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Fly ash for concrete —

requirements and
quality control

The European Standard EN 450:1994 has the status of a

British Standard

UDC 666.971.98:693.5:666.952.2:001.4:658.562
BS EN 450:1995

Committees responsible for this

British Standard

The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by Technical

Committee B/516, Cement and lime, to Subcommittee B/516/101, Pozzolanas,
upon which the following bodies were represented:

British Aggregate Construction Materials Industries

British Cement Association
British Precast Concrete Federation
British Ready Mixed Concrete Association
Cementitious Slag Makers’ Association
Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment)
Department of Transport
Electricity Association
Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors
Quality Ash Association

This British Standard, having

been prepared under the
direction of the Sector Board
for Building and Civil
Engineering, was published
under the authority of the
Standards Board and comes
into effect on Amendments issued since publication
15 December 1995

© BSI 07-1999
Amd. No. Date Comments

The following BSI references

relate to the work on this
Committee reference B/516/101
Draft for comment 91/11362 DC

ISBN 0 580 24612 4

BS EN 450:1995


Committees responsible Inside front cover
National foreword ii
Foreword 2
Text of EN 450 3
National annex NA (informative) Comparison between
BS 3892-1 and BS EN 450 8
National annex NB (normative) Requirements permitted
to be specified on a national basis 9
List of references Inside back cover

© BSI 07-1999 i
BS EN 450:1995

National foreword

This British Standard is the English language version of EN 450:1994 Fly ash for
concrete — Definitions, requirements and quality control prepared under the
authority of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). This standard
has been prepared as part of a package of standards harmonized within the
member countries of CEN to support the essential requirements of the
Construction Products Directive.
The term “fly ash” used in this standard covers pulverized-fuel ash (pfa) which is
the more precise term for fly ashes produced from electricity generating power
stations burning pulverized hard coals and which has been in common use in the
UK for many years.
BS EN 450 does not supersede BS 3892-1 which remains in force and covers a
processed material, as explained in the introduction of this standard.
BS 3892-2:1984 is under revision.
This standard was drafted with the cooperation of the UK which proposed a
requirement for different classes of ash each with specific applications in order to
maintain the successful system of classification and use established under
BS 3892 since 1965. This was not required or accepted by the majority of CEN
member countries. However, the introduction to EN 450 acknowledges that the
UK and Ireland require that ash, for use as a cementitious component in concrete,
be processed in order to restrict variations in quality and to enhance performance
in concrete. It further recognizes that the specific requirements for controlled
properties which allow such processed ash to be used as a special component of
cementitious systems in concrete are not included in EN 450. Pfa conforming to
BS 3892-1 is subject to such processing. BS 5328-1 and BS 8110-1 refer to the use
of other fly ashes that do not conform to BS 3892-1 provided that satisfactory data
on their use are available.
Requirements in both BS EN 450 and BS 3892-1 are specified as characteristic
values and conformity is assessed by means of a statistical procedure for
continuous inspection operated by the ash producer (autocontrol). This includes
the concept of “major defects” which are likely to reduce materially the usability
of the ash for its intended purpose. In this respect both BS EN 450 and
BS 3892-1 are based upon the text on conformity criteria given in the European
Prestandard for cement, ENV 197-1:1992. Subsequent draft revisions of this text
have removed reference to major defects, referring instead to “limit values”
(upper and lower). The sum of the specified characteristic value and the
corresponding major defect is the limit value for the particular property. The
latter term is used throughout National annex NA in which the main differences
between BS EN 450 and BS 3892-1 are summarized.
BS EN 450 makes reference in 3.2, 3.3 and 4.2.2 to certain items which are
permitted to be fixed on a national basis. Normative National annex NB indicates
how these clauses are to be interpreted for the UK.
Most ash produced in the UK would conform to BS EN 450 without further
processing. Rules to allow ash conforming to BS EN 450 to be used in concrete
produced in accordance with EN 206 are, however, still under development. Until
such rules have been developed and agreed, users of ash conforming to BS EN 450
are advised that, for the specific use as part of the cement content in concrete, pfa
is required by BS 5328 and BS 8110 to conform to BS 3892-1. In particular,
BS 5328 requires that, when pfa is combined with a Portland cement in the
concrete mixer to give a combination equivalent to a cement conforming to
BS 6588 or BS 6610, the pfa conforms to BS 3892-1.

