NEW

LATIN

GRAMMAR
BY
E.

CHARLES

BENNETT
in

Late Goldwin Smith Professor of Latin

Cornell University

Quicquid praecipies, esto brevis, ut

cito dicta *

Percipiant animi dociles teneantque fideles

Omne supemacuum plena

de pectore manat.

— Horace, Ars

Poetica.

ALLYN AND BACON
BOSTON

NEW YORK
ATLANTA

CHICAG6

SAN FRANCISCO

First edition printed February, 1895.

Jnly, 1897;

Reprinted April and September, 1895 > April, 1896; April, 1898; May and September, 1899;

April and November, 1900; October, 1901; March,

1902; April and November, 1903; July, 1904; April, 1905; April and November, 1906.

Revised edition printed March, 1908.

March, 191 1

May, 19 Oj March, 1912; March, 1913; April, 1914; March, 1915; March, 1916; March, 1917. Third edition printed June, 1918. Reprinted March and December, 1919; September,
;

Reprinted April and October, igog;

1920; June, 1921; June, 1922;

March and July, 1923;

1923; January and July, 1924; April, August and October, 1925; October, 1926; March,
October,
1927.

::OPYRIGHT, 1895; 1908; 1918.

*BY CHARLKS

E.

BENNETT.

PREFACE.
The present work is a revision of that published in 1908. No radical alterations have been introduced, although a
number
of minor changes will be noted.
I

have added an

Introduction on the origin and development of the Latin

language, which
structive to the

it is hoped will prove interesting and inmore ambitious pupil. At the end of the

book will be found an Index to the Sources tive Examples cited in the Syntax.
Ithaca,

of the IllustraC. E. B.

New

York,

May

4, 1918.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The
present book
is

a revision of

my

Latin Grammar

Wherever greater accuracy or precision of statement seemed possible, I have endeavored
originally published in 1895.
to secure this.

The

rules for syllable division

have been

changed and made
of the

to

conform
-Imus,

to the

prevaiUng practice

Romans

themselves.
-is,

In the Perfect Subjunctive
-itis

Active, the endings

are

now marked

long.

The theory
Syntax
I

of vowel length before the suffixes -gnus, -gna,

-gnum, and also before

discarded. In the j, has been have recognized a special category of Ablative of Association, and have abandoned the original doctrine
as to the force of tenses in the Prohibitive.

Apart from the foregoing, only minor and unessential In its main lines the work remains unchanged.
modifications have been introduced.
Ithaca,

Nkw

York,

October i6, 1907.

FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
The
within
object of this

book

is

to present the essential facts

of Latin

grammar

in a direct

and simple manner, and
consistent

the

smallest compass

with scholarly

While intended primarily for the secondary school, it has not neglected the needs of the college student, and aims to furnish such grammatical information as
standards.
is

ordinarily required in undergraduate courses.

of foreign educators in recent years has tended to restrict the size of school-grammars of Latin, and has demanded an incorporation of the main principles of the language in compact manuals of 250 pages. Within

The experience

grammars of this scope have appeared abroad which have amply met the most exacting demands.
the past decade, several

The
all

publication in this country of a

grammar

of similar

plan and scope seems fully justified at the present time, as
recent editions of classic texts summarize in introductions the special idioms of

grammar and

style peculiar to

This makes it feasible to dispense with the enumeration of many minutiae of usage which
individual authors.

would otherwise demand consideration in a student's grammar. In the chapter on Prosody, I have designedly omitted all special treatment of the lyric metres of Horace and Catullus, as well as of the measures of the comic poets. Our standard editions of these authors all give such thorough consideration to versification that repetition in a separate place seems superfluous.
Ithaca,

New

York,

December

15, 1894.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Introduction

— The Latin Language
Part L
sounds, accent, quantity, etc.

ix

The Alphabet
Oassification of Sounds

i

Accent

Sounds of the Letters
Syllables

....

...

5

Vowel Changes 3 Consonant Changes
i

6
7
. .

4 4

Peculiarities of

Orthography

7

Quantity

Part
CHAPTER \.— Declension.
A. Nouns.

II.

INFLECTIONS
C.

Pronouns.
.

Personal Pronouns
10
Reflexive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns

48
49
49 5°
51

Gender of Nouns

.

Number
Cases

n
II

Demonstrative Pronouns

The Five Declensions
First

....

12

Declension

13

The The

Intensive Pronoun

Relative Pronoun

51

Second Declension
Third Declension

Interrogative Pronouns

14
18
Indefinite

52 52 S3

Pronouns

.

Fourth Declension
Fifth Declension

28
29

Pronominal Adjectives

Defective

Nouns
B. Adjectives.

30

CHAPTER
.

II.

Conjugation.

Verb Stems The Four Conjugations
.

54
55

Adjectives of the First and Second

Conjugation of

Sum
. .
. .

56 58 62 66 70

Declensions
Adjectives of the Third Declension
.

34 First Conjugation Second Conjugation

Comparison of Adjectives Formation and Comparison of

...

36 Third Conjugation 40 Fourth Conjugation Verbs in -id of the Third Conju
. . .

.

Adverbs Numerals

43
45

gation

Deponent Verbs

.

.

.

74 76

VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS,.
PAGB

Semi-Deponents
Periphrastic Conjugation

78

List of the

Most Important Verbs

...
.
.

78
79

with Principal Parts
Irregular Verbs

...

83
9S '02

Peculiarities of Conjugation

Formation of the Verb Stems

.

80 Defective Verbs Impersonal Verbs

'04

Part
Adverbs
Prepositions
Interjections

III.

PARTICLES.
'°6

°7
108

Part IV.
WORD FORMATION.
I.

Derivatives.

Adverbs
109
iii
II.

IF4

Nouns
Verbs

...

....

Adjectives

Compounds.
. . .

113

Examples of Compounds

Part V.
SYNTAX.

CHAPTER
Form

I.

— Sentences.
.

CHAPTER
117

III.

— Syntax of
. .
.

Classification of Sentences

.117 .119

Adjectives.

of Interrogative Sentences
. . .

Agreement of Adjectives

153

Subject and Predicate

Adjectives used Substantively

.

154 156

Simple and Compound Sentences 119 Adjectives with the Force of Ad-

CHAPTER
Subject
Predicate

II.

— Syntax of A^ouns.
120

verbs

Comparatives and Superlatives

.

156 156

Other Peculiarities

Nouns

120
121

Appositives

CHAPTER

IV.

— Syntax of
«S7 "57
.

The Nominative The Accusative The Dative The Genitive The Ablative The Locative

122 122 129 134
14:2

Pronouns.
Personal Pronouns
Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns
.

158 159

Reciprocal Pronouns

152

Demonstrative Pronouns

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Relative Pronouns
Indefinite

vu
FACE

i6i

Conditional Clauses of Comparison

Pronouns

Pronominal Adjectives

....

163

203
.

164

Concessive Clauses
Adversative
Clauses

.

.

203

vfith

CHAPTER N.— Syntax
Agreement of Verbs
Voices
Tenses

Quapivls,

of Verbs.
etc.

Quamquam,
203

165

Clauses of Wish and Proviso 205
Relative Clauses
Indirect Discourse

167
167
Indicative

.... ....

205 206
206

Of the Of tlie Of the Moods

167
. . .

Moods

in

Indirect

Dis-

Subjunctive
Infinitive

.171
174 176

course

Tenses in
course

Indirect

Dis-

208
209
211

In Independent Sentences
Volitive Subjunctive
.

.

.

Optative Subjunctive
Potential Subjunctive

.

.

.

.

.176 .176 .178 .179
180
.

Conditional Sentences in
Indirect Discourse
. .

Implied Indirect Discourse
Subjunctive by Attraction

.

.

212 212
213 217 220 223

Imperative

Noun and Adjective Forms
Verb
Infinitive

of the

In Dependent Qauses . Clauses of Purpose Qauses of Characteristic
.

.

181

.

.181
.

1

82

Participles

Clauses of Result

.

.

.

.184
185

Gerund
Supine

Causal Clauses

Temporal Clauses 187 Introduced by Posiquam,
Ut, Ubi,etc.

.... ....
.
.

CHAPTER \l.— Particles.
Coordinate Conjunctions
.
. .

187 188

C«OT-Clauses

223

Introduced by Anteqtiam

Adverbs

227

and Priusq-uam
Introduced by
nee,

.190
191

Dum, Do-

CHAPTER Vn.—
and

Word- Order

Quoad

....
. .

Sentence- Structure.

Substantive Clauses

.

192 Word-Order
Sentence-Structure

227 232

Developed from the Volitive

192

Developed from the Optative

.......
dubito,
etc.
.
.

194
19s

CHAPTER Vlll.— Hints on
Latin
Style.

01 Result
After

non

195 Nouns
Adjectives

233 235 236

Introduced by

Quod
.

.

.196
.

Indirect Questions

.

197

Pronouns

Conditional Sentences

.

Use

ot

St.,

Nisi^ Sin

.

.

.198 Verbs 202 The Cases

236 238

via

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Part VI.
PROSODY.
PAGE
rAGB

Quantity of Vowels and Syllables

The 240 The
243

Dactylic Hexameter

.

.

Dactylic Pentameter

.

.

.245 .246
246

Verse-Structure

Iambic Measures

SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.
I.

II.

Roman Calendar Roman Names

....

247 249

I

III.

Figures of Syntax and Rhetoric

{

249

Index to the

Illustrative

Examples Cited

in the

Syntax

251

Index to the Principal Parts of Latin Verbs
General Index

259

,,....

263

INTRODUCTION.
THE LATIN LANGUAGE.
The Indo-European Family of Languages. Latin belongs one group of a large family of languages, known as IndoEuropean}- This Indo-European family of languages embraces the following groups
I.

to

:

&SIATIC
a.

MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN FAMHiT.
Of
this there

The Sanskrit, spoken in ancient India.
is

were

several stages, the oldest of which

the Vedic, or language of
oldest literary producof the

the Vedic
tions

Hymns. These Hymns are the known to us among all the branches

Indo-European

family.

A

conservative estimate places them as far back as

1500 B.C. Some scholars have even set them more than a thousand years earlier than this, i.e. anterior to 2500 B.C. The Sanskrit, in modified form, has always continued to be

spoken in India, and is represented to-day by a large number of dialects descended from the ancient Sanskrit, and spoken by
millions of people.

The Iranian, spoken in ancient Persia, and closely related There were two main branches of the Iranian group, viz. the Old Persian and the Avestan. The Old Persian was the official language of the court, and appears in a number of so-called cuneiform ^ inscriptions, the earliest of which date The other from the time of Darius I (sixth century B.C.). branch of the Iranian, the Avestan,^ is the language of the Avesta or sacred books of the Parsees, the followers of Zorob.

to the Sanskrit.

Sometimes also called Aryan or Indo- Germanic. Cuneiform means " wedge-shaped." The name applies Btrokes of which the characters consist.
1 2

to the

form of the

*

The name Zend

is

often given to this.

X
aster,

INTRODUCTION.
founder of the religion of the fire-worshippers.
Portions

of these sacred books

may have been composed

as early as

lOOO

B.C.
is

Modern Persian
speech.
larly

a living representative of the old Iranian

been much modified by time, particumany words from the Arabic. c. The Armenian, spoken in Armenia, the district near the Black Sea and Caucasus Mountains. This is closely related to the liranian, and was formerly classified under that group. It is
It has naturally

through the introduction of

now recognized
fourth

as entitled to independent rank.

The

earliesi

literary productions of the

Armenian language date from

the

and

fifth

centuries of the Christian era.

To

this period

belong the translation of the Scriptures and the old Armenian
Chronicle. The Armenian is still a living language, though spoken in widely separated districts, owing to the scattered locations in which the Armenians are found to-day.
d.

The Tokharian.
identified as

This language, only recently discovered

,

and

Indo-European, was spoken in the districts east of the Caspian Sea (modern Turkestan). While in some
respects closely related to the three Asiatic branches of the Indo-European family already considered, in others it shows
close relationship to the
literature of the
light,

European members

of the family.

The

Tokharian, so far as it has been brought to consists mainly of translations from the Sanskrit sacred

writings,

and dates from the seventh century of our

era.

EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN
FAMILY.
The Greek. The. Greeks had apparently long been settled e. in Greece and Asia Minor as far back as 1500 B.C. Probably
they arrived in these districts

much

earlier.

The

earliest literary

productions are the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, which very likely go back to the ninth century b.c. From the sixth century
B.C.

on,

Greek
its

literature is continuous.

we consider

Modern Greek, when
is

distance in time from antiquity,

remarkably

similar to the classical

Greek of the fourth and

fifth

centuries B.C.*

INTRODUCTION.

xi

Group. The Italic Group embraces the /. The Italic Umbrian, spoken in the northern part of the Italian peninsula (in ancient Umbria) the Latin, spoken in the central part (in Latium) the Oscan, spoken in the southern part (in Samnium, Campania, Lucania, etc.). Besides these, there were a number of minor dialects, such as the Marsian, Volscian, etc. Of all
;
;

these (barring the Latin), there are no remains except a few

scanty

inscriptions.

Latin

literature

begins

shortly

after

250
tus,

B.C. in

the works of Livius Andronicus, Naevius, and Plau-

although a few brief inscriptions are found belonging to a

mucii earlier period.

In the earliest historical times of which we g. The Celtic. have any record, the Celts occupied extensive portions of northern Italy, as well as certain areas in central Europe
British Isles.
;

but after

the second century e.g., they are found only in Gaul and the

Among the chief languages belonging to the group are the Gallic, spoken in ancient Gaul the Breton, still spoken in the modern French province of Brittany; the Irish, which is still extensively spoken in Ireland among the
Celtic
;

common
h.

people

;

the Welsh

;

and the Gaelic
is

of the Scotch

Highlanders.

The

Teutonic.

The Teutonic group

very extensive.

Its

earliest representative is the Gothic,

preserved for us in the
Ulfilas (about

translation of the scriptures

by the Gothic Bishop

375 A.D.). Other languages belonging to this group are the Old Norse, once spoken in Scandinavia, and from which are descended the modern Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish;

German
i.

Dutch modern English.
;

;

Anglo-Saxon, from which

is

descended the

The Balto-Slavic.

The languages

of this

eastern Europe.

The

Baltic division of the

group belong to group embraces the

Lithuanian and Lettic, spoken to-day by the people living on
the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

The

earliest literary pro-

ductions of these languages date from the sixteenth century.

The Slavic division comprises a large number of languages, the most important of which are the Russian, the Bulgarian, the

XU

INTRODUCTION.

All of these were late in Serbian, the Bohemian, the Polish. developing a literature, the earliest to do so being the Old BuK garian, in which we find a translation of the Bible dating from

the ninth century.

The Albanian, spoken in Albania and parts of Greece, Italy, and Sicily. This is most nearly related to the Balto-Slavic group, and is characterized by the very large proportion of words borrowed from Latin, Turkish, Greek, and Slavic. Its literature
j.

does not begin
2.

till

the seventeenth century.

Despite the many Indo-European Family. outward differences of the various languages of the foregoing groups, a careful examination of their structure and vocabulary demonstrates their intimate relationship and proves overwhelm-

Home
'

of the

ingly their descent from a
therefore, that at

common

parent.

We

must

believe

one time there existed a homogeneous clan or tribe of people speaking a language from which all the above enumerated languages are descended. The precise location of
the

be determined. For a was assumed that it was in central Asia north of the Himalaya Mountains, but this view has long been rejected as untenable. It arose from the exaggerated importance attached
of this ancient tribe cannot

home

long time

it

for a long while to Sanskrit.
literary

The

great antiquity of the earliest

remains of the Sanskrit (the Vedic

Hymns)
Hence

suggested

that the inhabitants of India were geographically close to the
original seat of the

was sought

the home To-day it is thought that central or southeastern Europe is much more likely to have been the cradle of the Indo-European parent-speech,
in the elevated plateau to the north.

Indo-European Family.

though anything like a logical demonstration of so problem can hardly be expected.

difficult a

As to the size and extent of the original tribe whence the Indo-European languages have sprung, we can only speculate. It probably was not large, and very likely formed a compact
racial

and

linguistic unit for centuries, possibly for

thousands

of years.

The time

at

which Indo-European unity ceased and the

vari-

INTRODUCTION.

Xiii

ous individual languages began their separate existence,
likewise shrouded in obscurity.

is

When we

consider that the

may antedate 2500 B.C., it be believed that people speaking the Indo-European parent-speech belonged to a period as far back as 5000 B.C.,
separate existence of the Sanskrit

may

well

or possibly earlier.
3.

Stages in the Development of the Latin Language.

— The

earliest

remains of the Latin language are found in certain very

archaic inscriptions.

The
B.C.

oldest of these belong to the sixth

and seventh centuries
till

Roman
viz.

literature

does not begin

several centuries later,

shortly after the middle of the

third

century

B.C.

We may

recognize the following clearly

marked periods of the language and literature a. The Preliterary Period, from the earliest times down

to

240 B.C., when Livius Andronicus brought out his first play. For this period our knowledge of Latin depends almost exclusively upon the scanty inscriptions that have survived from this

remote time. Few of these are of any length. The Archaic Period, from Livius Andronicus (240 B.C.) to b. Cicero (81 B.C.). Even in this age the language had already

become highly developed

as a

medium

of expression.

In the

hands of certain gifted writers it had even become a vehicle of In its simplicity, however, it naturally power and beauty. marks a contrast with the more finished diction of later days. To this period belong
Livius Andronicus, about 275-204 B.C. (Translation
of

Homer's Odyssey

;

Tragedies).

Plautus, about 250-184 B.C. (Comedies).

Naevius, about 270-199
dies).

B.C. ("

Punic

War "

;

Come-

Ennius, 239-169

B.C. ("

Annals "
B.C.

;

Tragedies).

Terence, about 190-159
Pacuvius, 220-about 130

(Comedies).
(Tragedies).

Lucilius, 180-103 ^-C- (Satires).
B.C.

Accius, i7o-about85

b.c.

(Tragedies).

XIV
c.

INTRODUCTION.
The Golden Age, from Cicero (8i
A.D.).

gustus (14

b.c.) to the death of AuIn this period the language, especially in the
stylistic perfection,!
its

hands of Cicero, reaches a high degree of
Its vocabulary,

however, has not yet attained

greatest

full-

Traces of the diction of the Archaic Period are often noticed, especially in the poets, who naturally sought their effects by reverting to the speech of olden times. Literature reached
its

ness and range.

culmination in this epoch, especially in the

great poets of the Augustan Age.

The

following writers belong

here:
Lucretius, about

95-55

B.C.

(Poem on Epicurean

Philosophy).
Catullus, 87-about 54 B.C. (Poet). Cicero, 106-43 ^.c. (Orations Rhetorical
;

Works

Philosophical

Works

;

Letters).

Caesar, 102-44 B.C. (Commentaries on Gallic and
Civil Wars).
Sallust, 86-36 B.C. (Historian). Nepos, about loo-about 30 b.c. (Historian). Virgil, 70-19 B.C. ("Aeneid"; "Georgics"; "Bu-

colics ").

Horace, 65-8

B.C.

(Odes

;

Satires

;

Epistles),

Tibullus, about 54-19 B.C. (Poet).

Propertius, about 50-about 15 b.c (Poet). Ovid, 43 B.C.-17 A.D. ("Metamorphoses" and other poems).

Livy, 59 B.C.-17 a.d. (Historian).
d.

The Silver

Latinity,

to the death of

from the death of Augustus (14 a.d.) Marcus Aurelius (180 a.d.). This period is

marked by a

certain reaction against the excessive precision of

the previous age.

It had become the practice to pay too much attention to standardized forms of expression, and to leave too little play to the individual writer. In the healthy reaction against this formalism, greater freedom of expression now mani-

fests itself.

We

note also the introduction of idioms from the

INTRODUCTION.
colloquial language, along with

XV
usages.

many poetical words and

The

following authors deserve mention

Phaedrus, flourished about 40 a.d. (Fables in Verse)
Velleius Paterculus, flourished about 30 a.d. (Historian).

Lucan, 39-65 a.d. (Poem on the Civil War). Seneca, about 1-65 a.d. (Tragedies Philosophical Works).
;

Pliny the Elder, 23-79 a.d. (" Natural History"). Pliny the Younger, 62-about 115 a.d. ("Letters ").
Martial, about 45-about 104 a.d. (Epigrams).
Quintilian, about 3S-about 100 a.d. (Treatise on Oratory and Education).

Tacitus, about 5s-abont 118 a.d. (Historian).

Juvenal, about 55-about 135 a.d. (Satirist). Suetonius, about 75-about 150 a.d. ("Lives of the

Twelve Caesars

").

Minucius Felix, flourished
Christian Apologist).

about 160 a.d. (First

Apuleius, i2S-about 200 " Golden Ass ").
e.

B.C. ("

Metamorphoses," or

TTie

Archaizing Period.

This period

is

characterized by a

conscious imitation of the Archaic Period of the second and
first

centuries B.C.

;

it

overlaps the preceding period, and

is

of importance from a linguistic rather than from a literary point oi
view.

Of

writers

conspicuously

who manifest the archaizing tendency most may be mentioned Fronto, from whose hand we
letters

have a collection of

addressed to the Emperors Antoninus

Pius and Marcus Aurelius; also Aulus Gellius, author of the " Attic Nights." Both of these writers flourished in the second

second century a.d. The Period of the Decline, from 180 to the close of literary This period is characterized activity in the sixth century a.d.
half of the
/.

by rapid and radical
of the conversational

alterations in the language.

The

features

idiom of the lower strata of society invade

xvi

INTRODUCTION.

the literature, while in the remote provinces, such as Gaul, Spain, Africa, the language suffers from the incorporation of
local peculiarities.

Representative writers of this period are

:

TertuUian,
Writer).

about

i6o-about

240

a.d.

(Christian

Cyprian, about 200-258 a.d. (Christian Writer). Lactantius, flourished about 300 a.d. (Defense of
Christianity).

Ausonius,

about 310-about

395 a.d. (Poet).

]

Jerome, 340-420 a.d. (Translator of the Scriptures). Ambrose, about 340-397 (Christian Father).
Augustine, 354-430 (Christian Father

;

— "City

of

God ").
Prudentius, flourished 400 a.d. (Christian Poet).

Claudian, flourished 400 a.d. (Poet).
Boethius, about 480-524 a.d. (" Consolation of Phi-

losophy
4.

").

Subsequent History

of

the Latin Language.

— After

the

sixth

century a.d. Latin divides into two entirely different

streams.

One

of these

is

the literary language maintained in
scholars.

courts, in the Chur.ch,

and among

the language of people in general,

This was no longer and as time went on, became
is

more and more
idiom of the

artificial.

The

other stream

the colloquial

common

people, which developed ultimately in the

provinces into the modern so-called
in

Romance

idioms.

These

are the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Provencal (spoken

Provence,

i.e.

southeastern

France), the

(spoken in the Canton of the Grisons

in Switzerland),

Rhaeto-Romance and the

Roumanian, spoken
All these

in modern Roumania and adjacent districts. Romance languages bear the same relation to the

Latin as the different groups of the Indo-European family of languages bear to the parent-speech.

ART

I.

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.

THE ALPHABET.
1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English, except that the Latin has no w.
1.

K occurs only in Kalendae and a few other words

;

y and

z were

introduced from the Greek about 50 B.C., and occur only in foreign

words
2.

chiefly Greek.

employed only capitals, I served For us, however, it is more convenient to distinguish the vowel and consonant sounds, and to write Yet some scholars prefer i and u for the former, j and v for the latter. to employ i and u in the function of consonants as well as vowels.

