,except for case Z, p. 148)
dore mo Uit 6 every one of them, e.g. Dore mo omo-
shiroi desu. A fL 6 EfH U.,f f . "Every one of them is
dotchi mo t c f2 { both, e.g. Dotchi mo kirei desu. t c
b t 3 *tu ' (ft,TE[)
tf. "Both of them are pretty."
iku.*counter*nto flt-- 6 any number, several,€.g. Ihu-
nin mo himashita. tt,,t { i( t L/c. "Several people
ikura tno L' < (fJt)b 6 any amount, many, e.g. Mada
i h u r a m o n o k o t t ei m a s u . * ( * ) / J r . , I b 6 D a c T L , *
t. "There are still any number (many) of them reft."
ikutsu m0 !' ( (&) p t any number, several,€.g. Ikutsu
mo haimashita. !. ( =6HL'* L/c. "r bought several."
itsu mo L.? ('f4ffi)t always, €.g. Itsu mo uchi ni imasu.
L.? t A?t! . t f. ,,I am always home.,'
ttan'* counter + mo .f-"I-t any number, e.g. Nan-satsu
mo kaimashita. l'{ffftH!.*L/c. "I bought several
nani mo (non-existent,except for case3, p. 148)
naze mo (non-existent)
Note: IVhen other particles are used, they always go between the
interrogative word and mo.
144 Interrogative Words plus Particles

e.g. Dochira ni mo kyomi ga arimasu. E b b l: b R4 ni b u)

-f "I am interested in both." Dono
* . mo kai-
t e a r i m a s u .E D # l : 6 g L ' ( f r > 0* . t . " I t i s w r i t t e n i n
every book."

II. Interrogatiae word+mo+negatiae verb "no . .. " (exclusive)

dare mo ;E 6 nobody, €.g. Dare lno kimasen deshita.
6 X t trt (.. L /c. "Nobody came."
docltira mo Eb b 6 neither, €.g. Dochira mo yoku ari-
ntesen. EbbtJ<bDt€,L. "Neither of them is
doho mo &'L (f'I{&) 6 nowhere, e.g. Doko ni //to ikima-
sen. l': lc 6'm5 t trt. "I won't go anywhere."
donata mo &'lr/c6 nobody, €.g. Donota ?noirasshaima-
sen desita. &'/rfu 6 L. b c L r !.'t .11
,Lt L/:. "Nobody
donna* noun* mo E L/r- 6 no kind of, e.g. Donna hon
nto yaku ni tachimosen. A Ltrt 6 {Ela:I bt tl,. "No
kind of book is useful."
donna ni mo (non-existent)
dono* noun* tno E 0>- 6 tro, e.g. Dono hon mo omo-
shiroku urirnasen. E D7F6 m'H < e>D * *}A,. "None of
the books is interesting."
dO mo E , 6 not at all, somehow,e.g. Do mo yoku ari-
masen. A, t f < *, D t tA,. "It is not good at all," or
'Somehow isn't good."
dore mo U}t, 6 none, e.g. Dore mo yanthu. arimosen.
Eta6*<b0tt|,L. "Noneis cheap."
dotchimo E c +rt neither, €.g. Dotchi mo chiisahu, ari-
masen. E c f" 6,J\* < b 0 t €.A,. "Neither of them is
ihu*counter*mo fS- 6 not many, e.g. Amari ihu-nin
mo himasendeshita. *, # t X t t ,\,t L/c. "Not too
many peoplecame."
ihura m0 L. < (fE)b t not much,e.g. Ikura mo nokotte
imasen t,. ( b 6 ffi,. (L . t t+rt. "Not much is left." !', < ({lt): t not many, e.g. Mo ihutsu mo
arirnasen.6 ) ur ( p6b D *.t1,. "Not many are left
any more."
itsu mo L.,2 (l-"Tffi)
6 nevir, e.g. Itsu mo ikemasen. Lr"2
{>fil.i*t1". "f can never go."

Interrogative'Words plus Particles 145

nan'*counter+mo 1'{-6 not many, e.g. Nan-mai mo

hahimasendeshita. F1ffi.6g g * .&r{,t Llc. ..I didn't
write many pages(sheets)."
J nani+ mo {tI lo nothing, €.9. Nani mo arimasen. l'"16e>
, t {+rt. "There is nothing."
nazemo (non-existent)
: 'When
Note: other particles are used, they always go between the
interrogative word and mo.
e.g. Doko ni mo ikimasen. E | (FIfu) t:6 fr S * t,f, "I
won't go anywhere." Dare ni mo misemasendeshita.

I 3€t: 6 .8 t * g Lt L l:. "I didn't show it to anyone.'

Interrogative word+Yt, mo "no matter who (what, etc.)"

t De mo is used in the same rnanner as V1, ffil, but it follows an

interrogative word directly. De is the te-f,orm of the copula da.
Therefore, an interrogative word* de tno means "no matter who
t (what, etc.) it is." Thus it is often translated into English as
"anyone,""anything," etc. This expressionis usedmainly with posi-

t tive verbs. See 6, p. 149

dare...Yp mo ${f...V tt no matter who, e.g. Dare ga hite mo

odorokimasen. fltl/t'.'F_(6 Itr5 t {trL. "No matter who comes,
I won't be surprised." Dare de mo hairemasu. tbt t j\lt t f.
"Anyone (no matter who he is) can enter."

I dochira...Y1u mo Abb...V ( t no matterwhich,e.g. Dochira

o erande mo ii desu. Eb bti$ A.,re6u.'!.'icf.
which one you choose,it will be all right." Dochira de mo
"No matter

t kamaimasen. A b b< t ftiL . t trL.

either one."
"It doesn't matter with

doko...Ypmo &';.({qrL)... V(6

I e itte mo atsuidesu. 5:^.fi c\ t#-u.'tf.
n o m a t t e rw h e r e ,e . g ' . D o h o

we go, it is hot." Doho de de mo utte imasu. &';' .(t 6 ff,

"No matter where

I ( ! '* t. "It is sold anywhere."

d o n a t a , . . Y p m o& ' l f t c . . . V ( 6 no matter who, e.g. Donata
ga irasshattemo ano kata wa aitakunai to osshaimasu. &'tr/c
T iiL' bcLr e(t h7>fimft'/c ( fc!.&*d cl,-rL't?.
matter who comes,he says that he doesn'twant to see him."

I Donata ni de mo omiseshimasu. &'ff/clct d fd-R.ttL * ?.

"I'll show it to anyone."
donna*noun.,.Ypmo Er\rfxN... V(6 n o m a t t e rw h a t k i n d
I of, e.g. Donna hon o katte m0 yomanai desh6. A lrfr# XH, c

146 Interrogative words plus particles

:C6 ffi,t /rL .':C.. L r , . "No matter what kind of book we buy,
he probably won't read it." Donna hon de mo yomimasu. &.
,Lfs.4(.'tffiat9. "He will read any kind of book."
donna de mo E,L/X(. t no matter how, e.g. Donna de mo
kamawanaikara shite kudasai. E,Ltrt6f#*"k1.,i. \L(TE
I r. "No matter how you do it, it's all right; pleasedo it.',
d o n i t an i . . . Y t u m o E L l r l c . . . V ( t n o m a t t e rh o w m u c h , e . g .
Donna ni hotoraitemo mada binb6 desu. ELfrlc@1.:C6 gfj
RZret "No matter how hard I work, I am still poor." okane
ga takusan mokaru nara donna ni de mo hatarakimasu. *s#
tiiRtlrffir.6 lr b E /.lr?:t't 6)Jg' g f. "If I can earn so much
money, I'll work a lot (no matter how much work I have to
do, I'll do it)."
d o n o * n o u n . . . Y s s / / t oE o > N . . . V ( t no matter which, e.g.
Dono hon o yondemo tsumarimasen. E4.t?ffiLft:* t t
*14,. "No matter which book I read, I becomebored." Dono
hon de ,no ii kara misete kudasai. E O*t6 U,,L.i.b-E-u(T
3 !.. "Any book is all right; pleaseshow it to me."
dd Y p mo a , v -ic{ no matter how, e.g. Do mite mo ano
hito wa chotto okashiidesu. E, n{ 6 ho>Xrrt-=f*di.LL,t
f. "No matter horv I look at him, he is a little odd." Dd de
mo kamaimasen. A, t 6ttiU.,*+lrL. "No matter how it is, it
doesn't matter."
dore...Ytun?.0 Afu...V(6 no matter which one, e.g. Dore
o mite nxo yoku arimasen. Eltz-n( t X < ,) D t t/u. ,,No
matter which one I see, none is good." Dore de mo kekk6
desu. Ettt df;,5f,fitf. "Any one of them is fine."
dotchi...Yptnl Ecb...V(6 n o m a t t e r r v h i c h ,e . g . D o t c h i
o tabete mo oishikunai desho. E . fe*rA{( 6 *.iL. L < fr! ,t
L t , . "No matter which one I eat, it probablywon't be tasty."
Dotchi ni de mo hairemasu. E cf2?Ct6j\*rtf. "You can
enter either one."
iku*counter...Ytu mo fE-V ( 6 no matter how many, e.g.
Iku,-ninite tno tarimasen. {E !,( t,E, ttl,. ,. No matter
how many peopleare here, it's not enough." Iku-nin ni de mo
agemasu. {EAltt6lk}*f. "I'll give it to any number of
i h u r a. . . Y r , m o ! ' ( ( f f t )b . . . v t t n o m a t t e r h o w m u c h , e . g .
Ihura nonde mo mada nodo ga kawaite imasu. !, ( bffi.r\,t t
*ffGrii€u.(L'tf. "No matter how much I drink, I am still

I Interrogative Words plus particles

thirsty." Ihu.rade mo tsukatte kudasai. L, ( btt{fie.icr8

I ! r. "Pleaseuse any amount."
i h u t s u . . . Y t r m oL . ( ( s ) 2 , . . v " i c 6 nomatter how many, no
t matter how old, e.g. Ikutsu ni natte mo mada kodomo no y6
desu. !., < ?l: tr. ( t t ff+d[ D j., tf. ,,No matter
how old

r he gets, he is still like a child." Iku.tsu de mo katte agemasu.

L'( cactH c('LWt?.
(no matter how many)."
"I'll buy you any number of them

! itsu Y temo L.? (FIffi)v ( t no matter when, e.g. Itsu itte mo

uchi ni imasu. L,?{T cT6fil:!,*f. ,,No matter
he is home." Itsu de mo ii desu. L,?1.. 6 u.,u,,..f. ,,Any time
when I go,

h is fine."
nan'* counter* Y te ,tto ,f'"I-V ( 6 no matter how many, e.g.

t Nan-nin kite mo kamaimasen. l-'I X( 6 f#L , t €&. ,,No *ul-

ter how many peoplecome,it doesn't matter.', Nan-nin de mo
ii desu. f'Ltr d u.t,.,Tf. "Any number of people will be all
nani...Ypml {o]...V(6 nomatterwhat,e.g. Nani o tabete
mo oishiku arimasen. fItA.{( L < e) D t "llrL.
d *o-U, ,,No
matter rvhat I eat,it doesn'ttaste good." Nan' de mo dekimasu.
f{f 6 f 8 (HJ*) * f. "He can do anything."
naze de ,no tr+f (f{tft) t 6 no matter why (see 4, pp. 149_49)
Naze de mo ikemasen. rrrt r ld'frrf t trL. "No matter why, I
can't go."
Note : In the case of interrogative word * de mo, when other particles
are used, they always go between the interrogative worcl and
de mo.
e . g . D o k oe d e n o i k i m a s u . U : ( f , , l l & ) ^ t { , t T S t f . ,,I,llgo

Conuenient Thinp to Remember Concerning Some Forms of

I nterrogatiae Word* Particle.
1. When an interrogative word* ha is followed by the verbs
shiru or uakaru, this combinationdoes not have the special
meaningslisted on pp. l4l-42.
e.g. Dare ka kimashita. Fftr.** Ltc. ,,Someone came.',
Dare lda) ha* shirimasen. ;fir.fu D t -t}A,. "f don't
know who." The copula da is often omitted.
Doko ha e ikimashita. &'c, ({Ef&)i.'^.{t* * L/c.
-fhi. Ar .h*".
148 Interrogative Words plus Particles
"He rvent somewhere."
Doko ldal ha* shitte imasu ka. l':i.ffi caqL.tfr..
"Do you know where?"
2, Dd+mo has becomethe adverbialword domo meaning "very
much," "quite," "somehowr" etc., when it is used with a I
positive verb.
e.g. D6mo arigatd gozaimasu. t' , 6 HXE) g $.!. t f.
"Thank you very much." DOmoNihongowa muzu-
kashii desu. E, { gA;SttHEL!.'(.'f. "Japanese
really difficult (no matter how hard I work)."
3. There is no expressionnani mo meaning "everything." The
expression non' de mo is close to "everything," although
strictly speakingit means "anything."
e,g. Nan' de mo tabemasu. ,f-+f dA^tf.
thing (everything)."
"He eats any-
Note: The adverbial word nanimo used with negative verbs is
used as an emphatic expression.
e.g. Yori ni mo yotte nanimo kyd konakute mo yo-
kafta no ni... J gl:6 Ja(1'"16+B*tc< ($
J i,: t:0) l:. . . "Of all the days of the year,he had
to come today (he didn't have to come today)!"
4. There is no expressionnaze. . ,Y p ftio, but there is the ex-
pressionnaze de m0 meaning "no matter rvhy (no matter
lvhat the reason),"which is followed by both positiveancl
e.g. Nazede nzoikitakatta n' desu. fC*t (f,'TfiI) 't|*
f { tcrJ,
"No matter what the reason,I rvantedto T
Nazc de rno ilcitakunakatta n' desu. rrt}t {, ffiF r:
( frf ': /: Lft. "No matter what the reason,I
didn't rvant to go."

Note: These sentencescan be cons.ideredas the answersto such

e.g. Naze ikitakatta n' desu ka. /r d{l 3 l: /' -t t: L< t
/r. "Why did you want to go ?" Naze ikitakuna-
katta n' desu ka. /r tf fr g /: ( /r /, -t f: Lt f /,.
'Why didn't you want to go ?" I
*This &a shows uncertaintv.
t Interrogative Words plus Particles 149

The one who answers does not want to give information

t as to why he does or doesn't do the action. Depending
on the tone, it may even sound belligerent'

t 5. Confusionarises over the use of an interrogative word* mo

or an interrogative word * de ?no-

I a. followed bY a Positive verb

Interrogative word * mo+ positive verb "every . . . "
Interrogative word * de mo*pOsitive verb "any . . . "
I e.g. Dore mo ii desu. EtL6 ! "L.'(..f.
thing is good."

Dore de mo ii desu. Uh(.. 6 ! ''L'tf. "Any

: one is all right."
b. followed bY a negative verb
t Interrogative wOrd* mo* negative verb "no . . . " (fol'
lowed by only a very few verbs, see 6)
e.g. Nani mo arimasen. FId h0 *{frt. "There is
I nothing."
Nan' de mo arimasen. 'f'tlt 6 b |2t t'{". "It's
I nothing."
Nani mo kamaimasen. {FJt fltt,'t trL. "FIe
doesn't care about anYthing."
I Nan' de ftto kamaimasen. 'fFJt6 t?iu''* tl".
"It doesn't matter what it is."

I 6, Interrogativeword*de mo*negative verb

An interrogativeword* de mo is followed only by a very
ferv verbs in a negative form such as nai or hamawanzi.
I e.g. Dare de mo nai. flf f {, fx! .'. "It's nobody"'
Dotchi de mo kamawana| E c f2t t tffi*"fxL "It
I doesn't matter which one," etc.
7, The expressionikura de mo nai is not too common' but
sometimesit is used in the sense that "the amount is not
I too much."
e.g. Ihura de ,no arimasen g3, orei no shirushi ni totte
I kudasai. u' ( (ffi)br 6 t, Dt t,Lri'
It& c(.T8!',.
"It (the amount)is not much,but
pleasetake it as a token of my thanks."

f. Characteristicsof JapaneseNouns (Though pronouns are a

class of nouns, for convenience they are treated under a
separateheadingin this book [pp. 191-92]).
1. Generallyno distinction between singular and plural
a- Occasionallya suffix is attached to nouns or pro-
nouns to form plurals (e.g. watakushi tL "f,"
watakushi-tachifrLtcf" (S) "we," hodomo +#
"child," hodomo-tachi74*fcb "childr€D"), see
noun suffixes for plural forms, pp. I7g-82
b. Repetitionof the same'word makes the plural of
certain nouns (hito "person," hitobito Aa
"people,"shima F "island," shimajima ffi A "is-
lands." See p. 154,3b
2. No gender (no feminine, masculine,neuter)
3. No case (Particleswhich follow nouns decide the case in
Japanese,see Particles,pp. 93-140.)
II. Various Forms of JapaneseNouns
1. Noun usagesimilar to English usage
a. Commonnouns *ilE*Fil(..!,z j u>L,L)
Concrete nouns Rffi&ijil( <"/:1,,b!, L) (hon *
"book," hana IE "flower")
Abstract nouns tfr*.&iiq(boo ) L J m!. L) ( jiyu
H fi "liberty")
b. Proper nouns WF&ijil(: vg , lDt ' L) (Tohyo HH
"Tokyo," Tanoka-sanE+Srt "Mr. Tanaka")
2. Nouns used as adverbswithout changing in form
a. NumeralsffiEl(f , L)
Cardinal numbers #fi(*f , ) (mittsu =2 or
san = "three")
e.g. Koko ni mittsu no ringo ga arimasu. (noun)
c:?.=?Dt) >J (ftfA)rib, t?.
"There are three apples here."
Ringo o mittsu kudasai. (adverb) .r) > J t

Nouns r5l
=pT81.. "Pleasegive me three apples."
Ordinalnumberstrffi( U r f 5 ) Uchibon*&"first")
e.g. Ano gakusei wa kono kurasu de ichiban
desu. (noun) fr>o>#4,lt.o), 7 xt-#
tf. "He is the top in this class."
Kore ga ichiban 6kii desu. (adverb) c }1ni
-#^ * t'tf. "This is the largest."
b. Nouns of quantity
(tahusanWil "many," suhlshi ,),V "a little," zenbu
AS "all," mina b& or minna !# "all," dzei X*
"many [people]")
e.g. Tahusanno okashi o tabemashita, (noun)
iRUot"'H+AA{tLlc. "I ate lots of
Okashio tahusonkaimashita. (adverb) *dH
?AiRdI H L. t Lft. "'We bought many
c. Some abstractnouns
Uijitsu SX "truth" or "in fact," zettai f€ff "ab-
soluteness"or "absolutely," wariai *lJA "rate" or
e.g. Sorewa jijitsu. desu. (noun)t*rttX{Xtf.
"That is a fact."
Iijitsu sonnakoto wa shiranakatta. (adverb)
Iff*t LtrU1ltfu b|rrt'z /c. "In fact I
didn't know such a thing."
d. Nouns of generalizedtime
(hyo 4a "today," konshn+;E "this week")
e.g. Ky| no gogo ikimasu. (nqun) 4 n D+'ik:tl
* t ?. "I am going this afternoon."
Ky| ikimasu. (adverb)49ffi8*f.
"I am going today."
I 3. Nouns which are modifiednot by adjectivesbut by adverbs
or non-conjugative adjectives
I a. Nouns of directions
(higashtH "east," nishi E "west")

t e.g. Hokkaidowa Nihon no mottomokita ni aru.