ii © BSI 07-1999
BS EN 450:1995


Publications referred to Corresponding British Standard

EN 196-1:1994 BS EN 196-1:1995 Methods of testing cement

Part 1: Determination of strength
EN 196-2:1994 BS EN 196-2:1995 Methods of testing cement
Part 2: Chemical analysis of cement
EN 196-3:1994 BS EN 196-3:1995 Methods of testing cement
Part 3: Determination of setting time and soundness
EN 196-6:1989 BS EN 196-6:1992 Methods of testing cement
Part 6: Determination of fineness
EN 196-7:1989 BS EN 196-7:1992 Methods of testing cement
Part 7: Methods of taking and preparing samples of
EN 196-21:1989 BS EN 196-21:1990 Methods of testing cement
Part 21: Determination of chloride, carbon dioxide and
alkali content of cement
ENV 197-1:1993 DD ENV 197-1:1995 Cement — Composition,
specifications and conformity criteria
Part 1: Common cements
ENV 206:1990 DD ENV 206:1992 Concrete — Performance, production,
placing and compliance criteria
EN 451-1:1994 BS EN 451-1:1995 Method of testing fly ash
Part 1: Determination of free calcium oxide content
EN 451-2:1994 BS EN 451-2:1995 Method of testing fly ash
Part 2: Determination of fineness by wet sieving.

A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to iv,
the EN title page, pages 2 to 10, an inside back cover and a back cover.
This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had
amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on
the inside front cover.

© BSI 07-1999 iii

iv blank
September 1994

Descriptors: Concrete, fly ash, definitions, specifications, chemical properties, physical properties, quality control, certification

English version

Fly ash for concrete — Definitions, requirements and

quality control

Cendres volantes pour béton — Définitions, Flugasche für Beton — Definitionen,

exigences et contrôle de qualité Anforderungen und Gütaüberwachung

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1994-09-09. CEN members

are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration.
Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any
CEN member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French,
German). A version in any other language made by translation under the
responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the
Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium,
Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and
United Kingdom.

European Committee for Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation
Europäisches Komitee für Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels

© 1994 Copyright reserved to CEN members

Ref. No. EN 450:1994 E
EN 450:1994

Foreword Contents
This European Standard was drawn up by the Page
Technical Committee CEN/TC 104, Concrete, the 0 Introduction 3
Secretariat of which is held by DIN.
1 Scope 3
The preparatory work was carried out by WG 4 of
2 Normative references 3
CEN/TC 104 since June 1988 in which the following
countries participated: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, 3 Definitions 3
France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, 3.1 type II addition 3
Norway, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom. 3.2 fly ash 3
This European Standard has been prepared under a 3.3 reference cement 4
mandate given to CEN by the European
Commission and the European Free Trade 3.4 particle density 4
Association, and supports essential requirements of 3.5 activity index 4
EC Directive(s). 3.6 autocontrol 4
This European Standard shall be given the status of 4 Requirements 4
a national standard, either by publication of an 4.1 General 4
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by
March 1995, and conflicting national standards 4.2 Chemical requirements 4
shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 1995. 4.2.1 General 4
It is supported by standards of the series EN 451 for 4.2.2 Loss on ignition 4
test methods for determination of free calcium oxide 4.2.3 Chloride 4
content and of the fineness by sieve residue. No 4.2.4 Sulfuric anhydride 4
existing European Standard is superseded.
4.2.5 Free calcium oxide 4
According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal
Regulations, the following countries are bound to 4.3 Physical requirements 4
implement this European Standard: Austria, 4.3.1 Fineness 4
Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, 4.3.2 Activity index 5
Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, 4.3.3 Soundness 5
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, United Kingdom. 4.3.4 Particle density 5
5 Packaging and marking 5
6 Quality control 5
6.1 Conformity criteria 5
6.2 Autocontrol 5
6.2.1 General 5
6.2.2 Sampling 5
6.2.3 Frequency of sampling and testing 6
Annex A (informative) Sampling plans 7
A.0 Introduction 7
A.1 Inspection of variables 7
A.2 Inspection by attributes 7
Table 1 — Major defects 6
Table 2 — Sampling and testing frequency 6
Table 3 — Acceptability constant
kA (Pa = 10 %) 7
Table 4 — Acceptable number of defects ca 7