With

the

Romans, who

regularly

both as vowel and consonant; so also V.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS.
2.
I.

are Consonants.
2.

The Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. The The Diphthongs are ae, oe,
are
further

other letters
ei,

au, eu, ui.

Consonants

subdivided

into

Mutes,

Liquids, Nasals,
3.

and Spirants.
are p,
t, o,

The Mutes

these,

k, q; b, d, g; ph, th, oh.

Of

d) p,

t, c,

k,

q

are voiceless,*

i.e.

sounded without voice or vibra-

tion of the vocal cords.
b) b, d, cords.
'

g are

voiced,'' i.e.

sounded with vibration of the vocal

2

For For

'

voiceless,'

'

surd,'

'

hard," or
soft,'
'

'

tenuis
'

'

are sometimes used.

'

voiced,'

'

sonant,'

'

or media are sometimes used.

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.
c)

ph, th, ch are aspirates.
sively to

These are confined almost

exclu-'

words derived fi-om the Greek, and were equivalent to p + h, t + h, o + h, i.e. to the corresponding voiceless: mutes with a following breath, as in Eng. loop-hole, hot-house^
block-house.

4.

The Mutes admit
Labials,

of classification also as
p, b, ph.
t,

Dentals (or Linguals),
Gutturals (or Palatals),
5.

d, th.

c, k, q, g,

ch.

6.
its

The Liquids are 1, r. These sounds were voiced. The Nasals are m, n. These were voiced. Besides ordinary sound, n, when followed by a guttural mute

had another sound, called n adultennum ; as,
also

— that —

of ng in sing,

— the

so-

anceps, double, pronounced angceps.
7.

The

Spirants (sgmetimes called Fricatives) are

f, s,

h.

These were voiceless. 8. The Semivowels are j and v. These were voiced. 9. Double Consonants are x and z. Of these, x was
equivalent to
cs,

while the equivalence of z

is

uncertain.

See

§ 3. 3.

10.

The following
:

consonant sounds

table will indicate the relations of the

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS.
3.

The

following pronunciation (often called

Roman)

is

substantially that
of their
1.

employed by the Romans at the height civilization i.e. roughly, from 50 B.C. to 50 a.d.
;

Vowels.
ia.

as

father

5
i

as in the

first

syllable of

aM

as in ihey as in

g as in mei
as in pin 8 as in oiey, melody ; ti as input;

machine;
.

as in note

as in rude;
like

French

u,

German

ii.

2.

Diphthongs.
ai in aisie
;

ae

like

eu with

oe
ei

like oi in oil;

its two elements, S and fi, pronounced in rapid succession

as in rein
like

ui occurs almost exclusively in cui

au
I

ow

in

how;

and huic. These words may be pronounced as though written kwee and wheek.

3.

Consonants.
f,

d,

h, k,

1,

m,

s, p,

qu

are pronounced as in English, except that

bs, bt are pronounced ps, pt.
is is

always pronounced as k. always a plain
/,

never with the sound of sh as in Eng. oration.
vowel,

always as in get ;

when ngu precedes a
languidus.

gu has

the sound of

gzv, as in anguis,

has the sound of jy as in yei.

was probably

slightly trilled with the tip of the tongue,

; in suadeo, suavis, suesco, and in compounds and derivatives of these words, su has the sound oisw. like w. always like ks ; never like Eng. gz or z. uncertain in sound possibly like Eng, zd^ possibly like z. The latter sound is recommended. The aspirates ph, oh, th were pronounced very nearly like our stressed

always voiceless as in sin

;

Eng./,
sounds

c, t

— so

nearly so, that, for practical purposes, the latter

suffice.

(Doubled

letters, like 11, mm, tt, etc., should be so pronounced that both members of the combination are distinctly articulated.

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.
SYLLABLES.
4.

There are as

many

syllables in a Latin

word as

there

are separate vowels and diphthongs.

In the division of words into syllables, 1. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel;
ge-iit, pe-rit, a-dest.
2.

as, vo-lat,

Doubled consonants,

like tt, ss, etc., are

always separated;

as,

vit-ta, mis-sus.

Other combinations of two or more consonants are regularly^ and the first consonant of the combination is joined with the preceding vowel as, ma-gis-tri, dig-nus, mon-strum, sis-te-re.
3.

separated,

;

4.

An

exception to Rule 3 occurs
1

when
;

the two consonants consisf
etc.').

of a mute followed by

or r (pi, ol, tl

pr, or, tr,

In such cases
;

both consonants are regularly joined to the following vowel
vo-lu-oris, pa-tris, ma-tris.

as, a-gri,

Yet if the 1 or r introduces the second parf of a compound, the two consonants are separated as, ab-rumpo,
;

ad-latus.
5.

The double consonant x

is

joined to the preceding vowel

;

as,

ax-iB, tex-i.

QUANTITY.
5.

A.

Quantity of Vowels.
is

A vowel
its

long ox short according to the length of time required

for

pronunciation

No
;

absolute rule can be given for determining the

quantity of Latin vowels.

measure, by experience
1.

This knowledge must be gained, in but the following principles are of aid
:

large

A To-wel is long,i —
a) before nf or ns;
as,

infans, inferior,

consumo,
for

censeo,

insum.
h)
2.

A vowel is short, —
a) before nt,
in
;

when the

result of contraction

;

as,

nilum

nihilum.

nd as, amant, amandus. A few exceptions occui compounds whose first member has a long vowel as, non dura (non dum).
;

b) before another vowel, or

h

;

tions occur, chiefly in proper
as,
1

meus, traho. Some excep names derived from the Greek
as,

Aeneas.

In this book, long vowels are indicated by a horizontal line above tliem; as Vowels not thus marked are short. Occasionally a curve is set abovi short vowels ; as, S, ti.
a,
i,

0, etc.

ACCENT.
B.

Quantity of Syllables.

Syllables are distinguished as long or short according to the length

of time required for their pronunciation.
1.

A syllable is long, —
i

a)
b)

if it
if it

contains a long vowel

;

as,

mater, r§gnum, dius.

contains a diphthong; as, causae, foedus.

c) if

2.

A

it contains a short vowel followed by x, z, or any two consonants (except a mute with 1 or r) as, axis, gaza, resto. syllable is short, if it contains a short vowel followed by a
; ;

as, mea, amat. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, viz. when its vowel is short and is followed by a mute with 1 or r, i.e. by pi, ol, tl pr, or, tr, etc. ; as, Sgri, voliioria.^ Such syllables are called common. In prose they were regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as

vowel or by a single consonant
3.

;

long at the option of the poet.

artificial,

and short' are not arbitrary and Thus, a syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, as ng, is long, because such a sylwhile a syllable conlable requires more time for its pronunciation taining a short vowel followed by one consonant is short, because it

Note.

— These

distinctions of long

but are purely natural.

;

takes less time to pronounce

it.

In case of the

common

syllables,

the mute

and the liquid blend so easily as to produce a combination Yet by sepawhich takes no more time than a single consonant.
two elements (as ag-ri) the poets were able to use such
syllables as long.

rating the

ACCENT.
6.
I
.

Words

of two syllables are accented

upon the

first

;

as, t^git,

morem. 2. Words

(next to the last)

of more than two syllables are accented upon the penult if that is a long syllable, otherwise upon the ante;

penult (second from the last)
3.

as,

When

the enclitics -que, -ne, -ve, -ce, -met,

amSvi, amdntis, miserum. -dum are appended
;

to words, if the syllable preceding the enclitic is long (either originally
it is accented as, miserdque, hominlsque. But if the syllable still remains short after the enclitic has been added, it is not accented unless the word originally took the accent on the antepenult. Thus, pdrtaque but miserdque.

or as a result of adding the enclitic)

;

1

To
But

avoid confusioni the quantity of syllables
if

is

not indicated by any sign.

2

the 1 or

r introduces
;

the second part of a

compound, the preceding

syllable is always long

as,

abrumpo.

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.
4.

Sometimes the
;

final -e of
as,

-ne and -oe disappears, but withoul

affecting the accent

tanton, istfo, illno. most, -que is not properly an 5. In utr^que, each, and pierSque, the influence enclitic; yet these words accent the penult, owing to ut^rque, utrdrnque, plerdmque. ot their oib=.r cases,

VOWEL CHANGES.i
^

7.

I

.

In Compounds,


i
;

a) 6 before a single consonant becomes

as,

coUigo
adigo
c)

for

con-lego.

U) a before a single consonant
for

becomes

1

;

as,

ad-ago.
;

S before two consonants becomes B for ez-pars. ezpers
;

as,

d) ae becomes T as, conquiro
e)


for

oon-quaero.
;

au becomes u, sometimes as, concludo for con-claudo explodo for ez-plaudo.

2. Contraction. Concurrent vowels were frequently contracted into one long vowel. The first of the two vowels regularly prevailed as,—
;

tres

for tre-es for

malo
amSsti

nia(v)elo;

copia cogo

for
for

co-opia co-ago;

for ania(v)isti; for

como

for

co-emo;

debeo

de(h)abe6;

junior for ju(v)enior.

ml
3.

for nihil;

Parasitic Vo-wels.

In the environment of liquids and nasals
;

a

parasitic

vowel sometimes develops

as,

vinculum
So periculum, saeculum.
4.

for earlier

vinclum.

Syncope.

Sometimes a vowel drops out by syncope
for aridor
for

;

as,

ardor valde
I

(compare aridus) valide (compare validus)

;

Only the simplest and most obvious of these are here

treated.

PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.

7

CONSONANT CHANGES.i
8.
I.

Rhotaoism.

An

original s

between vowels became r
;

;

as,

arbos, Gen. arboris (for arbosis) genus, Gen. generis (for genesis)

;

dirimo
2.

(for

dis-emo)
;

.

dt, tt, ts each give e or sg

as,

penaum for pend-tum versum for vert-tum
,

miles sessus passus

for milet-s for
for

sedtus
pattus.
;

3.

Final consonants were often omitted

a.s,

cor
lac
4.

for

cord

for laot.

Assimilation of Consonants. Consonants are often assimilated following sound. aoourro (ado-) Thus aggero (adg-) allatus (adl-) assero (ads-) apporto (adp-) attuli (adt-) arrideo (adr-) affero (adf-) ocourro (obo-) suppono (aubp-) offero (obf-) oorruo (comr-) coUatus (00ml-) etc.
to

a

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

5.

Partial Assimilation.

partial.

Thus

:

Sometimes the
,

assimilation

is

only

a)

b

before s or t becomes

p
;

;

as,

scripsi (scrib-si),
b)

scriptum (scrib-tum).
as,

g before s or t becomes c actus (ag-tus).

c)

m before a dental or guttural becomes n
eundem (eum-dem)
;

;

as,

princeps (prim-ceps).

PECULIARITIES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.
9.
I.

Many words have

variable orthography.

Sometimes the different forms belong to different periods of the language. Thus, quom, voltus, volnus, volt, etc., were the prevaili

Only the simplest and most obvious of these are here

treated.

8

SOUNDS, ACCENT, QUANTITY.
after that, cum, vultus,; to the Augustan age So optumus, maxumus, lubet, lubido, etc., about the same era later, optimus, mazimus, libet, libido,

ing forms almost

down

;

vulnus, vult,

etc.

down
etc.

to

;

2.

of the language.
epistula,

In some words the orthography varies at one and the same period Examples are ezspecto, ezpecto ezsisto, existo
;

epistola;

adul§scens, adolescens;
to the

paulus,
as,

paullus;

oottldie, cotidie; and, particularly, prepositional compounds, which
often

made a concession
ad-gero
ad-licio

etymology in the spelling

;

or aggero or allicio

ad-sero
in-latus

or assero or illatua

ad-rogans or arrogans sub-raoveo or and many others.
3.

summoveo

;

Compounds
etc.,

obicio,
objicio,
4.

of jaciS were usually written eicio, deicio, adicio, but were probably pronounced as though written adjicio,

etc.

Adjectives and nouns in -quus,

-unm

preserved the earlier forms in -quos,

-quum; -vus, -vum; -uuB, -quom; -vos, -vomas,

-uos, -uom,
;

down through
;

the Ciceronian age;
;

antiques, anti-

quom saevos

perpetuos

equos

;

servos.

Similarly verjjs in

the 3d plural present indicative exhibit the terminations -quont, -quontur; -vont, -vontur -uont, -uontur, for the same period;
;

as,

relinqnont, loquontur

;

vTvont, metuont.
in our prose texts.

The

older spelling, while generally followed in editions of Plautus

and Terence, has not yet been adopted

ART

II.

INFLECTIONS.
Speech in Latin are the same as Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections; but the Latin has no article. 11. Of these eight parts of speech the first four are capable of Inflection, i.e. of undergoing change of form to express modifications of meaning. In case of Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns, this prbcess is called Declen10.

The

Parts of
viz.

in

English,

sion; in case of verbs, Conjugation.

Chapter
A.
12.

I.

— Declension.
of

NOUNS.
a person, place, thing, or

A

Noun

is

the

name

quality; as, Caesar, Caesar; 'Roma.,
virtus, courage.
1

Rome ;

-p&ana.,

feather

Nouns

are either Proper or

Common.
;

nent names of persons or places are Common; as, penna, virtus.
2.

as,

Proper nouns are permaCaesar, Roma. Other nouns

Nouns

are also distinguished as Concrete or Abstract.

a) Concrete nouns are those which designate individual objects ss, laoas, mountain ; pea, foot; CtiBa, day ; vasna, mind.
9

lO

INFLECTIONS.
Under concrete nouns
as, legio, legion
;

are included, also, collective nouns;

oomitatus, retinue.
as,

V) Abstract

nouns designate qualities; fastness; paupertas, poverty.

constantia,

stead,

GENDER OF NOUNS.
Masculine, Feminine, There are three Genders, and Neuter. Gender in Latin is either natural or gram13.

matical.

Natural Gender.
14.

The gender
sex.
;

of

nouns

is

natural

when

it is

based

upon

Natural gender

of persons
1.

and these are
if


;

is

confined entirely to names

Masculine,

they denote males
sailor

;

as,


aa-riXa.,

asiicola., farmer.
;

2.

Feminine,

if

they denote females

as,

mater, tnother ; regina, queen.

Grammatical Gender.
15.. Grammg.tical gender is determined not by sex, but by the general signification of the word, or the ending of By grammatical gender, nouns its Nominative Singular.

denoting things or qualities are often Masculine or Feminine, simply

by virtue

of their signification or the ending;

of the Nominative Singular.
eral principles for determining

The

following are the gen:

grammatical gender
Signification.

A.
1.

Gender determined by

Names

of Rivers,

Winds, and Months are Mascu-

line; as,

Sequana, Seine; Eurus,
2.

east

wind; Aprilis, April.

Names

of

Trees,
-us,

and such names of Towns and
are Feminine; as,
Corinth; Rho&\xB, Rhodes.

Islands as end in
quercus,

ofl^j Corinttaua,

NUMBER. — CASES.
Other names of towns and islands follow the gender of
(see B, below)
;

1

as,


;

their endings

Delphi, m.
3.

Leuctra,

n.

;

Tibur,

n.

;

Carthago,

f.

Indeclinable nouns, also infinitives and phrases, are
as,
nihil, nothing; nefas,

Neuter;

wrong ; amSre,

to love.
as,

Note.
river)
,

— Exceptions to the

above principles sometimes occur;

AlUa

(the

f.

B.

Gender determined by Ending of Nominative Singular.
of other

The gender
Note

nouns

is

determined by the ending

of the Nominative Singular.'
i Comtnon Gender. Certain nouns are sometimes IMascusometimes Feminine. Thus, sacerdos may mean either priest or priestess, and is Masculine or Feminine accordingly. So also oivis, citizen ; parens, parent ; etc. The gender of such nouns is said to be commxm.
.

line,

Note 2. —Names of animals usually have grammatical gender, according to the ending of the Nominative Singular, but the one form
may
der.

designate either the male or female

;

as,

anser, m., goose or gan-

So vulpes, f.,/ox; aquila,

f.,

eagle.

NUMBER.
The Latin has two Numbers, — the Singular and Plural. The Singular denotes one object; the Plural,
16.

more than one.
CASES.
17.

There are

six

Cases in Latin
Objective with

:


or Possessive

Nominative, Case of Subject
Genitive, Dative,
of,

Objective with /a or /or;

Accusative, Case of Direct Object Vocative, Case of Address Ablative, Objective with by, from,
1

in, with.

The

ciples for

all Latin nouns come under this category. The prindetermining their gender are given under the separate declensions.

great majority of

12
1.

INFLECTIONS.
Locative.

place where), occur in

Vestiges of another case, the Locative (denoting' names of towns and in a few other words. The Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Abla2. Oblique Cases.

tive are called
3.

Oblique Cases.

The different cases are formed by appending certain case-endings to a fundamental part called the Stem.^ Thus, portam (Accusative Singular) is formed by adding But in most cases the final the case-ending -m to the stem porta-.

Stem and Case-Endings.

vowel of the stem has coalesced so closely with the actual case-ending The apparent casethat the latter has become more or less obscured.

ending thus resulting

is

called a

termination.

THE FIVE DECLENSIONS.
18. There are five Declensions in Latin, distinguished from each other by the final letter of the Stem, and also by the Termination of the Genitive Singular, as follows
:

Declension.

FIRST DECLENSION. FIRST DECLENSION.
a-Stema.

13

Pure Latin nouns of the First Declension reguNominative Singular, in -a, weakened from -a, and are of the Feminine Gender. They are
20.

larly

end, in the

declined as follows

:

Porta, gate ; stem, porta-.

14
c)

INFLECTIONS.
The
as,

Locative Singular ends in -ae
Plural in

;

as,

Romae,

at Rome.

d)

A Genitive
tion

-um instead

Dardanidum instead -um is not a contraction

-arum sometimes occurs; of Dardanidarum. This terminal
of of -arum, but represents an

entirely different case-ending.
e)

Instead of the regular ending
in the Dative

-is,

we

usually find -abua
filia,

and Ablative Plural of dea, goddess, and

important to distinguish these nouns from the corresponding forms of deus, god, and fil us, son. A few other words sometimes have the same peculiaritv as, libertabus (from ITberta, freedwoman), equabus
it is

daughter, especially

when

(mares), to avoid confusion wiih libertis (from libertus, freedmati) and equis (from equus, horse).

Greek Nouns.
22.

These end

in -e

(Feminine)

;

-as

and -es (Masculine).

In the Plural they are declined like regular Latin nouns of the First Declension. In the Singular they are declined
as follows
:

Archias, Archias.

Epitome, epitome.
epitome
epitomes

Cometes,

comet.

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

Archias

Archiae Archiae
Archia
Archia

epitomae
epitome epitome

Archiam (or -an) epitomen

Abl.

cometes cometae cometae cometen comete (or -5) comete (or -a)

1. But most Greek nouns in -e become regular Latin nouns in -a, and are declined like porta; as, grammatioa, grammar; musioa,

music ; rhetorica, rhetoric.
2.

Some

other peculiarities occur, especially in poetry.

SECOND DECLENSION.
Systems.

Pure Latin nouns of the Second Declension end in -us, -er, -ir, Masculine; -um, Neuter. Originally -us in the Nominative of the Masculine was -os; and -um of the Neuters -cm. So also in the Accusative.
23.

SECOND DECLENSION.
Nouns
in-us

IS
-

and -um are declined as follows Bellum, war Hortus, garden
stem, hortfi-.

:

stem, bellfi-.

i6

INFLECTIONS.
is

In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of ager, the stem

furthei

modified by the development of e before r. 2. The following nouns in -er are declined like
adulterer; ^ene^x, son-in-law; lAhei, Bacchus
;

puer

:

adulter,

socer, father^n-law;

vesper, evening; and compounds in -fer and -ger, as aignifer, armiger.

Nouns
24.
earlier

in -VHS',

-rnm, -quus.

Nouns ending

in

the Nominative Singular in -vus, -vum,

-quus, exhibited two types of inflection in the classical Latin, and a later, as follows

:

— an

Earlier Inflection (including Caesar

and

Cicero')

.

Servos,

m., slave.

Aevom,

n., age.

Equos,

m., horse.

SINGULAR.

Nom.

SECOND DECLENSION.
Nom. ingenium
Gen.
filius
fill

V]

ing^ni
penult, even

These Genitives accent the
3.

when

it is

short.
;

FQiua forms
I

tlie

Vocative Singular in

-i

(for -ie)

viz. fill,

O

son
4.

Deus, god,
:

as follows

lacks the Vocative Singular.

The

Plural

is

inflected

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

di

("Isi)

deoTum
dis

(deum)
(deis)
(^ei)

deos
di
dis
(deis)
-i; as,

AM.
5.

6.

The The

Locative Singular ends in

Corinthi, at Corinth.

Genitive Plural has -um, instead of -orutn,

a) in words denoting
talents; laodiara,
d) in
c)

money and measure
of pecks
;
;

;

as,

talentum, of

sestertinm, 0/ sesterces.

duumvir, triumvir, decemvir as, duumvirum. sometimes in other words as, liberum, 0/ the children
;

socium, of the

allies.

Exceptions to Gender in the Second Declension.
26.
I
.

a)

The following nouns in -us are Feminine by exception according to the general Names of to-wns, islands, trees also some names of countries; as rule laid down in § 15. 2
:

;

Aegyptus, Egypt.
V)

Five special words,

alvus, belly;

carbasus, y?aa-;
colus, distaff;

humus, ground;
vannus, ivinnowing-fan.
c)

A few

Greek Feminines

;

as,

^
:

atomus, atom; diphthongus, diphthong.
2.

The

following nouns in -us are Neuter

pelagus, sea
virus, poison

vulgus, crowd.

I8

INFLECTIONS.
Greek Nouns
of the

Second Declension.

27.
-on,

These end

Neuter.

Masculine or Feminine; and They are mainly proper names, and are dein -os, -oa,
:

clined as follows

Barbitos, m. and

f.,

THIRD DECLENSION.
2.

19

Consonant-Stems

fall

into several natural subdivisions, according

as the stem ends in a

Mute, Liquid, Nasal,
A. Mute-Stems.

or Spirant.

30.
1.

Mute-Stems may end,


; ;

In a Labial (p) ; as, princep-s. dux (duc-s). 2. In a Guttural (g or c) as, remez (remeg-s) mileB (milet-s). as, lapis (lapid-s) 3. In a Dental (d or t)
; ;

I.

Stems in a Labial Mute (p).
chief.

31.

Princeps, m.,

SINGULAR.
Tekminatioh.

Nbm.
Gen. Dot.
Ace.
Voc.

princeps
principis

-s
-is
-1

principi

principem
princeps
principe

-em
-s

AM.

-e

PLURAL.
JVom. prlncipes
-es

GeM.

principum
prlncipibus
principes
principes

-um
-ibus
-es

Dai.
Ace.
yoc.

-es

Adl.
2.

prlncipibus

-ibus
(g, c).

Stems in a Guttural Mute

32.

In

these the termination -s of the

Nominative Singular unites

with the guttural, thus producing -x.

Remex,
singular.

m., rower.

Dux, c,

leader.

20
3.

INFLECTIONS.
Stems in a Dental
final

Mute

(d, t).

33.
live

In these the

d

or t of the stem disappears in the
-s.

Nomina

Singular before the ending

Lapis, m., stone.