JhifiHtt B + Dffi.t JLlc*>6. "Hokkaidois
situated furthest north in Japan."
l| Sonnaminami ni aru n' desuka. Z,t trffi

152 Nouns

Eb6,Ltfr.. "fs it situated that

4. Nouns which can be used as adjectivesas well as adverbs.
a. onaji E U "same," "anyway" qtraditionalgrammar
categorizesthis word as adjective, but in modern
Japaneseit is easier to treat it as noun. The only
adjectivalinflection still used is the hu-form, ona-
jihu, meaning "similarly," "equally."
e.g. Kore to sore wa onaTidesu. (noun) : h L Z
txttlFj Ut?. "This and that are the same."
Onaji hito de wa arimasen. (adjective) E U
rClt t> D t {irL. "It's not the sameperson."
Onaji iku ni (to) shite ffio, kyd wa hontd wa
ikitaku nai n' desu. (adverb)lEjD'fr ( lc U
6 1a tt+gtt118 rc ( trL.,Ltf. "I'll go
all the same, but I don't really want to go
5. Nouns which are unique to Japanese
a- Copularnouns (adjectival nouns)
(kirei lnol I'}tt . (f,fE[) tr "pretty," or "clean,"
sltizuhalna) iffii./r "quiet")
of copular nouns
1. Not usedas an independentword in a sentence,
but always followed by a copular (da,desu,etc.
or na bef.orenouns).
2. Never becomesthe subject or the direct object
in a sentence.
3. Modified by adverbs,not by adjectivalwords.
Note: These rvords are often not translatable as
nouns. Together with a copula, they have an
adjectival meaning. Since it is difficult for non-
natives to distinguishbetweenregular nouns and
copular nouns, they. should memorize all the
copular nouns together with na. In order to
determine if a noun is regular or copular,
Japanese-Englishdictionaries should be con-
sulted, since most of them list copular nouns
with na.
e.g. Kore wa kirei desu. : ix lt g tr.u, (. f .
"This is pretty."
Nouns 153

Kore wa kirei na hana desu. I' hlt

t',triE"i6?. "This is a pretty flower.'
hirei de 6kii heya *hU,Tt
5 1,,ffiE
"a pretty and big room,'
atatakana ffii.lf warm
awarena Ffi,/r pitiful
benri na ffiftjfr convenient
g0j0 na 5fi,lFh stubborn
hadena lfrS tc showy
heibonna YAfr commonplace
idai na ffitfr great
igai na unexpected
ijiwaru na Hru,Sfi mean
ijd na Rffih abnormal
iya na L.f (Ffi)lc distasteful
kantanna ffiS.fx simple
kasukana i.? faint
kirai na ffiU'fc distasteful
kiraku na fiXfr carefree
kirei na t*tt,,(ffiE[) tr pretry
k6ka na ffiffih expenslve
mottomo na 6 , L(rt)t tr reasonable
onwa na jfi.fgtc mild
reiseina itFr?/x cool
shizrrkana it]'r./r quiet
suki na ff I /r favorite
tabd na *'ltft busy
ts0kai na ffi,bt/r thrilling
teineina TS tr polite
ydi na Ebtr, easy
yukai na ,t'ftt*fc pleasant
zeitakuna HiR fr extravagant
(6kina, chiisana,okSshina,see p. gZ)
b. Pseudo-noun (Nounin form) M*,&$d <klL . L 3 O! .,L>
(mama * t "as it is," tame /cb (e) .,for the sake
of," tdri iB l, "just as,,)
This is a group of nouns which are never used
independently. They are always used with a modi.
fier (seeNoun modifiers,pp. 189-90).
154 Nouns

e.g. Uchi o deta mama, mada kaette kimasen. *

ttr-'l: * *, t /j ffi. (* t €'L. "He left
home, and as of now he still has not come
home." (mamameans "as it is," status quo.)
III. Derivation of Noun Forms I
1. True nouns
(tsukuefiJl"desk," ki * "tree," hon # "book")
2. Nouns derived from other parts of speech
a. Y z (haeri 'ffrD "return," kangae Z *- "thought,"
nozomi 9.4 "hope")
b. Adjtu @hihahu)E < "neighborhood") See pp. 84, 89
for ku-f.orm.
c. Adj.t.- (adjectiveof colors)aka fr "red," shiro H
d. Particle (no D "fact," "one") I
3. Compoundnouns
a. Noun*Noun (yonaha&+ "middle of the night," t
asahi $fi "morning sun")
b. Repetitionof two nouns (used as plurals) (hitobilo
)ya "people,"hibi E k "days") The initial sound
of the secondnoun often becomesvoiced.
c. Noun*Vz @npitsuhezuriffi'?fli5|J D "pencil sharp- I
d. V, +V, (yomikoki ffiAI* "reading and writing,"
tabesugiAi& 5 "overeating")
e. Vz*Noun (kaimono H'+rn"shopping,"tabemono(t,+rn
"food," heshigomu, iL5L J z'. "eraser") I
f. Adj.,.-*Noun (chikamichi;EiU "short cut," ureshi-
namida ffiLlR "tears of joy")
g. Noun* Adj's.- (kimijika Xffih. "short temper,"
Ashibaya,E+ "quick walker")
h. Adj.,u"'*Vz (tahatoDtFiftLN "high jump," tdmawari I
ffiE l, "detour")
i' Adjr,"- + Adi.t"- (t6asaff& "shoal")
j. Adj.,.* * suffix sa (utsukushisa* L 3 "beauty") I
Adj.t"-*suffix he (samuhe*W "chill")
Cop. n.*suffix sei (hitsuydsei,I,W+*."necessity")
k. Adverb* Noun (mataitohot /:t ,,& I "second cous-
in," tadagoto,1S "ordinary matter")

Nouns < P F

L Noun*Vz*Noun (hitosashiyubi;E+F"index finger")

I 4. Abbreviated nouns
(hohurenEr€ from hokusairengT
trHiEA "the united
Nations," k6k6 H& from k6t6gakk6H++& ,,high
5. JapanizedWestern words
(arubaito7 tu t\ ( l- "part-time job," from German Arbeit;
dansu i- > z "dance," from English dance)
There are literally thousands of foreign words used
in this manner, but pronunciations, and sometimes
meanings, are Japanized,and it is often difficult to
tell from what words they actually originate. These
words come from such foreign languages as English,
German, French, Russian, Portuguese, and others.
Moreover, some of these words are often shortened in
Japanese,so that they are even more difficult to re-
cognize. For example, suto means "strike," hansuto
means "hunger strike," demo means "demonstration,"
and so forth. No list of all these words is possible;
moreover,new words are continuallybeing added. For-
tunately, however,they are written in hatahana,so that
readersare made aware that they have foreign origins.

BAKARI DE WA NAKU...MO lt'i.r("lttr(...6 not onl]...

but also, e.g. Iidosha bahari de wa nahu uchi mo kaimashita.
HFiHtt'fi'? {'lttr ( N6HL.'t L/:. "They bought not only a car,
but also a house."
BAKARI KA...MO ffi.Dfit...6 n o t o n l y . . . b u t a l s o ,e . g . A n o
hito wa Furansugobakari ha Doitsugo rno hanashimasu.. bo>X
Itz t >xF*tft,0 fi,F 4'v3$tffiLtf. "He not only speaks
French, but he also speaksGerman."
BAMU tt'tr be slightly in some condition, e.g. Ase bande hima-
shita. ifll,t(.'*t Lft. "f am getting slightly sweaty."
BIRU 016 apparentstate of, e.g. Ano ho wa otona bite imasu.
hl>+ttrt|tN(L,tf. "That child looks like a grown-up."
BURI -r:D lapseof time, e.g. San-nenburi de aimashita. =+S:
D f *u '* L/:. "I saw him after a lapse of three years."
BURU "t:6 pretendto be, pose ?S, assumeairs, e.g. Ano hito ua
tensaibutte ite okashii desu,. h0> X[tX?$ c \1 L.(..f.
"1C*"i'L j1hin
"It's funny becausehe pretendsto be a genius." Itsu, mo
butte imasu. fTil-ft A,H' -li c -iCL',t f. "She always assumesairs
oi gentility."
DAI(ARA TO ITTE ffi. b LE cT. just because,e.g. Kodomo
daharato itte bakoni dekinei. +Wf:rt,b LE . (,fii,[Etct5 (HX)
/t!'. "Just becausehe is a child, we can't belittle him."
DAI{E ATTE ftft (t) *>c(. :dahe ni
DAKE NI t:Vl (t)lc. as expectedof, e.g. Kanemochidakeni yohu
okaneo tsukaimasu.Affi f:Wlc I < *d#t&u'* f. "As expected
of a rich person,he spendsa lot of money." Onna daheni yoku
hi ga tsukimasu. kfi\l: .t < frriff'* tf. "As expected from
a woman, she is thoughtful."
DARAKE t:btt full of, e.g. Kono sahubun wa machigai darahe
desu. aDtEflilt.ffiBt'ffbl,ttf. "This composition is full of
DATERA NI ff( bU: :to iu, no ni in spite of the fact that. . .
e.g. Onna datera ni yohu yarimastc.tti< blc I < t D tt. "In
spite of the fact that she is a woman, she does well."
Noun-following Words and Expressions de mo nai..,de mo nai IST

DATTA ff: /c - de atta was, e.g. Chiisana tnachi datta ga ima

u)a dkina tohai ni natta. ,J.8 tctrr/j -:f:rt\4lrt*rr#[* cfc.
"It was a small town, but now it has become a big city."
DATTE fic(. - de atte mo even if, e.g. Ohanemochidatte muda
na hoto o shite wa ikemasen. *d#ffiff:'iCffi,BtfrI L*LT.t*,t.'hi
* t,{,. "Even if a person is rich, he should not be wasteful."
DE ARU reEl.A :naru:taru,
DE ARU BAKARIDE iWA] NAKU.. . MO Tb6[f'. Dr /r ( . ..
6 not only. . . but also,e.g. Ano hito wa bijin de aru bakari de
nahu,atamamo ii desu. bl)/...ttr* (. b60fr. D('lc ( , EH6 u, "Not only is she attractive,but she is also smart."
DE ARU KOTO f&) A a L :tarer, koto
DE ARU TO WA r*>6 & tt :to wa
DE ATTA th->tc :datta
DE ATTE MO t&) z'iCt even though, €.9. Yononahani w&
kanemochi de atte mo kechina hito ga takusan imasu. Ito>Flc
tffiffif b. ( 6 VlblrAniifid1 ! .,t ?. "In this world there are
many who are stingy, even though they are rich."
DE MAI{IAU "CtHrcA) suffice,e.g. Kore de maniaimasuko. :
It(ffilcAL'* fi.. "Will this do?"
DE MANIAWASERUtEfllcAbg.b managewith, servethe pur-
pose,e.g. Sen-ende maniawaserutsumori desu. fEltnfj],,.A*>
t6:6 (tft)Dfi. "I intendto managewith one thousandyen."
DE MANIA\YASUrfH:,c#b? -de maniawaseru
DE MO .1e6
1. even,e.g. Konna monode mo ii desu ka. a Ltr 6 Dr t u',. "Is eventhis kind of thing all right?"
2, whether.. . or (usedin pairs) e.g. Otoko de mo onna de mo
kamauanaikara hitori tetsu.dai ga hoshii desu. frt 6 trf
6 ffi*:/r! ',i. b- +Eu ',riffi L t .'tf. "f don't care if it's a
man or a woman;I want to have a helper."
DE MO NAI t 6 k!. not even,e.g. Kanemochide mo nai no ni, ihii jiddsha o kaimasu,.#ffi('6 trt.OIC.L'-2 (,f"1ffi) 6t
31.'HWJHAHU'*?. "Althoughhe is not even rich, he always
buys big cars."
D E M O N A I. . . D 8 M O N A I ? 6 l c L . . . . " i e t h t ' i t isn't...itisn't,
e.g. Are de mo nai kore de mo nai to hontd ni urusai hito desu.
158 de tno nan' de mo Noun-following Words and Expressions

b*t<'6irL.r.*trttrt.&f5lL J r-3L.A.iC*f. "He is a person

who says 'this isn't it, that isn't it,' and is so particular."
DE MO NAN' DE MO t t FIt't everything, including. . . e e.g.
Ano hito wa kanji de ,no nan' de mo shitte imasn,. *>D/....tttffi?
:etf"lt6fu cT.L'*?. "He knowseverything,includingChinese
DE MO NAN' DE MO NAI t 6,f-'lr 6 trt. nothing of that sort,
e.g. Ano hito wa yilmei de mo nan' de lno nai no fli, itsu mo
ibatteimasu.&>o>xlt.F-&t6f'lr6 tr!.otc, F1ffi6ffifficT.L.*
f. "He is not famous or anything like that, but he is always
putting on airs."
if.: de areba, nara e.g. Sagahu de wa kare wa dare ni, rno
mahenai. ff#flt'.{Attr=Ela 6 AWIIL'. "In (If it is) mathe-
matics, he is equal to anyone."
2. accordingto, e.g. Ano hito no iu tohorode wa amari ii eiga
de wa nai yd desu. $r>XDE ) & C 6reltbt (*) D L'L'&
Efetft!.I t tf. "According to what he says, it isn't
that good of a movie."
3. used in comparison,e.g. Kore to sore lto) de u)a dochira ga
dk;i desu.ka. :' tr L?ttf li g bbri^$ u .''i3f2'. "Which
is bigger, this or that (Between this one and that one,
which is bigger)?"
DE WA ARU GA tit, hZfii (the following clause is often a
negative concept) Ano hyoju LUagaku,sha de ua aru go, yoi
de wa nai. h0>#tfut+*'t'ttbr=fi\, Jt''ft/S,tltfx!'.
"That professoris a good scholar but not a good teacher."
DE WA NAI tltft!. is not (negative of de arn', da) e.g. Are
wa Yamamoto-sande ua arimasen. bltltlll+ 8 ,ttlt b 0 t ttrL.
"That isn't Mr. Yamamoto."
DOKORO DE WA NAI &':Atltk!' :dohoro no hanashi de wa
nai f.rorn. . . (emphatic) e.g. Hirune dohoro de wa arimasen
deshita. €W.t. : brl]*&>, t rl fureL/c. "I certainly did not have
time to take a nap (far from taking a nap)."
D O K O R OK A & ' : b f t , f a r f r o r l . . . b u t . . . , r a t h e r , o n t h e c o n t r a -
ry, e.g. Hima dohoroka isogashihutetaberu hima //ro arimasen
deshita.BHc: brt,ttL < (,A.{68H6 *>0 t{f^,tL/c. "Farfrom
having free time, I was busy and I didn't even have trme to eat."
Noun-following Words and Expressions goto ni 159

GA ATTE lto Koro ,ib c(.Da L becauseof, e.g. Anna hoto

o shita no nr.omina zurui hangae ga atte no hoto da. *>n /r r.
LX L/c O 6 ""tf 6y,# k-ri&) c T.D a & /j. "Because of his sly
thinking, he did all that."
GAKARI DE iii. 0 t combined,e.g. Go-nin gahari de mochiageyd
to shimashita ga mochiagerarernasen deshito. fi iii., 1.'ffif2_,L,
kt f , LL* L/cn!ffib-b,W bixt t,Lt L/.. "With all five people's
strength combinedthey tried to lift it, but they could not do it."
GAKARU rt\fi,6 tinged with, e.g. Sora ga haiiro gokatte hima-
shita. *.rt\N.e,i!i. z (Xt L/c. "The sky is becoming tinged
with grey."
GAMASHII ,it L!. looks like, soundslike, smacksof, e.g. Ano
hito iua itsu mo ihen gamashii hotoo iirnasu. *>DXltL,,p(1'"1ffi)
6 H-E ri* LL '': & tE t,',t f. "He always says somethingwhich
soundslike admonition." Hontd no rnusl{mena no ni,taihen tanin
gamashiku furumaimasr,r,. +E DhilftD]t.X4ffi, rit L ( ffi#t,,,
t f. "Although she is their real daughter, she behaveslike a
GATERA tNIl rt\< b while, at the same time, e.g. Sanpogatera
no uchi ni itta. itrfrt\f bil H E ,t DXU.'fr: fu.
"While taking a walk I went to Mr. Yamada'shouse."
GE fr seeming condition of others, e.g. Ano hito no okonai wa
otonagega nai. t>o>XD'frt.,lt,XAfiflk!'. "That man's be-
havior is childish (unbecomingof a grorvn-upperson)."
GORO kfr approximatetime, e.g. hna ichi-ji goro desu. +-ffiq
"Cf. "It's about one o'clock." Kotoshi no haru goro hara byohi
desu. ++D#Unh'bf,9(tf. "She has been sick since about
springtimethis year."
GOTO :'& :gurunxi and all, together rvith, inclusive, e.g.
Hatakegoto ornaeni yard. tEi& *Jfifl:+ b r. "I'll give you the
field and all (my property including the field)."
GOTO NI a'& (@)l: every, e.g. Nichiyobi goto ni ane no uchi
ni ihimasu,. EIEEIi L]r:y601*]tt'53tf. "I go to my sister's
house every Sunday." Hi goto ni atatakahu.narimasu. E a' Lircg
i. ( b,D t?. "It gets warmer every day." (cf. oki ni, p. I70)

Note : Difference between mainichr and hi goto ni: Mainichi gakkd ni

ikimasu. € H #&tcfr *' t f. "I go to school every day." Hi goto
160 gurai Noun-followingWords and Expressions

ni samuht narimasu. E j & lcg ( /r D t f. "Every day it gets

colder."-resultant part indicatesprogressiveincreaseor decrease.

GURAI <'bt.'({f) :hodo:kurai e.g. Kare gurai atama ga lohe-

reba ii nd. 're,{ bt',gHriJhl*rlfL.'t ''lrb. "I wish I were as smart
as he is !"
GURUMI ( 6 4 - goto altogether, including, e.g. Ohina sahana
o honegurumi tabemashita. x I /rfR.tE + 6 AA^t L/c. "He
ate a big fish, bones and all."
IGAI NI D)5*u= except, outside of, e.g. Ano hito igai ni tomodachi
ga imasen. bDLD)rll:Xr*flL.t€A,. "f have no other friend
but him." Gehhyn igai ni mo shil,nyil ga arimasu. fr M4rj-lt t
{Xy'-ri&>D *t. "f have income besidesmy salary."
IGo D)1*. after, e.g. Raisha no Nichiyd igo wa uchi ni imasu. X
,H0>HEF.D)lhltXlcL.,*f. "I'll be .home after next Sunday." Sore
igo ano hito ni atte imasen. Zt1"U1h.*>D/..]ta*cTL't€rL. "I
haven't seen him since then."
IJO U.b' more than, beyond, further, e.g. Kind ua go.jilean ijo
benhydshimashita. Ff glitFFdu_LfuffiL* ,,I studiedmore
than five hours yesterday." Sore ijo no koto wa shirirnAsen. +
tLD)J:o$ltfu 0 *.tCrL. "I know nothing beyond that." mittsu ijo
=cl:)k "three or more"
IKA UT less than, below, e.g. Sen-enika nara haimasu. fruDl
T/"c bH,L. t ?. "I'll buy it if it is less than one thousandyen."
Kotoshi no deki ua heinen iha desu,. ++Dffi#,tttY+DlTtf.
"This year's crop is below the average year."
IKO I\W on and after, e.g. Gogatsu ihd kono shigoto o shite ima-
sr( D+t#t L( u. t f. ,,w.e have been doing this
work since May."
IZEN }/Bf before, ?ge, e.g. Goroku-lren izen ni ichi-do ikimashita.
frx+D)tflc-g?t*t Lft. "I went there five or six years ago."
JIMIRU V46 acquire a characteristic which did not exist before
(iimiru comesfrom the verb shimiru, meaning "soak into, pene-
trate into," e.g. Nagai aida inaha ni ita no de inaha j imite
shimaimashita.Et'mHA'lcL,'lco1' E *V4-( L * U.,* Llc.
"Since I have lived in the country for a long time, I have become
J0 ,b from the standpoint of, e.g. Kono machi wa rehishijo jfryo
I ) Noun-followingWords and Expressions rni 16l

r na mochi de aru. . orJl*ffiRfEFkE

important from the historicalstandpoint."
{'b 6. "This city is

r I(AI{A i.ft I wonder if that is, e.g. Are u)a Konno-sanka ,xa.
btttt+ry8 Lfi,lr.'I wonder if that is Miss Konno."

r KA SHIRA [N] fi,Lb I wonder if (used more by women),Kore

ha shira. r *r,i. L b. "r wonder if this is it."


1. thinking that it is the best time to. . . , e.g. Ima ka to bakari

r omotte machihamaeta. fnr & lf /. D,E c (..ftbt#k_f:. ,,f

waited, thinking that the chance would come at any

r 2. thinking that was only, e.g. Yume ha to bakari yorohonda.

Wfi'& lfi' D*rLt:. "Thinking that it was only a clream,I

r rejoicedto find it was real."

KARA SHITE fi'b L ( at a mere glance(sound,taste,etc.) of. . .
e.g. Fukusd kara shitesude ni okashii. jl&#r. b L (ffila*di,
I "From a mere glanceat his clothing,I alreadythink he is weird.,,
KE 9t essence,quality, e.g. WataleushiLUaaburakeno nai assari

r shita monl ga suhi desu. fAltirirll Ots,u.&>.r3D L/ct Dfii/,ilT5f

?. "I like greaseless,
KORO q - goro
simple food."
I, l
! ..


KUSAI R!' smellof, e.g. Konohen ua sahanakusaidesu ne.

"There is a fishy smell around here, isn't
MADE NI * (i: by, e..g. Iiyo no bal go-j i made ni leitc lirrdasai.
! ,,. ,,pleasecorne by five o'clock this
t 1a DW(.r-riS
* ti:*t(TS

r MEKASU br.f intentionallyshorvshimself to be of the quality

of the precedingnoun, e.g. Ano hito wa itsu mo bijin mehashite
imasu. *>D ,Jdru6 6 * brJ,L:c u't f. "srre is always trying
to make }erself a beauty.,'
MEKU b < have the appearanceof, sholv signs of, e.g. Kare wa
ima o tohi mehujitsugydha desu. ,t&tti*+Affi)b< *XfiT?. ,,He
is a businessmanrvho prospsrsnow." Dantlan haru, meite hima-
shita. ffi.a#oL.(8t L/:. "signc of spring show more and
MI H flavor, essence,€.g. Ano hito ua ninjomi ga aru kara suki
162 rno aro ni Noun-following Words and Expressions

desu. *>D/ JtfAf64ribbfi,bffiF(.-f. "f like him, becausehe

has a warm, human touch."
MO ARO NI 6 e>b 5 ut unexpectedoccurrence,e.g. Hito mo ard
ni kyo Tomita-san,ni aimashita. { bb 5 U:-fH HH 3 A,t:j}'1,,
t L /:. "Of all the people in the world, I met Mr. Tomita to-
MO SOKOSOKOM 6 ? a +: ?: hurriedly, e.g. Asahan mo soko-
soko ni uchi o deta. '1flfi86?aZ a:ll-X?H/:. "Hurriedly eating
breakfast,I left home."
MUKI ffif5 suitable for, e.g. Kono resutoran no tabemonowa
ntanninmuki da. aDvTFt>Df\+h|rr^rfir*ff. "The food
of this restaurantsuits all tastes(suitablefor ten thousandpeople)."
NA NO fg.D sentence-endingphrase for women, more familiar
then desu,n0. Hanakosan ga ichiban no nakayoshina no. lt+
8,tri*#D{+R LftD. "Hanako is my best friend."
NA NO (N') DA tr.Dti. it is the fact that it is; slightly emphatic
ending. na n0 da usually does not have to be translated. Isu na
no desu. f6" ft D{'f. "It is a chair."
NA \lO DE tt Dt becauseit is (was), e.g. Ame na no de uchi
ni imashita. ffitrDt-KllL'* L/:. "Because it was raining, I
was home."
NA NO NI ts.Drt: although it is (was), in spite of the fact that it
is (was), e.g. Ii otenki na no ni uchi ni imashita. L'!.*.iXfrtr
D]raXilU',* Lfu. "Although the weather was beautiful, I stayed
NAMI it ordinary, e.g. Ano gakusei wa sil.gaku,wa jn-nin nami
desu. h0>'+thttf{'+rtt+ iE(.'f. "He is an averagestudent in
mathematics(samelevel as ten other students)." I
NAMI IJO $DJ-b more than average,e.g. Ano hito wa nami ijo
no saind o motte imasu,. &rD/.'.ttttrDJtDtfrEXf+c\!,tf.
"He has talents above the average."
NAMI NI iLfc ?s, e.g. Kazoku narni ni toriatsuhattehudasai. X.
fftitl:&t&.. rCT* L'. "Please treat me as a member of your
NAMI NO fr.o> common, ordinary, e.g. Kodomoni wa sehennami
no seihatsuo saseteyaritai to omoimasu. T.ffi]tcrttrf"lil C'&:rfr?.
Srl(.F DtcL'&Bu.'tf. "I want to let my childrenlead a nor- I
Noun-following Words and Expressions ni datte 163

mal life in this world."