2 © BSI 07-1999
EN 450:1994

0 Introduction 2 Normative references

The use of coal for electricity production results in This European Standard incorporates by dated or
the generation of large quantities of fly ash. undated reference, provisions from other
Different types of coal and the type of boiler used in publications. These normative references are cited
this process produce different qualities of fly ash at the appropriate places in the text and the
and some, especially those having pozzolanic publications are listed hereafter. For dated
properties, are used in concrete production. This references, subsequent amendments to or revisions
European Standard gives requirements for the of any of these publications apply to this European
chemical and physical properties as well as quality Standard only when incorporated in it by
control procedures for fly ashes which may be safely amendment or revision. For undated references the
used as a pozzolanic addition for the production of latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
cast-in-situ or prefabricated structural concrete. EN 196-1:1994, Methods of testing cement —
However, it is beyond the scope of this standard to Determination of strength.
specify provisions for the use of fly ash in concrete,
EN 196-2:1994, Methods of testing cement —
for which reference should be made to ENV 206.
Chemical analysis of cement.
Fly ash may before its use be subject to processing
EN 196-3:1994, Methods of testing cement —
by classification or selection to increase its fineness
Determination of setting time and soundness.
and to improve other properties. Such is the case for
example in the UK and Ireland which, in order to EN 196-6:1989, Methods of testing cement —
limit variations in properties and to reduce water Determination of fineness.
demand, have developed a low sieve residue fly ash EN 196-7:1989, Methods of testing cement —
for use as a special component of cementitious Methods of taking and preparing samples of cement.
systems. The fineness of this ash is strictly EN 196-21:1989, Methods of testing cement —
controlled in order to maximize chemical activity Determination of chloride, carbon dioxide and alkali
and minimize the variability in properties, not only content of cement.
within one source but also between different
ENV 197-1:1992, Cement — Composition,
specifications and conformity criteria —
Although such processed fly ash may conform to this Part 1: Common cements.
standard, the additional requirements for fineness
ENV 206:1989, Concrete — Performance,
and reduction of water demand which allow this
production, placing and compliance criteria.
processed fly ash to be used specifically as a special
component of cementitious systems in concrete are EN 451-1:1994, Methods of testing fly ash —
not included in this standard. Part 1: Determination of free calcium oxide content.
When using fly ashes complying with this standard, EN 451-2:1994, Methods of testing fly ash —
it should be noted that, apart from pozzolanic Part 2: Determination of fineness by wet sieving.
properties, other properties of fresh and hardened
concrete, in particular the water requirement (lower 3 Definitions
or higher), the setting time (normally increased) and For the purposes of this standard the following
the early age strength (relative reduction), may be definitions apply. The values appearing in the
affected. When relevant, such effects have to be definitions below shall not form part of the criteria
considered in concrete mix design (see ENV 206). for assessing conformity.

1 Scope 3.1
type II addition
This European Standard specifies requirements for
finely divided inorganic, pozzolanic or latent
the properties of fly ash for use as a type II addition
hydraulic material that may be added to concrete in
in cast-in-situ or prefabricated structural concrete
order to improve certain properties or to achieve
conforming to ENV 206.
special properties (see ENV 206)
Fly ash for use in the manufacture of cements
according to ENV 197-1 is outside the scope of this 3.2
standard. fly ash
Provisions governing the practical application of fly fine powder of mainly spherical, glassy particles,
ash in the production of concrete, i.e. requirements derived from burning of pulverized coal, which has
concerning composition, mixing, placing, curing etc. pozzolanic properties and consists essentially of
of concrete containing fly ash are not part of this SiO2 and Al2O3, the content of reactive SiO2,
standard. As regards such provisions, reference defined and determined as described in ENV 197-1,
should be made to ENV 206 or national standards being at least 25 % by mass
for concrete.