Miles, m.,

soldier.

THIRD DECLENSION.
C.

21

Nasal Stems.
in the

35.

These end

in -n,i

which often disappears

Nom.

Sing.

Leo, m.,
SINGULAR.

lion.

Nomeu,

n.,

name

22

INFLECTIONS.
II.

i-Stems.
1-Stems.

A. Masculine and Feminine
37.

These regularly end in -is in the Nominative Singuand always have -ium in the Genitive Plural. Originally the Accusative Singular ended in -im, the Ablative Singular but these endings in -1, and the Accusative Plural in -is have been largely displaced by -em, -e, and -es, the endlar,
;

ings of Consonant-Stems.
38.

Tussis,

f.,

cough; Ignis, ra.,fire; Hostis, c, enemy;
stem, igni-.

stem, tussi-.

stem, hosti-.

SINGULAR.

THIRD DECLENSION.
2.

23

Not

all

nouns in

-is

are i-Stems.

Some

are genuine consonant-

stems, and have the regular consonant terminations throughout, notably, canis,
3.

dog;

\\3i^6Tx\s,

youths
disguised in the Nominative

Some genuine i-Stems have become

Singular; as, pars, part, for par(ti)s; anas, diick, for ana(ti)s; so
also
ars, art; gens, tribe;

mors, death; dos, dowry ; nox, night; sors, and some others.
B. Neuter \-Stems.

lot; inSns,

mind;

39.
-ar.

These end

in the

Nominative Singular
-i

in

-e, -al,

and
in

They always have

in the Ablative Singular,

-ia

the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural, and-ium
in the Genitive Plural, thus holding

i-character than
Sedile, seat
;

more steadfastly to the do MascuUne and Feminine i-Stems.
Animal, animal;
stem, animali-.

Calcar, spur
stem, oalcari-

stem, sedili-.

H
III.

INFLECTIONS.
Consonant-Stems that have partially adapted themselves
to the Inflection of J-Stems.

40.

Many Consonant-Stems have
-Is

so far adapted them-t

selves to the inflection of i-stems as to take -ium in the

Genitive Plural, and

in the Accusative Plural.
is,

Their

by the fact that they never take -im in the Accusative Singular, or -1 in the Ablative Singular. The following words

true character as Consonant-Stems, however,

shown

are examples of this class
Caedes,
f.,

:

slaughter

THIRD DECLENSION.

25

26

INFLECTIONS.

THIRD DECLENSION.
h.

27

Neuter
udder.

:

cadaver, corpse ;

iter,

way ; tuber, tumor ; Gber,
;

Also botanical names in -er

as,

aoer, maple.

5.

Nouns
a.

in -6s.
:

Feminine

seges, crop.

45.
1.

Szceptions to the Rule for Feminines. Nouns
a.
b.

in -as.
:

Masculine vas, bondsman. Neuter vas, vessel.
:

2.

Nouns
a.

in -es.

Masculine: axiea,
in -is.

ram;

paries, wall ; p^a,/aoi.

3.

Nouns
a.

Masculine:
Ignis,

Also

all nouns in -nis and -guis; as, amnis, river; ^re; panis, bread; sanguis, blood; unguis, nail.

aads, axle.
collis,
hill.

piscis, fish.

postis, post.

fasois, bundle.

pulvis, dust.
orbis,
circle.

lapis, stone.

mensis, mr>nth.
4.

sentis, brier.

Nouns
a.

in -x.

Masculine: apex, peak; codes:, tree-trunk; grex, flock; imbrex, tile ; poUex, thumb ; vertex, summit ; calix, cup.
in -s preceded
:

J.

Nouns
a.

Masculine

by a consonant. dens, tooth ; f ons, fountain ; mons, mountain

pons, bridge.
6.

Nouns
a.

in -d5.
:

Masculine

cardo, hinge ; ordo, order,

46.
1.

Exceptions to the Rule for Neuters.

Nouns
a.

in -1.
:

Masculine
in -n.

sol,

sun ;

sal, salt.

2.

Nouns
a.

Masculine
in -ur.

:

pecten, comb.

3.

Nouns
a.

Masculine:
in -fis.
:

vvW.Vi.r,

vulture

4.

Nouns
a.

Masculine

lepus, hare.

28

INFLECTIONS.
Greek Nouns of the Third Declension.

47.
1

The

following are the chief peculiarities of these
the Accusative Singular
;

:

The ending -a in Salamma, Salamis. 2. The ending -Ss
Phrygians.
3

as,

aethera, aether-^

in

the

Nominative
Accusative

Plural;

as,

PhrygSs,

The ending

-Ss

in

the

Plural

;

as,

PhrygSs,
Vocatives!

Phrygians.
4.

Proper names in -as (Genitive -antis) have -a in the
Neuters in

Singular; as, Atlas (Atlantis), Vocative Atla, Atlas.
J.

-ma

(Genitive -matis) have -is instead of -ibus
;

In

poematis, poems. 6. Orpheus, and other proper names ending in -eus, form the Vocative Singular in -eu (Orpheu, etc.). But in prose the other cases usually follow the second declension as, Orphei, Orpheo, etc. 7. Proper names in -es, like Pericles, form the Genitive Singular sometimes in -is, sometimes in -1, as, Periclis or Pericli. 8. Feminine proper names in -o have -us in the Genitive, but -5
the Dative and Ablative Plural
as,
;

in the other oblique cases; as,

Nom. Dido
Gen.

Ace. Dido
Voc.

Dldus

Dat.
9.

Dido

Abl.

Did5 Dido

The

regular Latin endings often occur in

Greek nouns.

FOURTH DECLENSION.
a-Stems.
48.
line,

Nouns
and

of the Fourth Declension

end

in -us
:

Mascu

-u Neuter.

They

are declined as follows

FOURTH DECLENSION. — FIFTH DECLENSION.
Peculiarities of

29

Nouns

of the

Fourth Declension.
the

49.

I-

Nouns

in -us, particularly in early Latin, often form
-1,

Genitive Singular in

following the analogy of nouns in -us of the

Second Declension; Plautus and Terence.
2.

as,

senati, ornati.

This

is

usually the case in

Nouns
as,

in -us

sometimes have -u in the Dative Singular, instead
instead of -ibus, occurs in the Dative and

of-ul;
3.

fruotu

(for fructui).

The ending -ubus,
-cus
;

Ablative Plural of artus (Plural), limbs;
syllables in
as,

tribus, tribe; and in dis-

artubus, tribubus, arcubus, lacubus. But with the exception of tribus, all these words admit the forms in -ibus as well as thoseln -ubus. 4. Domus, ho7ise, is declined according to the Fourth Declension,
but has also the following forms of the Second
:

domi

(locative), at

home

domum,

homewards,

to one's

home

douLO, /ro7fi home;
;.

domos, homewards, to their {etc.) homes

The
;

horn

genu, knee

only Neuters of this declension in ; and veru, spit.

common

use are

:

oornu,

Exceptions to Gender in the Fourth Declension.
50. The following nouns in -us are Feminine: acus, needle; domus, house; mauus, hand; porticus, colonnade; tribus, tribe;

Idus

(Plural), Ides; also

names of

trees (§ 15. 2).

FIFTH DECLENSION.
e-Stems.
51.

Nouns

of the Fifth Declension
:

declined as follows

end

in -Ss,

and are

Dies, m., day.

SINGULAR.

30
Peculiarities of
52.
I.

INFLECTIONS.
Nouns
of the Fifth Declension.
is -gi,

The ending
when

of the Genitive and Dative Singular
;

instead of -ei,

a consonant precedes

as, sp6i, rgi, fidSi.

2. A Genitive ending -i (for -Si) is found in plebi (from plebes = plebs) in the expressions tribiinus plebi, tribune of the people, and plebi scitum, decree of the people ; sometimes also in other words. as, acie. 3. A Genitive and Dative form in -e sonietimes occurs 4. With the exception of dies and res, most nouns of the Fifth
;

Declension are not declined in the Plural. But acies, series, species, spes, and a few others are used in the Nominative and Accusative
Plural.
«

Gender
53.
dies, day,
in the

in the Fifth Declension.

Nouns of the Fifth Declension are regularly Feminine, except and meridies, mid-day. But dies is sometimes Feminine Singular, particularly when it means an appointed day.

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.
54.

Here belong
1.

2.

3.

Nouns used in the Singular only. Nouns used in the Plural only. Nouns used only in certain cases.
Indeclinable Nouns.

4.

Nouns used

in the Singular only.

55. Many nouns, from the nature of their signification, are regularly used in the Singular only. Thus
:

1.

2. 3.

Proper names as, Cicero, Cicero; Italia, Italy. Nouns denoting material; as, aes, copper; lac, milk. Abstract nouns; as, ignorantia, ignorance; bonitas,
;

goodr

ness.
4.

But the above classes of words are sometimes used
:

Thus

in the Plural.

a) Proper names,

to denote diiferent members of a family, ot specimens of a type; as, Cicerones, the Ciceros; CatonSB,

men

like Cato.

DEFECTIVE NOUNS.
b')

3

Names
rial,

of materials,

—> to denote objects made of the mate;

or different kinds of the substance

as,

aera, bronzes

(i.e.

bronze figures)
nouns,

c) Abstract

— to

;

ligna, woods.

denote instances of the quality

;

as,

ignorantiae, cases of ignorance.

Nouns used
56.
1.

in the Plural only.

Here belong —
Many
;

Leuctra
2.

geographical names; as, Thebae, Thebes; Leuctra, Pompeji, Pompeii. Many names of festivals as, Megalesia, the Megalesian festival.
;

3.

tant

:

Many

special words, of which the following are the

most impor-

angustiae, narrow pass. arma, weapons.
dSliciae, delight.
divitiae, riches.

manes, spirits of the dead. moenia, city walls. minae, threats.
nuptiae, marriage.
poster!, descendants.
reliquiae, remainder.

Idus, Ides. indutiae, truce.

msidiae, ambush. majores, ancestors.
Also in
classical prose regularly

tenebrae, darkness.
verbera, blows.


nares, nose.
viscera, viscera.

cervices, neck.
fides, lyre.

Nouns used only

in Certain Cases.

Many nouns of the Fourth 57. I. Used in only One Case. Declension are found only in the Ablative Singular as, jussu, by the
;

order; injussu, without the order

;

natu, by birth.

2.

Used in Two Cases.
a.
b.

Pors (chance}, Nom. Sing. forte, Abl. Sing. Spontis (free-will), Gen. Sing. sponte, Abl.
;

;

Sing.

Used in Three Cases. Nemo, no one (Nom.), has also the nemini and the Ace. neminem. The Gen. and Abl. are supplied by the corresponding cases of nuUus; viz. nuUius and nuUo.
3.

Dat.

52
4.

INFLECTIONS.
the Nom., Ace, and Abl. Sing., and tlie Nora impetus, impetum, impetu, impetus. a. Preci, precem, prece, lacks the Nom. and Gen. Sing. b. Viois, vicem, vice, lacks the Nom. and Dat. Sing. 1 Opis, dapis, and frugis, all lack the Nom. Sing. Many monosyllables of the Third Declension lack the Gen. Plu.

Impetus has
;

and Ace. Plu.
5.

viz.

'

,

6.
7.

\

as, cor,

luz, sol, aes, os (oris), rus, sal, tus.

Indecliiiable
58.

Nouns.

Here belong
fas, n., right.


nefas, n., impiety.
nihil, n., nothing.

instar,

n., likeness.

mane,
I.

n.,

morning.

secus,

n., sex.

(which may serve also as Ablative, list are simply Neuters confined in use to the Nominative and Accusative Singular.
the exception of in the morning'), the nouns in this

With

mane

Heteroclites.
59.

declension, and partly of another.
1.

These are nouns whose forms are partly Thus
:

of one

the Plural

Several nouns have the entire Singular of one declension, while is of another as,
;


;

vas, vasis {vessel)

;

Plu.,

vasa, vasorum, vasis,

etc.
etc.

jugerum, jugerl {acre)
2.

Plu., jugera,

jugerum, jugeribus,

Several nouns, while belonging in the main to one declension,'

have certain special forms belonging to another.
a)

Thus

:

a
b)

Many nouns Nom. and

of the First Declension ending in -ia take also Ace. of the Fifth as, materiSs, materiem,
;

material, as well as materia,

materiam.
the

Fames, hunger, 'regularly Abl. fame of the Fifth.

of the Third Declension, has

c)

Requies, requietis, rest, regularly of the Third Declension, takes an Ace. of the Fifth, requiem, in addition to requietem.

d) Besides plebs, plebis, common people, of the Third Declension, we find plebes, plebSi (also plebj, see 5 1:2. 2), of the
Fifth.

HETEROGENEOUS NOUNS.
Heterogeneous Nouns.
60.
1.

33

Heterogeneous nouns vary
Several nouns of the

— Second Declension have two forms, — ont
in

Gender.

Thus

:

asc. in -us,

irrus,
2.

and one Neuter in -um; as, clipeus, clipeum, shield carrum, cart. Other nouns have one gender in the Singular, another in tht
\,

lural; as,

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
balneae, f., bath-house. epulae, f., feast.
freni,

balneum, n., bath epulum, n., feast i frSnum, n., bridle i
jocus, m.jjest;
locus, m., place ;

m. (rarely frena,
n.,

n.^, bridle,

joca, n. (also jooi, m.), jests. loca,
places
;

loci, m., passages

or topics in

an author.

rastrum,
a.

u.,

rake;

ra,stTi,

m.

;

lastra, n., rakes.
heteroclites, as in case

Heterogeneous nouns may at the same time be of the first two examples above.

Plurals
61.

'V7ith

Change of Meaning.

The

following nouns

have one meaning
:

lingular,

and

another in the Plural

in

the

SINGULAR.
aedis, temple auzilium, help ;
career, prison

PLURAL.
aedes, house.
auzilia, auxiliary troops.

carceres,

stallsfor racing-chariots

castrum, fort copia, abundance finis, end;
f ortuna,

oastra, camp.

copiae, troops, resources.
fines, borders, territory.

fortune

fortunae, possessions, wealth,
gratiae, thanks.

gratia, favor, gratitude ;

impedimentum, hindrance ;
littera, letter (of the alphabet)
;

impedimenta,
litterae, epistle

baggage.
;

literature.

m5s,

habit,

custom

mores, character.
operae, laborers.
opes, resources.
paitSa, party ; rdle.
sSles, wit.

opera, help, service;

(ops) opis, help psiiB, part;

;

ai,

salt

34

INFLECTIONS.
B. ADJECTIVES.

62.

Adjectives denote quality.
fall

nouns, and
1.

into

two

classes,

They

are declined

like

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions.

2.

Adjectives of the Third Declension.

ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.
63.

In these the Masculine

is

declined like hortua,

puer,

;

or ager, the Feminine like porta,

Thus, Masculine like hortua

:

and the Neuter

like bellum,

ADJECTIVES OF FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS.
64.

35

Masculine

like

30

INFLECTIONS.

voBGr, wretched ; ^xoa-^ex, prosperous ; compounds in -fer and -ger sometimes dexter, right. 2. Satur,/«//, is declined: satur, satura, aaturum.

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.
a.

37

With

the exception of Comparatives, and a few other words
§ 70.
i,

mentioned below in

all

Adjectives of the Third
;

Declension follow the inflection of i-stems
the Ablative Singular in
-1,

i.e.

they have

the Genitive Plural in -ium, the

Accusative Plural in is (as well as -es) in the Masculine

and Feminine, and the Nominative and Accusative
in -ia in Neuters.

Plural

Adjectives of Three Terminations.
68.

These are declined as follows

:

38

INFLECTIONS.
Adjectives of

Two

Terminations.
:

69.

These are declined as follows
Fortis, strong.


F.

Portior, stronger.

SINGULAR.
M. AND
F.

Neut.-

M. and
fortior

Neut.'
fortius

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

fortis

forte
fortis
forti

fortis
forti

fortioris
fortioii

fortioris
fortiori

fortem
fortis

forte forte
forti

fortiorem
fortior

fortius
fortius

Abl.

forti

fortiore

fortiore

PLURAL.

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

fortSs

fortia

fortiores

fortiora

fortium
fortibus
fortes, -Is

fortium
fortibus
fortia fortia

fortiSrum
fortioilbus
fortiores, -is

fortiorum
fortiorlbus
fortiora
fortiora

fortes

fortiores

Abl.
I.

fortibus
is

fortibus

fortioribua

fortioribua

the Comparative of fortis. All Comparatives an regularly declined in the same way. The Ace. Plu. in -Is is rare.

rortiol:

Adjectives of One Termination.
70.

Pglix, happy.

FrudSns, prudent.
SINGULAR.
M. AND
F.

M. AND

F.

Neut.
felix
felicis
felici

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

felrx
felicis
felici

fellcem
felix
felici

felix
felix
felici

Abl.

PLURAL.

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

felices

felicia

fellcium
felicibus
felices, -Is

felicium
felicibus
felicia

felices

felicia

Abl.

felicibus

felicibus

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.

39

40
c)

INFLECTIONS.
Patrials in -as, -Stis

and

-is, -Ttis,

when designating

place:

regularly have

-i

;

as,

in ArpinatT, on the estate at Arpinum
;

yet

-e,

when used of persons

as,

ab Arpinate, by an

Arpi

natian.
6. A very few indeclinable adjectives occur, the chief of which ir^^, frugal; uequam, worthless. ar

7.

In poetry, adjectives

and

participles in -ns
as,

sometimes form

thi

Gen. Plu. in -um instead of -ium;

venieutum, of those coming.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
There are three degrees of Comparison, the Comparative, and the Superlative. 2. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ioi (Neut. -ius), and the Superlative by adding -issimus (-a, -um), to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel as, —
71.
I.

Positive, the

;

altus, high,
fortis,
ielix,

altior, higher,

altissimus,

\ ^^S^^^^^
(

very

high.

brave,

fortior,
felicior,

fortissimus.
felicissimus.
;

fortunate,

So

also Participles,

when used

as Adjectives

as,


to

doctus, learned,

doctior,

doctissimus.

egens, needy,
3.

egentior,

egentisaimus.

Adjectives in -er form the Superlative

by appending -rimus

the Nominative of the Positive.
asper, rough,

The Comparative is regular.
asperrimus. pulcheriimua.

Thus: —

asperior,

pulcher, beautiful,
acer, sharp,
celer, swift,

pulchrior,
acrior,
celerior,

acerrimus.
celerrimus.

a.

Notice maturus, maturior, maturissimus or maturrimus.

4- Five Adjectives in -ilis form the Superlative by adding -limus to the Stem of the Positive deprived of its final vowel. The Comparative
is

regular.

Thus

:

facilis, easy,
difficilis, difficult,

facilior,
difficilior,

facillimus.
difficillimuB.

similis, like,

similior,

simillimus.
dissimillimus.

dissimilis, tinlike,

dissimilior,

humilis, low,

humilior,

humilUmus.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

41

5. Adjectives in -dicus, -ficus, and -volus form the Comparative and Superlative as though from forms in -dicSus, -ficens, -volSns. Thus
:

maledicus, slanderous,
magnificus, magnificent,

maledtcentior,
magnificentior,

raaledicentiasimus

magnificentissimus.

benevolus, kindly,
a.

benevolentior,

benevolentissimua.
in early Latin
;

Positives in -dicens

and -volena occur maledicens, benevolens.

as,

6. Dives has the Comparative divitior or ditior divitissimus or ditissimus.

;

Superlative

Irregular Comparison.
72.
viz.

Several Adjectives vary the Stem in Comparison;

bonus, good,

42
Inferi,

INFLECTIONS.
gods of the lower world,
1

Mare Inferum, Mediterranean
Sea,
six^en,

\

Inferior, lower,

imus,
j
'

J

J
1
.

gods above,
^rfr/a^zi: 5«a!,

Mare Superum,
3.

p"P^"°''

^^--^^

supremus, /aj^

«

|

summus, ^z^te^

Comparative lacking.
^

vetus, old,
fldas, /aiiA/ul,

veterrimus.

fidissimus.
^

novus, new,
sacer, sacred,
iz\s\is,

novissimus,^
sacerrimus.
falsissimus.

last

false,
less frequently used.

Also in some other words
4.

Superlative lacking.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 43
Adjectives not admitting Comparison.
75.
1

Here belong
Many


from the nature of their
signification,

adjectives, which,
;

do

lot

admit of comparison

as,

hodiemus,
as,

^

^0-</iz/ ;

anavLxiB,

annual

Qortalis, mortal.
2.

Some

special

words

;

mirus, gnarus, merus

;

and a few

ithers.

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS.
Adverbs are for the most part derived from adjecand depend upon them for their comparison. 1. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the First and second Declensions form the Positive by changing -i of he Genitive Singular to -e those derived from adjectives )f the Third Declension, by changing -is of the Genitive
76.

ives,

;

singular to

-iter

;

as,

carus,

care, dearly;

pulcher,
acer,
levis,

pulchre, beautifully;
acriter, ^ercely
leviter, lightly.

a.

But Adjectives in -ns, and a few others, add -er (instead of -iter), to form the Adverb as,
;

sapiens,
sollers,

sapienter, wisely
sollerter, skillfully.

Note audaz, audacter,
2.

boldly.

The Comparative

ative Singular iuperlative

all Adverbs regularly consists of the AccuNeuter of the Comparative of the Adjective while the of the Adverb is formed by changing the -1 of the Genitive

of

;

Singular of the Superlative of the Adjective to -e.

Thus

(carus)

44

INFLECTIONS.
Adverbs Peculiar
in

Comparison and Formation.

77.

I.

bene, well,
male,
ill,

melius,
pejus,

optime. pessime.

magnopere, greatly, multum, much, non multum, little, parum,
'

magis,
plus,

maxime. plutimum.
minime.
diutissime.

minus,
diutius,

diu, long,

nequiter, worthlessly, nequius,

saepe, often,

saepius,
'

nequissime. saepissime. maturrime.
maturissime. proxime. nuperrime. potissimum, especially.

mature, betimes,
prope, near,

matutius,
propius,

nuper, recently.
potius, rather,
\

previously,

1

P"''^'
secus, otherwise,
2.

[before,

j

V^^^, first.
Declensions

_

_

.

setius, less.

A

number of

adjectives of the First
;

form an Adverb in

-o, instead of -e

as,

and Second

crebro, frequently

falso, falsely

;

continue, immediately
raro, rarely;
a.
3.

subito, suddenly i

and a few

others.

cito, quickly, has -8.

A

few adjectives employ the Accusative Singular Neuter as

Positive of the

Adverb

;

as,

the

mxAtum, much
4.

pkalMm,

little ;

fy.dle, easily.

A

few adjectives of the First and Second Declensions form
;

Positive in -iter

as,

the

firmus, iirndtetjfrmly
largus, largiter, copiously ;
u.

hiimanus, humaniter, humanly;
alius, aliter, otherwise,

violentus has violenter.

5. Various other adverbial suffixes occur, the most important of which are -tus and -tim; as, antiquitus, anciently; paulatim,

f^adually.

NUMERALS.
NUMERALS.
78.
I.

45

Numerals may be divided
Numeral Adjectives, comprising
a.
b.
c.

into


etc.
etc.

Cardinals;

zs, as,
;

Ordinals;

^naa, one; Aao, two; etc. primus, /&-j/; seGMzA-aa, second ;
as, singuli,
;

Distributives

one by one; bini, two by two;
etc.