NARA DE wA trbtlt without, none but, except- de nahuteua,
e.g. Sonnakoto wa ano hito nora de ua dekimasen. + L/r: &
ItbDLtr.b(.'0tt*(H*) tt,L. "None but he can do such a
thing." Ano hito ,xara de wa yo mo hi tno ahemasen. hD ),,ft
btlt&t g tHnhi*€rL. "Without him, I can't live."
NARA TOMOKAKU trb & (n) t r. < (A) it would be excusable
if it were o. ., but . . . , e.g. Kodomo nara tornohahu.dkina otona
ga sonnahotoo shitara ohashiidesu !0. +&trb& di'( t*fr
;ft|rit L/I$g-^ Llcb*di.Lt,tf I. "It would be excusable if a
child were to do it, but if an adult does such a thing, it would
be funny."
NARA TONIKAKU frb& (tE)?Ci.< (A) : nara tomokaku,
NARI I{I tr D }: in the capacity'of, e.g. Otona nara otona nari ni
furumainasai. t trbtA tr?l:ffiI*u ,k 8 !,. "If you are an
adult, behavelike an adult." Chichi wa chichi,nari ni haha u)a
haho nari ni jibun no ihen o motte imasu. altra tr?l:Slli, b}/r
0 u=Hft oF:n ?fi c T! 't f . "Father has his own opinionand
mother has her o!vn, each in his and her respectivecapacity."
NARU tgb -de aru:tafil, e.g. Watakushiua jibtcnno huha naru,
Itito o shirimasendeshita. f/.[t Afr D W,*r.4lr?Xil? * +f ,\,< L /c.
"l didn't know the person rvho was my own rnother." Lrterary
NASHI DE frLt without, e.g. Norikae nashi de iharentasu. *
{Ak-fr L <11n.}t * f. "You can go without transferring."
NASIII DE WA fc Ltlt without, follorved by a negative idea,
e.g. Gohon nashi dc wa shokuji o tabetaki ga shimascn. C'ltA,
fr L:CttAifl*y'ft{/cftii L * t,L. "Without rice I don't feel
that I ate a meal."
NASHI NO ftl-o) without, e.g. Nilton no Ku,risumasuuJaKirisuto
nashi no Kurisumasudesu.. B^D, r)z?x?t+ r)x l.trLD, t)
7?z.acf. "Japanese Christmas'isa Christmaswithout Christ."
NI CHIGAINAI lc$L.lxL' :ni sdi nai there is no doubt of, e.g.
Ano hito wa Amerilta-jin ni chigainai. &>0>XtL;" t t) lr Alc€t, '
ft1.. "There is no doubt that he is an American."
NI DATTE l:tj c(, :ni de mo even to, even at, e.g:. Konna
chiisana machi ni datte ii omisega tahusanarimasu yo. a A,,frrJ.
164 ni de mo Noun-foilowing words and Expressions

3 rrrf ll/i c a,L''L'*ol$rir( ue>, * f r . "There are many good

stores even in such a small town, you know."
NII DE MO i,c(..6 :ni datte
NI HIREI SHITE ttlt1{L( in proportion to, e.g. uchi no dhiso
ni hirei shite zei mo tahaku narimasu. trtbflrJL(ffi,t
*ffi- *.Dx3g
< k D * ?. "rn proportion to the size of the house,the tax
becomeshigher, too.,'
NI HOKA NARAI{AI tcf&ts.bfrL,, no other than,
nothing but, e.g.
Daigahu zuagakttseino benkydsuru tohoro ni hoha
'+it'+g Df&ffit6ffiv:(&frbfrL.,. naranai. ,q
"A university is nothing but
a place for studentsto stucly."
NI ITARU MADE lc€ 6 t -C until, e.g. Kare rila
shi ni itaru
rrzodeshujin ni t s u k a e t a . ' l | 1 , t V | t c f . 6* . t ' * :4clgk-f:.,,He
servedhis masteruntil he died."
NI ITATTE twAl lc€ ca. reaching, e.g. Koko ni
itatte u)a iu
belzikotobamo nai. : : lcg c (.lt'g
, 8'E # 6 /x!.. ,,Reaching
this stage,I don't even have a word to say.,,
NI IWASEREBA t:F*"t tttt according to, e.g. yamada-san
iwaserebachikcgoro n0 Tokyo Laototemo suminikui tohoro
da s6
desu. tlrtr S,tlt$ *2t,lrlf;f,rfi D*t:f rrt& { t
ftat: < (ffi) r.Fnff
+ , t'f. "According to Mr. yamacla, Tokyo has been a very
difficuit placeto live recently."
NI I(AGITTE t:ltt o t. particularly,one out of all of
the things,
e,g. Ano hito ni hagittesonna koto wa shinai to omoimasu.
D x l : F } l c A . + L 6 { f l i L / r L , & , r &! .t , * f . , . H e i s the last man
the world to do.a thing lil<ethat."
NI KAI(ETE !:-rJ'tt< extendingover, e.g. Kyonenno nats*
aleini kahetebyohi deshita. *+DHn,bZ*,l=fi,W(fEfif
"I was ill last year from sllmmer to autumn.',
NI KAI(ETE \,vA ttafi,rr(ti as as . . . is concerned,
e.g. Go-
goku ni kahetewa ano hito wa tensaidesu.
F#+r6rt,W(0tb DL
Itxf,tf. "As far as languagelearning is concerned,he is a
NI KANSEZU l:ffitf regardless,e.g. Seibetsuni hansezusairtt
de saiyd shimas*. {*tEtJlcffitf f,FEt-ffi,H
L * ?. ,,Regardlessof
their sex we'll hire by their ability."
NI KANSHITE ?cF€L( :ni tsuite concerning, e.g:. Nihon
Noun-following Words and Expressions ni nozonde l6s

kanshite ky0 gakho de iroiro na koto o naraimashita. E ;Fl:Eg L

<+ F +.ffi("\,,b\,,b(@,n ) /rsz"-E!.'*L fu. "We learned lots of
things about Japan today at school."
NI KANISURUKAGIRI llffif Af,nD as far as. . . is concerned,€.g.
Nihon. bu.ngakuni hansuru hagiri hare no chishiki wa toishita
monoda. B 4x+?cffif 6 pFD'rfr.DxilffiIr^L /: 6 or:. "As far as
Japanese literatureis concerned,his knowleCgeis profound."
M KAWATTE ltft cA. in place of, e.g. Kyo Yosltida-sanni
hawatte kimashita.?AFm3&l:ft c(.** L/c. "I cameherein
placeof Miss Yoshidatoday."
M KI GA TSUKU ?cfiii: ({t') < notice, e.g. Heya no sumi ni
ni hi ga tsukimashita. Str D(lF,?c!.'b{*+8,Ll:
iru Toshiko-sarr.
frn',c3 t L/c. "I noticedToshiko,who was in the cornerof the
M KI O TSUKERU ?:fr *tc ({f) W 6 pay attention to, e.g. I{ono
tsttgi ua motto loku hore rti ki o tsuleetehudasai. aD&.ltt c L
J ( : ltl:g1Xc'rf (T * L ',. "Please pay more attention to this
next time."
I{I KOSI{ITA KOTO WA NAI }:: L/:. &ttlrL' nothing can be
better than, e.g. Sore ni koshita hoto tua orimasen. ZtLk:: L
/ : L c i t * > 0 * - t , f . " N o t h i n gc o u l d b e l l e t t e r t h a n t h a t . "
NI I\,IEI{JITEV:ftU( in considerationfor, e.g. Toshi ni ntenjite
yurusltiteagemasu. tt'.!':9tV<:!f L( LW *f. "I'll forgive you,
considerinq your age."
Note: - Thr ege can be taken as either too old or too young.

NI MIERU l,:nk-b it looks as if it were, e.g. Koho hara wa hito

ni ntiemasu. :: rt,bltAl:rl k-*t. "lt looks!ilie a personfrom
NI MO HODO GA ARU t:6 tt &.(,f1)fi\b6 soes beyondthe limit,
e.g. Ano hito no yohubari rti mo hodo ga arimasu. *>o>XD't*,
{{ D lc d l1 Uri *> D * f. "His greddiness knows no limit."
NI MO KAKAWARAZU l:6 rt,rt,b(fb) bt in spite of, e.s. Sa-
mui tenki ni mo haharuarazu.6zei no hito ga himashita. ryt',Xfl
lC6 /5,/t,*tbf x*O riXt Lfu. "In spite of the cold weather,
many peoplecame."
NI NOZONDE lcffiA,t in the presenceof . . . , at the time of . . .,
e.g. Kono hi ni nozondehitotsu itte ohitai koto ga aru. : o>ffi,Uc
166 ni okeru Noun-following words and Expressions

ffii,(..-,:E-: (*s*/cU'SriF>6. "At this opportunityI have one

thing I want to tell you."
NI OKERU ?l*; (tt) W 6 - de in, e.g. Sehai ni okeru mottomo
hydryoku,na kuni wa Beikoku to Soren de arvt. trtrlc*dki 6 ffi 6
t&hfrEff X,E L);S-Cb6. "The strongestcountriesin the world
are the United States and the Soviet Union."
NI OilfE lcrt U( in responseto, e.g. Hitszr,ydni ojite dohoe de
mo ikirnctsu. {.Flcl6 U( &": ({trJ{&)^..fd{18.*f. "In response
to necessity,I'll go anywhere."
NI OYOBI la&.L)f :ni itatte reaching, e.g. Koto hoko ni oyobi
watakuslti wa ketsui shita. : & : : ?cX.L}.f40tI*f{L/c. "The
situation having reachedthis stage, I made up my mind."
NI SAISHITE lcm L.iC when, at the time of . . . , e.g. Kiki ni sai-
slzite auatezu -furumau hoto wa taisetsr,r,
de aru. ftf.f,r,:WL ( *>t2
<fffiWl a LltxtJt*>6. "It is important to behavewithout
haste at a time of crisis."
NI SEYO l:.ti J :ni shiro
NI SESSHITE l.W L ( be in receipt of, e.g. Kono shiraseni ses-
shite sugu ie o demashita. aDtxb(fR)€t:ffiL(H+fftdH* L
/:. "Receivingthis news, I left home immediately."
NI SHICHA l: L +: r colloquialfor ni shite wa
NI SHIRO Noun NI SHIRO U:t-b Noun U:Lb whether.. . or,
e.g. Hon ni shiro zasshini shiro dochira ka ni kintenasai. #
l:LZ>HEl,L:ucLbAbbr.lcr*b/xtL'. "Whether a book or a
magazine,decideon one."
NI (TO) SHITA TOI(ORODE tLL/c& .bf :ni shite mo even,
e.€f. Kono hon ni shito toleorode amari yoku arimasen. a 0)*
lcL/:& ibth* (*) b I < e), *t,t. "Even this book isn't
very good."
NI SHITAGATTE tglft.=a, following, e.g. Chichi no chakoku nt
shitagattehono daigahuni haitta. aO.E#U.aNcTL Ot+rt:-V.c
lc. "Following my father's advice, I entered this university."
NI SHITE MO ?cL(t :ni shita tokoro de even, e.g. Sore ni
shite mo anmari desu. ?tt!=L(6t) rL*.Dtt. "Even so, that's
too much (Even in such circumstances,his behavior was too
NI (TO1 SHITE WA tcL(lt for, e.g. Amerika-jin ni shite wo
Noun-following Words and Expressions ni yoreba 16T

sei ga hikui desu. 7 t t) )rAlc. L:Ctt Hri'fftt ',tf. "For an

Americanhe is short."
NI S0I NAI frfg€lEL' :ni chigainai it must be, e.g. Are ga
Shimizu-san ni sdi arimasen. &>funiiff^* &?lfggb9 t€i,.
"That must be Mr. Shimizu(There is no doubt of his being Mr.
NI SOTTE lcift cA. along,e.g. Sonohoshinni sottesusumimasho.
+o)fi?tlcift cA&4* L r ,. "Let's proceedalongthis line."
NI SUGINAI lcf (ffi) SfuU. nothing but, no more than, e.g.
Kodomono itta hotoni sugimasen.+ffiD?zlc: &lcf*'t€rL.
"It's no more than what a child said."
1. concerning,e.g. Ano mondaini taishitedonnaiken o motte
imasu ka. h afflffitcFi L ( E,t.trH-F,Xfr c TU . * ?i'.
"What kind of opinion do you have concerningthat
2, as opposedto, e.g. Ani ga namahemono de aru,no ni taishite
otdto wa hinben desu. Jtri,€.ki#:'.tDADlcf,f L<#t&Wtffi
tf. "While the older brotheris lazy,the youngerbrother
is diligent."
NI TOMONAI l:{titU' in keepingwith, e.g. Kagakun0 shinponi
tomonaiuareware no seihatsuga raku ni natta. f++ Drcbttc#
t.fl k Drhlfrii*lcfc r fu. "With the advancement of science,our
life has becomeeasy."
NI TOMONATTE l:f+ cT :t4i tomonai
NI TOTTE lc & c (. from the standpointof, for, e.g. Watakushi
ni totte kore w(r taihen daiji na hotona no desu.,fAlc Lc'(I'it,
tttxAf .$ffr--T{trDTt. "This is a very importantthing for me."
NI TSUITE rt.cL':C concerning,e.g. Nihon ni tsuite benky0
shimashita. Elf lc=t'(ffiffi L * Lt. "f studiedaboutJapan."
NI TSURETE ?:=*t'iC in accotdancewith, in proportionto, e.g.
Ongaku. ni tsureteodotteku.dasai.ff#l:ptL<ffit.(T81..
"Pleasedancewith the music."
NI WA lctt for, e.g. Amerika-jin ni u)a mezarashiidesu,.T t
t) tr L]ra&V L L.ff. "ft (this quality) is rare for an American."
M YOREBA ?c.I hlt' accordingto, e.g. Shinbunni yorebaashita
amega furu sd desu. ffiml: I hlf EEE ffiri& 6+, f?. "Accord-
168 ni yori Noun-following Words and Expressions

ing to the newspaper,(I hear) it will rain tomorrow (If lve de-
pend on the newspaper. , . )."
NI YORI lc I D from, e.g. Kesa no shinbun ni yori sore o shiri-
mashita. +finDffifrfll:l , +fLtffi\ t L/c. "W'e found it out
from this morning's newspaper."
NI YORU TO l:. I 6 L :ni yoreba according to, e.g. Shimizu-
san no hanashi ni yoru to Toda-sanno otd-san wa totemo ohane-
mochi da so desu. HzKE ,t o>ffi:,l=I6 L F Bl3 ,LD*dra S ,tlt & (
6 *d#ffi tiz , tf. "According to Mr. Shimizu, Toda's father is
very wealthy."


1. by, :de e.E.Kono hoh0 ni yotte shimashita. aDfr#.lrl
rCL t L/c. "I did it by this method."
2. dependingoo, e.g. Hi ni lotte chigaimasu. EI?:J -r (r$u',*
?. "Dependingon the day, it is different."
NO AMARI NI D*>t (*) 0 rt: becauseof the intensity of, e.g.
Kanashisa no amari ni hitoban-jil, nakiddsltimashita. f,hL3 Ot)
t D ?l-[fi,+if *ilXL* L/:. "Because of the intensity of grief, I
cried all through the night."
NO \IAZU DA Ottf (S) ff is supposedto, is expected to, e.g. I
Gozonji no hant, desu. 'ftfi#Vo>ltftf. "He must knolv it."
NO H0 Dfi comparison, e.g. Kono uclt.i ?to ho ga okii clesu. :
0)X0>fi rlt I u.,ff. "This house is bigger."
I\iO I U D'a' , so-called,e.g. Are ga himi no iu bijin lea. *>tLh\
XICL',) /€z\r.. "Is she what you lvould call beautiful?"
NO KAWARI NI Dfi,L>D uc instead of, replacing something, e.g.
Yamamoto-sensei no kawari ni Shirnodo-sensei ga oshietehuclosai- I
mashita. ilr#f6,*-Dfi,*t D l:-5'ffiftHrt\#Y.k-(T3 !.,* L/c. "Mr.
Shimodataught us today instead of Mr. Yamamoto."
NO KIRAI GA ARU D * b GH t'rib 6 .have a tenCencyto be,
e.g. Ano hito wa oshaberi,xo hirai ga arintest(..t>DLlth'L r-t
D 0>3 bt "rib6. "She has a tendencyto be a talkative person."
NO KOTO D a L about, e.g. Ano hito ,xo hoto o kangaeteima-
shita. t>D\r)a LX#i-<1 .,t L/c. "I was thinking abouthim."
NO KOTO DAKARA D a Lt:rt,b knowing how one is, e.g.
Yamada-sanno hoto dahara, mata osohu kuru desho. dJElt Lo>

, . .| |
j*J l
Noun-following Words and Expressions no yd da 169

: & tirt"b, XE < X6tL r 5 . "Knowing Mr. Yamada(I suspect

that) he will come late again."
NO KOTO TO IEBA D. L LF.i-tf speaking of, e.s. Matsuda-
san no hoto to ieba raigetsu Amerika ni iku sd' desu yo. tAE 3
LD:&&F.t-lfX,E 7, t) )llrl-afr<+, (.'f I. "Speakingof Mr.
Matsuda,I understandthat he will go to America next month."
NO SEI DE otL.t becauseof, e.g. Toshi no sei de honogoro
wa sugu tsuharemasut..Fl>tL.t a D?EItf (H) ("trilt ?. "Be-
cause of my 89€, I get tired easily nowadays."
NO SEI KA OtL.,i. Perhaps because of, e.g. Kaze no sei ka
atama ga itakute homatte imasu. trtTfiD+!',i'ffiiirffi < (ffi =T.
! 't f. "Perhapsbecauseof a cold, I am suffering from a bad
NO TAME NI Dt:b5 (&) tc
1. becauseof, e.g. Ryoki no tame ni gakho o yasumimashita,
fifiDf:tbl:+ff?fr<4* L/:. "Becauseof illness,I didn't
go to school."
2. for the sake of, e.g. Kodomo no tame ni tsuku,rinzashita.+
$\o>/:rb\:lF D * L/:. "I made it for the children."
NO TORI cjIlJD accorcling to, e.g. Hoha no hotoba no tdri ni
shimashita. EID-i45D)i!t0lcL t L/:. "I did just as my mother
NO TSUIDE NI D->L.tll rvhile doing. . . , e.g. Kaimonono tsui-
de ni tomodachino toleoroe yzru hoto ni shimashita. n+rl0)2\,,
tl:l[i$ Dfii^.t 6: & l: L * L/c. "l decided to drop in at my
f riend's houseon my way to (back f rom) the stores."
f. in, otr, e.!f. Chiut. ,to ue cle ua sd natte intasu. ffitxo},tlt
+, hr'(!'*?. " l t e p p e a r st h a t w a y o n t h e m a p . "
2, upon doing, e.g. I{cnleyfino ue de oshiroseslt,in?asu. ffinDL
t*c tqb*j L * f. "Upon doing research we shall let you
NO UE NI Dktta in addition to, e.g. Koze no ue ni 6ame made
Jutte imasu. HDLI.^m*tp4 c(.t''*f. "In additionto being
windy, it is pouring, too."
NO Y0 DA D i. , ft appears, e.g. Ano hito ua hodomo no yo
dA. hDLIt+fr D X, ff. "He is like a child." (cf. rashii, p. L7\)
170 no yd na Noun-following Words and Expressions

NO Y0 NA D L j tr (attributive of no yd da), e.g. Kodomo no !6

na hito desu. +ffiD J. ) frA:C'f. "He is (a man) like a child."
NO Y0 NI D L J U= (adverbial of no yO da), e.g. Kodomo no y0
ni yorokobimashita. +ffiD J. ) llg:pst L/c. "He rejoiced like a
NOMI DE tWAl NAKU...MO D4a;tr(...t not only...but
also, e.g. Kare wa tanin nomi de naku kazoku no ,nono ni lno
'tRr,tfU q:4*:cts<X\R0>#U:6*)t
amari shinsetsude wa nai.
(*) 0 Xnl.JJt
[t/rL'. "Not only is he not kind to strangers,but
he is also not kind to his own family either."
NOMI NARAZU D\fr bf :t4ot?ti de lwal nahu
O HAJIME ITO SHITE] t+Xb> beginning with, e.g. Saeki-sano
hajime taihen 6zei no hito ga hite imashita. frIfrE,ttfub>X
AX#r; /-rt\X(L'* L/c. "So many peoplewere there, starting
with lvlrs. Saeki."
O MOTO NI SHITE tj*U=L( basedoD, e.g. HiraganaLuahanji
o moto ni sh,itetsu.kuraremashita.YIF.&tti*?t&ltL<fFbfu*.
L /c. "Hiragana were made on the basis of Chinesecharacters."
O MOTTE X D)< with, e.g. Hanhoshin o motte oya ni tachi-
mukatta. Etfi,[. XU(Xfi,lc/:f:fur. a /c. "He confrontedhis par-
ents with antagonism."
O NEGATTE YAMANAI {gfffi=A.'f *h!' desire sincerely (do
not stop hoping), e.g. Anata-gata no seikOo negatteyamincosen.
*>tttijof:X$l}l$ie'ic{t a*t&. "I sincerelywish for your suc- I
O TOSHITEAi& L( through, e.g. YolzoYama-sart o tdshite I
Minami-sanni aimashita. ffiil 8 ,tAiE L(Ffr* ,Llcf 1''g L/:.
"I met Mr. Minami through Mr. Yokoyama."
OIil NI *J 3lc at intervals of, e.g. Is-shilkan oki ni shihen ga
arimasu. -ffifrfl*c 3 lcge* /5\*>0 *t. "W'e have exams every
other week." Gahhai wa fu,ta-tsuki ohi ni hirakaremasu. Y*tt
E*.'81:Fr5r.* "The academic conferenceis held every
third month." t
Note: When the figure gets above three, there is often some confusion
in the use of this ohi, depending on the users.
€.9. Itsu-ka oki ni kite kudasai. fr-B *"'8l:X<T31..
Tbeoretically, "Please come every six days (five days be'
tween)." But it is more common to interpret, "Please I
Noun-following Words an d Expressions -teki ITI

come every five days." In this case, ohi ni is used in

the same way as goto ni, p. 159.