© BSI 07-1999 3
EN 450:1994

fly ash is obtained by electrostatic or mechanical 4.2 Chemical requirements

precipitation of dust-like particles from the flue 4.2.1 General
gases or furnaces fired with pulverized anthracite or
bituminous coal The chemical composition shall be expressed as
proportions by mass of dry ash (see 6.2.2 for a
NOTE Fly ash obtained from firing with sub-bituminous coals
may be accepted on a national basis provided that its total method of obtaining a sample of dry fly ash).
content of CaO is less than 10 % by mass and that it complies In addition to the chemical requirements specified
with all other requirements of the present standard.
below, a typical chemical composition of the dry fly
3.3 ash, comprising the contents of silica (SiO2),
reference cement aluminium oxide (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3), and
selected brand of Portland cement of type CEM I, calcium oxide (CaO) as determined by the methods
Strength Class 42,5, conforming to ENV 197-1 to be described in EN 196-2, shall be supplied to the
used for carrying out the tests needed to show purchaser upon request. Also the total content of
compliance or non-compliance with the alkalis determined by the method described in
requirements of 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 below EN 196-21 and calculated as Na2O shall be supplied
reference cement is selected and fixed on a national to the purchaser upon request.
basis and is further characterized by its fineness NOTE This standard has no requirement for magnesium oxide
(MgO) because fly ash conforming to this standard does not
and contents of tricalcium aluminate and alkalis contain free periclase which might cause uncontrolled expansion.
3.4 4.2.2 Loss on ignition
particle density
The loss on ignition, as determined in accordance
average particle density of the fly ash, including with the principles of the method described in
voids inside the particles EN 196-2 but using an ignition time of 1 h, shall not
3.5 be greater than 5,0 % by mass.
activity index NOTE 1 Fly ashes with losses on ignition up to 7,0 % by mass
may also be accepted on a national basis.
ratio (in percent) of the compressive strength of NOTE 2 The purpose of this requirement is to limit the residue
standard mortar bars, prepared with 75 % reference of unburnt carbon in the fly ash. It is sufficient, therefore, to
cement plus 25 % fly ash by mass, to the show, through direct measurement of unburnt carbon residue,
compressive strength of standard mortar bars that it is less than the values specified above.
prepared with reference cement alone, when tested 4.2.3 Chloride
at the same age The content of chloride, expressed as Cl and
3.6 determined in accordance with the principles of the
autocontrol method described in EN 196-21, shall not be greater
continuous statistical quality control of the fly ash than 0,10 % by mass.
based on the testing of samples taken by the 4.2.4 Sulfuric anhydride
producer or his agent at point(s) of release from the The content of sulfuric anhydride, SO3, as
fly ash generating facility determined by the method described in EN 196-2,
shall not be greater than 3,0 % by mass.
4 Requirements
4.2.5 Free calcium oxide
4.1 General
The content of free calcium oxide, as determined by
The chemical and physical requirements in 4.2 the method described in EN 451-1, shall not be
and 4.3 are specified as characteristic values. greater than 1,0 % by mass.
Compliance with a characteristic value is assessed
Fly ash having a free calcium oxide content higher
by means of a statistical quality control procedure than 1,0 % by mass but less than 2,5 % by mass is,
as described in clause 6. however, also acceptable provided that it complies
NOTE The test methods prescribed in this standard are with. the requirement for soundness in 4.3.3.
reference methods. Other methods may be used if a relationship
between the results obtained by means of the reference method 4.3 Physical requirements
and those of the alternative method has been established. In case
of a dispute, only the reference method shall be used. 4.3.1 Fineness
Fly ash shall be stored and transported to the The fineness of fly ash shall be expressed as the
purchaser in a dry condition, unless otherwise mass proportion in percent of the ash retained when
agreed. wet sieved on a 0,045 mm mesh sieve and
determined by the method described in EN 451-2.