IL Numeral Adverbs
79.

as,

semel, once ; bis, twice ;

Table of Numeral Adjectives and Adverbs.

46
Cardinals.
{

INFLECTIONS.
Ordinals.
Distributives.
singulT
et singuli
)

Adverbs.
^g^^jg^ ^^^^

/

200.

centeni centesimus primus centum unus centum et unus centesimus et primus centeni duceni ducenti, -ae, -a ducentesimus
trecenti

ducenties
trecenties

300. 400.

trecentesimus

treceni

quadringenli
quingenti
sescenti

quadringentesimus
quingentesimus sescentesimus
septingentesimus octingentesimus

quadringeni
quingeni
sesceni
septingeni

quadringentia
quingenties
sescenties
septingenties

500.
600.

700.
800. goo.
1,000.

septingenfi
octingenti

octingeni

octingenties

nongenti
raiUe

nongentesimus
millesimus
bis millesimus

nongeni
singula milia

nongenties
mllies bis mllies
centies milies

2,000.

100,000.
1,000,000.

duo milia centum milia
decies centena

bina milia
centena milia decies centena
milia

centies millesimus

decies centies mille-

decies centies
milies

milia

simus

Note.

gnsitnus and -iens are often written in the numerals

instead of -esimua and

Declension of the Cardinals.
80.
2.
I
.

The
is

declension of

unus has
:

Duo

declined

^ follows

already been given under

§ 66.

JVbm. duo
.Gen.
£>a/.

duae

duorum
duobus duos, duo du5bus

duarum
duabus duas duabus

Ace.

AM.
a.
3.

duo duorum duSbus duo duobus
o
is

i'j

So ambo,
is

iotA, except that its final

long.

Tres

declined,


tria

JVbm. tres

Gen. Dai.
Ace.
Ail.
4.

trium
tribus
tres (tris)

trium
tribus
tria

tribus

tribus

The hundreds
Mille
is

(except

centum)

are declined like the Plural

of

bonus.
J.

regularly an adjective in the Singular,

and

indeclinable.

In the Plural

it is

a substantive (followed by the Genitive qf the
is

objeda

enumerated; § 201. i), and JVbm. mflia Gen. milium Dat. mllibus

declined,

Ace. milia
yoc. milia

A61. milibus

NUMERALS.

47

two thousand men,
a.

Thus miUe homines, u thousand men; but duo milia hominum, literally two thousands of men.
Occasionally the Singular admits the Genitive construction
as, 6.

mille

hominum.
Ordinals and Distributives and Second Declensions. of Numerals.

Other Cardinals are indeclinable.

are declined like Adjectives of the First

Peculiarities in the
81.
I.

Use

The compounds from

21 to 99
first.

may

be expressed either with
is

the larger or the smaller numeral

Thus
2.

:

In the latter case, et

used.

triginta sex or sex et triginta, thirty-six.

The numerals under
;

by subtraction as, duodeviginti, eighteen (but also octodeoim) ; iindequadraginta, thirty-nine (but also triginta
'et

90, ending in 8

and

9,

are often expressed

novem

or

novem
first;

triginta).
regularly have the largest
;

3.

Compounds over 100

the others follow without et

as,

number

centum viginti septem, one hundred and twenty-seven. anno octingentesimo octogegimo secundo, in the year
Yet et

882.

may be

inserted where the smaller
;

one of the tens

as,

number

is

either a digit 01

centum centum
4.

et septem, one hundred

and seven

et quadraginta, one hundred andforty.

The
a)

Distributives are used


many
apiece
;

To denote

so

much

each, so

as,


;

bina talenta eis dedit, he gave them two
b)

talents each.

When

those nouns that are ordinarily Plural in form, but
as,

Singular in meaning, are employed in a Plural sense

binae litterae, two
But in such
for one,

epistles.
is
;

cases, uni (not singuli) and trini (not term) for three
;

regularly employed

as,

iinae litterae, one epistle
c) In multiplication
;

trinae litterae, three

epistles.

as,


;

bis bina sunt quattuor, twice two are four.

d) Often in poetry, instead of the cardinals

as,

bina

bastilia,

two spears.

48

INFLECTIONS.
C.

PHONOTJNS.

82.

A

Pronoun
it.

is

witha word that indicates something

out

naming

83.

There are the following classes of pronouns
I.

:

Personal.
Reflexive.
Possessive.

11.

V. Intensive. VI. Relative.
VII.
VIII.
Interrogative.
Indefinite.

III.

IV.

Demonstrative.

I.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
:

84.
etc.,

These correspond to the English and are declined as follows

/,

you, he, she,

it,

First Person.

PRONOUNS.
3.

49
as Accusative

In early Latin,

med

and ted occur

and Ablative

forms.
II.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
'

85.
in

These refer to the subject of the sentence or clause which they stand like myself, yourself, in I see myself
;

etc.

They

are declined as follows

:

First Person.
Supplied by oblique
cases of ego.

Second Person.
Supplied by oblique
cases of tu.

Third Person.

Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.

mel, of myself mihi, to myself

tui,

of thyself
thyself
thyself

sui
sibi
1

tibi, to

me, myself
.

te,

se or sese

Abl.
1.

me, with myself

etc.

te,

with thyself

etc.

se or sese

The

Reflexive of the Third Person serves for all genders and for

both numbers.

themselves;
2.

Thus sui may mean, of himself herself itself or of and so with the other forms. All of the Reflexive Pronouns have at times a reciprocal force
inter se pugnant, they fight with each other.

as,

3.

In early Latin, sed occurs as Accusative and Ablative.
III.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
strictly adjectives of

86.

These are

the First and Second

Declensions, and are inflected as such.
First Person.

They

are

Second Person.
tuus,
-a,

meus,
noster,

-a,

-um, my; nostra, nostrum, our;

-um, thy

vester, vestra, vestrum,

/o«r

Third Person.
suua, -a, -um, his, her,
I
.

its,

their.

Suus

is

exclusively Reflexive

;

as,


his children.

pater liberos suos amat, the father loves
Otherwise, his, her,
of is, viz. ejus
;

its

are regularly expressed by the Genitive Singular

and
1

their

by the Genitive
i is

Plural,

eorum, earum.

,-

The

final

sometimes long

in poetry.

so
2.

INFLECTIONS.
The Vocative Singular Masculine of meus is mi. The enclitic -pte may be joined to the Ablative
in case of suo,

Singular of the
is particularly

3.

Possessive Pronouns for the purpose of emphasis,

This

common

sua;

as,

suopte, suapte.

IV. 87.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
there, or as

These point out an object as here or

previously mentioned.

They
I

are
;


;

hio, this (where
iste, that
ille,
is,

am)

(where you are)

that (something distinct from the speaker)
;

;

that (weaker than ille)
the same.

idem,
Hio, iste, and

ille are

accordingly the Demonstratives of the

First,

Second, and Third Persons respectively.

Hie,

this.

INTENSIVE PRONOUN. — RELATIVE PRONOUN.

5

52
VII.

INFLECTIONS.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

90.

The
Quia,

Interrogative Pronouns are quia,
qui,

who?

(sub-

stantive)
I.

and

whatf what kind

off (adjective).

who?
SINGULAR.
Neuter.

Masc. and Fem.

N'om.

quis

quid
cujus
cui

The

rare Plural
'

Gen. Dat.
Ace.

cujus
cui

follows the de-

clension of the

quem
quo
viz. qui,

quid

Relative Pronoun.

Abl.
2.

quo
is

Qui, what ? what kind of?
;

declined precisely like the Relative

Pronoun
a.
b.
c.

quae, quod,

etc.

An
Qui

old Ablative qui occurs, in the sense oi how?
is

why?

sometimes used for quis in Indirect Questions. Quis, when limiting words denoting persons, is sometimes an adjective. But in such cases quis homo — what man?
whereas qui

homo = what sort of man ? Quis and qui may be strengthened by adding -nam. Thus:— Substantive quisnam, who, pray ? quidnam, what, pray ? Adjective quinam, quaenam, quodnam, of what kind,prayf
d.
:
:

VIII.
91.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
of

These have the general force
SUBSTANTIVES.

some

one,

any

one.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.—PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 53
1

In the Indefinite Pronouns, only the pronominal part
:

is

declined.

Thus
2.

Genitive Singular alicujus, cujuslibet,

etc.

Note that aliqui has aliqua in the Nominative Singular FemiNominative and Accusative Plural Neuter. Qui has both qua and quae in these same cases.
nine, also in the
3.

tive Plural

Quidam forms Accusative Singular quendam, quandam Geniquorundam, quarundam the m being assimilated to n
;

;

before d.
4.

Aliquis may be used

adjectively,

and

(occasionally) aliqui sub-

stantively.
5.

In combination with ne,

si, nisi,
:

num,

either

quis or qui may

stand as a Substantive.
6.

quis or si qui. Ecquis, any one, though strictly an Indefinite, generally has
si
It

Thus

interrogative force.

has both substantive and adjective forms,—
;

substantive, eoquis,

ecquid

adjective, ecqui,

eoquae and ecqua,

ecquod.
7. 8.

Quisquam

is

not used in the Plural.
declines only the

There are two Indefinite Relatives,

— quioumque and quisquis,
first

whoever.

Quicumque

part

;

quisquis declines

both but has only quisquis, quidquid, quoquo, in

common

use.

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.
92 The following adjectives, nominal force
:

also, frequently

have

pro-

I.

alias, anai/ier

alter, iAe other
;

uter, which of two ? (interr.)

neuter, neither
niillus,

whichever of two
finus, one
2.
;

(rel.)

;

no one

(in oblique cases).

The compounds, —
uterque, utraque, utrumque, each of two

utercumque, utracumque, utrumcumque, whoever of two i uterlibet, utralibet, utrumlibet, either one you please i utervis, utravls, utrumvis, either one you please
alteruter, alterutra, alterutrum, the one or the other.

The rest of the word remains In these, uter alone is declined. unchanged, except in case of alteruter, which may decline both parts
as,

Nom. alteruter
Gen.
alterius utrius,

altera utra
etc.

alterum utrum

54

INFLECTIONS.

Chapter
93.

II.

— Conjugation.
;

A

Verb

is

a word which asserts something
loves.

as, est,

he is; amat, he
Conjugation.
94.

The

Inflection of

Verbs

is

called

Verbs
:

Person
1

have
Voices,

Voice,

Mood, Tense, Number, and

Two

2.

Three Moods,

3.

— Active and Passive. — Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative. Six Tenses, —
Present,
Imperfect,
Perfect,

Pluperfect,

Future,

Future Perfect.
;

But the Subjunctive lacks the Future and Future Perfect Imperative employs only the Present and Future.
4.
5.

while Jie

Two Numbers, — Singular and
Three Persons,

Plural.

First,

Second, and Third.

95.
this,

These make up the
the following
1.

so-called Finite Verb.

Besides

we have
2.

Noun and

Adjective Forms:

Noun Forms,

Infinitive,

Gerund, and Supine.

Adjective Forms,

— Participles (including the Gerundive).
of the

96.

The Personal Endings

Verb

are,

Sing.

Plu.

VERB-STEMS.
I.

— THE

FOUR CONJUGATIONS.

55

Present Stem, from which are formed 1. Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative, 2. Present and Imperfect Subjunctive,
3.

Active and Passive.

4.
5.

The The The

Imperative,

Present

Infinitive,

Present Active Participle, the Gerund, and Gerundive.

II.

Perfect Stem, from which are formed 1. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative, 2. Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive,
3.

1

>

Active.

Perfect Infinitive,

J

III.

Participial Stem, from which are formed
1.


Passive.

Perfect Participle,
Perfect, Pluperfect,

2.

and Future Perfect Indicative,

3.

Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, Perfect Infinitive,

4.

gin, are the Supine, the

Apparently from the same stem, though really of different ori^ Future Active Participle, the Future Infinitive

Active and Passive.

THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS.
98.

There are

in Latin four regular Conjugations, dis-

tinguished from each other by the vowel of the termination
of the Present Infinitive Active, as follows
Conjugation.
:

56

INFLECTIONS.

CONJUGATION OF SUM.
100.

The

irregular verb

sum

is

so

important for
is

the

conjugation of all other verbs that its inflection
at the outset.

given

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Pees. Ind. Prks. Inf.

Peef. Ind.

Fut. Partic.1

sum

esse
IN

fui

futurus

DICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

sum, I am,
es,

sumus, we

are,

thou art,
he
is

estis, yoit are,

est,

sunt, they are.

Imperfect.

eram,

I was,
was

eramus, we were,
eratis,

eras, thou wast,
erat, he

you were,

erant, they were.

Future.
ero,
eris, erit,

/ shall be,
thou wilt
he will be
be,

erimus,
eritis,

we

shall be,

you will be,
be.

erunt, they will

Perfect.
fui,

/ have

been,

I was,

fuimus,
fuistis,

we have been, we
been,

were,
were,

fuisti,
fuit,

thou hast been, thou wast,

you have

you

he has been, he

was

fuerunt,
fuere,

they have been, they were.

Pluperfect.

fueram,
fiieras,

/ had been,
had been

thou hadst been,

fueramus, we'had been, fueratis, you had been,
fuerant, they

.

fuerat, he

had been.

Future Perfect.
fuero,

T shall have been,
have been. he will have been
»

fuerimus,
fueritis,

fueris, thou wilt
fueiit,

fuerint,
is

we shall have been, you will have been, they will have been.
sum.

The

Perfect Participle

wanting in

CONJUGATION OF SUM.
SUBJUNCTIVE.'
Present.
SINGULAR.
sim,

57

may I be,
thou
be,

simus,
be,

let

us

be, be,

SIS, ntayst
sit, let

sitis, be ye,

may you
be.

him

may he

be

;

»

sint, let

them

Imperfect.
essem,2

I should be,

esses,^ thou wouldst be,
esaet,2 j^ ivould be

essemus, we should be, essetis, you would be,
essent,2 they

would be.

Perfect.
fiierim,
fiieris,

I may -have may have

been,

thou ntayst have been,

fueritis,

fuenmus, 7ve may have been, you may have been,

fuerit,

he

been

fuerint, they

may have

been.

Pluperfect.
fuissem,
fulsset,

/ should have

been,

fuisses, thou wouldst

have been, he would have been

fuissemns, we should have been, fuissetis, you would have been,
fuissent, they

would have

been.

IMPERATIVE.
Fres. es, be thou
este, be ye,

Fut.

esto, thou shall be,

estote, ye shall

be,

esto, he shall be;

suuto, they shall

be.

INFINITIVE.
Pres. esse, to be.
Per/, fuisse, to

PARTICIPLE.
been.
be.

have

Fut. futurus esse,' to be about to
1

Fut. futurus,* about to

be.

The meanings

of the different tenses of the Subjunctive are so

varied, particularly in subordinate clauses, that

many and so no attempt can be made to give

them here. For fuller information the pupil is referred to the Syntax. ^ For essem, esBes, esset, essent, the forms forem, fores, foret, forent are sometimes used. * For futurus esse, the form fore is often used. * Declined like bonus, -a, -um.

58

INFLECTIONS.
FIRST (OR A-) CONJUGATION.

101.

Active Voice.

— Amo,
amav^

/

love.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Pbks. Iot.

Pkes. Inf.

Pkef. Ind.

Perf. Pass. Pastic.

amo

amare

amatus

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

amo, I love, amas, you love,
zmat, Jie loves

amamus, we
amant, ihey
Imperfect.

love,

amatis, you love,
love.

amabam, I was
a.ma.ha.B,

loving^
loving,

amabamus, we were

loving,

you were

amSbat, he was loving;

amabatis, you were loving, amabant, they were loving.
Future.

amabo, I shall love, amabiSj/ow will love,
amSbit, he will love

amabimus, we shall love, amabitis, you will love, amabunt, they will love.
Perfect.

amavi, I have loved, I loved, amavistijj/oa have loved, you
loved,

.amavimus, we have loved, we amavistis, /o« have loved, you

loved,

lined,

amavit, he has loved, he loved;

amaverunt, -ere, they have loved,thij
loved.

Pluperfect.

amaveram, / had loved, a.Taa,vera.B, you had loved, amaverat, he had loved;

amaveramus, we had loved, amaveratis, you had loved,
amaverant, they had loved.

Future Perfect.
amavero, / shall have loved, amaveris, you will have loved, amaverit, he will have loved;
1

amaverimus, we shall have loved, amaveritis, you will have loved, amaverint, they will have loved.
also

The Imperfect

means I loved.

FIRST CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.
SINGULAR.

59

PLURAL.

amem, may I love, ames, may you love^
amet,
let

amemus, lei us love, ametis, may you love,
ament,
Imperfect.
let

him

love

them

love.

amarem, / should love, amtres,^0» would love, amSret, he would love

atnaremus, we should

love,

amaretis, you would love,

amarent, they would
Perfect.

love.

amaverim, / may have loved, amaveris, you may have laved, amaveiit, he may have loved i

amaveritis, j/oa

amaverimus, we may have loved, may have loved,
amaverint, they-^ay^have loved.

Pluperfect.

amavissem, I should have loved, amavisses, you would have loved, amavisset, he would have loved;

atnavissemus, we shouldhave loved,
amavissetis, ypxrwould have loved,

amavissent, iheyjwould have loved.

IMPERATIVE.
Pres. ama, love thou;

am ate,

love ye.
love,

Fut.

amato, thou shall love, amato, he shall love;
INFINITIVE.

ama.t6te,ye shall

amanto, they shall love.

PARTICIPLE.
Pres. amans,^ loving.

Pres. amare, to love.

Perf. amavisse, to have loved.

Fut.

amatuTus esse,
to love.

to be about

Fut.

(Gen. amantis.) amaturus, about to love.

GERUND.
Gen. amandi, of loving, Dat. iimaxido, for loving.
Ace.
Abl.

SUPINE.

amandum,

loving,

Ace.
Abl.

amatum,
amatu, to

to love;
love, be 'oved.

amando, by

loving.

1

For declension of amans, see

§ 70. 3.

6o

INFLECTIONS.
FIRST (OR A-) CONJUGATION. Amor, / am loved. Passive Voice.

102.

FIRST CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.

61

May I be loved,
SINGULAR.

let

him

be loved.

PLURAL.

amer
ameris, or -re

amemur
amemini amentur
Imperfect.
loved.,

ametur

I should be
amarer
amareiis, or -re aniaretur

he would be loved.

amaremur
amaremini amareutur
Perfect.

/ may have been

loved.

amatus sim ^ amatuB sTs amatuB sit
Pluperfect.

amati simus amati Bitis amati sint

I should have

been loved, he

would have been

loved.

amatus essem amatus esses amatus esset

amati essemus

amati esaetis amati essent

IMPERATIVE.
Pres. amare,^ be thou loved

amamini,

be ye loved.

Fut.

amator, thou shall be loved, amator, he shall be loved;
INFINITIVE.

amantor, they shall be loved

PARTICIPLE.
Perfect.

Pres. amSxi, to be loved. Perf.

amatus esse,
loved.

to

have been

amatus, loved, havittg
been loved.

Fut.

amatum

iri, to

be about to

be loved.

Gerundive, amandus, to be loved, deserving to be
loved.

1

Fuerlm,

etc.,

are sometimes used for

sim

;

so fulssem,

etc.,

for

essezn.

^ In actual usage passive imperatives occur only In deponents (J 112).

6z

INFLECTIONS.

SECOND (OR
103.

B-)

CONJUGATION.

Active Voice.

— Moneo, I advise.
Perf. Ind.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Phes. Ind.

Prbs. Inf.

Perf. Pass. Partic

moneo

monere

monui

monituB

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
SINGULAR.

/ advise.

PLURAL.

moneo monSa
monet
Imperfect.

monemuB
monetis

monent

/ was advising,

or

/ advised.

monebam

SECOND CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.
,

63

May
SINGULAR.

/advise,

let

him

advise.

.PLURAL.

moneam
moneas moneat
Imperfect.

moneamus
moneatia

moneant
he would advise.

I should advise, monerem
moneres moneret

moneremuB
monSretis

monerent
Perfect.

/ may have advised.

monuenm
monueris monuerit
Pluperfect

monuerimua
monueritis

monuerint

I should have
monuiBsem
monuisses monuisset

advised, he

would have advised.
moniiaaemit
monulssetls

monuissent

IMPERATIVE.
Pres.

Fut.

mone, advise thou monSto, thou shall advise, moneto, he shall advise
INFINITIVE.

mon§te, advise ye. monetote, ye shall advise, monentS, they shall advise.

PARTICIPLE.
Pres. monehs, advising.

Pres. monere, to advise. Perf. monuisse, to have advised. Fut. monituruB esse, to be about
to advise.

Fut.

(Gen. monentis.) moniturua, about to advise,

GERUND.
Gen. monendi, Dot.
Ace.
Abl.

SUPINE.

of advising.
advising,

m<yaB.-a&.o, for advising.

monendum,

Ace. monitjum, to advise,
Abl. monitu, to advise, ie advised

monendo, by advising.

64

INFLECTIONS.

SECOND (OR
104.

E-)

CONJUGATION.

Passive Voice.

— Moneor, I am advised.
Perf. Ind.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Phes. Ind. Pres. Inf.

moneor

moneri

monitus

sum

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
SINGULAR.

I am advised.

PLURAL.

moneor
moneris

monemur
monemini monentur
Imperfect.

monetur

I was advised.
monebar
monebaris, or -re

monebamur
monebamini monebautur
Future.

monebatur

I shall be advised.
monebor
moneberis, or -re

monebimur
monebimini monebuntur
Perfect.

monebitur

/ have
monitus sum monitus es monitus est

been advised,

I was advised.
moniti

sumus

moniti estis
moniti sunt

Pluperfect.

I had been
monitus eram monitus eras monitus erat

advised.

moniti

eramus

moniti eratis
moniti erant

Future Perfect. I shall have been advised.
monitus ero monitus eris monitus erit
moniti erimus
moniti eritis moniti erunt

SECOND CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present,

6$

May I be advised,
SINGULAR.

let

him

be advised.

PLURAL.

monear
moneaiis, or -re

moneamur
moneaminl moneantur
Imperfect.

moneatur

T should be advised, he would be advised.

monerer
monereris, or

monerSmur

^e
Perfect.

moneretur

moneremini monerentur

/ tnay have
monitua sim monitus sis monitus sit

been advised.

moniti

simus

moniti sitis

moniti sint

Pluperfect.

I should have been
monitus essem monitus esses monitus esaet

advised, he

would have been advised.
moniti essemus moniti essetis moniti essent

IMPERATIVE.
Pres.
icaonete, be thou

advised
be ad-

moneminS., be ye advised.

Fut.

monetor, thou shall
vised,

monetor, he shall be advised.

monentor, they shall be advised.

INFINITIVE.
moneri, to be advised. Perf. monitus esse, to have been
Pres.
Perfect.

PARTICIPLE.
monitus, advised,

having been advised.
Gerundive, monendus, to be advised, deserving to
be advised.

advised.

Fut.

monitum

iri, to

be about to

be advised.

66

INFLECTIONS.

THIRD (OR CONSONANT-) CONJUGATION.
105.

Active Voice.

— Rego, /

rule.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Ind. D.

Pees.

In-f. 1

Pekf. Ind.

regS

THIRD CONJUGATION.

67

68

INFLECTIONS.

THIRD (OR CONSONANT-) CONJUGATION.
106.

Passive Voice.

— Regor, I am ruled.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Pres. Ind.

THIRD CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.