-PPOI z E'! ' showing a trait of character,-ish, €.g. Ano hito wa

suhoshihodomoppoihito desu.. t>a xm,rL+&z ll'L'Atf.
"He is a little childish."
RASHII t2 LL', like, has all the characteristicsof, e.g. Otohorashii
hito desu. nF> L!.' 'i6'9. "He is a manly man." "He is a man
who has all the characteristicsof a man." (cf. no yd na "like,"
Otoho no !6 na hito desu. fro> I ) trAtf. "She is a woman
who is like a man." See p. L70.
1. dependingoD, e.g. Kotoshi Nihon ni iku ka ihanai ka wa
okaneshidaidesu, ++E#lcft < /5,frrt.1c1'*o
?. "WhetherI'll go to Japanor not this yeardepends upon
the money."
2. as soonns, e.g. TOchakushidai denwa o kakemasu. gutifr.
ffifljdetrtr\ tf. "I'll telephoneyou as soonas I arrive."
TARU /:6 -de aru:flafu,, €.8. Watakushiwa watakushino
chichi taru,hito ga donna hito de atta ha shiranakatta. tNttLD
Afo6 ri A /.trAtb /c,rt,'Nb/ci. =-tc. "I didn't knorv what
kind of a personmy father was." literary expression.
TARU KOTO /c 6 : & - cle aru hoto, e.g. Gahushataru,hotoni
shachio haniitn. *F.&'t:7a:& l:tYil[ttdffiLlc. "l was ashamed
of the fact that I was a scholar."
TAITU NI MO KAI(AWAI{AZU tcTet:{ fi,fi,}t (Jtl)bt in spiteof
tlre fact that (he)is, e.g. I{are wa gakushataru ni ,no hahawa-
razu,,hidokuhanasltibeta dA. 'tfn*Y,*t:61:d /j,/J,ttbf , u.&'<
ffiLT+rc. "Althoughhe is a scholar,he is a very poorspeaker."
TARU NI SUGINAIt:613f (;e) 5fr!' be no more than, e.g.
Are LUahodomotaru ni suginai btLtt?{Jtfu 6\t-y5/x!'. "He
is no more than a child."
TE :C :to itc no wa
TEKI H! -ic, -cal, e.g. Iroiro na rehishitekijinbutsu o kenkyfrsuru
no u)a omoshiroi. &,a lrffi-tWl1WJXWflf6DItffiHL,. "It is
interestingto study varioushistoricalcharacters."
Note: rehishitekiis more literary than rehishitekina (both attributive)
rekishitelrjinbutsu E* tr!L+rn "historical character"
772 to bahari omou Noun-following Words and Expressions

rehishitekina dekigoto ffiFH'!/ciflXS "historical event"

rekishitekini. (adverbial) EEH'!t: "historically"
Exception: ltikakuteki is used adverbially without ni
e.g. hikakufeki 6kii ihftfi!;(* !' "comparatively big"

TO BAKARI OI'IOU & lt'n. D,9.., always think that, e.g. Sasahi-
san to bakari onrotteitara l{otnura-sandeshita. E R *3 't & ttr.
D,EcA.L',/:bry,ff 3,t("L/c. "f ahvaysthought that it was Mr.
Sasaki,but it turned out to be Mr. Nomura."
TO CHIGATTE & jS c A. unlike, different frorn, e.g. Watakushi
to clcigatteotdto wa taihen.benkyOka desu. tLLrB, <ffitt|XAffi
Sefla'f. "Unlike ffie, my younger brother studies very hard."
TO IEBA L=.t-li speakingof, e.g. Tanaka-san, to ieba,chikagoro
chittomo aintosen. H + 8,t & b c & 6 *u'' t t,L.
"speaking or' Miss Tanalia, I haven't seen her at all lately."
TO IU LE' , which is called,who is callecl,referred to zS, e.g.
Yamada-satx to iu hito o sltitte irnosu,lea? ilEB3,t&E. ) Xffic
(!.tfr.. "Do you know a personcalled Mrs. Yamada?"
TO IU HODO I'{O LE ) lt E (&) o> what you can call, e.g. Kes-
saku,to iu hodo ?io t?rorrode rua arimasen gA, ontiseshitttaslt'd.ffi
ft t'3, ft t. D'+htttft) t) * t67.7i*o'!t.BL t L r r . "It isn't what
you r,vouldcall a masterpiece,but pleaselook at it."
IU NO WA L'3 J Attt :te one rvhich is calleil, e.g. Amerika
desune. 7 t t) )r &!', J 0>ltt8\,'E("f*a.
to itt ixl LUa6lii lerr,rti
"America (Tire country called America)is a bi:; counti'y,isn't it?"
TO IU Y0 NA L;i., I ) .|r slrcir things ns, e.g. Nihon eiga to
itr,y6 na tnonoua :nita hoto ga aritnasen. Er{rll^ifq&:{ ) I ) /r
{, ,liin/: L Lh\*> D t -t}rt. "I have never seen such things as
TO I(A IU Lfii:€ ) somethinglike, somethingto the effect, e.g.
Kyo Sosalei-sott lo ka iu hito ga kimashita. lAfka ^X LLr.E'
, ^2i)i€* L/:. "ToCaya personcalleclsomethinglil<eMr. Sasaki
TO t-WAI I(AGIRANAI Lf'Eb k t ' is not necessarily,e.g. Eigo
ga yoleuhnnaseruhito ga mina Eikohu,- jin to wa hagirottai. JR -+l'

;sii I < ;f;*g6 l-rt\E"xtrA & til,Rb k!'. "All those who can
speakEnglishfluentlyare not necessarily Englishpeople."
TO (NI) MIERU Lnk-6 it looksas if, e.g. Asokoua shizukana
tohoroto miemasu.b+:lt#r.frFf Ln*-tt. "That lookslike
Noun-following Words and Expressions wa tomohaku l|g

a quiet place."
TO (Nl) NATTE & tr cT. &s, e.g. Ano hito LUamachi no chilshin
to natte yoku,hatarakirnasu.b0>X[ttrIOF,L. LfscA.I < @ I *
?. "He works hard as (by becoming)a central figure in the city."
TO SHITE LL< in the capacity of, e.g. Kono leotobao daiji na
mono to shite oboeteoite kudasai. a ' |€#?rt#/r 6 D L L<'Hk-
(*"'1.:CTE L',. "Pleaserememberthis word as a preciousthing."
TO SHITE MO & L(t :totemo
TO SHITE NO L L< D ?s, e.g. Hahaoya to shite no sehinin ga
arimastt. Bffi LL<D-FEfi\&) 0 t t. "I have a responsibilityas
a mother."
TO SHITE WA L L(lt for, e.g. Amerika de r'"nmreta hito to
shite wa eigo ga heta desu. 7 , t) /1(:i*'-ttf: & L(ltHESrtT+
tf. "For a person who was born in the United States, his
English is poor."
TO TOMO NI & *l: with, e.g. Watakushi no chichi wa toshi to
tomo ni yasashihunarimashita. tto>att/+ & ltlcfs L ( tr D *. l,-,tc.
"My father becamegentle with age."
TO WA & lf - tle aru to wa shows surprise,following the topic,
e.g. Sonnakoto to tua yume ni mo shirimasendeshita. +&fxEF
&ltYl:tfrt , *t] Lf L/c. "f wouldn't even have dreamedsuch
a thing!"
TOTEMO & ( t : to slzite?n0 even, e.g. Watahushitoternoitsu
made ,no honno'shigoto rua shitc itaku arimasen. tLL ( { L,?
*f { r./vts'fl'Jitl L(!''/: < b D *.t/u. "iiven I myself
do not rvant io do this kind of worl<forever."
WA MOCHIPTOI{ tNO KOTOI ttlllJifr not only. . . , but. . ., e.g.
Machi wa mochironmukaigawo no yama nto rniemasu. FiJttn#
D:JJ{t{ k-*.t. "l.lot only can we see the city, but we can
also see the mcuntainson the other side."
WA OROKA iNA KOTOI [t *dbfu' to say nothing of, much less,
e.g. Hanosrckoto rua oroha, ai'nto shimasendeshita. 3f;f : &t*,
*;bfi,, *!',t L*t Lf L/c. "I did not even see him, much less
talk with him."
WA TOMOKAKUtt & (tr ) t r' < (A) setting aside,not to men-
tion, to say nothing of, e.g. IOdan wa tomohahu hore hara dd
shite ileu tsumori desu ka. T,#ttt di.( afLfi,b E, L<'fr ( p
174 wa tonikahu Noun-following Words and Expressions

6 (ffi) Dtfr'. "All jokes aside, what do you intend to do from

now on ?"
TfA TONIKAKU tt & (tB)tci'< (A) :wa tomokaku
YORI HOKA tNtl NAI J.D f&frU' is the only one,there isn't any
other, e.g. Daitdry1 nara kare yori hoka ni nai. tffiffilr b',t&.I
0 (b!=lx! ". "If it's a president, there isn't any other one but
YORI MO I D 6 than (comparison), e.g. Ano hito no ho ga
watakushi yori mo tosh,iuedesu,. hDXDfirt\UJ , 6+_L,"ief.
"She is older than f."
ZEN *& have an air of, e.g. Ano hito wa totemo gahusha zen to
shite irnasu,.br>'IC!.*f. "He has a schol.
arly air."
ZUKU DE f ( f by means of, e.g. Chihara zuhu de sono shohu
o emashita. )Jt < ('-? Dtr&X'++*L/c. "He obtained the job by
ZUTSU fc a certain amount or quantity at a time, e.g. Nisan-
nin zutsu kimashita. .-= fc*,* Llc. "They came by twos
and threes."

trqffi<r, & , i>



a certain



a certain day

cho- rt4 super chojin ,tB superman
dai- ffi
dai(tai)- x
daiichi m* No. 1

daisahka xtEx. prominent
ao- IEI the same donin IFJ same person
fu' T dis-,un-

i TE
futei uncertainty
fuhu- EIJ vice-,assis- fuhudai- alJxffifFvice-president
tant, sub-

i fuhu- W. double
fuhuiinhai 'E|j*F*
fu,kusha wq
compound fuhubun wx

fuku- '{n re- fuhhi reversion

I si- # in-law
artificial leg

I grlt- h?lf) pseudo- sij i-



#F anti-
hainichi ill,a anti-Japanese

I han-

hanbei EX anti-American

Han-Tai- I/I,TYH Pan-Pacific

I heiyo
*;* Conference

han- + half,semi- han- +fi person not

I hi &. receiving,
quite well
I be sub-
rydhohu country

176 Common Noun-prefixes
Prefix Kanli fufeaning Example Kanji Meaning
hi- )F non-,un- hibunmei- 'FXBNtruncivil ized
hoku country
hira- T common hirashain Yiitr mere clerk
hon- # this, the honnin the person
same himself
ihu- H several, ikunichi ffs several days
ima- modern imadohi +ffi present age

ji- k next jinan wfr the secondson
ji- tr of the j izahe trE sahe of the

1o- c5
regular i otokui E1Sffi
iun- H semi-, jun' wl*tr semi-final
quasi- kessho I

your school
petty official I I

ho- l&
the late
l&=^rt the late
Mr. Miki

this time
this week
ky u- IB
former, €x-
ex-soldier t
,na- H mid-,right manatsu
tnashit a
right below
plain honesty

?nat- 'ffL
hiH every day
ln a rna- g miniature ftlome-
trLIV miniature doll
full man.getstt tiliry
k female
megami f-i,F
full moon
goddess I
mettshi +b(dtr)
4. cow I
mei- noted meimon &r'1 noted family
Sft non-,-less mujo S'tfF heartless I
Common Noun-prefixes tn
Prefx Kanji Meaning Example Kanii Meaning
nii- ffi new niizuma ffi* new wife
oni- fr tough onihenji HeF relentless
rai- X next, rainen x+ next year
sai- E the most saidai ftt the biggest
sai- F re- saihen FE reconstruction
sei- E regular seihaiin iE*tr regular
sen- fc last sengetsu frE last month
shita' T under, shitabahi Tffi. footwear
rough shitagahi Tg rough copy
sub- shitauke TFFKT sub-contract
sho- At many, shokohu. F#E several
several countries
sho- iE genuine shokin E# hard cash
just sho ni-ji

lr _trif exactly
two o'clock
sd *t, entire sdin frefi the whole
s0ra- *- feigned, soramimi *4 feigned
pretended deafness
st7- ffi several j it su
stt, Xta several days
ta- * many taltd ntctt *-ii fii many sides
ta- IU strange tanin {rgA strangers
tai- )\ big, pro' taishi ttr ambassador
tai- if toward, taibei ffxeft policy towards
against seisahu America
tahaku- *fr many- tahaku, *fr&w multiple
sided, heiei enterprise
tan- .H' single tandoku, Htr* singleness,
t6- )I4,
= the said tdnin E the said person
toko- H ever tohonatsu Htr eternal
. r!.

:/ - sla
178 Common Noun-prefixes

Prefix Kanii Meaning Erample Kanji Meaning

usu- H light usugi ffiH
usuchaliro) ffi#
thin clothing
light brown
uwa- -h upper,

-LH upper garment


y0- H Western ydfuku #flR

zai- & situated in Zoibei EXE6
Japanese Em- t
Nihon A&AB bassy in the

zen- H[ €X-, former

zen- HfxffifF
United States
Z€II. A whole zen-
AtrE the whole
Il *



Sufix Kanji Meaning Example Kanji Meaning

-amari *D over ja-nen ++* D over ten years
:yO amari
-ban # ordinal ichi-ban -#: No. 1
-banme#H ordinal ichi-banme -# El the first
-chaku H arriving at TohyochakuFtrffi (train) arriving
(ressha) at Tokyo
-chn + during, in hyaha-chuttBH+ during the
the midst of vacation
-dai ^ size jitsubutsu- X+rJ*, life size
-dai 6 level ichiman-en-TnA level of
dai Y 10,000
-dai fr period,age senhyfrhyahu 1980+ft 1980s
-dan rf, circle bundan Xtg literary circle
-domo * humble watahushi-t#+ we
form of domo
.d6 * shopname Ffigestsu-dd Et,tsg Fdgetsudd
-ddshi r $ L all through yodoshi &isi L all night
'fn I4 sryle, Nihon-fa E #Et Japanesestyle
-gata fi about(time)yfigata ,fi twilight
-gata -t-
n honorific anata-gata Jalr,tcfi you (plural)
form of
-gata u model I97 8-nen L978+H L978model
-gata iil: about sen-engata fHlii/c about + 1,000
-goto s matter tadagoto ,1S ordinary
-han trE offense shohan +tJtrg the first offense
-hatsu ft departing Kyoto-hatsuH#* (train) depart-
(ressha) ing Kyoto
180 Common Noun-suffixes

Suffix Kanji Meaning Example Kanji Meaning

-hi R cost henchihu-hi€*R cost of
-i construction
{fr. rank ichi-i *{f the first in
-jaku rank
rtg a little yonja-jahu ru+gg a little under
under forty
'ji + matter, hanshinj, ffi,[.S matter of
affair interest
-ji w order dai-ni-ji ffi,:k the second in
-jin order
nationality Nihon-jin F A Japanese
-jo ffi place shnhaijo H*ffi meeting hall
w -*,
place undojo ffigJW athletic field
lg. fold ni-jn -
E two folds
-lu + entire ichinichi-ja * E + all day
-ka (r, -ize gutaika F.ffil|, materialize
stffu t6
-ka x professional
geijtttsu-ha X,ffiX. artist
-kai -6-
zi shakai 4I* society
-ke x family Yamada-ke itffiT,. the yamada
-hvo Family
j{fr alittle ni-ntairu, - ? 4 t u
over kyo jfr two miles
- t?yo
FT faith kirisuto-hyO* 'J x l. #{ Christianity

rc. maniac,tl. photograptry

-me manlac
EI ordinal hitotstt-me -'? fl the first one
-nai P! within kikan-nai ffiFfl6 within the
-ni lr) resemble chichioy.a-ni,tlinp) resembling
-ra ^t
Tf plural kodomo-ra Vffi+ children
x since sakunen-raiW+X since last year
UN style Furansu- 7r>Z French style
rtil tfi
-sei .fs -ness, sehktohuseiffiffi,f-* positiveness
Common Noun-suffixes 181
Sufix Kanji Meaning Erample Kanji Meaning
-sei ro manufac- Nihon-sei H+ro manufactured
.tured in Japan
-sen js selections kindai- ffft B 4 selections
Nihon X+jE from modern
bungakusen Japanese
-sen *fl transit line Yamanote- dr+fiR Yamanote line
-shihi { model shinshihi tr{ new model
fashion hynshihi IB{ old fashion

Fn place yahusho '19ffi government

-shu + person untenshu \ag
{- +
-sugi i& past go-ji sugi 8ffiffi after five
-tachi rB plural watokushi- fA;s we
-tai +tr zone nettai f{fit torrid zone
'tan tr# end sainantan Jllr*,trilj end furthest
-td ^.S etc. Beikoku, xtd,xBnU.S., England,
Eihohu, to 1J'
-tsuki {l' with, hagtt-tsuhi ztJl{t' f urnished
attached (rooms,etc.)
-tsume f,5 appointmentYohoh arna- fr?ilj;ifr5 appointedto
:zume (to a posi- zu,me the Yol<ohama
tion, etc.) office
-tsuzuhit t row, conti- lane- trf8frf, rows of roofs
nuity tsuzuhi
-ue -.h honorific chichi-ue ,a,L venerable
for superior father
-usu W lack of temochi-usu+ffiw not much on
-ya tr shop hon-ya #E bookstore
dealer hon-ya-san #tr$,{, book dealer,
-lami ffi4 patient haibyo-yamitrfrffiffi4 tuberculosis
'1' I


182 Common Noun-suffixes

Sufir Kanii Meaning Erample Kanji Meaning

-!oke WVT protection haze-yohe
trihht shelter against
-yo : afttari
-lori 6 0 close by Yamanote- rlr+tr0 near the bluff
-yuhi fT5 bound for Ameriha- 7 t t ) ) r bound for
-zetke Yuki fl5 America
ff' dated mihha-zuhe = Bff dated the third
-zuhi tr lover of
-zuki ff
Whya-zuhi rystr
attached to taishihan_ ^&AB{t'
baseball fan
attach6 to an
zuhi embassy
-zuhume f(o covered huro- Rf(o all in black
with zuhume
-zuhushi €L enumera- huni-zuhushitr,S L enumeration
tion of the names
-zulll€ sr
of countries
sEt packed haho-zumeffi# packedin a box
-zumi ffi load goton-zumi ffffi&€ freight car
hasha H with five-ton
-Zl.lf€ load capacity
ttL worldly- sehen-zure ttfffif}1 overly wise
wise worldly affairs
-zure dtL company, futari-zure - dtr a party of two

Geographical Nameg
Sufix Kanji Meaning Erample Kanji Meaning
-cho ry' town, Eifuku-cho ,t,fFtrI Eifuku District
:machi district
'dd H old province San'in-do 'lrHH
-dori iB San'inProvince
avenue, Ginza-ddri CRgiE
: tdri Ginza Street
-fu ffi metropolitanKyoto-fu H*ilfrT Kyoto Prefec-
-gawa Jll, ture
TtrJ river Sumida- FEE,lII Sumida River
: hauta

Common Noun-suffixes 183


rf Sufir
Meaning Erample Kanji
county,sub-Koshi-gun ffffiEf
Koshi County

t -ji
-iima H
road Kiso-ji AHEE Kiso Road
island Io-jima ffiftH Iwd Island
I :shima
-haid0 ffiH highway Kiso-haidT AHffi€ Kiso Highway
rl -kaido ifiH highway
along the
Tohaido HiEH Tdkaidd High-

rl -hen R
prefecture Chiba-hen fHR Chiba Prefec-
II I -ku
itr Iake Yamanaha-dl+iff

t E ward Shinagawa-ffirllE

r I -machi trI district Oi-machi x#trI 0i District

:cho town
-mura ff village Kamihumi- If;nf,f Kamikumi

r I

-rettd ,tJe chain of
Chishima- T&rtJ&
Kurile Islands

-san dJ
:}/?IIrE *zan
mountain Iruji-san 6*dt Mt. Fuji

I! -shima &
- jima
ffi city
Osaha-shi t|3fitr
Awaji Island

r -sha ifif

-sha /{J
continent Ajia-sha

U.S.state Oregon-shfi
T i TDgl Asian

State of
I 'to ffi\
fH Oregon
metropolis Tohyo-to HH#ls Tokyo Metro

I -td H island Tonga-td

l. y )f H Tonga Island
:shim3: jima
I -wan {4
-yama dI
Asama- i*ffIrll
Tokyo Bay
Mt. Asama
I =SAn:ZOl7
-td H ocean
Taihei-yo t+H Pacific Ocean


184 Common Noun-suffixes

Sufrx Kanji Meaning Example Kanji Meaning

-zan tIJ
: 50 7 2 : l A ftl A

Note: In writing out a Japaneseaddress,the largest unit comes first.

e.g. Nihon, To,byo-to,Kodaira-shi, Suzuki-cho, S-choma 100-5
H* HHtrJ ,J.Tffi ffi^El' 3TH 100-5
100-5,3-chdme, Suzuki-ch6, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo-to, Japan

Personal Names
-chan.b r ,\, (see -san) used affectionatelyto addresschildren k+b p A, Tomoko
-dono ffi Mr.; more formal than -san,often usedin officialdocuments
Suzuki-donoffi^ffi Mr. Suzuki
-jo ,# Miss; not used to addressan unmarried woman directly,
but used to refer to her
Yamada-jd t!Hffi Miss Yamada
-hun E Mr., Master; often usedby young men and boys to address
their male friends
Nakajima-kun'FBE Nakajima
-nte N expressesabuse
ano Egawa-me t>o>iI.|tlff- that despicableEgawa
-samat* Mr., Mrs., Miss; more polite than -san,commonlyusedto
addressothers in letters
Toda-samaFBltTt Mr. Toda
-san 8rt Mr., Mrs., Miss; most common suffix
Tanaha-sanE+SA, Mrs. Tanaka
-shi E Mr.; honorific suffix, not used to addressa man directly,
but used to refer to him, particularly in writing
Shimizu-shi i#zKft Mr. Shimizu
Some of the above suffixes are used not only after proper names,
but also after some nouns.
e.g. botchanyfib A, used to addressa little boy
oj7-san *dffi*rt used to addressa girl
shash0-sanHSS rt used to addressa train conductor
oisha-san(sama) tsE# 3 ,t used to refer to a physician
(Usually the word sensei fr*. is used to address
a physician)
Note: In writing out a person'sname, the family name precedesthe
Common Noun-suffixes lB5

given name.
e.g. Yantadalira ilHhFI3 Jird Yamada
It should also be rememberedthat it is not common in Japan
to call one's acquaintance(even a fairly close friend) by his/
her first name, as in the United States. Yamada-san(last
name plus san) is the most common way to eddress Mrs.
Yamada, one's acquaintance.