4 © BSI 07-1999
EN 450:1994

The maximum value of the fineness shall not 6.1 Conformity criteria
exceed 40 %. The fineness shall not vary by more The conformity criteria and conformity procedures
than ± 10 percentage points from the average value specified in ENV 197-1 for the physical and
which shall be calculated from the number of tests chemical properties of cement shall apply in this
within a given production period as described in 6.2. standard. The characteristic values specified in
Upon request, the average value and the period over clause 4 shall correspond to the 10 % fractile (upper
which it has been calculated shall be declared by the or lower as appropriate) while the probability of
producer. acceptance (consumer’s risk) shall be 5 % for all the
4.3.2 Activity index properties dealt with in this standard. In addition,
major defects, as defined in ENV 197-1, exceeding
Preparation of standard mortar bars and the values listed in Table 1 shall not be accepted for
determination of the compressive strength shall be any of the properties.
carried out in accordance with the method described
in EN 196-1. 6.2 Autocontrol
The activity index at 28 days and at 90 days shall be 6.2.1 General
not less than 75 % and 85 %, respectively. A system of autocontrol shall be operated by the
NOTE The result of the activity index tests gives no direct producer or his agent at every single fly ash
information on the strength contribution of fly ash in concrete, generating facility to ensure conformity to the
nor is the use of the fly ash limited to the mixing ratio used in
these tests. requirements specified in clause 4. The continuous
statistical quality control shall be based on
4.3.3 Soundness inspection by attributes or by variables of the
The expansion, as determined on a 50 % fly ash producer’s or his agent’s choice using single spot
plus 50 % reference cement by mass reference samples. A minimum of 10 samples shall be used for
cement paste by the method designated the Le assessing the conformity and shall represent a
Chatelier test and described in EN 196-3, shall not production period of not more than 12 months, nor
be greater than 10 mm. less than 1 month.
NOTE This test is required only if the free calcium oxide NOTE Examples of some convenient sampling plans for
content of the fly ash exceeds 1,0 % by mass, see clause 4.2.5. inspection by variables and by attributes are shown in Annex A.
4.3.4 Particle density 6.2.2 Sampling
The particle density, determined by the method Spot samples, equally distributed over the
described in EN 196-6, shall not deviate by more production period, shall be taken in connection with
than ± 150 kg/m3 from the average value as loading or discharging fly ash to or from a storage
declared by the producer or his agent. silo into packages or into a bulk-delivery vehicle or
ship, or, alternatively, directly from packages or
5 Packaging and marking bulk-delivery vehicles or ships, using the equipment
NOTE Fly ash may be delivered in suitable packages, such as and principles described in EN 196-7.
bags or drums, and in bulk-delivery vehicles or ships. For the purpose of carrying out all the analyses and
Packages shall be marked or labelled and delivery tests needed to show compliance or non-compliance
notes (or invoices) relating to bulk delivery shall be with the requirements set out in 4.2 and 4.3 a
marked with the following particulars: representative laboratory sample of dry fly ash of at
a) the type of the material, i.e. fly ash; least 1 kg is required. This sample is obtained by
subdividing, such as quartering, a spot or composite
b) the name, trade mark or other means of
sample of at least 4 kg. The laboratory sample shall
identification of the supplier;
be dried in a well-ventilated oven at (105± 5) °C to
c) the name and location of the facility from which constant weight and then cooled in a dry
the fly ash is dispatched; atmosphere.
d) the number and year of this European
Standard (or of the national standard which
implements this standard);
e) certification mark (if necessary).

6 Quality control
NOTE This clause comprises general rules for conformity
criteria and autocontrol. Rules for acceptance inspection at
delivery and for certification are outside the scope of the

© BSI 07-1999 5
EN 450:1994

6.2.3 Frequency of sampling and testing

The properties of fly ash specified in clause 4 shall
be tested at the following minimum frequencies:
Table 1 — Major defects
Property Limit for major defects

Loss on ignition + 2,0 percentage points

Fineness + 5,0 percentage points
Fineness variation ± 5,0 percentage points
Chloride + 0,01 percentage points
Free calcium oxide + 0,1 percentage points
Sulfuric anhydride + 0,5 percentage points
Soundness + 1,0 mm
Activity index – 5,0 percentage points

Table 2 — Sampling and testing frequency

Property Frequency during production

Loss on ignition Daily

Fineness Daily
Free calcium oxide Once per week
Chloride Once per month
Sulfuric anhydride Once per month
Particle density Once per month
Activity index Twice per month
Soundness Once per week, if required