69

May I be ruled,
regar
regaris, or -re

let

him

be ruled.

PLURAL.

regamur
regamini regantur
Imperfect.
.1 should be ruled,

regatur

he would be ruled.
'

regerer
regereris, or -re

regeremur
regeremini regerentur

regeretur
Perfect.

/ tnay have
rectus siia

been ruled.
recti

simus

rectus SIS
rectus sit

recti Bitis

recti sint

Pluperfect.

I should have
rectus

been ruled, he

would have been
recti

ruled.

essem

essemus
essent

rectus esses rectus esset

recti essetis recti

IMPERATIVE.
Pres.

vtgeie, be thou ruled
regitor, thou shall be ruled,
regitor, he shall be ruled;

re^maa.,

be ye ruled.

Fut.

reguntor, they shall be ruled.

INFINITIVE.
Pres.
Per/,
regi, to be ruled.

PARTICIPLE.
Perfect.

rectus, ruled,

having

rectus 6sse, to have been
ruled.

been ruled.

Gerundive, regendus, to be ruled,
deserving
ruled.
to

Fut.

rectum

iri,

to

be about to

be

be ruled.

70

INFLECTIONS.

FOURTH (OR
107.

X-)

CONJUGATION.

Active Voice.

— Audio, /^^ar.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
PwBS. Imd;

FOURTH CONJUGATION.

71

72

INFLECTIONS.

FOURTH (OR
108.

I-)

CONJUGATION.

Passive Voice.

— Audior, I atn heard.

FOURTH CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.

73

May I be heard,
SINGULAR.

let

him

be heard.

PLURAL.

audiar
audiaris, or -re

audiamur
audiamini audiantur
Imperfect.

audiatur

I should be
audirer
audireiis, or -re

heard, he would be heard.
audiremui''

audiretur
Perfect.

audiremini audirentur

/ niay have
auditus

been heard.
audit!

Sim

simus

audltuB sis
auditus sit

auditi sitia

auditi sint

Pluperfect.

r should have been heard, he would have been heard.
auditus

essem

auditi

essemus

auditus esses auditus esset

auditi essetis

auditi essent

IMPERATIVE.
Pres. audire, be thou

heard;

audimini, be ye heard.

Fut.

auditor, thou shall be heard,
auditor, he shall be heard;

audiuntor, they shall be heard.

INFINITIVE.
Pres.
audiri, to be heard.

PARTICIPLE.
Perfect.

auditus, heard,

Per/,

auditus esse, to have been
heard.

having been heard^
Gerundive, audiendus, to be heard, deserving
to be heard.

Fut.

audltum

iri,

to be about to be

heard.

74

INFLECTIONS.

VERBS IN -lO OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION.
109. I. Verbs in -i5 of the Third Conjugation take the endings of the Fourth Conjugation wherever the latter endings have two successive vowels. This occurs only in

the Present System.
2.

Here belong


make;
fodio,
to

a) capio, to take; cupio, to desire; facio, to

dig; fugio, to flee; jacio, to throw; pario, to bear; quatid, to shake ; rapio, to seize ; sapio, to taste.
b)

Compounds of lacio and speoiS (both
allicio, entice

ante-classical)

;

as,

c)

The

conspicio, behold. deponents gradior, to go ; morior,
;

to die

;

patior,

te

suffer.

110.

Active Voice.

— Capio, I take.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Prks. Ind.

VERBS IN -10 OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION. 7$

76
SINGULAR.
captus sum,
es, est

INFLECTIONS.
,

Perfect.

plural.

capti sumus, estis, sunt.

Pluperfect.
captus eram, eras, erat
capti eramus, eratis, erant^

Future Perfect.
captus ero,
eris, erit

capti erimus, eritis, erunt.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
Present.
capiar, -iaris, -iatur

capiamur, -iamini, -iantur.

Imperfect.
caperer, -ereris, -eretur

caperemur, -eremini, -erentur.

Perfect.
captus sim,
sis, sit

capti simus,

sitis, siat.

Pluperfect.
captus essem, esses, esset
capti essemus, essetis, essent.

IMPERATIVE.
Pres.

capere
capitor,

capiminl.

Fut.

capitor

capiuntor.

INFINITIVE.
Pres.
capi.

PARTICIPLE.
Perfect.

Perf.

captus esse.

captus.

Fut.

captum

iri.

Gerundive, capiendus.

DEPONENT VERBS.
112.

Deponent Verbs have

in the

main Passive form
:

with Active or Neuter meaning.
a.

But

b.

They have the following Active forms Future Infinitive, Present and Future Participles, Gerund, and Supine. They have the following Passive meanings: always in the
Gerundive, and sometimes in the Perfect Passive Participle;
as,

Bequendus,

to be

followed; adeptus, attained.

DEPONENT VERBS.
113.

n

Paradigms of Deponent Verbs are miroT, mirari, miratus sum, admire. I. Conj.

78

INFLECTIONS.

SEMI-DEPONENTS.
Semi-Deponents are verbs which have the Present System in the Active Voice, but the Perfect System in Here belong the Passive without change of meaning.
114.
I.

audeo, aud^re, ausus sum, to dare. gaudeo, gaudere, gavisua sum, to rejoice.
soleo,
fido,
3.

aolere,
fldere,

solitus sum, to be wont.
fisus

sum,

to trust.

The

following verbs have a
:

Active meaning

Perfect

Passive

Participle with

adolesco,^(7K/ up; cenare, dine
placexe, please

adultus, having grown up.

ceuatus, having dined.
placitus, having pleased, agreeable,

prandere, lunch potSre, drink jurare, swear ;
a.

pransus, having lunched. potus, having drunk. juratus, having sworn.
in

Juratus

is

used

a passive sense

also.

3.

Revertor and devertor both
;

the Active Voice

viz.

regularly form

their

Perfect

in

revertor,

reverti (Inf.), .revert! (Perf.), to return. dSvertor, deverti (Inf.), deverti (Perf.), to turn aside.

PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION.
There are two Periphrastic Conjugations, the The Active is formed by com. bining the Future Active Participle with the auxiliary sum, the Passive by combining the Gerundive with the same
115.

Active and the Passive.

auxiliary.

Active Periphrastic Conjugation.

Pres.

Imp.
Ftit.

Perf.

Plup.
Put. P.

INDICATIVE MOOD. amaturus (-a, -um) sum, I am abottito love. amaturuB eram, / was about to love. amatarus ero, / shall be about to love. amaturus fui, / have been [was) about to love. amaturus fueram, / had been about to love. amatarus luero, / shall have been about to love.

PECULIARITIES OF CONJUGATION.
SUBJUNCTIVE. amaturus sim, may I be about to love. amaturus essem, I should be about to love. amaturus fuerim, / may have been about to love. amaturus f ulssem, / should have been about to love,
INFINITIVE.
Pres.
Perf.

79

Pres.

Imp.
Perf.

Plup.

amattirus esse,

to be
to

about

to love.

amaturus f ulsse,

have been about to

love.

Passive Periphrastic Conjugation.
INDICATIVE.
Pres.

Imp.
Put.
Perf.

Plup.
Put. P.

amandus (-a, -um) sum, / am to be loved, must be loved. amandus eram, / was to be'loved. amandus ero, I shall deserve to be loved. amandus fui, / was to be loved. amandus fueram, / had deserved to be loved. amandus fuero, / shall have deserved to be loved,
SUBJUNCTIVE. amandus sim, may I deserve to be loved. amandus essem, / should deserve to be loved. amandus fuerim, / may have deserved to be loved. amandus fuissem, / should have deserved to be loved.
INFINITIVE.

Pres.

Imp.
Perf.

Plup,

Pre^.

Perf.

amandus esse, to deserve to be loved. amandus fuisse, to have deserved to be loved.

PECULIARITIES OF CONJUGATION.
and -ivi, with the forms derived from them, often drop the ve or vi before endings beginning with r or s. So also novi (from nosco) and the compounds of movl (from
116.
I.

Perfects in -avl, -evx,

moveo)

.

Thus

:

amavisti

amasti

delevisti

delesti

amavisse

amasse
araarunt

delevisse

delesse

amaverunt amaverim

deleverunt

delerunt

amarim

deleverim

delerim

amaveram
amavero
novisti

amaram
amaro
HOStl

deleveram
delevero

deleram
delero

noverim

norim

novisse
audivisti

n5sse
audTsti

noveram
audivisse

noram
audisse

8o
2.

INFLECTIONS.
In the Gerund and Gerundive of the Third and Fourth Conju -undus, -undi, often occur instead of -endus anc

gations, the endings

-endi, as faciuudus, faciundi.
3. Dico, duco, facio, form the Imperatives, die, duo, fao. Bui compounds of facio form the Imperative ,in -fice, as confice. Compounds of dioo, duco, accent the ultima as, edno, edic. 4. Archaic and Poetic forms
:

;

a.

The ending -ier in the Present Infinitive Passive; amarier, monerier, dicier, for amarl, moneri, dici. The ending -ibam
Conjugation,
;

as,

b.

scibo, for
c.

for -iebam in Imperfects of the Fourtli and -ibo for -iam in Futures as, scibam, soiebam, sciam.

Instead of the fuller forms, in such words as dixistT, scrTp-

surrezisse, we surreze, etc.
sistis,
d.

sometimes

find

dizti, soripstis,

The endings

-im,
;

-is, etc. (for

-am,

Subjunctive forms
5.

as,

edim

(eat),

-as, etc.') occur in a few duint, perduiat.

In the Future Active and Perfect Passive Infinitive, the auxiliary often omitted as, acturum for acturum esse ; ejectus for Sjectus esse.

esse

is

;

FORMATION OF THE VERB
117.

STEiVIS.

Formation of the Present Stem.

Many

Present Stem

verbs employ the simple Verb Stem for the ^ as, dicere, amare, monere, audire. Others
; -

modify the Verb Stem to form the Present, as follows: 1 By appending the vowels, a, e, i as,
.
;

juvare. Present Stem juva- (Verb Stem juv-). augere, « " « auge- ( « aug-). vincire, « « " vinci- ( " vino-).

By adding i, as capio, Present Stem capi- (Verb Stem cap-)By the insertion of n (m before labial-mutes) before the final con' sonant of the Verb Stem as, fundo (Stem fud-), rumpo (Stem rup-) 4- By appending -n to the Verb Stem as,
3.

3.

;

;

°ern-5

peIl-6 (for pel-no).

1 Strictly speaking, the Present Stem always ends in a Thematic Vowel (S or 6) as dic-e., dic-6-; amg.6-, ama^a-. But the multitude of phonetic changes involved prevents a scientific treatment of the subject here. See the author's Uim
;

Lamuare.

FORMATION OF THE VERB STEMS.
5.

8

By appending

t to the

Verb Stem
flect-o.

;

as,^

6.

By appending so
cresc-o.

to the

Verb Stem

;

as,


initial

scisc-o.

7.

By

Reduplication, that
i
;

the

Verb Stem with

as,

is,

by prefixing the

consonant of

gi-gn-o (root gen-),

si-st-o (root sta-).

FormatiDn
118.
1.

of the Perfect
is

Stem.

The

Perfect

Stem

formed from the Verb Stem
;

By adding v
amav-T,

(in case of

Vowel Stems)
dSlev-i,

as,

audiv-i.
;

2.

By adding u

(in case of

some Consonant Stems)
alu-i.

as,

— —

strepu-i,
3.

geuu-i,

By adding

s (in case of most Consonant Stems)

;

as,

carp-o. Perfect carps-i. " Bcrips-i (for sorib-si). " ris-i (for rid-si) lid-eo,
sorib-o,
sent-io,

" "

sens-i dix-i

(for sent-si)
(i.e.

dic-o,
a.

dic-ai).

Note that before the ending
lost;

-sT a Dental Mute (t, d) is a Guttural Mute (o, g) unites with s to form x; while

4.

the Labial b is changed to p. Without addition. Of this formation there are three types a) The Verb Stem is reduplicated by prefixing the initial consonant with the following vowel or e as,
:

;

posco,
pello,

curro. Perfect cu-curri. " po-posci.
"
pe-puli.
with the exception of do, ato, sisto, disco,
:

Note i.— Compounds,
omit the reduplication.

posco,

Thus

com-puli, but re-poposci.
as,

Note
plication,

2.

— Verbs beginning with sp
The
legi

but drop s from the stem;

spondeo, spo-pondi;

or St retain both consonants in the redusto, steti.
;

i)

c)

Verb Stem is lengthened as, lego, Note that S. by this process becomes e. The vowel of the Verb Stem is unchanged; as, verto, vertij minuo, minui.
short vowel of the
;

ag5, egi.

82

INFLECTIONS.
Formation of the Participial Stem.

119.

The

Perfect
is

Passive Participle, from
-us, is

Participial
1.

Stem
;

derived by dropping

which formed

:

the

By adding

-tus (sometimes to the Present Stem, sometimes
as,

to

the

Verb Stem)

ama-re. Participle ama-tus.
asle-re,

" "
"

dele-tus.

audi-re,
leg-ere,

audi-tus.
leo-tus.

sorlb-ere,
aeuti-re,

"
"

aorip-tuB,

caed-ere,
a.

"

sen-sus (for sent'-tns). oae-sus (for caed-tus).
becomes c (see § 8, s) t> becomes p which is then often simplified to s (§ 8,
!

Note

that g, before t,

;

while
z).

dt or tt becomes

ss,

caesus, where 2. After the analogy of Participles like sensus and -BUS arises by phonetic change, -sus for -tus is added to other Verb

Stems

;

as,

lab-i,

Participle lap-sus.

fig-ere,
a.

"

fi-xus.

The same consonant changes occur in appending this ending -SUB to the stem as in the case of the Perfect ending -si (see § ii8, 3, a).
;

3.

A

few Verbs form the Participle in -itus

as,

doma-re, mone-re,
4.

dom-itus.
m.on-itus.
is

The Future
But

Active Participle

usually identical in

its
;

stem

with

the Perfect Passive Participle; as, ama-tus,

moniturus.
juva-re,

amaturus

moni-tus,

LIST OF
LIST OF

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.
PRINCIPAL PARTS.
First (A-) Conjugation.

83

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS, WITH

120.

I.

Perfect in -Vi.
amavi
amatus
love

amo
poto

amare

All regular verbs of the First Conjugation follow this model.

84
II.

INFLECTIONS.
Perfect in -T7I. Type -eo, -ere, -ui,
arcere

a.

-itua.

arceo

arcui

coerceo ccerceg

coercere

m
calui

coercitus exercjtus
calitjinis
,

keep off hold in check
practise
be

exencui
-

CeLfeM. carui

ffOf'

myiCLJ

warm

.

be without

—dplep.
habeo

grieve

habere

abut

habitus
debitus

have

owe
offer
lie

-f^aebeo

praebitus
jacere
jacui

—jaceo
mereo

jaciturus

merere

merui

meritus

earn, deserve

^moneo

monere^
npcere

^2F'''

advise
injure
obey

ml
placui
tacui
'

please
taciturus
territus
vali turns
,

be silent

-terreo
-

terrui

frighten
be strong
: -

valeo

valui
i.

Note
-eeeo

The

following

l|.ck

the Participial Stem

egere

egui egul

want
stand forth bloom
bristle

emmeo
flSreo

eminere
florere

eminul
florui

horreo
lateo

horrere
latere

horrui
latui

lurk

niteo

nitere

nitui

gleam
smell
be pale
lie

oleo
palleo

olere
pallere

olui

pallul

-pateo

patere

patui

open

rubeo
sileo

rubere
silere

rubui
silul

be

red

be silent

splendeo
studeo
stupeo
-timed

splendere
studere
stupere

splendui
studul
stupuT

gleam
study
be

amazed

timere
torpere

timul
torpul
viguT
virui

fear
be dull flourish
be green

torpeo
vigeo
vireo

vigere
virere

and

others.

LIST OF
Note
2.-

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.

85

86
V.

INFLECTIONS.

LIST OF
-tego

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.

87

88

LIST OF
-emo

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.

8g

90
tremo

INFLECTIONS.

LIST Of
11.

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.
:

9

Verbs with Present Stem

92
So
etc.

INFLECTIONS.
other prepositional compounds, perficio, perjicior ; interficio. interficior

But

assuefacio

assuefacere

assuefeci

assuefactus

accustom

Passive, assuefio, assuefierl, assuefactus

sum.
non-prepositional com-

So

also fatefacib, pateflo ; calefacio, caleflo ;

and

all

pounds.

'^jacio

LIST OF
3.

THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.

93

Verbs

94
II.

INFLECTIONS.
Perfect ends
in

IRREGULAR VERBS.
IRREGULAR VERBS.
124.

95

A number of Verbs are called
Verbs
is

Irregular.

The most
fio.

important are sum, do, ed5,

fero, volo, nolo,

malo, eo,

The

peculiarity of these

that they

append the
the stem,
fer-s

personal endings in
instead of

many forms
fer-i-s.

directly to

employing a connecting vowel, as

(2d

Sing, of fer-6), instead of

They

are but the relics

of

what was once
125.

in Latin a large class of Verbs.

The

Inflection of

sum

has already been given.

compounds are

inflected in the

same way.
afui

They

are

Its various

absum
adsum desum
insum
intersum

abesse

am

absent

Pres. Partic. absens (absentis), absent.

adesse
deesse
inesse
interesse

adful defui
Infui
interfui
praefiii

praesum

praeesse

am present am lacking am in am among am in charge
hinder

of

Pres. Partic. praeSens (praesentis),^^'sje«^.

obsum prosum subsum
supersum

obesse prodesse
subesse
superesse
is

obfui
profui

subfui

superful
of

am am am
;

of advantage underneath
left

Note. — Prosum
the

compounded

d

disappears before consonants, as

prod prosumus

(earlier

form of pro) and but prodestis.
is

sum

;

126.

Possum.

In

its

Present System

possum

a

compound

of

pot- (for pote, able^ and

sum

;

potui

is

from an obsolete potere.

—;> possum,

96

INFLECTIONS.

IRREGULAR VERBS.
1.

97

is inflected regularly with the short vowel. Thus: dSbatur, dSietur, etc. 2. The archaic and poetic Present Subjunctive forms duim, duint, perdxut, perduint, etc., are not from the root da-, but from du-, a collateral root of similar meaning.

The

Passive

dSri, d^tur,

128.

Edo,

/«a/f.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
edo,
esse,
edi,

esus.

Active Voice. INDICATIVE MOOD.
Pres.

98
129.

INFLECTIONS.

IRREGULAR VERBS.

99

lOO
130.

INFLECTIONS.

IRREGULAR VERBS.
131.

lOI
/^^"^

Flo.

fy^<h (0

^'

ICCa-

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
fio,
fieri,

factus sum,

to become, be

made.

I02

INFLECTIONS.

DEFECTIVE VERBS.

103

I04
136.

INFLECTIONS.
Fan,
to speak.

This is inflected regularly System it has

in the perfect tenses.

In the Present

INDICATIVE MOOD.
SINGULAR.
Pres.

PLURAL.

fatur.

Fut.

fabor,

fabitur.

Impv.
Inf. Pres. Partic.

fare.
farl.

fantis, fanti, etc.

Gerund, G., Gerundive,
Note. —Forms of fari

fandi

;

D. and AM., fando.

fandus.
as,

are rare. More frequent are its compounds; aff atur, he addresses ; praef amur we say in advance.
,

137.
1

Other Defective Forms.
to be able,

Queo, quire, quivi,

to be unable, are inflected like eo, but

and nequeo, nequire, nequivi, occur chiefly in the Present Tense,

and there only in special forms.
2.

Quaeso, / entreat;

qvLSLesvimvLB,

we

entreat.
;

3.

Cedo

4.
5.

(2d sing. Impv.), cette (2d plu.) £-ive me, Salve, salvete, hail. Also Infinitive, salvere.

tell

me.

Have

(av5), havete, hail.

Also

Infinitive,

havere.

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
Impersonal Verbs correspond to the English, it seems, etc. They have no personal subject, but may take an Infinitive, a Clause, or a Neuter Pronoun; as, me pudet hoc feoisse, lit. it shames me to have done this; hoc decet, this is fitting. Here belong
138.

snows,

it


;

I.

Verbs denoting operations of the weather
folget
toilet
fulsit

as,
it

lightens

tonuit

it

thunders

IMPERSONAL VERBS.
grandinat

105

Part

III.

PARTICLES.
139.

Particles are the four Parts of
;

admit of inflection
tions, Interjections.

viz.

Speech that do not Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunc-

ADVERBS.
140.

Adverbs denote manner,

place, time, or

degree.

Most adverbs are in origin case-forms which have become
stereotyped by usage.

The common

adverbial terminations

have already been given above (§ jS). Table of Correlatives is important
:

The

following

Relative and Interrogative.

Demonstrative.

Indefinite.

ubi, where ; where ?

hic, here.
ibi, illic, istic, there.

alicubi, us quam, ua<

piam, somewhere.
aliquo, to some place.

qu5, whither; whither f hue, hither.
eo, istuc, illuc,
thither.

unde, whence ; whence f hinc, hence.
inde, istiuc, illinc,
thence.

alicunde, from somewhere.
allqua, by sotne way.

qua, where; where?

hao, by this way.
ea^ istac, iliac, by

cum, when. quando, when ?
quotiens, as often as

that way. nunc, now.
turn, tunc, then.

aliquando, umquam,
sometime, ever.

totiSns, so often.
tarn, so

aliquotiens, some

how often ? quam, as much as j how much?

much.
io6

number of times. aliquantum, somewhat.

PREPOSITIONS.

107

PREPOSITIONS.
141. Prepositions show relations of words, lowing Prepositions govern the Accusative
:

The

fol-

ad,

to.

contra, against.
erga, toward.

post, after.

adversus, against,

praeter, past.

adversum, toward,
against.

extra, outside.
infra, below. inter, between.

prope, near. propter, on account of

ante, before.

secundum,

after.

apud, with, near. circa, around.
circiter, about.

intra, within.

juzta, near.

subter, beneath. super, over.

circum, around.
cis, this side of.

ob, on account of. penes, in the hands
per, through.

supra, above.
of.

trans, across.
ultra, beyond.

cltra, this side of.
1.

pone, behind.
th'e

versus, toward.
sense oi even;
as,

ITsque

is

often prefixed to ad, in

Usque ad urbem, even
2.

to the city.

Versus always

follows

its

case

;

as,


;

Romam versus, toward Rome.
It

may be combined

with a preceding Preposition

as,

ad urbem versus, toward the
3.

city.

Like prope, the Comparatives propior, propius, and the Super-

latives

prozimus, prozimg, sometimes govern the Accusative;

as,

Ubii prosime Rhenum incolunt, the Ubii dwell next to the Rhine propius castra hostium, nearer the camp of the enemy.
142.
a,

The

following Prepositions govern the Ablative

:


of,

ab, 3Jo3,from, by.

cum,
dS, from, concerning.
6,

pro, in front
for. sine, without.

absque, without. coram, in the presence

ex, from, out

of.

of
1.

prae, before.

tenus, up

to.

A, ab, abs.

Before vowels or h,

sonants

we

find

sometimes
f,

a,

ab must be used; before consometimes ab (the latter usually not
nor before c,
g, q,

before the labials b, p,

v,

m

;

or t)

;

abs occurs
conso-

only before te,
2.

and a

is

admissible even there.

E, ex.

Before vowels or h,

nants,

we

find

sometimes

e,

ex must be used sometimes ex-

;

before

Io8
3.