Terms of Addresg
It is common to address persons of a certain position by their
title instead of their name. This is especiallytrue within a social
structure where the ranking is apparent. In f.act, it soundsalmost
impolite to address one's superior by his / her last name plus -san.
It is naturally unthinkable to call your superior by just his / her first
name as is often done in the United States. It should also be noted
that the pronoun anata t>ttt: (or kimi fr for men) " you" should
not be used when one talks to one's superior,that is, use of anata
or kimi should be reservedonly to one's equalsand inferiors.
e.g. Buchi, chotto ohanashishitai koto ga arimasuE?, ima oiso-
gashiidesuka? f,il&,--'f *siifr
L L f;1.:. &rt\b Dt th\, +
*"''ftL L'Tf i.. " Departmenthead, I would like to speak
to you a minute; are you busy nol? "
More examplesof position traditionally addressedonly by title:
kach6(-san)fl{l& sectionchief
(ken)chiji(-san) ftrlft (prefectural) governor
k1ch1sensei&:&,i'lr,A:school principal
senmu(-san)t].ifr managingdirector
sensei tE+. most-usedterm for addressinga personwho
commandsrespect from the nature of his /
her work such as teachers,professors,doc-
tors,writers,Diet members,etc. Even among
the colledguesof the same school, it is
customary to call each other by sensei or
so-and-so seltserinsteadof by his / her name,
shach0(-san) ttE president of a company
shich6(-san)ffiE mayor
ch0ch6(-san) rf& mayor of a small town
sonchA(-san) t'ftr head of a small village

The terms which are used to addressor refer to family members

or relatives come basically in pairs, the neutral one and the more
polite one. The neutral form is used in writing as well as in re-
ferring to one's own family (humble form), while talking to a non-
family person or persons. The polite form is used to directly
addressone's own family members or to refer to another person's
family. This form takes a variety of suffixes, changing the level
of politeness.
€.9. father
chichi 'l1.(rvritten) Kare no chichi wa gaikdkan de aru.
tff H'1lt>6. "His father is a diplomat."
(spoken-humble)Chichi wa ima dekaketeimasu. alt
+ffir. (ff ) W<t,. * f. "Father is out 11s'e1;."-refers
to the speaker'sown father
chichiola T *n more impersonalthan chichi
otdsan(address) Otosan,ky6 no gogo isogashiidesu ka.
*da 3 ^,, 1a D+th'ltL L'tfi'. "Dad, are you
. busy this afternoon?"
Otdsanwa donna oshigotoo shite iraremasu ka. *dra
X l-( U' btL* f i'. "What kind of
3 ,tlt E ,\'f"c*"'{t-IJI
rvork doesyour father do ?"-refers to someoneelse's
f ather
more polite:
otdsama *o'lffi used in the same way as otdsan, but
more polite
otdchan(tdchan)*o'rab p A, used mainly by little child-
ren, addressingtheir father
otdcharna*"'Abr * used in the same way as otdcltan,
but more polite
oyaji *it U Not a good term, but is often used by men
in informal situations to refer to their own fathers,
oyaji-san f.or others'.
Terms for Family Members and Relatives lg7

There are still more terms for "father," which are used in different
localitiesin Japan, but one can easily learn them after staying
there for some time.
In the following list, the terms for other family memberswill be
given. Like the terms for "father," they have several different
forms, of which the most commonly used ones will be listed.

equiaalent neutral polite more polite children rough
mother haha, ohdsan okasama (o)kdchan oluhuro
E *d&3,t (choma) t"."E < b
parents rydshin goryoshingorNshin-
ffiH 'ffiffilinsama
husband shujin goshujin goshujin- dantta
g L sama B.#{I
otto "fiflg
7C 5r-ffitfr
wife kanai okusan ohusama f f -

xfr s$,t tr.l
son musuko musukosangoshisokusanta (more often used
,8.7 frIl?,U,ffi' for a grown son)
boya botchan obotchama (more often usedfor a
tfi+ Yib \, L youngson)
daughter musurne nxusufitesan
tr{ fil*,t
ojosan oiosama
*"'fiq* i,
elder ant oniisan oniisama (o)niichan anihi
brother n *d,n3 't (chama) t{ft
elder ane ondsan on€sama (o)ndchan anehi
sister ftF *"'ffr8,t (chama) fiftr
family hazohu gohazohu gokazohusama
xffi ,ffiNfrR

Terms for Family Members and Relatives
equiualent neutral polite more polite children rough
siblings hyodai gokyodai - The word kyodai is used for
ft,#(ffrtr)'ffinffi siblings, that is, for both
brothers and sisters,but when
one talks only about sisters,
the word shimai ffrffi should
be used.
baby akanbo ahachan
fr,A'Yfr fr'beL
grand- sofu oj iisan ojiisama (o)jiichan jijii
father +L',t. *r?Ex, * ,L (chama) ?fi
grand- sobo obdsan obdsama (o)bdchan baba
mother ?E.B *r?E& 3 /L (chama) W
uncle oji ojisan ojisama ojichan
(frx, {fr't8,L, (chama)
fl,l* trra3,r
aunt oba obasan obasama obachan
{frEl, {H&3,L, (chama)
fl,8* fIfr'8 A,
nephew oi oigosan
9E gfr'ffFg,t
niece rnei (o)meigosan
m *.'ffift]I ,t
cousin itoko oitohosan
L.&: *"'!',&:.3rt
* {Ht}borh than one's parent
uncle, but
&:Al [younger than one's parent
than one's parent
aunt, but {older
flEJ [younger than one's parent
&ffit6ffi#<bL'LLro, Lr
I In Japanese, every noun modifier precedesthe noun which it

I modifieswhether it is a word, phrase, or clause. The following

are the five most common noun modifiers.
1. Noun (or pronoun)+no watakushi no tonari no uchi no

II 2.
"my neighbor'schild"
Copular noun*na (positive) hirei na uchi *ttr., (ffiH) ttR
"pretty house"

Copular noun* de wa nai (negative)shizukade wa nai tokoro
F?i.a;&ttcU'Ff "place
which is not quiet"
3. Adjective (positive) ohii uchi ^8.U,,ff "big house"
(negative) 0kikunai heya xF ( trt 'SE "room
; which is not big"

# 4, Non-conjugativeadjective konna mono a L/r 6 o "this kind

of thing"

'|! 5. Sentence-ending
dono hito EDL "which person"
verb forms-Relative clauses
L. There is no relative pronoun in Japanese, and the verb

i ' which directly precedesthe noun modifiesit. (Excep-

tion, see tohoro flz, p. 78)
2. There is no distinction between restrictive and non-

il restrictive clausesin Japanese.

a. Vs (positive) hanashiteiru hito ffiL(1.6L

F "talking person,"that is, "person

who is talking"

b. Ynai (negative) hanasanaihito ffi8 fu[,,A "un-
speakingperson,"that is, "per-
son who doesn'tspeak"
*c. Yto (positive past) itta hito 'fi.lcA "person
I who went"

l 'lt SometimesV14 as a noun modifier, rather than

being an objective
modifier, implies a speaker's evaluation of tbe following nouu
e.g. kottutta bito E a /cA "person with whom we are having trouble,,
ll ct, komatteiru hito E'e (!.6A "person who is in trouble"


I90 Noun Modifiers

meganeo haheta (:kakete iru) hito flR$HAr'kilcA

"person wearing glasses"
(negativepast) ihanahatta hito ftn ki. z /cA
d. Ynakatte
"person who didn't go"
Example of a sentencewith some noun modifiers I
Watakushino tonari no uchi ni sunde iru
W0> X]tc
(Noun*no) (Noun*ni)
(V3-relative clause)
(noun modifier) (noun modifier) (adverbial phrase)(noun modifier)
Kirei na yasashii onna no hito wa hono
thu'(ffiH)h E Lu'
(Cop.n.*na) (Adj.)
to> IT CD
(Noun*no) (Subject) (Non-conj. t
(noun modifier) (noun modifier) (noun modifier) (noun modifier)
hinjo no shogahh0no
sensei desu..
fr'&,. t?.
(Complement)(Copula-main verb) I
(noun modifier)(noun modifier)
"A pretty, kind lady who lives next door to my house is a
teacher at the elementaryschool in this neighborhood."
In the above example,the core of the sentence is hito wa sensei
desu ttfr&,tf, "a person is a teacher," and the rest (under-
lined words and phrases)are mostly noun modifiers (one adverbial
PRONOUNSt\&ilFl< ffr,'bu.'L >

Japanesepronounsare a classof nouns. Thus, the rules govern.

ing the use of pronounsare the sarneas those of nouns as shown
L Characteristicsof JapanesePronouns
1. Generally no distinction between singular and plural,
except to attach plural suffixes to some personalpro-
nouns (seeNoun, p. 150)
e.g.{watahu.shi-tachi fl.B "we"
lwatakushi-domo tL)l form
(anatab lr/: "you"-singular
lanata-tachibtr/:S "you"-plural
lanata-gata httt:fi "you"-honorific plural form
tomae*"'iif "you"-used only to one'ssubordinate
lomae-ra*o'lff$ "you"-plural, etc.
2. Irlo case (Particleswhich follolv pronounsdecidethe case
in Japanese, see Particles,pp. 93-140.)
3. Nfanymore pronounsin Japanesethan English. Many
of these pronounsdependon interpersonalrelationship
(Seebelow,II, 1)
II. CommonJapanese Pronouns
1. Person 1st person
watahushifd (polite), watashi, atashi, boku IY; tt<

(usedby men), more polite than ore

2nd person
anata *>/rl: (most common), anta (not as
polite as onata),omae *dHf (to a subordinate),
kimi (usedby men)
3rd person
k a r e ' i e . " h e , " h a n o j o ' r & k "she," kono kata
a Dfr, sonohata + Dfr, ano hata t>o)fr
mean "this person," "that person right there,"
and "that person over there," respectively.
They are also usedfor "he," or "she." (Kata
192 Pronouns

is more polite than hito. Kata cannot be used

without modifiers, while hito can be used in-
dependently without any modifiers.)
dono hata E Dfi "which person," dare ffi "who,"
donata &'tr/: "who" (more polite than dare)
Note: There are many more pronouns which are used for different
occasionsand in different localities in Japan.

2. Thing (demonstrative pronoun)

(koreah I fsore+tL )
lhochira: f2 b ["this" lsochira+bb ["that"
lkotthizcb J l.sotchi?=b )
dore E tL "which of the three or more"
(are *>tL I
lachira *>b b [ "that over there"
latchi h cb )
E c b }"which
ldotchi of the two"
ldochira Ab b[
Note: leochira,sochira, achira are more polite than kore, szre, are.
kotchi, sotchi,atchi, dotchi are the most colloquial.

3. Placex hoko a a "here," soltot Z "just there," asoko

.b? c- "over there"
4. Direction hochira a b b "this direction," sochira + b
b "right over there," achira hbb "way over there,"
dochira A b b "which direction" (seealso 2 abovefor
different meanings of hochira, sochira, aclt,ira, and
For the differenceof.ho, so,a and do, seeNon-conjugative
Adjectives,p. 92.
5. Other interrogativepronouns,see Interrogative words, p.

* In English the place words sucb as "here" or "there" are always adverbs,
but in Japanesethey are pronouns. Therefore, we have to add the particle
ni (or de) after these words, to use them adverbially. €.g. Sono hon wa
hokoai arimasu. 10>*lte clcbD tt. "The book is here."
J. < L >

Japaneseadverbs are similar to their English counterparts in that

they do not inflect, and they modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs. But some Japaneseadverbs also modify a limited number
of nouns (SeeNoun, II, 3, a, p. 151),as well as copular nouns plus
na. Many Japaneseadverbs have stricter limitations in their usage
than English adverbs. That is, some of them are always followed
by positive verbs, some only by negative verbs, and some change
meanings depending on whether they are followed by positive or
negativeexpressions. Others are always followed by tentative or
tentative-negativeexpressions,or by expressionsof comparison,and
so forth. This section presentsthe most commonly used adverbs
with these particular limitations.
In addition, there are several words which actually belong to
other parts of speech,but which are sometimes used as adverbs.
When used as adverbs,some of them retain their original forms,
and others inflect. Examplesof adverbsand words usedas adverbs
appearbelow in the following order:
I. Forms of JapaneseAdverbs
. 1. True adverbs
2. Adverbs derived from other parts of speech
II. CommonAdverbs and their Usage
1. Time
2. Quantity
3. Degree
4. Circumstance
III. Commonly Used Adverbs with Limitations
1. Adverbs used only with positive expressions
2. Adverbs used only with negative expressionsor nef
tive ideas
3. Adverbs with meaningsvarying accordingto
positive or negative expressions
4. Adverbs used with conditional expressit
194 Adverbs
5. Adverbs usedwith tentative expressions
6. Adverbs used with negative tentative expressions t
7. Adverbs used with expressionsof comparison
f. Forms of JapaneseAdverbs I
1. True Adverbs which modify:
a. Verbs, adjectives,other adverbs, copular nouns,
e.g. rnattaku A < "completely," kanari D
("]'FI) "fairly," totemo & ( 6 "very," etc.
b. Certain nouns, e.g. zutto mukashi f c LE "long I
?9o," motto mae 6 , & Hf "further forward," m6
ichido 6 ) -E "oncemore," suhoshikita ,rL)t
"a little north," etc.
2, Adverbs derivedfrom other parts of speech
a. Adjectives t
1'^^;r,:;r \y, Yi,J;?;,,,
H'?il:i :::;;,[i*
hu-f.orm,see p. 89.
2, Repetition of Adj.t"-, €.9. hayabaya Fa
"early" t
3. Repetititionof Adja, e.g. yokutohu j < I <
b. CopularNoun*ni
This adverbialphrasefunctions similarly to ad-
jective*hu, e.g:. shizuhani fl#i.l: "quietly" t
Nouns (SeeNouns,II, 2, pp. 150-51)
1. Quantity words and numbers, e.g. tahusan
ndJ "many," suhoshi,t'l- "a few," "a lit-
tle," hitotsu -2 "one"
2, Time words, e.g. ima + "now," kyo i A
3. Onomatopoeicwords, e.g. gatagata iilciift
kotsukotsu: ? L p. See pp. 202-207.
4, Degree words, e.g. essd'-E! "even more"
5. Circumstantial words, e.g. m6zen tfif& "res-
olutely," danko Efffi "decisively"
d. Verbs
1. Y t" amanjite +t n' U( "contentedly" from
amanjiru E/-VA "to be contented"


aratamete(ftuia "again" from aratameru dt

b>6 "renew"

awaseteh*>t< "collectively" from awaseru

i &b+ 6 "put together"

#4 "err"
"by mistake" from ayamaru

honondefr*t-t "willingly" from honomu trtr

hesshitefrL:C "by no means" from hessuru
i*f 6 "determine (not) to do. . . ;" always
used with a negative verb
hatashite R/c L ( "as was expected,',from
I hatasu R/c? "accomplish"
harete ffiir,( "openly, publicly" from harera
I ffihb "clear up"
I medatte El:t c T "noticeably', from medatsu

i Eltrp "be conspicuous"

taete *&i-< "never, not at all" from taeru ffi

ii 2. Y*
*-A "ceaseto exist"
taezu t&Lt "without stopping, con-
tinuously"from taeru,*&i-6 ,,cease

3. Vz amari b*@)D "too...,,from amaru

+l 4.
* b "remain, be left over"
YrY, tsu,gitsugi wR "one by one" from tsugu
tr <' "come after"

?i VrV, yukuluhu 'fr ( ,,in the

fl < future" from
yuhu |tt < "go," hawarugawaru rtr*t

fi 6 rt\*26 "alternately" from hawaru

"change,"mastcmasutf tf "more

and more" from rnastctpt "increase."
5. Ys*ni,E ) lc "in my opinion" from
ornou,,E.., "think"

II. CommonAdverbs and their Usage
1. Time
fi,ttatabtFOx "again," more literary than mata, e.g. Kyonen
tl futatabi sono chi o tazuneta. *+FtN t o>ffitf,Dtatc. "f

t I
visited the place again last year."
kanete i.h( "previously, before," e.g. Sore ni tsuite u)a


196 Adverbs

hanetehiite intashita. ZtaV?.">L.-iCltr'?atFf,t.,(!. * L/c. "I

heard about it before."
saisan $= "again and again," e.g. Saisan kikasaretnosltita.
+S=ffir.8*tt Lft. "I was told about it again and again."
shibarahu g b < "for a long time," e.g. Ano hito ni wa shiba-
raku,atte imasen. bD /-lclt Llt' (g) b < * c A.! .,t t,L. "I
haven't seen him for a long time."
shibashibaffik "often" :tabitafii:yohcr, most colloquial,
e.g. Asoko e ua shibashibaashi o hakonda. h?z^lt Ltt'
Llf G&n ).E?E,t/d. "f rvent there often."
sugt{ -t- (6) ( "immediately," e.g. Swgu kite hudasai. ? <"*
(TEL.'. "Pleasecome right away."
tdto L , L , ($tjFH) "finally" : ydyaku, yatto e.g. TOIOdeki-
mashita. L j L ) r.8 (tfijii) t Llc, "f finally finishedit."
yagatc tni( "soon" : firafttonahu e.g. Yagate huru, desh6.
+ri<)K6tL r 5. "He will probablycome soon."
2. Quantity
chotto b r . L (-t) "a little," e.g. Chotto matte kudasai.
t: I c L|-t. (T3 ! ''. "Pleasewait a minute."
tanto t:L L "many, much," e.g. Ano hito ua ohaneo tanto
,.He has lots
motte imasu. &>AXm 11. #,tttc,\, Lt 1.c T.L, * f.
of money."
3 .
gofut C (fiE)< "exceedingly" : totemo: hanahada e.g. Goleu
ucltiua no hanasltidesu9a... a'< A,Wr),T;aj-?-rti... "lt's an
exceedinglypersonalstory, but . . ."
honari i./r D @rt\) "considerably, c1uite,"e.g. I{anari yoku
dcltiteimasu. , J < ('F (tfiX) (L'*f. "It is quite well
mottahu A < "very much," e.g. Ima mottaku komatteimasu.
+, ,*< ffl z(1.*f. "f am really in troublenow."
motto 6 , & "more," e.g. Sono hO ga motto yasui desu yo.
Z7>fifi\t, LfrL',Tf I. "That is cheaper."
mottomo rii 6 "most" -ichiban e.g. Sore ga ntottomojfiyo da.
+tLrt\ffi.tmtrf:. "It is most important."
taihen XT. "very" :totemo e.g. Taihen dkina uchi desu, x
'hi<* /rfttf. "It is a very big house."
yohodoI i* &'(*fg) "very, greatly," e.g. Yohodotsukaretato
rnietemada neteimasu. l I Etfll't:L\k_<t (*)ffE:c!.,
Adverbs lgz

t f. "Apparently he was very tired, becausehe is still

zutto f . L "by far, far," e.g. Kono h0 ga zutto omoshiroi. ;,
Dfrrt\f c LffiE L'. "This is much more interesting."
4, Circumstance
futo S. L "by chance" : gl7,zen,"suddenly" :totsuzen Ano
hito no koto o firto omoidashita. ba XD a Lt S & ,Et,.'fr L
fu. "I happenedto think of him." Futo sonna hoto o omoi-
dashimashita."g-L Z A,tcSA,E,! .,H L * L l:. "SuddenlyI re-
called such a thing."
hitasura tl/cf b "earnestly," e.g. ShihenrnAena no de hita-
sura benhyo ni hagende imasu. ffi,ffiHfk Dfu'fc? bfLffi
lafitLt! . t f. "Because it is before his exams, he is
earnestlystudying hard."
hakkiri tt e g D ,,clearly," e.g. Hahkiri itte hudasai. 0t a g
0A =(T8 !.'. "Pleasesay it clearly."
zehi ft)F "definitely, by any means," e.g. Zehi so- shimasho.
ft)F+, L*L* 5. "Let'sdo that by all means."
III. CommonlyUsed Adverbs with Limitations accordingto Use
1. Adverbsused only with positive expressions
hanarazu,I,t without fail
Ashita wo hanorazu.kirnasu. tt)*f. "I'll come
. tomorrow rvithout fail."
hardiite {'5 U( barely, narrowly
Kardjitc nogarcnrashito. ](,, U( o)fi\;lt* Lfu. "I had a
narrow escape."