6 © BSI 07-1999
EN 450:1994

Annex A (informative) Table 3 — Acceptability constant

Sampling plans kA (Pa = 10 %)
n kA
A.0 Introduction
This annex contains a number of sampling plans for 10 2,45
the following two alternatives which satisfy the 15 2,11
conditions of clause 6. The alternatives are: 20 1,95
— continuous inspection by variables; 21 to 24 1,90
— continuous inspection by attributes. 25 to 29 1,82
30 to 39 1,76
The number of samples and the test frequency are
specified in 6.2. 40 to 49 1,70
50 to 59 1,65
A.1 Inspection by variables
60 to 79 1,61
In this case the mean value x and the standard
80 to 99 1,56
deviation s of the complete series of test results (one
result per sample) are calculated. 100 to 149 1,53
150 to 199 1,48
The conformity criteria are:
U 200 1,45
x – kA s U L or
Table 4 — Acceptable number of defects ca
x + kA s k U
n1) cA
kA is the acceptability constant; 20 to 39 0

L is the specified lower limit; 40 to 54 1

U is the specified upper limit. 55 to 69 2
70 to 84 3
The acceptability constant kA depends on the
number of test results (n). Values of kA are listed 85 to 99 4
in Table 3. 100 to 109 5
A.2 Inspection by attributes U 110 0,075 (n – 30)
In this case the number cD of defective test results 1)
If the number of test results is n < 20 (for acceptable
(one result per sample) in the complete series of
percentage of defects = 10 %) a statistically based conformity
samples is counted. criterion is not possible. In this case, cA will always be 0.
The conformity is checked by the equation:
cD k cA
where the acceptable number of defects cA depends
on the number n of test results. Values of cA are
listed in Table 4.

© BSI 07-1999 7
BS EN 450:1995

National annex NA (informative)

Comparison between BS 3892-1 and BS EN 450
The main differences between BS 3892-1 and BS EN 450 are as follows.
a) BS EN 450 permits ashes from a wider range of coals than does BS 3892-1. In addition to ashes from
pulverized anthracite or bituminous coal, ashes from sub-bituminous coals are permitted on a national
basis (see National annex NB) provided that the total content of calcium oxide is less than 10 % (m/m).
In contrast, BS 3892-1 permits only ashes from pulverized bituminous or other hard coal, the latter
being defined by gross calorific value.
b) For carrying out tests for activity index (see 4.3.2) and, where required, soundness (see 4.3.3),
BS EN 450 requires a reference cement to be selected and fixed on a national basis
(see National annex NB). For the equivalent tests in BS 3892-1 [see g) and h)], and also for the tests for
water requirement and setting time [see j)], a Portland cement conforming to BS 12:1991 standard
strength class 42.5 and with alkali content in the range 0.5 % to 0.9 % is specified.
c) BS EN 450 specifies an autocontrol maximum for loss on ignition of 5.0 % (m/m) with an upper limit
value of 7.0 % (m/m). In addition, on a national basis (see National annex NB) values up to an
autocontrol maximum of 7.0 % (m/m) with an upper limit value of 9.0 % (m/m) may be accepted.
BS 3892-1 specifies an autocontrol maximum of 6.0 % (m/m) with an upper limit value of 7.0 % (m/m).
d) BS EN 450 specifies an autocontrol maximum f) The fineness of ash is expressed in both BS
for sulfuric anhydride (SO3) of 3.0 % (m/m) with EN 450 and BS 3892-1 as a 45 Èm sieve residue.
an upper limit value of 3.5 % (m/m). BS 3892-1 BS EN 450 specifies an autocontrol maximum
applies the more stringent autocontrol maximum of 40 % (m/m) with an upper limit value of 45 %
of 2.0 % (m/m) with an upper limit value (m/m). In addition, the value is permitted to vary
of 2.5 % (m/m). by ± 10 percentage points (autocontrol
e) There is a technical distinction between the maximum) from a declared average value within
various states in which calcium oxide (CaO) can a given production period, with an upper limit
exist in ash. Only that present as free CaO has value of ± 15 percentage points. BS 3892-1
the potential to cause long-term unsoundness. BS specifies an autocontrol maximum of 12.0 % (m/
EN 450 specifies a maximum value of 10 % (m/m) m) with an upper limit value
for total CaO, applicable to sub-bituminous coal of 12.5 % (m/m). The variation of fineness is
ashes on a national basis. In addition, an effectively controlled by this limiting value.
autocontrol maximum of 1.0 % with an upper Ash conforming to BS EN 450 is therefore
limit value of 1.1 % is specified for free CaO. potentially much more variable than ash
However an autocontrol maximum of 2.5 % with conforming to BS 3892-1. This has implications
an upper limit value 2.6 % is permitted provided for the predictability of its performance in
that the ash complies with the requirement for concrete [see also i)].
soundness [see g)].
BS 3892-1 specifies an autocontrol maximum of
10.0 % for total CaO with an upper limit value
of 11.0 %, but contains no requirement for free
CaO. This is because the likelihood of free CaO
being present in the bituminous and other hard
coal ashes permitted by BS 3892-1 is remote. A
safeguard against expansion caused by excess
free CaO is provided by the soundness test.
g) The test for activity index described in BS EN 450 requires the 28-day strength of a test mortar,
containing 25 % ash by mass of Portland cement plus ash, to have an autocontrol minimum value
of 75 %, with a lower limit value of 70 %, of that of a control mortar without ash prepared at the same
water/cement ratio. An autocontrol minimum of 85 %, with a lower limit value 80 %, is also specified
at 90 days. BS 3892-1 contains a comparable test for strength factor which requires the 28-day strength
of a test mortar containing 30 % ash by mass of cement plus ash to have an autocontrol minimum
of 80 % with a lower limit value of 75 %, of that of a control mortar without ash having the same
workability as measured by the flow value.