PARTICLES.
Tenus
It

regularly follows

its

case, as,

pectoribus tenus, up
as,

to iht

breast.

sometimes governs the Genitive,
is

labrorum tenus,

as far

as the lips.
4.

Cuia

appended

to the

Pronouns of the First and Second

Persons, and to the Reflexive Pronoun; usually also to the Relatiye

and Interrogative.

Thus

:

mecum
tecum secum

nobiscum vobiscum

quocum or cum quo quacum or cum qua quibuscum or cum quibus
i.

On
143.

quicum, see § 89, Footnote
in, in, into,

Two

Prepositions,

and

sub, under, gov-

ern both the Accusative and the Ablative.
cusative they denote motion
in
I.
;

With
city.

the Ac;

with the Ablative, rest
in urbe, in the

as,—

urbem,

into the city

Subter and super

are also

occasionally construed with the

Ablative.

144. Relation of Adverbs
1.

Prepositions were originally Adverbs, and

and Prepositions. many
etc.

of

them

still

retain their adverbial

meaning;

as,

post, afterwards; ante, previadverbs,
are
occasionally

ously
2.

;

contra, on the other hand,
Conversely
several
;

words, usually

employed as prepositions as, clam, pridie, with the Accusative. prpcul, simul, palam, with the Ablative.
3.
is

Andstrophe.
;

A

Preposition sometimes follows

its case.

This

called Andstrophe
el,

as,

quos inter

erat, those

among whom he was.

Anastrophe occurs

chiefly with dissyllabic prepositions.

CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.
145. I. Conjunctions are used to connect ideas. For Coordinate Conjunctions, see §§ 341 ff. Subordinate Conjunctions are treated in connection with Subordinate Clauses.
2.

Interjections express emotion
1.

Thus

:

Surprise; as, en, eoce, o.

2.

3.

4.

Jov as, io, euoe. Sorrow and Pain as, heu, eheu, vae, pio. Calling as, heus, eho.
; ; ;

Part IV.

— WORD-FORMATION. —

I.

DERIVATIVES.
by appending certain terstems of verbs, nouns, or

146.

Derivatives are formed
Suffixes
to

minations called
adjectives.

A.
1.

NOUNS.
Fem.
-trix, denotes /^£«^i?m/; as,-^

Nouns derived from Verbs.

147.

I.

The

suffix -tor (-sor),

victor, victrix, victor

defensor, defender.
occasionally
;

Note.

— The

suffix

appended to noun stems g'ladiator gladiator (from gladlus)
-tor
is
,

as,

2.

The
as,

suffix

-or (originally -os) denotes

an

activity or

a condi

Hon;

a.moi,love;
3.

tivaor, fear ;

dolor, pain.

The

suffixes -tio (-sio), Gen." -onis,

denote an action as in process ; as,

and -tus (-sus), Gen. -us,

Tgnatio, hunting; obsessio, blockade; gemitus, sighing; cursus,

running.
Note.

— Rarer endings with the same force are —
:
;

0) -tura, -stira

as,

sepultura, burial; mensura, measuring,
i)

-ium; as,—

graudium,
c)

rejoicing.

-ido;

as,

cupido,

desire.

109

no
4.

WORD-FORMATION.
The
suffixes

-men, -mentum, -orum, -trum, -bulum, -culum,
;

denote the means or place of an action

as,

proof aratrum, plough } sepulcrum, grave vehiculum, carriage.

lumen (luo-s-men), light; ornamentum, ornament;

vocabulum, word;
AocxaxLevAvLxa.,

2.

ITouns derived from Nouns.

148.

I-

Diminutives end in
-ulus,

NOUNS.
4.

— ADJECTIVES.
official position

Ill

The

suffix

-atus denotes

or honor; as,

consulatus, consulship (consul)
5.

The

suffix

-ina appended to nouns denoting persons designates
it is

a vocation or the place where

carried on

;

as,
;

doctrina, teaching (doctor,
sutrina,
6.
cobbler'' s

teacher')

medicina, the art of healing (medicus, physician)
shop (sutor, cobbler).

;

Patronymics are Greek proper

names denoting son of
:

daughter of

...

.

They have
:

the following suffixes

.

.

.,

a) Masculines

-ides,

-ades,

-Tdes

;

as,

Friamides, son of
Peleus.

Priam ; Aeneades, son of Aeneas ; FelTdSs, son of
b)
:
;

Feminines -eis, -is, -ias as. Nereis, daughter of Nereus Atlantis, daughter of Atlas; Thaumantias, daughter of

Thaumas.
3.

Nouns derived from

Adjectives.
-ia, -itia
;

149.
for

The

suffixes -tas (-itas),

-tudo (-itudo),

the formation of abstract nouns denoting qualities

as,

are used

bonitas, goodness;

celeritas,

swiftness;

magnitudo, greatness

audacia, boldness;

arrilcitLa., friendship.

B.
1.

ADJECTIVES.

Adjectives derived from Verbs.
suffixes
;

150.

I.

The

-bundus and -cundus

of a present participle

as,

give nearly the force

tieraebMn&as, trembling
2.

jucundus Quvo), pleasing.
tendency.,

The

suffixes

-ax and -ulus denote an inclination or
credulus, credulous.
as,

mostly a faulty one; as,

loquaz, loquacious
3.

The

suffix

-idus denotes a state ;


cwpiAaa, eager.
ability,

calidus,
4-

^17^ ;

VLmidLOB, timid

The

suffixes -ilis
;

a passive sense

as,

and

-bilis

denote capacity or

usually in

ix2L^\&, fragile
docilis, docile.

(i.e.

capable of being broken)

;

112
2.

WORD-FORMATION.
Adjectives derived from Nouns.
a)

From Common Nouns,

151.

I.

The

suffixes
;

stances or materials
nxiievLs,
2.

as,

-eus and -inus are appended to names of sublexieus, of iron
tsLginvis,

ofgold

;

of ieec/i.

The

suffixes -ius, -icus, -His, -alis, -aris, -arius, -nus, -anus,
to,

-tnus, -ivus, -ensis signify belonging

connected with ; as,

oratorius, oratorical;
bellicuB, fiertaining to
civllis, civil;

legionarius, legionary

war ;

paternus, paternal urbanus, of the city

regalis, regal;

marinus, marine;

consularis, consular

aestivus, pertaining to summer ; ciroensis, belonging to the citcus.

3.

The

suffixes

-osus and -lentus Atnoie fullness ;

as,

periculosus, full of danger, dangerous
4.

gloriosus, glorious

opulentus, wealthy.
;

The

suffix

-tus has the force oi provided with

as,

barbatus, bearded;
S)

stellatus, set with stars.

From Proper Names.

152.

I.

Names

of j!>^rw«j take the suffixes: -anus, -ianus, -inus;

as,—
Catoniauus, belonging
2.

to

Cato; Plautinus, belonging to PlaiUus.
;

Names Names
as,

oi nations

talce

the suffixes -icus, -ius

as,

Germanicus, German
3.

Thracius, Thracian.

-ius

;

of places take the suffixes -anus, -inus, -gnsis, -aeus,

Romanus, Roman
Amerinus, of Ameria
Note.

Athiniensis, Athenian

Smy rnaeus, of Smyrna

Corinthius, Corinthian.
to names of countries, designate something stationed in the country or connected with it, but not indigenous as,
;

— -anus

and -ensis, appended

bellum Afrioanum, a war {of Romans with Romans') in Africa. bellum Hispaniense, a war carried on in Spain. legiones GalUcanae, {Roman) legions stationed in Gaul.

ADJECTIVES.

— VERBS.

\

113

3.

Adjectives derived from Adjectives.
;

153.

Diminutives in -lus sometimes occur

as,

parvolus, little misellus (passer), poor pauperculus, needy.
4.

little

{sparrow)

Adjectives derived from Adverbs.
in -ernus, -ternus, -tinus, -tinus
;

154.

These end

as,

hodiemus,
hesternus,
intestinus,

of to-day of yesterday
internal
long-lasting

(hodie)
(heri)
;

;

(intus)
(diu).

;

diutinus,

C. 1.

VERBS.

Verbs derived from Verbs.

155. I. Inceptives OR Inchoatives. These end in -sco, and are formed from Present Stems. They denote the beginning of an action
as,

labasoo,

begin to totter

(from labo)

horresco, tremesco,

grow rough
be^n
to tremble

(from horreo)
(from tremo)

obdormisco,
2.

fall asleep

(from dormio).

or energetic action.

Frequentatives or Intensives. These denote a repeated They are formed from the Participial Stem, and end in -to or -so. Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in -ito (not -ato, as vife should expect). Examples of Frequentatives are

jacto,

toss about,

brandish

(from jacio, hurl)

;

curso,
volito,
a.

run hither and thither
flit

(from ourro, ruii)
(from vol6,y^).

;

about
;

Some double
cantito,

Frequentatives occur

as,

114
3.

WORD-FORMATION.

are

Desideratives. These denote a desire to do something. formed from the Participial Stem, and end in -urio as,
;

They

esurio,

desire to eat,

am hungry

(edo)

;

parturio, want to bring forth, ajn in labor (pario)
2.

Verbs derived from Kouns and Adjectives
(Denomiiiatives)

156. Denominatives of the First Conjugation are mostly transitive, those of the Second exclusively intransitive. Those of the Third and

Fourth Conjugations are partly transitive, partly intransitive.
ples are

Exam-

a)

From Nouns

:


defraud
clothe

fraudo,
vestio,
tloreo,
b')

(fraus)
(vestis)
(flos).

bloom
:

From

Adjectives
libero,

.

free
be fierce

(liber)

saevio,

(saevus).

D.
157.
I.

ADVERBS.
;

Adverbs derived from verbs are formed from the Stem by means of the suffix -im as,

Participial

certatim, curaim,
statim,
2.

emulously
in haste

(oerto)

;

(ourro)

immediately (sto).
:

Adverbs derived from nouns and adjectives are formed a) With the suffixes -tim (-sim), -atim; as,—

gradatim, step by step
pa.ulatim, gradually viritim, man by man.
b)

With

the suffix -tus

;

as,

— —

antlquitus, of old;
radioitus,/roOT the roots.
c)

With

the suffix -ter

;

as,

breviter,

briefly.

COMPOUNDS.
II.

115

COMPOUNDS.

Compounds are formed by the union of simple The second member usually contains the essential meaning of the compound the first member expresses
158.
I.

words.

;

some modification of
2.

this.
in

Vowel changes often occur
:

Thus


a.
b.

the

process

of

composition.

member of compounds. (See § 7. i.) vowel of the stem of the first member of the compound often appears as i where we should expect 5 or S; sometimes it is dropped altogether, and in case of consonant
In the second
final

The

stems

I is

often inserted

;

as,

signif er, standard-bearer

tubiceu, trumpeter magnaniiuus, high-minded^ matricida, matricide.
159.
I.

Examples of Compounds.

Nouns:
a)


+ Noun
;

Preposition

as,


.

de-deous, disgrace
'

pio-a.'Wis, great-grandfather.

b)

Noun + Verb Stem

;

as,

agri-cola, farmer
fratri-cida, fratricide.
1.

Adjectives

:


4-

a)

Preposition

Adjective (or

Noun)

;

as,

per-magnus, very great sub-obscurns, rather obscure i a-mens, frantic.
b)

Adjective

-I-

Noun

;

as,

magn-animus, great-hearted;
celeri-pes, swift-footed.
c)

Noun

-I-

Verb Stem

;

as,

parti-ceps, sharing;
morti-fer, death-dealing.

Il6
3.

WORD-FORMATION.
Verbs:


is

The second member
«)

always a verb.

The

first

may be

A

Noun

;

as,


;

aedi-fico, build.
b)

An

Adjective

as,

ampli-fico, enlarge.
c)

An Adverb

;

as,


at. as,

male-dico, rail

d) Another Verb

;


make warm.

cale-facio,
e)

A

Preposition

;

as,

ab-jungo, detach;
re-f ero, bring back

dis-cerno, distinguish

ez-specto, await.

Note.

— Here belong the so-called Inseparable Prepositions
ambi- (amb-), around;
dis- (dir-, di-), apart, asunder
;

:

por-, forward

red- (re-), back; sed- (ae-), apart from;
ve-, without.
4.

Adverbs

:


;

These are of various types

as,

antea, before ilioo (in loco), on the spot

imprimis,

especially

obviam,

in the way.

Part V.
SYNTAX.
160.

Syntax treats of the use of words

in sentences.

Chapter

I.

— Sentences.

CLASSIFICATION OP SENTENCES.
161.
I.

Sentences

may be

classified as follows:
;

Declarative, which state something as, puer scribit, the boy is writing.
Interrogative, which ask a question
;

1.

as,

quid puer
3.

scribit, wJiat is the boy writing? are in the form of an exclamation
;

Exclamatory, which

as,

quot libros
4.

scribit,

how many

books he writes
;

Imperative, which express a command or an admonition
scribe, write !

as,—

FORM OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.
162.

Questions

may be

either

Word-Questions or Sen-

tence-Questions.
I.

Word-Questions.

These are introduced by the various
;

interrogative
qualis,

pronouns and adverbs
?

such as
e^C.

quis, qui,
:

quantus, quot, quotiens, quo, qua,
quia veuit, who comes

Thus

quam

diu manSbit, how long will he stay f
117

Il8
2.

SYNTAX.
Sentence-Questions.
a)
b)

These are introduced
'
,•

By nonne implying the answer 'j/^J nonne videtis, do you not see? By num implying the answer 'no'' ;

as,

as,


;

num exspectas, do you expect f (i.e. you donH expect, doyouf)
c)

by

usually stands

the enclitic -ne, appended to the emphatic word (which as,— first), and simply asking for information

videsne, do you see?

A question

introduced by -ne
;

may

receive a special impli-

cation from the context

as,

sensistine, did you not perceive?

d) Sometimes by no special word, particularly in expressions of surprise or indignation ; as,

tu in jQdicum conspectum venire audes, do you dare come into the presence of the judges ?
3.

to

Rhetorical Questions.

These are questions merely
doubts).

in

form, being employed to express an emphatic assertion;
as, quia clubitat,
4.

who doubts f {= no one
:

Double Questions.

Double Questions are introduced

by the following particles utrum
-ne

...

an;

an

....
If the

an.
(less often

second member
:

Examples

is

negative,

annon

necne)

is

used.

utrum honestum est an turpe,] bonestumne est an turpe, \ honeatum est an turpe, J
auntne di annon, are
a.

is it

honorable or base ?

there gods or not ?

An
or

was not

originally confined to double questions, but in-

troduced single questions, having the force of -ne, nonne,

num.

Traces of this use survive in classical Latin; as,—

abstrahit Lenectus. Quibua? An quae juventute geruntur et vJribus ? Old age (it is alleged) withdraws men from active pursuits. From what
eis

A rebus gerendis
Is
it

pursuits ?

not merely

from

those

which are carried on

by the strength of youth ?

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES.
5.

IIQ

Answers.
a.

The answer Yes
B5ne, or

is

expressed by
;

ita,

by
'

repetition of the verb

as,

etiam, vero,

'visne locum
place ?
'

mutemus?'
Certainly.''

'sang.'

^

Shall

we change
'

the

'eatisne vos legati?' <sumus.'
b.

'

Are you envoys f

Ves.^

The answer No
negative
' '
;

is

expressed by non, mlnimg,

minime vero; or by repeating the verb with a
as,

jam ea

praeteriit ?

'

'

non.'

<

Has
'

it

passed? '

'

No:

estne frater intus ?

'

'

non

est. '

/j your brother withi» f '

'No:

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
163.

The two

essential parts of a sentence are the Sub-

lECT and Predicate.

asked,
etc.,

The Subject is that concerning which something is said, etc. The Predicate is that which is said, asked,
concerning the Subject.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES.
164.

Sentences containing but one Subject and one

Predicate are called Simple Sentences, those containing

legit,

more are called Compound Sentences. Thus puer Ubros the boy reads books, is a Simple Sentence but puer
;

libros Jegit

et epistulas

scribit,

the

boy reads books

and

writes letters, is

members
165.

of a

Compound Sentence. The different Compound Sentence are called Clauses.
a

Coordinate and Subordinate Clauses. Clauses which Coordinate a Clause dependent upon another is called Subordinate. Thus in puer libros legit et epistulas scribit the two clauses are Coordinate but in puer libros legit quos pater scribit, the boy reads the books which his father writn.
stand ^upon an equality are called
;

;

the second clause is Subordinate to the

first.

I20

SYNTAX.

Chapter
The

II.

— Syntax of Nouns.
SUBJECT.
{i.e.
is

166.

Subject of a Finite Verb

any form

of

the Indicative, Subjunctive, or Imperative)
native Case.
1

in the Nomi-

The
a)

Subject

may be


man
"writes.

A Noun
puer

or Pronoun; as,

scribit, the boy writes

hio scribit, this
i)

An

Infinitive

;

as,


is

decorum
c)

est pro patria mori, to die for one's country

a

noble thing.

A

Clause

;

as,


vidisti,
it

opportune accidit quod that you saw.
2.

happened opportunely

A

Personal Pronoun as Subject
separately expressed
;

and

is jiot

as,

is

usually implied in the Verb,

scribo,
a.

/ write

videt, he

sees.

But for the purpose of emphasis or contrast the Pronoun
expressed
;

as,

is

ego scribo et tu

legis,

/ write, and you

read.

is sometimes omitted when it can be easily supplied 3. from the context, especially the auxiliary sum as,
;

The verb

recte

ille {sc. facit),

he does rightly ; consul prof actus

{sc. est), the

consul set out.

PREDICATE NOUNS.
167. ject

A Predicate Noun is one connected with the Subby some form of the verb Sum or a similar verb. A
-^

168.

Case

;

as,


1

Predicate

Noun

agrees with

its

Subject

in

For

the Predicate Genitive, see \\ 198, 3; 203, 5.

PREDICATE NOUNS. — APPOSITIVES.

121

Numa
1.

Cicero orator fuit, Cicero was an orator creatus est rex, Numa was elected king.
possible, the Predicate

When

ject in

Gender

also

;

as,

Noun

usually agrees with

its

Sub-

philosophia est vitae ra^i^&ti^., philosophy
2.

is

the guide of life.

Besides sum, the verbs most

cate

Noun

are

frequently accompanied

by a Predi-

a) fio, evado, exsisto

;

maneo videor
;

;

as,


etc. ;

Croesus non semper mansit rex, Croesus did not always
remain king.
6) Passive verbs of making, calling, regarding,

appellor, habeor

;

as,

as,

creor,

Homulus rex appellatus

est,

Romulus was

called king;

habitus est deus, he was regarded as a god.

APPOSITIVES.
169.
I.

An

Appositive

is

a

Noun

explaining or definas,

ing another

Noun

denoting the same person or thing;
city

Cicero consul, Cicero, the Consul;

urbs Roma, the
2.

Rome.

An Appositive

agrees with

its

Subject in Case;

as,

opera Ciceronis oratoris, the works of

Cicero, the orator

apud Herodotum, patrem historiae,
father of history.
3.

in the

works of Herodotus,

the

When
;

der also

as,

possible, the Appositive agrees with its Subject in

Gen-

assentatio adjutrix vitiorum,^?^^^^^^, the promoter of evils.
4.

A

Locative

may

take in Apposition the Ablative of urbs or
;

oppidum, with or without a preposition
CoiinthT,
Greece.
5.

as,

Achaiae urbe, or in Achaiae urbe,

at Cormth, u city of

Partitive Apposition.

A

Noun denoting a whole
;

followed by an Appositive denoting a part
milites, fortissimus

as,

is

frequently

quisque, hostibus restiterunt, the

soldiers, all

the bravest of them, resisted the enemy.

122

SYNTAX.

THE CASES. THE NOMINATIVE.
170.

The Nominative

is

confined to

its

use as Subject,
See

Appositive, or Predicate Noun, as already explained.
§§ 166-169.

THE VOCATIVE.
171.

The Vocative

is

the Case of direct address

;

as,


tu,

credite mibi, judices, believe me, judges.
1.

By

a species of attraction, the Nominative

is

occasionally used
;

for the Vocative, especially in poetry

and formal prose

as,

audi

populus Albanus, hear ye, Alban people!
2.

Similarly the Appositive of a Vocative may, in poetry, stand
;

in

the Nominative

as,

nate,

mea magna

potentia solus,

O

son, aloni

the source of my great power.

THE ACCUSATIVE.
172. 173.

The Accusative
The

is

the Case of the Direct Object,

Direct Object
:

following relations

may

express either of the two

A. The Person or Thing Affected by the action as,— consulem interfecit, he slew the consul; lego librum, / read the book.
;

B.

The Result Produced by
librum scrips!, I wrote a book

the action
(i.e.

;

as,


;

produced one)

templum

struit,

he.

constructs a temple.

174. Verbs that admit a Direct Object of either of two types are Transitive Verbs.
a.

these

without

Verbs that regularly take a Direct Object are sometimes used it. They are then oaid to be employed absolutely;
est
is

as,— rumor
son

meum gnatum
loi'e.

amare,

it is

rumored

that my

in

THE ACCUSATIVE.
Accusative of the Person or Thing Affected.
175.
sative
;

123

I.

This

as in

is

the most frequent use of the

Accu-

parentes amamus, we love our parents ;

mare
2.

aspioit, he gazes at the sea.

The
a)

following classes of Verbs taking an Accusative of this kind
:

are

worthy of note

Many
tion,

Intransitive Verbs,

become Transitive.

when compounded with a Thus
:

Preposi-

i)

Compounds

of ciroum, praeter, trans
to

;

as,

hostes circumstare,

surround the enemy ; urbem praeterire, to pass by the city muros transceudere, to climb over the walls.
2) Less frequently,

compounds of ad, per,

in,

sub

;

as,

adire urbem, to visit the city peragrare Italiam, to travel through Italy
inire

magistratum,

to take office

subire periculum,
b)

to

undergo danger.

Many Verbs

expressing emotions, regularly Intransitive, have
;

also a Transitive use

as,

queror fatum, I lament my fate; doleo ejus mortem, I grieve at his death rideo tuam stultitiam, I laugh at your folly.

So

also lugeo,

maereo, mourn

;

gemo, bemoan ; horreo,
unbecom-

shudder, and others.
c)

The impersonals deoet,
ing; juvat,
it

it

becomes; dedecet,

it is

pleases, take the Accusative of the Person

Affected; as,

mS
are

decet haec dicere,

it

becomes

me

to

say

this.

d) In poetry

many

employed as Middles (§ 256,
;

Passive Verbs, in imitation of Greek usage, i 2), and take the Accuas,

sative as Object

;

galeam induitur, he puis on his helmet cinctus tempora hedera, having bound
ivy

his temples with

nodo sinus coUecta, having gathered her dress

in a knot.

124

SYNTAX.
Accusative of the Result Produced.

176.

I.

The ordinary type

such expressions as

of this Accusative

is

seen

in

librum scribS, / write a book ; domum. aedificS, / build a house.
2.

Many Verbs
a)

usually Intransitive take a Neuter Pronoun,

Adjective, as

an Accusative of Result.
;

Thus

:

oi'

A Neuter Pronoun

as,

haec gemebat, he jiiade these moans idem gloriari, to make the same boast eadem peccat, he makes the same mistakes.
b)

A Neuter Adjective, particularly Adjectives of number multum, multa, pauca, etc. ; also nihil as, amount,

oi

;

multa egeo, / have many needs pauca studet, he has few interests j

multum
Note.

valet, he has great strength

;

nihil peccat, he

makes no mistake.
this construction
;

— In poetry other Adjectives are freely used in

as,

mlnltantem vana, making vain threats acerba tuens,^^z»^ a fierce look; duloe loquentem, sweetly talking.
3.