2, Adverbs used only rvith negative expressionsor negrtive ideas

anagachib/rrt\b (not) necessarily : hanarazushimo
Anagachiuso de mo nai. *>tr.rt\btl,frt {>lcL.. "It's not neces-
sarily a lie."
chittontob c& 6 (not) a bit, :suleoshinto
ChittomowakaranAi. bc & t*th,(ft) bkL.. "I can't under-
stand it at all."
ikko L'z : ) (-Ft) (not) in the least
Ikh0 urenai. U'z a, fttLf"cL'. "f can't sell them at all."
isasakamoL'3 * ($_Oi.t (not) in the least :sukoshimo
Isasakamoodorohanai. ! . B E i, 6 ffif rfg! ,,, ,,f am not sur-
prised in the least."
198 Adverbs
sen yo.
never Sonna hoto wa kesshiteshite wa ikema-
+Llr L & tflt L:C L(ttt.,klt ti, l. "Don't you
ever do such a thing!"
hanarazushimoU.f L 6 (not) necessarily
Wahai hara hanarazushimotsuharenaito wa kagiranai. #1 .
rt,brz,f L { {Etttr.U'&ttFRb k1.,. "Justbecausehe is young,
we can't say that he doesn't get tired."
manzara * h3 b (ffiE) (not) altogether
Manzara baka de wa nai. t L$'b,8ffi<..ttfr!,.
altogether a fool."
"He is not
metta ni bct:(fr.*)Ut rarely, seldom
Metta ni ihimosen. bctc!='fi*t€rL.
rohurohu b < b < (not) satisfactorily :rohuni
"f seldom go." t
Ano ho wa rohurohuhon,mo yomenai. t>o>+* A < b <+ t
ffi}flxL '. "That child can't even read a book satisfactorily." I
sappart 3 z tJ D (not) at all
Yondemo sappari waharimasen. ffi,,<,-ietB z tf D)>firT) D
t trL. "Even though I read it, I can't understandit at all."
suhoshimot c, L 6 (not) in the least
Sukoshimoyohi shite inahatta. ,t,L 6
didn't expectit at all."
L:CL.lri. z /c. "f I
t6tei L , f,r'(FJE) (nor) possibly

Sonna koto wa tdtei arienai. +,i,fr r & lt L , <!'t> D '&fxu.. I

"Such a thing can't possiblyoccur."
zenzen*f^ (not) at all
Zenzen dekimasendeshita. AflRt8 (HX) *+f rLfLl:. ,,I
couldn't do it at all."
3, Adverbs with meaningsvarying according to use with positive
or negative expressions I
br (*) t
With positiue exprcssions
so Adj..., that...
Amari yasui
With negatiue expressions
(not) very
no de taku- Aruari takalau.arimasen.
Llc. "It isn'tveryexpensive."
"It was so inexpensive
separately (not) especially
EtJl= Sorewabetsuni
shiteoite Betsuni ii to mo omoi- I
Adverbs 199

Aduerhs Witn positiueexpressions With negatiae erpressions

hudasai. ?tt!t EtJ:'tc
L:C masen.frtJI=L.L'& 6,K
*" L ''(T 3 L'. "Please U. t {Crt. "f don'tthink
leave it separate." it is especially good-"
ddmo very much (not) very : amari
r) 6 Domo arigatd gozai- Domo yoker arimasen.
,nasu.E, tfi'fE, C3' Er{rr<*>0tt,L.
t't f. "Thank you "It is not very good."
very much."
hotondo almost hardly
0rl (fu)A,EMo hotondodehimashita. Benhyd shite nahatto
6 ) a*L /-&'HXt L/c. no de,kyo no shiken wa
"I am almost done." hotondodehimasende-
shita. fuffiL(lti. -:tc
Dt+ E o&t,ffittlt L,\,
&.H*t {+,Lt L/c.
"BecauseI wasn't pre-
pared, I could hardly
do today's test."
,ssal all : z€nbu not at all :zenzen
_ZJJ Uchi-jfi no mono o kaji Sonnahoto wa issaishi-
de issai yaite shimai.- rimasen deshita. +,\,
mashita. X4'D+hX ^ fc$flt-tJJ[ilD *tL-e
rJft-t/btL.,( L t L'* L/c. "I didn't know
Lfu. "I lost everything such a thing at all."
in the housein a fire."
mada still (not) yet
r (*) rj Mada clekimasu.t ti( Moda dekimasen. * ff
3'(HX) *f. " H e c a n t3' (H*) t{r&. *r
still do it." haven't finishedit yet."
md already (not) any longer
6) Mo gohan o tabemashita. Mo honna hoto wa shi-
6 ) str,{"ufrwtA{ n?osen.6 ) :A,fr$ll
t L /c. "f have eaten Lt Ar. "We won't do
dinner already." this kind of thing any
nahanaha considerably,quite hardly (usually taking
ftf rfsf . (with Adj.) time to do something)
(+e) Nahanaka lohu deki- Nahanaka dehimasen.
200 Adverbs

Aduerbs With positiae expressions With negatiue expressions

mashita. ftrt'frfi.I ( /ri.lri.tF (HX) tt
(.'8 (HX) * L/c. "You ,L. "ft's taking some
have done it quite time to do it."
totemo very (with Adj.) not at all, can't possibly
&rc6 Totemokawaii onna no Ano hito ni wa totemo
ho desu ne. L< 68€ hanawanai.bOAlclt
L.f D+act*J. "Sheis L<6r.frbkL.. "I
a very cute girl, isn't am no match for him,
she?" really."
zenzen wholly, entirely not at all
af Sono hoto wa zenzen Sonna hoto wa zenzen
himitsu ni shite oite shirimasen deshita. Z
hudasai. ZDW1tAfR ,t/xgttAf^fu D*.{*,t
frIffilc L *.'! ''iCT S L ... 1' L /c. "I didn't know
"Keep that matter an such a thing at all."
absolute secret, will
4, Adverbs used with conditional expressions
mangaichiTrt\- by any chance :lnan'ichi
Mangaichi shiffai shitara, sore hosotaihen desnt. Trt\*XFk
l,-tcF>,+tLak*'trcf. "If by any chancewe fail, it will
be catastrophic."
moshi t L if
Moshi ante ga futtara ihimasen. 6 LFf1ri|l,?. clc7>'t}$ *.tLA,.
"If it rains, I won't go."
moshi t L even if.:tatoe -yoslt,i
Moshi ante de mo ihimasu. 6 LFTf.tffi* *f. "Even if it
rains, I'll gb."
tatoe tc L *- even if : tt4oshi - loshi
Tatoeame de mo ikimasu lea. /:&.t-nTt{rffi$ *fr.. "Even
if it rains, will you go ?"

5. Adverbs used with tentative expressions

aruitaa e>6 (fi) perhaps
Aruiwa sd ha mo shirenai desu. b5t.'ltt J tJ,t L tt-ttL.{-
f. "Perhapsit might be so."
|mune *dtdtl (8t) ta probably, perhaps - taigai
Adverbs 201

Omurzesonna koto dard to omotte imashita. *"'tct3iaZ,\,lr L

& ff b , & ,g c T.L't L/c. "f thought that it would perhaps
be like that."
dloso *d*dJ.Z (tjt) roughly, nearly
oyososd naru no de ua nai ha to omotteimashita. *"-*o' JZ
+, tr6otltfrL.i.&,8.. cT!.* L/c. "I was thinking it
would probablyturn out like that."
sadameshifra5L presumably
sadameshi otsuharedesho. Eo Ltdff*rtL r , . "I am sure
you are very tired."
sazo8 Z (ffi) no doubt, surely
Sazohirei datta desh7. 8 {$fut, (ffiH) ff: lc-iC"L r , . ,.f
am sure it was beautiful."
tabun *ft probably
Tabunashitawa irassharudesh6. *frWEltu.b cLr b1.
L r , . "Probablyhe will come tomorro.w."
osoraku*dt (n) b < probably
Kyo ua osorakukonaidesho. lTtth-t b ( *fr[.,tL r ,.
"He will probablynot cometoday."

6. Adverbsusedwith negative-tentativeexpressions
tnasaka* 8 ,. surely (not) : lotltola
Masaka(Yomoya)hyo tua konai dard to omoitnasu.* g fi,4
E lt*hL'ij b , & ,8.u'*?. "I surely don't think he will

7. Adverbsusedwith expressions of comparison

atahamo*>n,:rt. (,lS)t as if
Atakamokanemochi no yd ni ftrumau. &>f:fi.t #f+ D J. ) l:
ffiyf , . "He behavesas if he were a rich man.',
chOdoTN as ii, Iike :fixarudo
Ch0dohiruma no yd ni aharui desu. Tff€fHOf JrcEn6l,
Tf. "It's as bright as day."
mushirotr L (S) 5 rather
Watakushiwa mushirosonohOga suhi desu. eltbLbto>
firt\*T$ ff. "f rather like it better."
s a m o8 6 a s i f
Samo benhyOhano y6 ni itte imashita. S 6 ffiffiXo) J ) tc
€ . (L.t Llc. "He wastalkingasrf he werea very diligent
(GrsErGoffitr#< S€r.,C> GITAIGOffiffi#<
In English, onomatopoeicwords are those which imitate natural
sounds. fn Japanese,however, these words not only imitate natural
sounds,but also describeor give an image of a certain action. There
are literally hundreds of these words. The words which represent
sound are called grseigo (sound-imitating words), while the words
which describe actions are gitaigo (action-imitating words). Some
words can be used as both giseigo and gitaigo. These words can
be used as adverbs as they are, or sometimes with the particle to
(occasionally ni) added. They are very important in Japanese,be-
cause often the use of.giseigo or gitaigo is the only way to describe
accurately a certain action or condition. For example, the verb
u)arau can be "to smile" or "to laugh" depending on which
Siseigs (or gitaiso) is used rvith it.
nihonihowara,ulc: lc: X,, "smile"
niyaniya ?,oaraulc'tltfX, "grin"
geragera warau VJbW bX,, "laugh boisterously"
hu,suhusuu)arau.< f <tX,5 "giggle," "chuckle"
herahera uuaraur br bX., "laugh condescendingly," etc.

Common OnomatopoeicWords and Examples of their Usages

Onomatopoeic Used as giseigo Used as gitaigo
words (sound-imitatingw.) (action-describingw.)
batabata footstep or flapping hurry-scurry
llfult'fu sound,e.g. batabatahashirut
bechabecha chattering, tattling, €.g.
-{b p {b e bechabecha shaberu
berabera talking glibly, e.g.
{ b{ b beraberashaberu
biribiri sound of tearing up
U{ , LND (paper,thin cloths, etc.),
e.g. biribiri yaburu
bishobisho drip, soak to the skin, e.g.
tl.LJLl.Lr bishobisho ni nureru (naru)
boribori munch, crunch, e.g. (scratch oneself) violently,
lf D lf D boribori taberu e.g. boribori hahu
OnomatopoeicWords 203
Onomatopoeic Used as giseigo Used as gitaigo
words (sound-imitating w.) (action-describing w.)
boroboro crumble into decay, e.g.
rf,br{,b boroboroni naru
botabota drip drip
lf lclf /c
boyaboya absent-minded,€.g. boyaboya
fftfft shite iru
buhubuku bubbling fat, baggy, e.g. bukubuhu
$< $< fettotte iru
burabura dangling, e.g. burabura saga-
"t:b"r:b ru at leisure, e.g. burabura
buruburu shaking, e.g. buruburu furu-
Ji6J:6 eru
buyobuyo soft and flabby, e.g. buyobuyo
$JJ;f suru
chahichahi efficient, e.g. chakichahisuru
chanchan regularly, promptly, e.g.
bt /vb"A, chanchanharau
chinchin boiling sound of hot
bA,bL water, e.g. chinchin
chohochoho toddling walk, €.g.chokochoko
br Cf:t L aruku,
dabudabu loosegarment, e.g. dabudabu
ff$ffJ; da
dohidohi sound of heart throb- nervous, e.g. dokidoki suru
&'su* bing
dondon boom boom boom walk briskly, €.g. dondon
aA,EA, (soundof a drum) aruhu
bang bang (sound of
a gun)
doyadoya sound of many foot-
&'tt't steps, e.g. dotadoya
haitte huru
fafn sound of hard breath- being exhausted, working
,t, J ,t, , ing or blowing hard, e.g.filffi iu (da)
204 OnomatopoeicWords

Onomatopoeic Used as giseigo Used as gitaigo

words (sound-imitating w.) (action-describing w.)
furafura being dizzy, being exhausted,
"E-bA.'b e.g. furafura suru
gabugabu drink liquid thirstily
,iJjriJi e.g. gabugabu nornu
gamigami speak crossly
,i4ri4 e.g. gamigami okoru
gatagata rattling noise trembling, e.g.gatagatafuru-
ii/:ii/c eru rickety, €.9.gatagata da
gatagaya talk noisily
geragera laugh loudly
gobcgobo soundof gushing water
s' -t l jP
l.i \- ld

gubu,gubn, sound of rinsing one's

<"jj <"Jj mouth
guTxgun walk briskly, €.9. gungun
(" rL (" rL arctku
gurugx(ru turn around and around,€.9.
("6 ("6 guruguru, mawaru
g t-t.gt7 sound of deep sleeping
<")<") sound of hungry
stomach,e.g. i ga
gilgil naru
hokihahi speak clearly, €.9. hakihaki
tt3tt5 shite iru, (hanasu)
herahera laugh condescendingly
*. fa. I
hokahoka warm, e.g. hokahohasuru
0*i.t* i.
hyoltohyoko unsteady steps, e.g. hyoko-
t\t:Lt "t: hyoko aruku
hyoroltyoro tall and skinny, €.9. hyoro-
0* bUrb hyoro sei ga takai
jiro jiro staring at something, e.g.
l:bt b jirojiro miru
jimejime damp and humid, e.g. jime.
ub ub iime suru

I Onomatopoeic Words

t Onomatopoeic Used as giseigo

words (sound-imitating w.,1
Used as gitaigo
(action-describing vr.)

L,o J U,sJ
sizzling sound

sound of two hard

tJ,bfi'b objects touching
kankan sound of bell being very sDgry, e.g.konhan
strong heat, e.g.. kanlean
ga teru.
hasakasa sound of dry objects bein3 very
i.* i.E dry, e.g..kasakasa
touching suru
tibwb nonchalant,e.g,.keroherosuru
shiny, €.g. hirahira hiharu
8'b* b
round object rolling, e.g.
. b.b
horokoro korogaru
kotokoto sound of rapping
hotsukotsu sound of knocking industrious, e.g. kotsuhotsu
ipL p
messedup, wrinkled up, e.g.
( frr ( br
huchakuchani marumertr
goggle, €.g. hyorohyoro
I * 68 r 5 miru
confused,e.g. magomagoruru
hesitate, e.g. mojimoji suru
6 u6 u

mumbl€, €.g. monyamonla iu
6lcr 6lcr
t("b r lcb r soft and sticky, slimy, e.g.
nichanicha suru (huttsuh:u)
J nikoniko
smile, e.g. nihoniko uarau,

grin, e.g. niyanip cuarau

206 'Words

Onomatopoeic Used as giseigo Used as gitaigo

(sound-imitating w.)
sound of applauseand
(action-describing w.)
lf f2lf f2 fire crackling
pasapasa dry, e.g. fasafasa suru
hehoheho hungry stomach, e.g. onaha
-{,: -{I, ga pehopekoda, servile be-
havior, e.g. Pehofehoojisi
perapera fluent in language,e.g. eigo
"{. b"{. b ga perapera da
0ihahiha shiny, e.g. /iha|iha hiharu
pinpin very healthy,€.9.pinpin shite
6,L6h iru (da)
pokapoka very warm, il
lfi'lt'i. e.g.pokapohaatatahai i
rtorif ori crunch crunch l;
ttD tfD
foroDoro sheddingcopioustears,crum-
l{,btt{,b ble, e.g. poroporonamida o
potsupotsu fall in big drops little by littl€, €.9. \otsupotsu
?f?lf-2 hanasu
puripuri beingmad,e.g.puripuri okoru
.*D KD
sarasara soundof clearstream, feel of dry and smoothtouch,
8b*b mstling e.g. sarasarashite iru
sekaseka restless,€.9. sehaseha suru
{Cr.ti. (aruhu)
shihushihu cry sorrowfully,
L< L< e.g. shihushihunahu
shimijimi kbenly,deeply,€.g.shimijimi
L4Y4 hanjiru
shinshin quiet and cold, e.g. shinshin
LA.,L/w to yo ga /ukeru
shitoshito raining quietlS e.g:.shitoshito
L& LL at e ga furu
OnomatopoeicWords 207

Onomatopoeic Used as giseigo Used as gitaigo

words (sound-imitatingw.) (action-describing w)
suposupa smoke, puff, e.g. supasupa
?tffrf tabahoo fuhasu
sutasuta briskly, €.9. sutasuta aruku
suyasuya sleepingpeacefully,
?rtr e.g. suyasuyanernuru
tehateha bright, shiny,
-C e.g. tehatekahiharu
tobotobo aruku
trudgingly, e.g.tobotobo
tonton sound of knocking move quickly,
L/.LA, e.g. tonton hashiru
wakuwahu be excited, e.g. rnune ga
*"<*"< wahuwahusuru
yochiyochi totteringly,
Jt2It2 e.g. yochiyochiaruhu
yor0yoro staggeringly,
Jb J.b e.g. yoroyoro aruhu
tilyfr self-composed,
@,u9' e.g. yilyl shite iru
zdzd soundof pouringrain
.!rt+ .lp'+
zaku,zaku jingle, e.g. olzanega
s'<s < zakuzaku. aru.
zowazawa rustling noisy with movement of
3'*" S*" many people,e.g. zawazau)o
zutazuta cut or tear into shreds,
f /:f tc e,g. zutazutani hiru
zunzun without a moment's delay,
t A't /" e.g. zunzun susumu

CONJUI{CTIOI{S ffi;A<€2a < L> J
A conjunctionis a word used to connectsentences,words, phrases, I
or clauses- There are two kinds of conjunctions in
tence'beginning conjunctions and conjunctions between words,
phrases,or clauses.
f' Common sentence-beginningconjunctions (many of them
a combinationof two or more words, and sometimesit is not
are I
easy to recognize them as conjunctions).
arutwa or I
*>4 (Et)L .tt
daga ff/.ii but, however desugais more polite
: desuga
dakara titJ, b
: desuhara
so, therefore desuharais more polite
dahedo ftW A
: dakeredomo
but dakedois more colloquial
than daheredomo
danoni ti.Dlc but
dattara /,._:t:b if so
very colloquial
deshitara is more polite T
: deshitara
datte ticT,
but, yet
and so
very colloquial I
deua :C[t
well then ja is more colloquial
cletno(.. d but colloquial
hatashite as expected
R/c L(
kakushite in this way literary expression
,.(ffi) ( L(
katsu. i'(E-)z moreover literary expression
heredo(mo) WtL A but
mata -X, and. moreover
matawa X0t or
: aluiwa
mottomo however, of course
Conjunctions n9

nao fr*d (i&) f urther

sarani Ef: further literary expression
sate 3 ( well
shikaruni however literary expression
shihashi but
Li.(tr) L
shihoshinagara however literary expression
Li. L tcnib
shitagatte|NcT. therefore
shitemiruto then
L(F.6 L
sdkatoitte even so
+ J i'&E cT
t: t thereupon, accordingly
s0fttosomo in the first place
i b t

+ Ak moreover
soredahara therefore, accordingly
soredeVfuf therefore, thereupon
soredemo but, even that
soredew well then
soredoltoroka far from it
+tL&': b/5,
+tL/trb and then
soremoth 6 and that
sorenara if so
sorenittt\:- besides
soretomo +tLt 6 or
sorew by the way
+tLIt.+ ) L
soreyueni so literary expression
sdshitara and then
270 Conjunctions
sdshiteZ, L( and
sdsuruto then, if so
sdsureba then I
Z r 9hlf
tada /ctj (€)
tadashi {E L
only, but
but literary expression
toitte LE c(. and y€t, but even so
tokorode&: bt by the way
towaie LI|A k- however
tsuitewa2\,"iClt in this connection
yueni ffill so, therefore
yotte I (ft) cT therefore
literary expression
literary expression I
II. Conjunctionsbetween:
1. Nouns I
a. "and" oyobi &$, narabini itCXlc, both more
literary than:
dano tiD See Particles,p. 99
nari trD See Particles, p. L20
to L See Particles, p. 134 t
toka & i' See Particles,p. 135
ya f See Particles,p. 138
yara f b See Particles,p. 139
b. "or" matawa Xtt aruiwa *>6 (EDU'lt, both more
literary than ka fr See Particles, p. 110 I
c . " b o t h . . . a n d . . . " m o t S e e P a r t i c l e s , p 1. 1 6
2. Adjectives
a. "and" Adjwt, adj < ( See Verb-following Expres-
sions, p. U
dano t:0) See Particles,P. 100
b. "or" ha /r See Particl€s,,p. 110
3. Copular nouns
a. "and" de 'ie See Particles, p. LAz
b. "or" ha fr See Particles,p. 110
4, Clauses
a. Co-ordinatingconjunctions

Conjunctions 211

1. "and" Vz See Function of SecondBase of the

Verb, pp. 5-6
Vr, V "iC See Verb-following Expressions,
Ys shi Vs L See Verb-following Expres-
sions, p. 74
Yto." Ytdr; V tc D V tc D See Verb'follow-
ing Expressions,p. 54
2. "but" Y sga Vr ii See Verb-following Ex-
pressions,p. 62
Yg heredomo Yt Wtt&'6 See Verb-fol-
lowing Expressions,p. 65
3. "or" Vg ha. .. V3 ha Ys i, . . . Vs i. See Par-
ticle ha, p. 110
b. Subordinating conjunctions
1. Conditionalverb-endings
a. "if" V3 to Vs L See Conditionals,p.
p. 30
Yu V lt' Seeconditionals,
Y uro V ft b See Conditionals, p.
Ysnara V tr b See Conditionals,pp.
b. "even if" Y te,no V ( 6 See Verb-fol-
lowing Expressions,p. 57
c. "if not" Y noito V ff U',& See Verb-fol-
lowing Expressions,p. 4L
YnahattaraV lri. -:tcb See Verb-fol-
lowing Expressions,p. 42
YnoherebaV trltttlf See Verb'follow-
ing Expressions, 42
Y na;nara V trt 'fx b See Verb-fol.
lowing Expressions,p. 4L
b. "even if not" Y nokute rlto V /f ( ( 6
See Verb-following Expressions, p.
2. Particlesas conjunctions
a. "because.
. . " V3 hara Vsi. b See
Verb-following Expressions,p. &
Ys no de Vr o"ie See Verb-following
Expressions,p. 72
b. "inorderto..."Ysnoni VsOlL See
Verb-following ExPressions,P. 73
c. "although. . . " V3 no ni Vr O lc. See
Verb-following Expressions,P. 73
d. "while..." Yznagara Vzlriib
SeeVerb-following Expressions, PP-
e. "than..." Ysyori Vr J.D SeeVerb-
following Expressions,p. 81
3. Nouns used as conjunctions
a. "while . . . " Y s aida lni) V, Fi See Verb'
following Expressions,p. 60
b. "after.. . " Yta atolde)Y t:4k SeeVerb'
following Expressions,p. 51
c. "before " Ys mae lniJ Vs Bf See Verb-
following Expressions,p. 67
d. "in order to . . . "V, tame lnil Vg lclD (&)
See Verb-following Expressions,
p. 74
e. "when. . . " Yg tohi lnil Vr ffi See Verb-
following Expressions,p. 77
fi',LE, L>, ffi&;A(i'/- L , L>