8 © BSI 07-1999
BS EN 450:1995

h) Both BS EN 450 and BS 3892-1 contain a requirement that a combination of ash and Portland cement
has an expansion of not more than 10 mm in the Le Chatelier soundness test. The BS EN 450 test is
carried out on a combination containing 50 % ash whilst the BS 3892-1 test is carried out on a
combination containing 30 % ash.
i) BS EN 450 has no autocontrol limit for particle
density but specifies that the value shall not
deviate by more than ± 150 kg/m3 from the
supplier’s declared average value. The variations
thus permitted may become significant with the
wide range of sieve residues permitted by BS
EN 450.
BS 3892-1 specifies an autocontrol minimum of 2
000 kg/m3 with a lower limit value of 1 950 kg/
m3. No limit on variation is specified but the
strict control on fineness ensures that density
variations are minimized.
j) Unlike BS 3892-1, BS EN 450 has no requirements for moisture content, water requirement or initial
setting time. As a result of the absence of a specification for water requirement and the wide tolerance
on fineness, the water demand of concrete may be increased and/or made more variable by the inclusion
of ash conforming to BS EN 450. This is in contrast to ash conforming to BS 3892-1 which, by virtue of
conformance to the specifications for water requirement and controlled fineness, can produce a
consistent reduction in concrete water demand.
k) BS EN 450 specifically excludes rules for acceptance inspection at delivery whereas the limit values
are treated by BS 3892-1 as acceptance inspection limits.
l) BS EN 450 specifically excludes rules for certification and contains no requirement for information to
be provided on a test certificate. BS 3892-1 makes provision for results of tests for every requirement of
the standard as well as additional information to be included in a test certificate if requested by the
m) BS EN 450 makes no reference to control of ash colour. Although colour consistency is not a
requirement of BS 3892-1:1993, A.7 of that standard recognizes that an indication of colour consistency
may be given by any test mutually agreed between producer and purchaser and recommends a suitable
method of test for this purpose.

National annex NB (normative)

Requirements permitted to be specified on a national basis
EN 450 makes provision for the following requirements to be determined nationally.
a) The note to the definition of fly ash in 3.2 permits fly ash obtained from sub-bituminous coals to be
accepted on a national basis provided that its total content of CaO is less than 10 % by mass. Such ash,
however, is not currently produced in the UK and there is no UK experience of its use. Fly ash from
sub-bituminous coals is therefore not accepted under this British Standard.
b) The reference cement for conducting tests for
activity index and soundness is to be selected and
fixed on a national basis in accordance with 3.3.
In the UK this cement shall have a fineness of at
least 300 m2/kg, a tricalcium aluminate content
less than 12 % (m/m) and an alkali content
between 0.5 % and 0.9 % (m/m).
c) The loss on ignition is permitted by note 1 to 4.2.2 to be fixed on a national basis. In the UK the loss
on ignition shall have an autocontrol maximum value of 6.5 % (m/m).

© BSI 07-1999 9
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BS EN 450:1995

List of references

See national foreword.

© BSI 07-1999
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