The

adverbial use of several Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives
this Accusative
;

grows out of

as,

multum sunt
a.

in venatione, they are

much engaged in
;

hunting.
generally;
etc.

So

also

plurimum, very greatly

plerumque,

aliquid, somewhat; quid,
4.

why?

nihil, not at all;

Sometimes an Intransitive Verb takes an Accusative of Result is of kindred etymology with the Verb. This is called a Cognate Accusative, and is usually modified by an Adjective as,
vrhich
;

sempiternam servitutem serviat, let him serve an everlastinir slavery; vTtam duram vixi, I have lived a hard life.
a.

Sometimes the Cognate Accusative is not of kindred mology, but merely of kindred meaning as,
;

ety-

stadium

currit, he runs a race

Olympia

vincit, he wins

an Olympic

victory.

THE ACCUSATIVE.
5.

1

25

The Accusative

of Result occurs also after Verbs of

/aj/iV/g-

and

smelling; as,

piscis

mare

sapit, the fish tastes of the sea

orationes autlquitatem redolent, the speeches smack of the past.

Tv70 Accusatives
177.
I.

— Direct Object and Predicate Accusative.
of

Many Verbs
like,

Making, Choosing, Calling,

Showing, and the
tive; as,

take two Accusatives, one of the

Person or Thing Affected, the other a Predicate Accusa-

me heredem
Here

fecit, he

made me

heir.

mS

So

also

is

Direct Object,

heredem
tfiey

Predicate Accusative.

eum judicem
urbem
se
2.
as,

cepere,

took

him as judge
man.

Romam vocavit, he called the city Rome
praestitit, he showed himself a

virum

The

Predicate Accusative

may be an

Adjective as well as a

Noun

homines caecos reddit cupiditas, covetousness renders men blind; Apollo Socratem sapientissimum judicavit, Apollo adjudged Socrates the wisest ?nan.
a.

Some

Verbs, as

reddo,

usually admit only an Adjective as the Predicate

Accusative.
3.

In the Passive the Direct Object becomes the Subject, and the

Predicate Accusative

becomes Predicate Nominative

(§ 168. 2.

iJ)

;

as,

urbs
a.

Roma

vocata
it.

est, the city

was

called
;

Rome.
efflcio, for

Not

all

Verbs admit the Passive construction

reddo and

example, never take

Two
178.
I.

Accusatives

— Person

and Thing.
Accusatives,

Some Verbs

take two

one of

the Person Affected, the other of the Result Produced.

Thus

:

a) Verbs of requesting and demanding;

as,


speeches of

me

otium divos rogat, he asks the gods for rest; duas orationes postulSs, you demand two
me.

126

SYNTAX.
So also oro, posed, reposco, ezposoo, flagito, though some of these prefer the Ablative with ab to the Accusative
of the Person
;

as,

opem a
b)

te posco,

/ demand aid ofyou.
its

Verbs oi teaching (doceo and
te litteras doceo,

compounds)
letters.

;

as,

I teach you your
as,

c)

Verbs oi inquiring ;
te

haec rogo, I ask you this; te sententiam rogo, I ask you your
a) Several Special Verbs
;

opinion.

viz.

moneo, admoneo, commoneo,

cogo, accuso, arguo, and a few others. These admit only a Neuter Pronoun or Adjective as Accusative of the Thing
;

as,

te moneo, I give you this advice; id accusas, j/o?< bring this accusation against me; id cogit nos natura, nature compels us {to) this.

hoc

me

e)

OaeVtrh of concealing, celo as, non te celavi sermonem, / have sation from you.
;

not concealed the conver-

2.

In the Passive construction the Accusative of the Person becomes

the Subject, and the Accusative of the

Thing

is

retained

;

as,

was taught all accomplishments; rogatus sum sententiam, I was asked my opnnion multa admonemur, we are given many admonitions.
».

omnes

artes edoctus est, he

Only a few Verbs admit the Passive construction.
Tviro

Accusatives

-w^ith

Compounds.
of trans

179.

I.

Transitive

compounds
;

may

take two

Accusatives,

one dependent upon the Verb, the other
as,

upon the Preposition

milites flumen transportat, he leads his soldiers across the
2.

river.

With other compounds

this construction is rare.
is

3.

In the Passive the Accusative dependent upon the preposition

retained; as,

milites flumen traducSbantur, the soldiers were led across the river

THE ACCUSATIVE.
Synecdochical (or G-reek) Accusative.
180.
to
I
.

1

27

The Synecdochical

(or Greek) Accusative denotes the part
;

which an action or quality refers

as,

tremit artus,

literally,

he trembles as

to his limbs, i.e. his

limbs tremble

n^da

gfentl,

lit.

bare as
lit.

to the knee, i.e.

with knee bare
i.e.

manas revlnctus,
2.

tied as to the hands,

with hands tied.

Note that
a)
b)
c)

this construction

Is

borrowed from the Greek.

Is chieiiy confined to poetry.

Usually refers to a part of the body.
Is

d)

used with Adjectives as well as Verbs.

Accusative of Time and Space.

Duration of Time and Extent of Space are denoted by the Accusative; as,
181.
I.

quadraginta annos vixit, he lived forty years i hie locus passus sescentos aberat, this place was six hundred paces

away qnmquaginta pedes altae, trees fifty feet high ; abhiuc septem annos, seven years ago.
arbores
2.

Emphasis

is

sometimes added by using the Preposition per

;

as,

per biennium laboravi,

I toiled throughout two years.
I is

/j

Accusative of Iiimit of Motion.
182.
a)
I.

The Accusative

of Limit of Motion

used


as,'

With names of Towns, Small Islands, and Peninsulas ;

Romam veni, / carne to Rome
Athenas
proficiscitur, he sets out for Athens

Delum
B)

perveni,

I arrived at Delos.
as,

With domuni, domos, rus;


building),
it

domum
rus 5b6,

revertitur, he returns home;

1 shall go

to the country.

Note
osition
;

When —— domus
as,

means house
to

(i.e.

takes a prepe

in

domum

veterem remigrare,

move back

to

an old house.

'

128
2.

SYNTAX.
Other designations of place than those above mentioned
;

a Preposition to denote Limit of iVIotion

as,

require

ad Italiam
a.

venit, he came to Italy.
also

The

Preposition
or

is

customary with the Accusatives
they stand in apposition with the

urbem

oppidum when
;

name of a town

as,

Thalam, in oppidum magnum, to Thala, a large town Genavam ad oppidum, to the town Geneva.
b.

The name

of a town denoting limit of motion may be combined with the name of a country or other word dependent upon a preposition as,
;

Thurios in Italiam perveotus, carried

cum Aoen ad ezercitum
the

to Thurii in Italy; venisset, when he had come to

army

at Ace.

to the vicinity of, in the vicinity of, ad is used 3. as,— ad Tarentum veni, / came to the vicinity of Tarentum ad Cannas pugna facta est, a battle was fought near Cannae.
4. In poetry the Accusative of any noun denoting a place may be used without a preposition to express the limit of motion as,
;

To

denote toward,

Italiam venit, he came
5.

to Italy.

to represent the original function of the Traces of this primitive force are recognizable in the phrase infitias Ire, to deny (lit. to go to a denial)., and a few other

The goal notion seems

Accusative Case.

similar expressions.

Accusative in Exclamations.
183.
tive, is

The Accusative, generally modified by an Adjec' used in Exclamations as,
;

me miserum, ah, wretched me O fallacem spem, oh, deceptive hope!
Accusative as Subject of the
184. tive
;

Infinitive.

The
as,

Subject of the Infinitive

is

put in the Accusa-

video hoiuinem abjte, I see that

the

man

is going

away.

THE ACCUSATIVE. —THE DATIVE.
Other Uses of the Accusative.
185.
1.

I2g

Here belong


originally Appositives
;

Some Accusatives which were
id genus, of that kind;
(originally
as,

viz.

homines id genus, men of that kind homines, id genus hominum, men, that kind

of men)

;

muliebre secus, of the male sex,of the female sexi vioem, tuam vioem, etc., for my part, etc. bonam partem, magnam partem, in large part; maximam partem, for the most part.
virile secus,

meam

2.

Some

phrases of doubtful origin

;

as,


si,

id temporis, at that time id aetatis, at that time

quod

but if;

cetera, in other respects.

THE DATIVE.
186. The Dative case, in general, expresses relations which are designated in English by the prepositions to

and

'

for.

Dative of Indirect Object.
187.

The commonest use

of the Dative

is to

denote the

person to
I.

whom something

is

given, said, or done.

Thus

:

With
;

sative

as,

transitive verbs in connection with the

Accu-

hanc peciiuiam mibi dat, he gives me haec nobis dixit, he said this to us.
a.

this

money

Some verbs which take this construction (particularly douo and circumdo) admit also the Accusative of the person along with the Ablative of the thing. Thus
:

Either Themistocli munera donavit, he presented
Themisiocles, or

gifts to

Themistoclem muneribus donavit, he presented Themistocles.witk gifts

urbi muros circumdat, he builds walls around the city, ol urbem muris circumdat, ne surrounds the city with wall:

I'^O

SYiMAA.
With many
a.

II.

intransitive verbs; as,


believe,

nuUi labor!

cedit, he yields to no lubor.

Here belong many verbs signifying favor^ help, injure, please, displease, trust, distrust, command, obey, serve, resist,
indulge, spare, pardon, envy,

persuade, and the like

;

as,

threaten, be angry,

Caesar popularibus favet, Caesar favors (i.e. is favorable to) the popular party amicis c5nf ido, / trust (to) my friends Orgetorix Helvetiis persuasit, Orgetorix persuaded (made it acceptable to) the Helvetians bonis nocet qui mails parcit, he injures (does harm to)
the good,

who
in

spares the bad.
that these verbs

Note. —

It is to

be borne

mind

do not take

the Dative by

because they are intransiSome verbs of the same apparent English tive, and adapted to an indirect object. equivalence are transitive and govern the Accusative; as, juvo, laedo, delecto.
virtue of their apparent English equivalence, but simply

Thus:

audentes deus juvat, God
b.

helps the bold;

neminem

laesit, he

injured no one.

Verbs of this
as,

class are

used in the passive only impersonally

tibi parcitur,

you are spared; mihi persuadetur, I am being persuaded
ei invidetur, he is envied.
of the foregoing verbs admit also a Direct Object in connection
;

c.

Some
mihi

with the Dative

as,

mortem
to

mlnitatur, he

threatens

me

with death (threatens

death

me)

III.

With many verbs compounded with the

preposi-

fions
tfub,

:

ad, ante, oircum, com,^ in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro,

super.
classes,

These verbs fall into two main I. Many simple verbs which cannot
object
tion
;


preposi-

take a Dative of the indirect

become capable of doing so wheii compounded with a
as,

afflictis succurrit, he helps the afflicted;

ezercitui praefuit, he was in

command of

the

army
govs

intersum

consiliis,

/ share

in the deliberations.

^ Many such verbs were originally intransitive in English also, and once " This was the original form of the preposition cum. erned the Dative.

THE DATIVE.
2.

131
direct object

Many

transitive verbs

which take only a

become
indirect

capable,

when compounded, of taking a

dative

also

as

object; as,

pecuniae pudorem anteponit, he puts honor before money i micere spem amicTs, to inspire hope in one''s friends muuitiom Labienum praefScit, he put Labienus in charge of the
fortifications.

Dative of Reference.
188.
I.

The Dative

of Reference denotes the person to

whom a
is

statement refers, of

of interest ; as,
the eyes to me")

whom

it is true,

or to

whom

it

mihi ante oculos versaris, you hover before
;

my

eyes

(lit.

hover before

illi

severitas

amorem non
(lit.

diminish love

to him. severity

dSminuit, in his case severity did not did not diminish)
;

intercludere inimicTs commeatuin, to cut off the supplies of the enemy.
a.

Note the phrase allcui interdicere

aqua

et ignl,

to interdict

one

from fire and water.
Note.

— The Dative

of Reference, unlike the Dative of Indirect Object, does
It is often

not modify the verb, but rather the sentence as a whole.

used where,
first

according to the English idiom,
third of the

we should

expect a Genitive; so in the

and

above examples.

2.

Special varieties of the Dative of Reference are
ct)

Dative of
participle
;

tlie
as,

Local Standpoint.

This

is

regularly a

oppidum primum Thessaliae venientibua ab Epiro, the first town of Thessaly as you come from Epirus (lit. to those coming from Epirus").
i)

Ethical Dative.

structions of the personal

This name is given to those Dative conpronouns in which the connection
is

of the Dative with the rest of the sentence
slightest sort
;

of the very

as,

tu mihi istius audaciam defendis?
that man's audacity f

tell

me, do you defend

quid mihi Celsus agit ? what

is

my

Celsus doing ?

132
c)

SYJNTAA.
Dative of Person Judging
eiit ille
(i.e.
;

as,


be

mihi semper deus, he will always
in

a god to me
that
he

my

opinion)

;

quae ista servitus tarn claro bomiui, how can
slavery to so illustrious a

man

(i.e.

to his

mind)

d) Dative
especially

of Separation.

Some
;

verbs

of taking away,
of

compounds of ab, de, ex, ad, govern a Dative
as,

the person, less often of the thing

honorem detraxerunt homim, from the man
away from
silicT

they took

away

the honor

Caesar regi tetrarchiam eripuit, Caesar took
the king;
}ie

the tetrarchy

scintillam escudit,

struck

a spark from

the

flint.

Dative of Agency.
189.
1

The Dative

is

used to denote agency
;

Regularly with the Gerundive

as,


is

haec nobis agenda aunt, these things must be done by us; °mihi eundum est, I must go (lit. it must be gone by me).
a.

To

avoid ambiguity, Gerundive; as,

a

with

tlie

Ablative

sometimes used with

the

hostlbus
2.

a,

nobis

parcendum

est, the enemy must Be spared by us.

Much

less frequently with the

compound
;

voice and the perfect passive participle

as,

tenses of the passive

disputatio quae mihi nuper habita est, the discussion which was
recently conducted by me.
3.

Rarely with the uncompounded tenses of the passive

;

as,

honesta bonis

virls quaerun,tur, noble ends are sought by good nun.

Dative of Possession.
190.

The Dative

of Possession occurs with the verb
:

in

such expressions as

ease

mihi est liber, I have a book; mihi nomen est MSrous, I have the name Marcus.
I.

But with
;

Ihe Dative

as,

nomen est the name is more commonly mihi Marco nomen est.

attracted

into

THE DATIVE.
Dative of Purpose or Tendency.

133

The Dative of Purpose or Tendency designates end toward which an action is directed or the direction in which it tends. It is used
191.

the

1.

Unaccorapanied by another Dative

;

as,

caatris

locum

dSligere, to choose a place for a

camp guard
(lit.

legiones praesidio relinquere, to leave the legions as a

for a guard) receptuT canere, to sound the sigfialfor a
\

retreat.

2.

Much more
:

person

frequently in connection with another Dative of the

a) Especially with

some form of esse

;

as,


to

fortuuae tuae mihi curae sunt, your fortunes are a care me (lit. for a cere) quibus supt odio, to whom they are an object of hatred; cui bono ? to whom is it of advantage?
;

b)

With other verbs
hos
tibi

;

as,


sent these to

muneri misit, he has

you for a
the

present

Pausaoias Atticis venit auzilio, Pausanias came to aid of the Athenians (lit. to the Athenians for aid).
3.

In connection with the Gerundive

;

as,

decemviii legibus scribundis, decemvirs for codifying the laws; me gerendo bello ducem oreavere, me they have made leader for carrying on the war.
Note.

— This construction with the gerundive
The use

is

not

common

till

Livy.

Dative 'with Adjectives.
192.

of the Dative with Adjectives corresponds

very closely to
I.

its

use with verbs.

Thus

:

Corresponding to the Dative of Indirect Object
:

it

occurs with

adjectives signifying

friendly, unfriendly, similar, dissimilar, equal^
as,

near, related to, etc.

;

mihi inimicua, hostile to me sunt prozimi GermSnTs,. they are next to the Germans noziae poena par esto, let the penalty be equal to the damage.

134
a.

SYNTAX.
For
§ 14^,

propior and
3-

proximus

with

the Accusative,

see

3.

Corresponding to the Dative of Purpose, the Dative occurs
:

with

adjectives signifying

suitable, adapted, fit

^

as,

oastris idoneus locus, a place fit for a

camp
a
sacrifice.

apta dies sacrificio, a day
Note.

suitable for

— Adjectives of

this last class often take the

Accusative with ad.

Bative of Direction.
193.
direction
it

In the poets the Dative

of motion

;

as,

is

occasionally used to denote the

clamor caelo,

t^e shout goes

heavenward;

cineres rivo fluenti jace, cast the ashes toward a flowing stream.
I
.

By an

extension of

tliis

construction the poets sometimes use the
;

Dative to denote the limit of motion

as,

dum Latio

deos inferret,

till he.

sAould bring his gods to Latium.

THE GENITIVE.
194.

The

Genitive

is

used with Nouns, Adjectives, and

Verbs.

GENITIVE WITH NOUNS.
195.

the

With Nouns the Genitive is ike case which defines meaning of the limited noun more closely. This relation is
:

generally indicated in English by the preposition of. There are the following varieties of the Genitive with Nouns

Genitive of Origin, Genitive of Material, Genitive of Possession, Subjective Genitive,
196.

Objective Genitive, Genitive of the Whole, Apposltlonal Genitive, Genitive of Quality.

Genitive of Origin

;

as,


son of Marcus,

Marci
197.

filius, the
;

Genitive of Material

as,

talentum auri, a talent of gold; acervus frumenti, a pile ofgrain.

THE DATIVE.— THE GENITIVE.
198.

135

Genitive of Possession or Ownership

;

as,


The Geni-

domus
1.

Ciceronis, Cicero's house.

Here belongs the Genitive with causa and gratia.
;

tive

always precedes

as,

hominum causa, /or the sake of nun meorum amicorum gratia, yor the sake of my friends.
2.

The Possessive Genitive
and
fieri
;

with esse

as,

is

often used predicatively, especially

domus

est regis, the house

is

the king's
it is

stulti est in errore

manere,

(the part)

of a fool

to

remain in

error ;

de bello judicium imperatoris
For the difference
in force
a.

est,

uon militum,

the decision con-

cerning war belongs to the general, not to the soldiers.
a.

between the Possessive Genitive and the Dative

of

Possession, see \ 359,

199.

Subjective Genitive.

This denotes the person who makes
as,

or produces something or

who has a feeling;

dicta PlatSnis, the utterances of Plato timores liberorum, the fears of the children.
200.

Objective Genitive.

or feeling; as,

This denotes the

object

of an action

metus deorum,

the fear of the gods;

amor
I.

libertatis, love of liberty

consuetudo bonorum hominum,
This relation
is

intercourse with

good men.
;

often expressed by
love

means of prepositions

a.s,

amor erga parentis,
201.

toward one's parents^
This designates the whole oi

Genitive of the Whole.
is

which a part
!.

taken.

It is

used


Superlatives,

With Nouns, Pronouns, Comparatives,
;

and Ordioai

Numerals

as,

magna pars hominum, a great part of mankind;
duo milia peditum, two thousandfoot-soldiers quis mortalium, who of mortals f major fratrum, the elder of the brothers;
gens

maxima Germanorum,
the first

the largest tribe of the

Germans;

primus omnium,

of all.

136
a.

SYNTAX.
Yet instead of the Genitive of the Whole we often find ex or dS the Ablative, regularly so with Cardinal numbers and quidam as,
;

with

fldelissimus de servis, the most trusty of the quidam ex amicis, certain of his friends ;

slaves ;

unus ex
i.

milltibus, one of the

soldiers.

In English we often use of where there is no relation of whole to part In such cases the Latin is more exact, and does not use the Genitive;
as,

estis, how many ofyou are there f treoenti conjuravimus, three hundred of us have conspired we, three hundred in number).

quot vos

(j. e.

2.

The

Genitive of the

Whole

is

used also with the Nominative

or

Accusative Singular Neuter of Pronouns, or of Adjectives used substantively; also with the Adverbs parum, satis, and partim wlien

used substantively

;

as,

quid consilT, what purpose ? tantum cibi, so much food; plus auctoritatis, more authority ;

minus lab oris,

tess

labor;

satis pecuniae, enough money

parum
a.

industriae, too

little

industry.

An

Adjective of the second declension used substantively
as,

may

be em-

ployed as a Genitive of the Whole;
t.

nihil boni, nothing good.
thej

But Adjectives of the third declension agree directly with the noun limit as, nihil dulclus, nothing sweeter.
;

3.

Occasionally
;

we
as,

Adverbs of place

find the Genitive of the

Whole dependent

upon

ubi terrarum ? ubi gentium ? where in the world?
u..

By an

extension of this usage the Genitive sometimes occurs in dependence upon pridle and postridle, but only in the phrases pridle ejus diei, on the day before that ; postridle ejus dlei, on the day
after that.

202.
force of

Appositional Genitive.
an appositive
;

as,

The

Genitive sometimes has

the

nomen

regis, the

name of king;

poena mortis,
203.
tive is

the penalty of death; ars scribendi, the art of writing.

Genitive of Quality.

The

used to denote quality. varieties. Thus it is used

Genitive modified by an AdjecThis construction presents several

THE GENITIVE.
1.

137
characteristic of a person

To denote some
;

or thing

as,

internal or

permanent

vir

magnae virtutis, a man of great virtue rationes ejus modi, considerations of that sort.
this construction, chiefly

a.

Only a limited number of Adjectives occur in

magnus, mazlmus, summus, tantus,
2.

along with ejus.
;

To denote measure {breadth, length, etc.) as, — fossa quindecim pedum, a trench fifteen feet wide ezsilium decem annorum, an exile of ten years.

(or deep)

;

3.

Equivalent to the Genitive of Quality (though probably of different

origin) are the Genitives tanti,

minimi, plurimi, mazimi.
indefinite

value ;

as,

quanti, parvi, magni, minoris, plutis, These are used predicatiVely to denote

n&lla studia tanti sunt, no studies are of so much value magni opera ejus ezistimata est, his assistance was highly esteemed.
4. By an extension of the notion of value, quanti, tanti, pluris, and minoris are also used with verbs of buying and selling, to denote

indefinite price

;

as,

quanti aedes emisti, at how high a price did you purchase the house ?
5.

Any

of the above varieties of the Genitive of Quality
;

used predicatively

as,

may be

tantae molis erat

Romanam

condere gentem, of
race.

so great difficulty

was

it

to found the

Roman

GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.
204.

The

Genitive

is

used with many. Adjectives

limit the extent
I.

of their application.

Thus

:


;

to

With

adjectives signifying desire, knowledge, familiarity,
as,

^y, participation, power, fullness, and their opposites

mem-

studiosus discendi, desirous of learnings
peritus belli, skilled in

war
;

insuetus laboris, unused to toil immemor mandati tui, unmindful ofyour commission plena periculorum est vita, life is full of dangers,
a.

Some

participles

used adjectively also take the Genitive

;

as,

diligens verltatis,/)«<i of truth; amans patriae, devoted to one's country.

138
2.