An interjection is an independent word which expresses such

things as surprise, lamentation or address. Interjections become
neither subject nor predicate, and never modify other words. Some
of the common interjections are as follows:
I. Surprise a' h. ara bb oya *s€ md *e>
e.g. Ara, shibaraku deshita ua ne. hb, Llf
(g)b(tL/c*z*a. "W'ell, I haven't seen
you for a long time!"
U. Distress d *>b 6 *d , lareyare flt,fit olaoya *dt*$+
e.g. A, zannen deshita ne. b*>, ffi,ft.acLfc*a.
"Ah, it was too bad."
III. Address oi *"'1.' hora C-b kore C-fu yai tL'
e.g. Oi, sonna hoto ua suru na. *o'L', tr<,tr.$I
It?5k. "Hey, don't do such a thing!"
*IV. Answer hai |tt,, iie 1.,!'.*- a *-k- (hai is more polite than e)
e.g. Ano hon o yomimashitAka. Hai, lomimashita.
e>D#X{ilJxt Lfuz).. ltL., tit4* Lfu.
"Did you read that book?" "Yes, I read it."
V. Doubt hate It( hatena tt'iClr
e.g. Hate, are o doko ni oita ka na. 0t (, *>tL
t E: (,1-{r&)
lct"-!'fcirfg. "Let me see,
where did I put it ?"
VI. Resolvingdoubt naruhodotsbl* &'ffiH)
e.g. Naruhodo,yoku waharimashita. fs.60t &.,
J<ttrt,6) DtLlc. " O h , I s e e ,I g o t
it (understoodit well)."
VII. Admiration he-<- /ilmu..J'-tr
* Care should be taken when one answersa negatively posed gues-
tion, becausehai "yes" and iie "no" are reversed.
€.9. Ashita irasshaimasen ha. EEH !' b -t Lf U'* {t,LD..
"'Won't you go tomorrow ?"
Hai,;., 6D t {tr!. "No, I won't go.'
Iie, mairimasu.U'!.*., 8D tt. "Yes, I'll go."
214 Interjections

e.g. Hd, taishitamonodesune. i-, X.L

/c 6 Dacfte. "Well, that is something!"
VIII. Urging sora + b hora l*b etc.
e.g. Sora,sonnani bonyari shite nai de . . .
Z b, + Llr?c.lf 'LS 0 L-iCtrL"iC. . .
"There, don't be so absent-minded."
t I


One of the important aspectsof Japaneseverbs is the level of

formality. That is, the same verb can be presented in various
ending forms, even though the meaning is EXACTLY THE SAME.
These different endings are used on different occasions. For ex-
ample, written Japaneseand spoken Japanesehave, more often than
not, different endings. Moreover, even in written Japanese,several
different endings can be found according to the style of writing
chosenby the author. The verb endings ordinarily found in most
books,articles, and lectures are very likely not found in children's
stories,becausethese verb endings are the more literary endings
(dictionary form endings), while those in children's stories are the
colloquial endings (2nd base verb form plus the suffix masu, or the
desuform of the copula).
In spokenJapanese,too, verb forms often changedependingupon
placementwithin the sentence:whether they appear in the middle
or at the end of the sentence;whether the speaker is superior,in-
ferior, or equal, to the listener accordingto Japanesetradition; or,
frequently, whether the speaker and listener are male or female.
Thus the array of endings is complex, especiallyif we include
verbs plus sentence-endingparticles. It is not necessaryto be
familiar with all these endings, but one should familiarize oneself
with the common endingspresentedin I, II and III below.
For convenience,endingsare divided roughly into four categories
in this book:
I. Informal level (dictionary form or 3rd base [Vr" for the per-
fective tensel of the verb and adjective)
This is the verb-ending form most commonly used in
written Japanese,but in spoken Japanese,too, it appears
frequently in the middle of the sentence,followed by a noun
which it modifies, or with conjunctions.
e.g. Sakubuno haku. +FXA€ < . "I write a composition."
216 Formal Level of \Mords and Expressions
Nani ka taberu mono ga arimasu ka. t4t.A^6 6 O
rtihD t.tfir.
"fs there anything to eat?" (noun I
Igirisu ni wa itta keredoffio,Furansu ni wa ikimasen
deshita. 4 #'l xtctt{T .tc?ttU 6, 7 t >;e ?rlt I
fr8 t€rt'CLlc. (before a conjunction) "I went to
England, but I did not go to France."
As a verb-ending form, this level is also used in conver-
sations among men, but not among women, since it sounds
very rough. I
e.g. Ashita iku ka. EEg'fr 1,fir. "Will you go tomorrow?"
A, ashita ihu. *>b, gng 'fr <. "Yeah, I'll go tomor-
row." (sentenceending)
II. Polite level (2nd base verb plus tnasu lmashitaJ, dictionary I
form of adjectivesplus desu ldeshital, and copula desu lde-
shitaf, as sentenceending)
This is the form most commonly used in spokenJapanese.
However, perhaps becausethis ending sounds softer than
the dictionary form, children's stories are often written in
this form rather than in informal endings.
e.g. Tlatakushi wa kyd gakk6 ni ihimasu. B +
ffilt6*t?. "f am going to school today.'
Mukashi mukashi ojiisan to obasan ga arirnashita,
f *o'UL'* /- L*.'tft) 8 A,rit) D *. Lft. "Long
long ago there lived an old man and an old
woman." In fairy tales, it is common to use the
verb arimashita f,or people who lived.
III. Formal level
This is the most formal level of speech. The details
of the use of this level are found in the succeeding
pages, pp. 2L6-30.
rv. Very familiar level
These endings are very colloquial and need not be
learned in the beginning. However, when at the stage of
reading modern Japanesefiction, or when visiting Japan,
one will begin to meet them frequently, and should be
able to recognize them. Often, from the tone of the
endings, the reader(listener) can determine such things as
the age, sex, and social clasb of the speaker.
Formal Level of Words and Expressions 217

e.g. Women's speech

Kyd wa ihanai u)a. 1A lt{Tr.lg[.,*:. "I won't
I go today."
Kind itta no [yo]. Ff n'fr.tcD. "I went yester-

I day."
Ashita kite ne. gnn X:C*e. "Please come tomor-
row, OK ?" etc.
I Men's speech
Ashita wa kitto yomu yo. nng [t 5 c Lffitr J.

r {
"I'll read it tomorrow for sure."
Kore o suru ne. atLtt6tJ.
"I'll do it, OK?"

I I Formal speechwhich requires honorific and humble verbs (nouns,

adjectives,etc.) is one of the most characteristic features of the
Japaneselanguage. It is therefore imperative to learn both the
honorific and humble verb forms, if one wishes to read and speak

I i
proper Japanesefluently.
f. Honorific Forms Borrorvedfrom Other Verb Forms

1. Passive voice form (more often used by men than
a. Vowel-stem verbs (Vr * rareru) Senseiga okashi
o taberaremashita. ft&,ri*i#+?ft{
t,. "The teacher ate a cake."
btL* L

b. Consonant-stemverbs (Vr * reru) Anata ga sore
ka. btrf:rt\*
o kakaremashita L
/ci'. "Did you write it?"
I c. Irregular verbs

r l suru,-sareru M0 ano oshigoto o saremashita

ka. 6 , boh'{f$t 3 fL*- Ll:i'. "Have
I you done that work already?"
kuru-lzorareru.' Mydnichi mata koko e korare-
mzsu, ka. gXg X I : ^X btL* f i.. "Are
you coming back here again tomorrow ?"

I Note : " Ashita" is read "myonichi" to keep it in harmony

I 2.
with the honorific verb.
218 Formal Level of lMords and Expressions

a. Vorvel-stem verb (Vr * saserareru) Tennd-Heika

ga sore o tsuzuhesaserareta. XgHTrt\ZtLt
ffiW 3 € btttc. "The Emperor deigned to con-
tinue it."
b. Consonant-stem(Vr * serareru) Denka ga kono
hon o hahaserareta. &Tri a D*?-#i.t btl
/:. "His Highness wrote this book."
c. Irregular verbs
su,rLt-saserareru KOtaishi ga Ydroppa ni ryokd
saserareta. gtfri 3 - Ir y /f Uaffifr 3 {+ b*L
fc. "The Crown Prince traveled to Europe."
knru-hosaserareru Kotaishi Hidenka mo gois-
sho ni hikdjd made hosaserareta. g^+fd,K
('XEt btttc.
F'6m*t#u=ry6Bt "The
Crown Princess came to the air -'ort, also."
Note: This is the highest form of honorific. It is seldom
' used now, because the Japaneselanguage has be-
come much more informal in recent years. But
one might come across these expressions in read-
ing articles written before War II.

II. Regular Honorific and Humble Forms

1. Honorific (o V2 ni naru) Ostruari ni narimasen ka.
*"'s, Dl:trD *ii,Lrt". "'Won't you sit down?"
2. Humble (o Y 2 sr,tru) Kin0 denwa o ohahe shimashita.
r?g &t&t*.i.hlL* L/:. "I called you yesterday."
Humble (o Y z itasu) Sakujitsu odenrvao okaheitashi-
mashita. (more polite) E'fg *.'€ffit*dr,C*L t L
t,. "I called you yesterday."
Note: Special care should be taken when using this humble
form, becauseits use is limited to occasionswhen the
speaker'saction involves the listener. So such a sentence
as Watakushi ga osuu)ari itashimasu, tLttin'E A W.U t f .
does not make any sense in Japanese,even though the
speaker who is not used to the correct humble form
might think he/she is saying, "I will sit down," in a
polite humble form.
There are more formal honorific and humble forms, but
they are omitted in this section, since they are not used
as commonly as the ones listed. (e.g. o Y z asobasufor
honorific, o Y z mdshiageru for humble, etc.)

I' t

I Formal Level of Words and Expressions 219

In. Irregular Honorific and Humble Verb Forms

I Some of the most common verbs have irregular hon-
orific and humble forms, as well as regular honorific

t and humble forms. These irregular forms are shown in

the next pages.

r| Note : Regular (including passive)and irregular honorific verb forms

are mostly used interchangeably,that is, one can use which-
ever the form one prefers. However, in the Tokyo area it

r| ;
may be that the use of the honorific forms made from passive
verbs is more often preferred by men, while irregular forms
by women.

t e.g. Itsu Sendai e ikaremasu ka? "When are you going

to Sendai?" may carry a more masculine tone than :
Itsu Sendai e irasshaimasu ka?


T i


n0 Honorific and Humble Verb Forms
Honorific Humble

ageru LW 6 sashiageru
"to give"
aru bb "to be" gozaimasu (neuter)
"to have" j 5r.,* f

au *, "to meet" ome ni kakaru

*d H 13ir ltrb

da /j
de aru t&>6
"to be" -copula de irassharu
de gozaimasu
t i 5 r . , *t il
(kaze o) hiku (okaze o) mesu
Affi L u- < t At
"to catch a cold" ]1
iku {] ( "to go" irassharu L' Ft-> L + 6 mairu *a
iru L.6 ',to be" i r a s s h a r uL . b - t L + 6
orareru tc t) n 6
oide ni naru
oru ts 6
iu E' , "to say"

*'ro Ltb
m6su rFf
m6shiagerutfi L -h1d6
kariru ffi v)b
"to borrow"
haishaku itasu

kiku Ffl< "to hear"

ukagau fiJ )
t'to ask" oukagai suru
*d{Flt,t b
oukagai itasu
kiru ffia "to wear" omeshi ni naru
*sA L l:tr 6
kuru *a "to come" i r a s s h a r uL . P t a L t b
oide ni naru
mairu86 I
*;!'tl:/x 6
okoshi ni naru
*": L lr,/x6 I
II i

Ii . i
Honorific and Humble Verb Forms 221

tIi lt

;i il
Honorific 1
(Passive form)
Honorific 2
(o Y, ni naru)
(o Y, suru)
(o Y, itasu)

#i 4-l
agerareruLVI bna oage ni naru
*d.t.klt: ttZr

oarl nr naru
oage suru td} ff t 6
oage itasu *''-t WW.t


fdb A l.ctsa_
tf oari da t; fr>vlt:

) f
awareru*hnb oal nl naru
*c*u . lr,/r 6
oal suru ?r*t', f 6
oai itasu t"-*L.Skt


(okazeo) hikareru (okaze o) ohiki ni naru
f"',Ef$tUt,t1"6 fdmfFt *d() F tc tsF

t I
i r a r e r uu . b h 6
t I

I i

I t
karirarerultig bnb okari ni naru
*d{S u)Lt.,6
okari suru f""iff 0 t b
okari itasu h''{gv)w.t

I kikarerutlflr,lt 6 okiki ni naru

r"'ffl3 t: /xb
T okiki suru idffi3 f 6
okiki itasu *i-Ef,

I kirareru# F>nb

I korareru*bnb

222 Honorific and Humble Verb Forms

Honorific Humble

ukagau fiJ ) oukagaisuru to4'4t, ,t 6

"to go calling" oukagaiitasuic{E]t.gkf
oukagai mdshiageru
tsl-{t,',F L -h-Vf
agaru }n\6
miru fr,a "to see" goran nt naru haiken suru ++Etb
'ffiH,}:k6 haiken itasu #H$ft

miseru -E,t 6 ome ni kakeru

"to show" *"-H g/r Vl 6
neru Eb "to sleep" oyasumr nr naru
i"'ff al: tr 5
nomu Akfu "to drink" oagari ni naru itadaku ffi (
i"'b rti0 rcts.6
omou ,E , "to think" z o n j i r uE V b

omotte iru ,S.c TL' 5 omotte oru ,ff.c Ttd 6

"to be thinking"
okakure ni naru
shinu VEn. "to die"
fdFStLl: /x 6
onakunari ni naru
*dt ( ts.u)l.ts.6
* z o n j i r u& V b
shiru Ni6 "to know"
z o n j i a g e r uE A L f f 6
shitteiru ffa(L'6 gozonjida 'MEVt: z o n j i t eo r u # V ( * " ' 6
t'to knowrt' "to be gozonjide irassharu shitte oru figc Tn'b
acquainted with" 'ffiEutt,bcLeb zonjiagete oru
shitte irassharu EVLtrf(*db
suru tb "to do" nasaru /r 3 5 itasu gf.t
taberu A< 6
meshiagaruA U Lnir. itadaku f;l (
eat" oagari ni naru
+"'blti A 1;ts.6
"to ask" +fa b ukagauffij
"to visit" #h6
( t o s h io ) t o r u + t 2 . 4 (otoshi o) mesu
"to becomeolder" rd+tAt
* used only in negativeform (Seethe verb shiru, p. 107)
e.g. Zonjimasen. 4+Vt tr. "I don't know."
Zonjiagemase& EVLV *.gr{,. "I don't know."
T Honorific and Humble Verb Forms 223

T Honorific L
Honorific 2 Humble

T (Passiveform) (o Y, ni naru)
(o Y2 suru)
(o Y 2 itasu)

t mirareru R,btLF_

T miserareru_R.tbna omrse nl naru

n'-F,tl:/x 6
omisesuru td_F,tt 6
omise itasu idfi,t{kf

t yasumarerutK* tr6

t ;
nomarerufffi* ILb onomi ni naru
n'ffial:/x 6

I omowareru,Eb ir 5 6moi ni naru

*s,,/r 5
6moi ni natte iru

I shinareruft,ttttF.

T sareru 3 tt 6
taberareruA{ btLa otabe ni naru
*dA< tr,/r 6
!l tazunerareru otazune ni naru otazunesuru

I +(tr)hbnr'
(otoshi o) torareru
*"'+ (At)h l: /r 5
(otoshi) o otori ni naru
*di+(ffi)ht 6

fd+t z.bnb *d+L*dE0\=ft6

in I

224 Formal Level of Adjectives


The combination of an adjective plus gozaimasu is the formal
level of the adjectives. The stems of the adjectives make the fol-
lowing change before gozaimas?,t.
f. Adjective, stem ending in o: lengthen o, and add gozai,mctsu,.
Informal level
or dict. form Stem Polite level Formal level
omoshiroi omoshiro Omoshiroi desot,. Omoshird
E'Ht,' ffi'H ffiHL'tf EH ) Cg.U.,tf.
"interesting" "It is interesting."
yoi (ii) lo yo (ii) desu. Yd gozaimasu..
I L,(!,1,) J J !.(U'U,,)Tf. J, i3't.t?.
"good" "It is good."

Note: Exception in this category-Adjective, ending with tii: simply

add goqaimasu directly after the stem d.

6i o Oi desu.. O gozaimasu,.
*r,, b *v,<t € 3'!.*?.
"many" 'There are many.,?
tdi t0 Toi desot,. (o)To gozaimasu,.
ffiu. ffi ffiU'tf. (i"')ffiCS!.'*?.
"It is far away."
II. Adjective, stem ending in ai change a to 6, and add gozai-
tahai taha Tahai desn.. (o)Tahdgozaimasu.
H!', H Ht,.'tf. (*"')H,i3u't?.
"high" "ft is high."
"expensive" "It is expensive."
nagat naga Nagai desu.. (o)NaS0gozaimasu.
Eu' E EL.'rf, (*"')
"longt' "It is long."
III. Adjective,stem ending in u: lengthen u, and add gozaim6tsu..
yasui yasu Yasui. desu,. (o)Yasil gozaimasu,.
F!' * Ft ,,:ef. (*d)t ) c'*'u.,t ?.
"cheap" "It is cheap."
t samui
Formal Level of Some Common Expressions

salnu Samui desu,. (o)Samfr,


*1,, * *!.,tf. gozaimasu.

"cold" "It is cold." (*d)*5 i*'t'tf.
IV. Adjective, stem ending in i: change i to il, and add gozai-
muzukashii muzuhashi Muzuhashii (o)Muzukashil.
desu. gozaimasu,.
ffiLu.' ffiL ffiLL'tf. (td)ffiL ro , i3'L'
"difficult" "It is difficult." r?.
lasashii yasashi Yasashii desu.. (o)Yasashil
LL., h(&)L aw) LL'.lef. (id)A(&) L ro, c
"It is easy." E L,,tf,
"gentle" "She is gentle."
Note: Exception
in this category:
6hii aki 0B;i desu. 0hyu g'ozaimasu.
f 3t,', ^8 t3 !'tf , x3'0, g{L'tf.
"It is big." (y is insertedbetween
k and u)


Polite Formal Englislr equivalent
Sumimasen Moshiwake gozaimasen. I am sorry.
fratt},L. +LAR38r.ttl,.
*Sumimasen *Mdshiwahe gozaimasen I am sorry.
deshita. deshita. I wassorry.
ffiLt rl,Lt Ltu. + LARi*'t'*t Lt L/c.
Sumimasen. Osoreirimasu,. Excuseme.
#/"tt,L. ;t*h^0 tt.
Arigatd. Arigatd gozaimasu.. Thank you.
HW:.. HW' C*'
* Arigatd gozaimashita.
HW) g'3'u.,tL/c.
Arigatd zonjimasu. Thank you.

* The perfective forms (fa-forms) are used when the action for which one
is apologizing,thanking, or congratulating, occurred in the past.
226 Three Levels of Imperative

* Arigatd zonjimashita.
HWrE u* Llc.
OsoreiriFnasu. Thank you.
nil;t 0 tf. I am much obliged.

Omedet|. OmedetdgozaimAscr.. Congratulations.

* d 2 D tL , . *drbt L, Ij8't.t?.
td}}t& t C8'u.t Lfu.
Omedetdzonjimasu. Congratulations.
*dlbrL rE Ut?.
*Omedetd zonjimashita.
*"'}bt& ,E U* Llc.
* The perfective form s (ta-f.orms)are used when the action for which
is apolo gizing, thanking, or congratulating occurred in the past.


Levels Example English equivalent
Informal Vs (imperative) Kahe. Write!
see p. 6 glt.
Y u kure Kaite Write (it) for me.
#L,,rC< 't.
The abovetwo forms are very abrupt, so their use shouldbe avoided.
Polite Y 2 nasai Kahinasai. Write.
o Y z nasai Ohahinasai. Write.
Y t" hudasai Kaite kudasai. Please write.
SU "iCTS 1..
Formal o Y2 kudasai Ohahi hudasai. Please write.
*dg8T3 u'.
o Y z kudasaimase Okahi hudasai- Please write.
tdgSTS !.t-tt.
The above examplesare the most common imperative forms.
There are several other forms, some more informal, and others
more formal.

Honorific Noun-prefixes, o and go


There are two honorific prefixes used with nouns, o and go. Be-
causeboth of them are often written with the same Chinesecharac-
ter, 'ffi, one has to establish which reading is correct for each case.
Fortunately, however, it seems that in recent years o is more often
written with hiragana *d, while fiil is still used for go. There is
no definite rule governing when a noun takes o and when a noun
takes go as an honorific prefix, except that words which originate
from Chinese may more often take go, while Japanesewords may
usually take o. It should probably be mentioned briefly that the
',ffi is sometimes read ofl, flti, or gyo. These are also
honorific prefixes, but they are much less common than o or go
(e.9. onmi',frH "your bodyr" kami no mikohoro Na>'ffi'\'. "God's
will," gtoi fiflR "your wishes," etc.).
The function of the honorific prefix is roughly divided into the
following categories:
L. Idiomatic-Attached to some nouns when they sound more
idiomatic if they are used with o or go. In this
case these prefixes do not signify any particular
e.g. gohan att,\(ffifrn "cookedrice," "meal,"
ocha t"'A "tea"
2, Respectfor others-Attached when one talks about the ob-
jects or actionsof others in order to show
a feeling of 'respect.
e.g. goshujin ffit "your husband"
oharada *''ff "your body"
3. Politeness-Attachedwhen one wants to show politeness in
formal speech. This prefix is often excessively
used by some women, particularly in the Tokyo
area, but too much use of this prefix could sound
affected. In ladies' conversation,it may not be
uncommon to hear ohitotsu, ofutatsu, etc., for
"one" and "two." Even more extreme examples
are opan or ok0ht for such foreign words as
bread or coffee. Also, in high-classJapaneseinns,
one may hear the maids use these honorific pre-
fixes when they speak to the customers,because

228 Nouns with Honorific Prefixes o or go
they are trained to be very polite to them.
One should also remember that an honorific word can imply re- "l
spect in one instance, and politeness in another. Therefore, one
has to decide from the context which meaning is intended in each
case. That is, if the speaker is talking about the object or action
of others,the honorific prefix is very likely intendedto show respect,
but if the prefix is used for the speaker's action, it is to show I
politenessin formal speech.
e.g. Gohyoryoku.itashimasu. 'ffitMJW.L* t. "I'll cooperate."
Goktoryohuonegaiitashimasu. 'ffiffi)JtdFt ',* L t f. "We'll
request your (honorable)cooperagisn."-respect T
The following is a sample list of nouns which often appear with
honorific prefixes. Honorific prefixes are often combined with
honorific and humble verb endings to raise the level of formality.
Function of
Noun Meaning Honorific form honorific
anshin peace of mind goanshin mf,L., respect
benhyo study obenkyo *druffi respect
gobenhyo '&lf(Atfi
bon tray obon *dA idiomatic
bon Festivalof the Deadobon *"-a
bydki sickness gobyohi respect
cha tea ocha *d?i idiomatic
dai ji precious odaij i h-XSI respect
denwa telephone odenwa *dEffi politeness
enrto restraint goenryo /6{ffiffi, respect
genhi good health ogenki *"'frfr respect
meshi(han) cookeCrice gohan '''ffifrn idiomatic
hima leisurehours ohima *o'flH respect
hon book gohon ,M# respect
ihen opinion goihen ffi,H-E^ respect
jikan time ojikan *dffifd respect
hage patronage ohage *dH idiomatic
Nouns of Time in Formal Speech 229

Function of
Noun Meaning Honorific form honorific

hanemochi rich person ohanemochi*s#ffi idiomatic/

karada body oharada *sff respect
hashi cake okashi trH? idiomatic
heiko lesson okeiko *"-f€fi politeness
hehkon marriage gokekkon respect
henkyil research gohenhyn "ffiffir8
'ffiffin respect
home uncookedrice ohome td* idiomatic
favor gokoi 'ffitrH respect
hyahu customer,guest okyaku(san)*dA (3 ,t) idiomatic
manzohu satisfaction gornanzohu'@ffi,E respect
miyage present,souvenir omiyage *d*,8 idiomatic
mizu water omizu *"'7K idiomatic
debt of gratitude goon '@,9, respect
to a superior
understanding gorikai 'ffis,ffi respect
ryoko travel goryoho 'ffiffift respect
rydshin parents gorydshin ffiffi*n respect
shigoto work oshigoto *"'fttlT respect
goshinpai 'd!,U,,mA respect
shinpai worry
shoku ji meal oshokuii *"'A4t politeness/
shujin husband goshujin ffil* respect
taku house,family otaku. . y - *-tr
,fo respect
tefuei politeness goteinei ,$ITry respect
tomodachi friend otomodachih'xs politeness
yakusoku promise oyakusoku tcfi!X politeness
yfrshoku supper olfishohu t.'tA politeness
goytlshohu '6lt &,


Somevery commonly used nouns of time, such as ky0 and ashita,

have more formal equivalents. The following is a short list of
thesewords with examplesshowing how they are used.
23A Nouns of Time in Formal Speech

English Colloquial More formal Example

today hvo honjitsu Kyo wa ii tenki desu. 1A
1n #n tt L',!.Xfit?. "It's fine
konnichi weather today."
1a Honjitsu wa ii otenki de
gozaimasu. 4 g ttL'! .'*o'X
firi S t'* f. "It's fine
weather today."
tomorrow ashita mydnichi Ashita ikimasu. WHft* *
EEg EEg f. "I'll go tomorrow."
Mydnichi mairimasu. flAE8
D tt. "I'll go tomorrow."
yesterday hind sahujitsu Kind wa isogashii deshita.
Ffs P?g Wa lt{t Lu't L/c. "r was
busy yesterday."
Sahujitsu wa isogashfr gozai-
mashita. rf g lt,ft L rp 5 C
g'!.,* Llc. ',I was busy
this year kotoshi honnen Kotoshi wa ame ga 6i desu.
-t -r ++lf ffirtifL."iCf. ','We
honnen have had lots of rain this
Honnen wa ame ga O gozai-
masu. #€ttFF'rti* i g't.
* ?. "We have had lots
of rain this year."
last year hyonen sahunen Kyonen Nihon ni ikimashita.
*+ W+ *+E#!='fr3t L/c. "I
went to Japan last year."
Sahunen Nihon ni mairima-
shita.W+E#t"80 t L/c.
"I wentto Japanlastyear."
this time hondo honotabi Kondo wa hikdki de kima-
or +E .DE shita.+Httftfiffit** L
next time lc. "This time I came by
depending on plane.t'
the case Kono tabi wa hik6ki de mai-
rimashita. a DH,Itftffffi
t8 D* L/c. "This time
I came by plane."
Extremely Colloquial Expressions 237

time toki on or Ano tohi wa arigatd gozai-

H ffi mashita. t)Offitt€'ffi t i'
setsu 3 u.'t L/c. "Thank you for
trd your kindnessat that time."
Ano ori wa arigatd zonjima-
shita.t>DfrIf H'ffir H Ut
L/c. "Thank you for your
kindnessat that time."
Note: When one uses formal time words, it is more common to use formal
verb and adjective endings also, as shown above.


The following expressionsmight be called "extremely colloquial."

They often contain contractions and ellipses,and are based on the
spokenlanguage. Becausetheir number is countless, liberty has
been taken to include only a few examples, which may serve as
suggestionsin dealing with similar expressions.
aitsu *2U.a :ar€t ano yatsu Aitsu u)a,hontd ni baka da na. &>['
?lt#*1c,66ff1r. "That guy is really stupid."
arya b D r :ar€ il)a Arya ittai nan' dai? *>0 r-fFfFjff!..
"What on earth is it ?"
arya shinai bD r Lhl' :ari ua shinai:nai (emphatic) Nihon
hodohondeiru tohorou)a arla shinai. E*ffilE,ltL'bEfltbD
f LhL.. "There is no country which is more crowded than
chabr = t e w a l t c h a i h e m a s e n y o .f r . b t t , ' k i * t r L l . "You
mustn't go, you know."
chau t> r ) :te shimau Kyo warui hoto [o] shichatta. 1A,Su.
SLbr zlc. "f did a bad thing today."
Note: In colloquialspeech,particles are often omitted. Chau is more
often used by women.
chimau b*, , :te shimau Shinheisuijahu ni natchimai sd da.
#ffiE$9lcfr c bt U't , ff. "I feel as if I am going to have a
nervousbreakdown." chimau is more often usedby men.
dai tivr : desuka Kore nan' dai. r*r.fojffU.. "What is this?"
datteff z (
L. -de atte mo=de mo lhura binb0datteanno hitanai uchi ni

%2 Extremely Colloquial Expressions

na mon'da. L, < bH,Zfi=TF Ltr.
i6u.'Nlcfrth(ftf 8t)tr6,tff. "Evenif they are
poor, it seemsthey don't have to live in such a dirty house."
2, : da to (iu) Nan' datte? ,fE]ffc A.. "lVhat did you say?"
ja Le :de wa Sd ja nai. +, L p /xu.'. "It's not that."
hoitsu r, L .'2 : hore Koitsu ua yohunai na. c !'?lt I < lgL .,/g.
"This is no good."
horya i D r :hore wa Korya komatta hoto ni natta. a0 rffl-r
t; & l:/rz/c.
n' ,\, :nto
"This turned out to be a lot of trouble."
Doko e ihu n' deshd. Hge-rft ( x,reL r ,. "I wonder
where he is going."
nahuchatg.( b r :nahute wa :nahereba Konna muzuhashiimondai
wa anta de nahuchatohenaidesho. zfufrffiLt,,f6ffittt>'tft"Ch
,. "I supposeyou're the only one who can
< b effiWfr!'tLt
solve such a difficult problem." T
nando kL E :flaflha:nado Sonna hon nando yomu no rno iya
da. Z,+fr*fr.L&'ffit_rotL.fff.
..f would hate to read such a
nya lcr :ni wa Ano ho nya homatta. hD+lcr EFlz/c. "I had
so much trouble with that kid." I
soitsu {L .: :sofe Soitsuwa ohashii. t! .'plt *dr, L L ,. "That's
sorya Z D r :sore u)a Sorya bahagete iru na. Z D r,6Elklrc!.
6 k. "That's idiotic."
surya ?D r :silr€ba Kd surya yoku naru dar\. i rt0 rI (
tt btib 5 . "If you do this, it'll probably improve."
tatte foz( :te rno Bohu ga nani o shitatte kamawanai dard.
trri{Fj?.Ltc->(f#*2fX!'iibr. "No matter what I do, you don't
care, do you?"
te ya shinai (f Lfrt,. :te lwal inai libun no hoto shika han-
gaete ya shinai. AftD a L Lrt,Z k_(S L lxL'.
"He thinks of
nothing but himself."
tottemo Lc(6 :totemo Tottemo tsinharetatua. Lc(6tfr.tttc
*). "f am so tired."
yappart ,F cttD :yappasfui:yahari Yappari hite yohatta. f a
tf , *( f i. z lc. "As I thought, it was a good thing that f came."
There are two ways of counting in Japanese: one is the native
Japanesesystem which goes only as far as ten, and the other is
borrowedfrom the Chineseand will go as high as one chooses.
Original lapanesecounting system
Used when 1. counting objects by the piece.
2. counting a person's age (equivalent to is-sai,ni-
sai, etc. [see p. 239], but is-sai, ni-sai sound
more formal than hitotsu, futatsu).
hitotsu -2 One muttsu. /<c six
futatsu two nanatsu tc seven
mittsu =2 three yattstt, i\c eight
yottsu Wc four hohonotstt,
)tc nine
d ?

L2 NVC td + ten
Hatacht:+ tlventy-hatachi is used for a person's2g€,
"twenty years old," equivalent to nijus-stti,
Systemborrouedfrom the Chinese
ichi - one hachi n eight
ni - trvo hu (hya) nine
so,n = three ju + ten
shi trl four iu-ichi f- eleven
go n five ' jn-ni *: twelve
roku x six jr,i-san += thirteen
shichi { seven jil-shi. *Zq fourteen, etc.
nijn -+ trventy gojfi fifty
niju-ichi =+- trventy-one rokujil x+ sixty
nijil.-ni :+: trventy-two shichijn {+ seventy
hachijil, eighty

sanlu thirty n+
yonia Zq+ forty kynjn )L+ ninety
*hyaku tr' one hundred
* Japanesealways omit one in one hundred: never ichi-hyoha,but always
iast hyha.

Counting System

one hundred nisen -

T two thousand
hyahu-jn H+
one sanzen =f
one hundred yonsen EI?
three thousand
four thousand
nihyaku -
sanbyahu =E:
ten gosen
E' two hundred rokusen xf
three hundred nanasen {f
Ef five thousand
six thousand
seven thousand
lonhyaku Eltr' four hundred hassen z\f
gohtahu t,tr' five hundred kyilsen ^T
eight thousand
nine thousand
robfyaku xtr'
haffyaku nE'
six hundred ichiman -7j
seven hundred hyakuman HT
eight hundred xxichioku -ffi
ten thousand
one million
one hundred
kyilhyahu )Ltr nine hundred itcho
*sen(or issen)t one thousand
-rb million
one trillion I
sen-hyahu Ttr one thousand
one hundred I
first ichi-ban dai-ichi hitotsu-me ichi-ban-me
-2FJ -# El
_* Itt X5-
second ni-ban dai-ni futatsu-me ni-ban-me
:# m' =2H
third san-ban
=#El I
fourth yo-ban gq# dai-yon yottsu-me yo-ban-me

(yon-ban) ffiw
go-ban dai-go
frcH r,#H
muttsu-me roku-ban-me t
-.L.{L lltf-t-
./\g ^1/ \
seventh nana-ban dai-shichi, nanatsu-tne nana-ban-me
t6 ffit, tcH {#EI

hachi-ban dai-hachi yattsu-me hochi-ban-me t
n# HX n?El n#E
ninth hu-ban
JtcH /L# H
* For one thousand,one hears both sen and issen.
'|* Oku and cho are always precededby ichi: ichioku and itcha, and never
oku or cha.
T :

t JapaneseNumbers and English Numbers 235

r tenth ja-ban
Note: The above ordinal numbers are nouns. They should be followed

I by no if they are used as noun modifiers.

e.g. Ano hito wa kono hurasu de ichi-ban desu. (noun) &>A li
aA 7 2 z<-#f f . "He is the first (top) in this class."
I Yamada-sanwa ano mittsu-me no isu ni suwatte iru hito
desu. (attributive) ilJE E L|ttiz)=.A at6+t:4[ a (1,

I 6 /11gt. "Mr. Yamada is the person who is sitting on

that third chair."
The suffix me is used after number*counter (see pp.236-41).


e.g. Ano gonin-meno hito wa dare desu ka. fr>o>A E OAtt,;t
Atftr. "Who is that fifth person?"
M6 nihai-me no kdhi o nonde imasu. 6, :ffi H A = - V -

t tr /v<L'* f . "f am already drinking a secondcup of


I As the use of commas shows, the division of the unit in the
I English number system comes between every three digits. In
Japanese,the division is made every four digits, as shown below.

o one o ichi
I o ten aju ;

t I
ten thousand
o hyaku
t O

q I O

ten million
<) senman
d oku
q I o
O ten billion <) hyakuoku tr'ffi
o hundredbillion <> sen'oku fffi

I trillion YK
t ch6
O o
F{ ten trillion Fl jutchO frb

r !
Japanese usesmany differentcountersto countobjects,depending
on the type of thing being counted. This tradition is similar to
suchEnglishphrasesas "three slicesof bread," "three pairs of

t.ri'i I

236 b-d Counters
socks," "three cups of coffee."
In Japanese,for example,mai. is used for counting thin objects,
hon is used for long objects,and so forth.
It should also be rememberedthat in grouping objectsin Japanese
the divisions are basedon groups of fives and tens, instead of sixes I
and twelves as in the West. Traditionally, Japanesehas no such
group as the dozen (dasu 9'- 7 is the Japaneserendering of
the English dozen). For example, sets of Japanesedishesor bowls
are sold in units of five.
The following is a partial list of common counters. A sample I
counting up to ten is given once for each new beginning letter,
and occasionalexamples showing how to use the suffix are also
included. Exceptionsare shown by the use of parentheses.
b- bai ffi (multiplicative) times
ichi-bai "one time"
ni-bai "double," "twice" go-chaku
san-bai"triple," "three times"
roku-chaku I
go-bai hat-chaku
rolzu-bai hyn-chahu
nana-bai jut-chahu
hachi-bai I
hyn (ku)-bai -ch6 T tdfu "beancurd"
ju-bai it-ch0 "one tdfu"
e.g. Tochi no nedan ga I
kyonenno ni-bai ni natto. -ch6 tre a pair of scissors
*, jt[ D Itiry.h\*+ D =ffitc /c z it-cho"one pair" of scissors
/:. "The price of the land t
has doubledsince last year." d-:@
-ban & See Ordinal Num- ichi-dai "one car"
bers, pp. 234-35 ni-dai "two trucks"
-bun ft part, fraction san-dai
ni-bu,nno ichi L/2
yon-bun no san 3/4
t shichi-dai
c- -ehaku H clothes hachi-dai
it-chahu "one dress" hu-dai
ni-chahu "two suits" iil,-dai

Counters e-/ 237

-do E (occurrence)time san-bai

ichi-do"one time" yon-hai
J go-hai

-€rl ro yen
ichi-en "one yen"
rop-pai, roku-hai
ni-en haf -f ai
I san-en
juf -f ai

li I

-hatsu X round of ammuni-
shichi-en .ip-patsu"one shot"


jfr-en e.g. Kare wa san-patsu
utta. 'IRIL= ,EtT ->tc. "He
f. -fuku fiE puff of tobacco
fired three shots."
smoke,packet of powdered -hen ffi (occurrence)time - do
i medicine,cup of green tea
I if-fen "one timer" "once"
if -f uku
I ni-fuku
I yon-fitku
-hen frf chapter, canto, vol-
ume, etc.
rop-puku if-fen "one chapter"
l nana-fuku not common ni-hen
haf -ftuku
l hyu-firku
-hiki W small animal
ip-piki "one dog"
e.g. Tabakoo if-Puhu.iha- ni-hihi "two cats"
I ga desuka. I ts I (fSH)X- t
ffiL.i'ii (fn{FI)
Tfr.. "will -hon # long object
I you have a cigarette?"
-fuku {16kahemono"hanging
if-fon "one pencil"
ni.hon "two umbrellas"

I scroll"
ip-puku "one kakemono"
j- -j0 tatami "straw mat"
ichi,-j6 "one tatami"
t h- _:ltgi lff cup
ip-pai "one cup" of tea yo-j0
I ni-hai "two cups" of coffee go-j0

238 h-n Counters

rohu-j6 III' -rno Ffrroom

shichi-jo (hito-ma)"one room"
hachi-jo (futa-ma)
hyn-jo (mi-ma)
Ju'10 yo-ma
-j0 rpfi ream of paper go-ma
ichi-jo "one ream" roku-ma
I nana-lna
-j0 * article of documents hachi-ma
ichi-jo Dai ichi-jo "Article I" (hohono-ma) I
,.- . I not common
I \|u-ma) J
k- -ka # lesson :r4pl_& lbln _qbjec_t
ih-ha "one lessont' ichi-mae"one sheet" of paper
ni-ha ni-mai "two slices" of toast
san-ha san-mai
yon-ka lo (yon)-mai,
go-ka t
roh-ka shichi (nana)-mai
shichi (nana)-ka hachi-mai
hah-ha hya (ku.)-mai
hya-ha jil-mai
juh-ha -maki # roll
-kai EI (repetitive) time (hito-mahi) "one roll"
ih-kai "one time"
'i'.' r* € \ tr" 'r..,-r,
-kan # volume yo'maki
ila-kan "one volume" -rl€i & people-more formal I
t than -nin
-ken FF house
ik-hen "one house"
ichi-mei "one person" I
J yo (yon)-mei
'ko ,ffifpiece
-nin A people
ik-ho "one piece"
(hitori) "one person"
-kyaku H chair
ih-hyahu"one chair"
I go-nin
roku-nin I
t Counters r-t 239

t shichi-nin
-satsuflf books
t jn-nin
-r€tsu FU row
-sho H chapter

t ichi-retsu "one row"

is-sh0"one chapter"
-shu ts' poem
t yon (yo)-retsu
is-shu "one poem"
e.g. is-shuyomr(. -H'I tJ.

t roku-retsu
"to composea poem."

t hyil,-retsu
-Boku ,e footwear
is-sohu"a pair" of socks
ni-soku"two pairs" of shoes
t -rin ffi flower
ichi-rin "one flower with
-s6 ffi boat

t t
-rXoffi (tr6)carriage
ichi-ryd "one car" t-
ls-sd'"one boat"
-tan tr_ roll of kimono rn?.
rl I terial
-s&i ffi (*) age it-tan "one tan"
is-sai"one year old" ni-tan
ni-sai san-tan
san-sai yon-tan
yon-sai go-ton
go-sai rohu.-tan
roku-sai nana-tan
nana-sai hat-tan
has-sai kyfi-tan
hyil-sai j u.t-tan
jus-sai -tan tr- land, .245acres
-sao H tansu "chest of it-tan "one tan"
drawers" t
(hito-sao)"one tansu," -teki iffi drop of liquid
(futa-sao) it-teki "one drop"
(mi-sao) t
Uo-sao) -ten ,F. point
(itsu-sao) it-ten "one point"
240 tsu-z Counters t
-tO FE big animal
ju-wa, juf-fia
-wa fg bunch, bundle
it-to "one cow"
ni-td "two horses"
ichi-wa, i0-Pa "one bundle"
tsu- -tsui f,f a pair
it-tsui "one pair"
-wari glj L0%
ichi-wari "I0?'o"
rohu wari
shichi-wari, nana-wari
z- -zerr.ffi a pair of chopsticks I
-ts[ ;S letter
ichi-zen "one pair" of

chopsticks t
it-tsfr."one letter"
yo-zen I
w- -w& U bird
ichi-wa, i|-fa "one bird" roku-zen
hu (kyn)-zen
roku-wa, roP-Pa -zorr $S bowl of rice I
shichi-wa ichi-zen "one bowl" of rice
hachi-wa,haf'fa I t
Note: 1. It is not common in Japaneseto use the expression correspond' I
ing to "a cup of tea," i!-fai no ocha -'ffz)to'Jf, or "a sheet of
paper," ichi-mai no kami -&q)*ft, etc. As shown in the ex'
amples below, the particle follows the noun, not the number
plus the counter.
e.g. Ocha o ip-pai (i!-fai ocha o) nomimashita. i"'#L-fFfr
4.* Ll:. "I drank a cuP of tea."
Kami ga san'mai (San-tnai hami ga) arimasu' f&ri=&
h t) * t . "There are three sheets of paper." I
t 2. Han $
Dates 2,ll

"half" is always used after the counter.

t e. g. san-baihan =ff#
and a half"
"three-and-a-halfcups," "three cups

ni-sai han - ffi{

"two-and-a-half years old"

l JapaneseYears
From ancient times Japan has kept track of time by grouping

l years into periods,or eras, as they are sometimescalled. Some

periods lastedfor a long time, while others lasted only for a very
short time. The changesof the periods often dependedon super-
T stitions.
Since L872 the Western calendar has been used, while at the
sametime the old idea of period names has been retained, except
l| that they now coincide with the reign of each successiveEmperor.
Thus we have:
t the Meiji period ffiift
the Taisho period xtr

I the Showaperiod EAfu 1926-tothe present

One frequently seesthe Japaneseyear used alone. For example,

t the dates of historical events are more often given in Japanese

periodnames. Or, trying to find the publishing date for a book,
one may encounterthe Japaneseyear at the end of the book,though
t of late the Western dates are frequently used. When one asks a
Japanese personabout his date of birth, the answer may be given

t in the Japaneseyear. It is, therefore, essential to know how to

convertthe Japanesedate into the Western year as quickly and
correctlyas possible. The following is a simple method for it.
r| 25th year of Meiji Fnifi:+fr+
3rd year of Taishd /tF^=+

t 54th year of Sh6wa BAffifr+W+ L926+54-1 1979 etc.

The reasonfor subtracting one is that the firsi year is not to be

r| counted. When an Emperor dies, the year is changedimmediate-

ly. In LgIz, for example, up to the 30th of July belongs to the
Meiji period,while the 31st belongs to Taish6, becauseEmperor

t Meij died on the 30th of July and his son, Emperor Taish6, then be-
came Emperor. The year LgLz,then, is the 45th year of Meiji as
well as the 1st of Taish0. For the same reason,1926is the 15th
I| year of Taishd as well as the lst of Shdrva (See the chart, p. 242).

242 Modern Japanese Eras/Christian Era
Conversion Table
Iaf. Year Christ.Year
Meiji 1
fa|. Year Christ.Year
1868 Taishd4 1915
IaP. Year Christ.Year
Shdwa37 1962
EEifi 2
186e ^ E b
1916 FAto 38
1880 Shdwa
1881 FEfu 2
1942 Heisei 1
1943 Srl 2