SYNTAX.
Sometimes with proprius and

communis
axtians.,

;

as,


of a man.
is

vlri

propria est fortitude, bravery
est

is characteristic

memoria
a.

communis omnium

memory

common

to all

professions.

proprius and

communis are

also construed with the Dative.

With similis the Genitive is the commoner Cicero, when the reference is to living objects as,
3.
;

construction

in

niius patris sim.iUimus est, the son is exactly mei similis, like me; vestri similis, like you.

like his father;

When

the reference

is

to things, both Genitive

and Dative occur

;

as,

mors sompo
is

(or

somnT) similis

est, death is like sleep.

4. In the poets and later prose writers the use of the Genitive with Adjectives extended far beyond earlier limits; as, atrox zsc&aa., fierce of temper ; incer-

tus cousili,

-undecided in purpose.

GENITIVE WITH VERBS.
205.

Verbs
206.

:


I.

The

Genitive

is

used with the following classes

of

Memini, Remlniscor, Oblivisoor.

When
;

referring to Persons
as,


reflexive

a.

memini
pronouns

always takes the Genitive of personal or

mei memineris, remember me !
nostrl meminit, he remembers
us.

With

other words denoting persons
;

rarely the Genitive

as,

meminT

takes tne Accusative,

SuUam memini, / recall Sulla vivSrum memini, / remember the
b.

living.
;

obliviscor regularly takes the Genitive

as,

Epicuri non licet oblivisci,
2.

-we

mustnH forget

Epicurus.
obliviswithout

When

referring to Things, memini, reminiscor,
;

cor take sometimes the Genitive, sometimes the Accusative, difference of meaning as,

animus praeteritorum meminit, the mind rem,embers the past; meministine nomina, do you remember the names? reminiscere veteris incommodi, remember the former disaster'. reminiscens acerbitatem, retnemiering the bitterness.

»

THE GENITIVE.
a.

139

But neuter pronouns, and adjectives used substantively, regularly stand
in the Accusative
;

as,

meminl, / remember this multa rerainiscor, / remember many
taaec
3. The phrase mihi (tlbi, etc.) in memini, takes the Genitive as,
;

things,

mentem

venit, following the analogy of

mibi patriae veniebat In mentem, / remembered my

country,

Admoneo, Commoneo, Commonefacio,
207.

These verbs,

in addition to

an Accusative of the
;

person, occasionally take a Genitive of the thing
te veteris

as,

amicitiae commonefacio, / remind you of our old

friendship.
It,

But more frequently
with the Ablative
;

(in

as,

Cicero almost invariably) these verbs take

de

me admones de
i.

sorore, you remind me of your

sister,

A
te

neuter pronoun or adjective used substantively regularly stands in

the Accusative (178. i.d); as,

hoc admoneo, I give you

this

warning.

Verbs
208.
I.

of Judicial Action.

Verbs of Accusing, Convicting, Acquitting take

the Genitive of the charge ; as,

me furti
Verrem

accusat, he accuses

me of theft

avaritiae coarguit, he convicts Verres of avarice ; impietatis ab^olutus est, he was acquitted of blasphemy.
2.

Verbs of Condemning take
a.

— —
condemned
\

The Genitive of the charge ; as, peciiniae publicae condemnatus,

(on

the

charge) of embezzlement (lit. public money) capitis damnatus, condemned on a capital charge

(lit.

on

a charge involving his head),
b.

The

Ablative of the penalty

;

as,


{to

capite

damnatus

est, he

mille

nummis damnatus
sesterces

was condemned to death est, he was condemned

pay)

a thousand Means).

(lit.

by a thousand sest'rces, Abl. of

I40
:

SYNTAX.

3. Note the phrases voti damnatus, voti reus, having attained score of one's vow)
;

one's

prayer

(lit.

condemned on

tit

de

vi,

{accused, convicted, etc^ of assault
{accused, convicted, etc)

inter sicarios,

of murder.

Genitive with Impersonal Verbs.
209.
I.

The Impersonals

pudet, paenitet, mlseret, taedet,

piget take the Accusative of the person affected, along with

the Genitive of the person or thing toward whom the feeling is directed ; as,

pudet

paenitet

me tui, / am ashamed ofyou (lit. it shames me ofyoii) me hujus facti, I repent of this act;
is

;

eum
a.

taedet vitae, he

weary of life;

pauperum

te miseret, you pity the poor.
tlie

Instead of

Genitive of the thing

life

often find

Pronoun used as subject of the verb.

Thus

:

an

Infinitive or Neuter

me paenitet hoc fecisse, / repent of having done this me hoc pudet, / am ashamed of this.
2.

;

Misereor and miseresco

also govern

the Genitive;
allies.

as,—

miseremini sociorum, pity
Interest, RStert.
210.

the

With

interest,
;

consideration

viz.

it

concerns, three

points enter

into

a) the person concerned ;
b) the thing about
c)

which he

is

concerned

the extent of his concern.
I.

211.

The person concerned
patris interest,
it

is

regularly denoted by

the Genitive; as,
concerns the father.

a.

But instead of the Genitive of the personal pronouns, me!,
tui,

nostri, vestri, the Latin uses the Ablative Singulai
viz.
.-

Feminine of the Possessive,

mea, tua,

etc. ; as,

mea

interest,

it

concerns me.

THE GENITIVE.
2.

I4I
is

The
a)

denoted

thing about which a person

concerned

is

by a Neuter Pronoun as subject

;

as,

hoc
V)

rei publicae interest, this concerns the state.
Infinitive
;

by an

as,


it

omniuin interest valere,
c)

concerns all to keep welli

by an Indirect Question

;

as,


/ am
concerned as
to

mea

interest

quando

venias,

when

you are coming.
3.

The
a)

degree vf concern
the Genitive
(cf. §

is

denoted
:


etc. ; as,

by

203, 3)
it

magni, parvi,

mea magnl
6)

interest,

concerns

me greatly.
etc. ;

by the Adverbs, magnopere, magis, maxime,

as,

civium minime interest,
c)

it

concerns the citizens very
etc.
;

little.

by the Neuters, multum, plus, minus,

as,


it

multum vestra interest,-zif concerns you
4.

much.
rarely

Refert follows interest in

its

construction, except that
:

takes the Genitive of the person.

Thus
it

mea

refert,

concerns

me

but rarely illius refert, it concerns

him.

Genitive with Other Verbs.
212.
I.

Verbs of Plenty and Want sometimes govern
;

the Genitive

as,

pecuniae indiges, you need money.
a.

These verbs more commonly take the Ablative (§ 214, i) indigeo is the only verb which has a preference for the
;

Genitive.
2.

the Genitive, almost always so in Sallust

Potior, though usually followed by the Ablative, sometimes takes and regularly in the phrase
;

potlri rerum, to get control of affairs.
3.

In poetry some verbs take the Genitive in imitation of the Greek

;

as,

desine querellSrum, cease yow complaints ; operum eoVJiH, freed from their t^shs.

142

SYNTAX.

THE ABLATIVE.
213.

The Latin Ablative
distinct

unites in itself three cases which
in

were originally

both

form and

in

meaning

;

viz. -9,

The Ablative or from-case. The Instrumental or with- case. The Locative or where-case.
The
uses.

uses of the Latin Ablative accordingly
uses, Instrumental' uses,

fall

into

Genuine Ablative

and

Locative

GENUINE ABLATIVE USES.
Ablative of Separation.
214.

The Ablative of Separation
following words
:

is

construed sometimesi

with, sometimes without, a preposition.
I.

The
a)

preposition

regularly

take

the

Ablative without

a

The Verbs oifreeing: libero, solvo, levo The Verbs of depriving: privo, epoliS, ezuo, fraudo, nudo c) The Verbs of lacking: egeo, careo, vaco d) The corresponding Adjectives, liber, inanis, vacuus, nudus,
b)
;

and some others of similar meaning.

Thus

:


the enetry of

curls libeiSAMS, freed from cares;

Caesar hostes armis ezuit, Caesar stripped their arms caret sensu commiini, he lacks common sense

bonorum vita vacua
from
Note
larly
i.

auzilio eget, he needs help est metu, the
fear.

life

of the good

is fret

— Yet Adjectives
§,

and libero may take the preposition ab,— regit
;

so with the Ablative of persons

as,

urbem
NOTli
2.

tyranno liberarunt,

they freed the city from the tyrant,

— Indigeo usually takes the >jenitive.

See

§

212,

i,

a.

THE ABLATIVE.
2.

I43
withdraw, some

Of Verbs signifying
Examples:

to keep

from,

to rejnove, to

take the preposition, otiiers omit

constructions.

it.

The same Verb

often admits both

abstl&ere cibo, to abstain from food

hostes finibus prohibueruut, they kept the enemy from their borders^ praedones ab insula prohibuit, he kept the pirates from the island.
3.

Other Verbs of separation usually take the Ablative with a Prep-

osition, particularly

compounds of dis- and sg-

;

as,

dissentio a te, / dissent from you ; secernantur a nobis, let them be separated from us.
4.

The

Preposition

is freely

omitted in poetry.

Ablative of Source,
215.
iiatuB

The Ablative

of Source

is

used with the participles

and ortus

(in poetry also with editus, satus,

others), to designate parentage or station ; as,

and some

Jove natus, son ofJupiter

summo
1.

looo natus, high-born

(lit.

born from a very high place')

\

nobili genere ortus, born of a noble family.

Pronouns regularly (nouns rarely) take ex;

as,

ex
2.

me
as,

natus, sprungfrom me.

To

denote remoter descent, ortus ab, or oriiindus (with ot
is

without ab),

used

;

ab Ulixe oriundus, descended from
Ablative of Agent.
216.

Ulysses.

The Ablative accompanied by

a (ab)

is

passive verbs to denote the personal agent

; as,

used with

a Caesare accusatus est, he was arraigned by Caesar.
I.

Collective

nouns referring

to persons,

and abstract nouns when

personified,

may be

construed as the personal agent.

Thus

:

hostes a f ortuna deserebantur, the enemy were deserted by Fortune
by a multitude of the enemy.
a.

,-

a multitudine hostium montes tenebantur, the mountains were held
Names
of animals sometimes admit the

same

construction.

Thus:

a canibus lauiatus

est, he was torn

to pieces by dogs.

144

SYNTAX.
Ablative of Comparison.

217.

I.

The Ablative

in the sense of than ; as,

is

often used with Comparativd|

melle dulcior, sweeter than honey; patria mihi vita carior est, my country
2.

is

dearer to me than

life,

This construction, as a
as,

rule,

occurs only as a substitute for quam

(than) with the Nominative or Accusative.

be used

;

In other cases

quam

must

tui studiosior

sum quam
illo

illius,

I am fonder ofyou than of him.

Studiosior

would have meant, / am fonder ofyou than heis.

Plus, minus, amplius, longius are often employed as the
alents of pliis

quam, minus quam,

etc.

Thus

:

equiv-

amplius viginti urbes inoendun'Lur,
fired;

7nore than twenty

cities

an

minus quinque milia processit, he advanced less than five
3.

miles.

Note the use of oplnioue with Comparatives

;

as,


(lit.

opinione celerius venit, he comes more

guickly than expected

than

opiniott).

INSTRUMENTAL USES OF THE ABLATIVE.
Ablative of Means.
218.

The
as,

ment ;

Ablative

is

used to denote means or
est,

instnir

Alexander sagitta vulneratus
arrow.

Alexander was wounded

by an

There are the following special
I.

varieties of this Ablative

:


take

Utor, fruor, fungor, potior, vesoor, and their compounds
;

the Ablative

as,

divitiis utitur, he uses his afealth

(lit.

he benefits himself by Ms

wealth)

;

vita fruitur, he enjoys life (lit. he enjoys himself by life) munere fungor, I perform my duty (lit. I busy myself with duty);
;

carne vescuntur, they eat flesh (lit. feed themselves by means of) castris potitus est, he got possession of the camp (lit. made himself powerful by the camp)
|

u.

Potior sometimes governs

the Genitive.

Sec

§

212, ^.

THE ABLATIVE.
2.

I45

With opus est

(rarely

usus

est), there is need; as,

duce nobis opus
a.

est,

we need a leader.

A

Neuter Pronoun or Adjective often stands as subject with
as predicate.

opus

Thus

:

hoc
b.

miM

opus

est, (his is necessary for me.

An

ordinary substantive rarely stands as subject.
is

Thus dux
opus
est;

nobis opus est
L.

a rare form of expression.
participle with

Note the occasional use of a perfect passive
as,

opus est properat5,
3.

there is need of haste.
;

With

nitor, innizus,

and fretus
(lit.

as,


\

nititur hasta, he rests

on a spear

fretus virtute, relying on virtue
4.

(lit.

supports himself by a spear'^ supported by virtue').
consist of; as,

With contineri, consistere, constare,


bones
(lit.

nervis et ossibus continentur, they consist of sinews they are held together by sinews and bones)
;

and

mortali consistit corpore
stance
6.
(lit.

mundus,

the

world consists of mortal subof, etc.)

holds together by

means

In expressions of the following type

:


(lit.

quid hoc homine facias, what can you do with this man ? quid mea Tulliola fiet, what will become of my dear Tullia ? will be done with my dear Tullia ?)
7.

what

In the following special phrases at variance with the ordinary
:

English idiom

proelio contendere, vincere, to contend, conquer in battle; proelio lacessere, to provoke to battle

curru vehi,

a chariot logo on foot; castiis se tenere, to keep in camp.
to ride in

pedibus

ire,

8.

With Verbs oifilling and Adjectives ol plenty ;

as,


204,
i.

fossas virgultis complSrunt, they filled the trenches with brush.
a. 9.

But plenus more commonly takes the Genitive.
also

See

§

Under 'Means' belongs
as,

the

Ablative

of the

Way

by

Which;

vinum Tiber! devectum, wine

brought

down

(by) the Tiber.

146
10.

SYNTAX.
The means may be a person
{i.e,

as well as

a

thing.

Thus

:


perducit,
with

militibus

a lacu Lemanno ad montem Juram
by means
of) Ais troops

murum

he runs a wall Jrom Lake Geneva to Mt, Jura,

Ablative of Cause.
219.

The Ablative

is

used to denote cause ;
fecit, he

as,

multa gloriae cupiditate
love of glory.

did many things on account of hit.

1 So especially with verbs denoting mental states as, deleotor, gaudeo, laetor, glorior, fido, confido. Also with contentus;
;

as,

fortuna amicl gaudeo,
;

/ rejoice

at the fortune of

my friend

(i.e.

on

account of it) victoria sua gloriantur, they exult over their victory natura loci confidebant, (hey trusted in the character of their cowvtry (lit. were confident on account of the character).
a.

fido and confido always take the Dative of the person sometimes the Dative of tlie thing.

(§ 187. II. a)

2.

As

jussG, by order

Ablatives of Cause are to be reckoned also such Ablatives of, injussu, without the order, rogatu, etc.

as

Ablative of Manner.
220.
as,

The Ablative with cum

is

used to denote manner',

cum
I.

gravitate loquitur, he speaks with dignity,

The

preposition
;

by an adjective

as,

may be

absent when the Ablative

is

modified

magna
1.

gravitate loquitur, he speaks with great
is

dignity.
jure,

The

preposition

regularly

absent in the expressions

injuria, joco, vx, fraude, voluntate, furto, silentio.
3.

A

special variety of the Ablative of

Manner denotes
:

that in

at-

cor dance with
It is

which or in pursuance of which anything generally used without a preposition. Thus

is

cr

is

doae.

mea

sententia, according to

my

opinion

suTs moribus, in accordance with their custom sua sponte, voluntarily, of his (their) ovm accord; ea condicione, on these terms.

THE ABLATIVE.
Ablative of Attendant Circumstance.
221.

147

The Ablative

is

often used to denote an attendant
;

circumstance of an action or an event

as,

boms

auspiciis, under good auspices
debate -was ever held

umquam habita majoribus, no under circumstances of greater applause ezstinguitur ingenti luctu provinciae, Ae dies under circumstances ofgreat grief on the part of the province longo intervallo sequitur, he follows at a great distance.
nulla est altercatio clamoilbus

Ablative of Accompaniment.
222.
to

The Ablative with cum
as,

denote accompaniment ;

is

used with verbs of motion

cum comitibus profectus est, he set out with his attendants cum febri domum rediit, he returned home with a fever. I. In military expressions the Ablative may stand without cum
when modified by any adjective except a numeral as, omnibus copiis, ingenti ezercitu, magna manS but usually
; ;

cum

ezercitu,

cum duabus

legionibus.

Ablative of Association. 222 A.

The

Ablative

is

often used with verbs oi joining,
to denote association ; as,

mixing, clinging, exchanging ; also with assuesco, consuesco,
assuefacio,

and some others

improbitas scelere juncta, badness joined with crime; aer calore admiztus, air mixed with heat assuetus labore, accustomed to (lit. familiarized with) toil; pacem bello permutant, they change peace for (lit. with) war.

Ablative of Degree of Difference.
223.

The Ablative

is

used with comparatives and words

involving comparison (as post, ante, infra, supra) to denote
the degree of difference ; as,

dimidio minor, smaller by a half; tribus pedibus altior, three feet higher

pauio post, a little afterwards quo plura habemus, e5 cupimus ampUora, the more we have, tht

more we want.

148

SYNTAX.
Ablative of Quality.

224.

The

Ablative, modified

denote

qtiality; as,

by an

adjective,

is

used

to

puella ezimia forma, a girl of exceptional beauty vir singular! industria, a man of singular industry.
I.

The
est

Ablative of Quality

may

also be used predicatively

;

as,

magna prudentia, he is (a man) ofgreat wisdom ; bono animo sunt, they are ofgood courage.
J. In place of the Adjective we sometimes find a limiting Genitive as, sunt specie et colore taurf, they are of the afpearance and color of a
;

bull,

3.

In poetry the Ablative of Quality sometimes denotes ZKa/«>va/;

as,

scopulis pendentibus antrum, a cave of arching rocks.

Ablative of Price.
225.

With verbs

of buying
;

nated by the Ablative

as

and

selling, price is desig-

servum quinque minis emit,
1

he bought the slave for five minae.
omission

The

Ablatives

magno, pluiimo, parvo, minimo (by
;

of pretio) are used to denote indefinite price

as,

aedes magno vendidit, he sold the house for a high price.
2.

For the Genitive of Indefinite

Price, see § 203. 4.

Ablative of Specification.
226.

The Ablative

of Specification
is

is

that in respect to which something

or

is

used done
;

to denote
as,

Helvetii omnibus Gallis virtute praestabant, the Helvetians passed all the Gauls in valor tjede claudus, lame in his foot.
t.

sur-

Note the phrases

:


to age)
;

major natu, older (lit. greater as minor natu, younger.

2. Here belongs the use of the Ablative with dignus, worlhi indignus, unworthy, and dignor, deem worthy of; as,

digni honore, worthy of honor
fide indigni,

(i.e.

in point of honor)

i

me

unworthy of confidence dignor honore, I deem myself worthy of honor.

THE ABLATIVE.
Ablative Absolute.
227.

I49

The Ablative Absolute
it

is

grammatically
In
its

inde-

pendent of the rest of the sentence.

form

consists
;

participle

as,

of

a

noun

or

commonest pronoun limited by a

urbe capta, AenSas fugit, when the city had been captured, Aeneas fled (lit. the city having been captured).
1. Instead of a participle we often find an adjective or noun as, VIVO Caesare res publica salva erat, while Caesar was alive the state was safe (lit. Caesar being alive) Tarquinio rege, Pythagoras in Italiam venit, in the reign of Tarquin Pythagoras came into Italy (lit. Targtein being king) Cn. Pompejo, M. Crasso consulibus, in the consulship of Gnaeus
; ; ;

Pompey and Marcus Crassus
2.

(lit.

P.

and

C. being consuls)

Tlie

Ablative Absolute

is

generally used in

Latin where in

Englisli

we employ subordinate
to

clauses.

may correspond
a)
b)

a clause denoting

Thus

the Ablative Absolute

Time, as in the foregoing examples.
Condition
;

as,

omnes
c)

virtutes jacent, voluptate dominaute, all virtues lie prostrate, ifpleasure is master.
as,

Opposition;

perditis

omnibus rebus,

virtus se sustentare potest,
yet Virtue can maintain

though everything
herself.

else is lost,

d) Cause; as, nulls adversante regnum obtinuit,
him, he secured the throne.
e)

since

no one opposed

Attendant circumstance as, pasBis palmis paoem petiverunt, with hands outstretched,
; •

they sued for peace.
3.

An

Infinitive or clause

sometimes occurs in the Ablative Absolute

construction, especially in Livy

and
it

later writers

;

as,

audito
4.

eum

fugisse,

when

was heard that he had fled.

stands in the Ablative Absolute construction only when it denotes a different person or thing from any in the clause in which it stands. Exceptions to this principle are extremely rare.

A noun or pronoun

I50

,

aVNTAX.

LOCATIVE USES OF THE ABLATIVE,
Ablative of Place.
A. Place where.
228.
lative

The

place where

is

regularly denoted by the Ab-

with a preposition ;

as,

iu urbe habitat, he dwells in the
I.

city.

But
a)

certain

sition; viz.

words stand in the Ablative without a
of

prepo-

Names

towns,

— except

Singulars
;

of the

First

and

Second Declensions (see

§ 232. i)

as,

Carthagini, at Carthage ; Athenis, at Athens
Vejis, at
b)
Veii.

The

general words loco, locis, parte; also
;

many
as,

modified by totus or even by other Adjectives

words

hoc loco,
c)

ai this place

totis castris, in the whole camp.

The

special

words

:

foris, out

of doors;

ruri, in the country \

terra marique, on land

and sea.
denot-

d) The poets
ing place
;

freely
as,

omit the preposition with any word

stant ITtore puppes, the sterns rest on the beach.

B. Place from which.
229.

'^

Place from which

is

regularly

Ablative with a preposition ; as, ab Italia profectus est, he set out from Italy} ex urbe rediit, he returned from the city.
I.

denoted by

the

But certain
;

sition

viz.

words

stand

in

the Ablative without a prepo-

a)

Names

of towns and small islands

;

as,

Roma profectus
Rhodo
1

est, he set out from

Rome;

revertit, he returned from Rhodes.
strictly

Place from which, though

a Genuine Ablative use,

is

treated here

fol

>a)<e ur

convenience.

THE ABLATIVE.
b)

151

Aovaa, from home ; ivas, from the country.
poetry
;

c) Freely in

as,

Italia decesait, he withdrew from Italy.
2.

With names of towns, ab

is

used to mean
is

from
as,

the vicinity of

or to denote the point whence distance

measured;

a G-ergovia discessit, he withdrew from the vicinity of Gergovia mllia aberat, he was ten miles distant frotn Rome. a Roma

X

XJrbe and oppido, when standing in apposition with a town name, as, are accompanied by a preposition
;

Curibus ex oppido Sabinorum, from Cures, a town of the Sabines.

Ablative of Time.

A. Time
230.

at which.

The Ablative
as,

is

used

to

denote

the

time at

which;

qu9rta hora mortuus est, he died at the fourth hour anno septuagesimo consul oreatus, elected consul in his seventieth
year.
1.

Any word

struction, particularly

denoting a period of time may stand in this conannus, ver, aestas, hiems, dies, nox, hora,
in, unless

comitia {Election Day), ludi (the Games), etc. 2. Words not denoting time require the preposition
accompanied b} a modifier.
in pace, in peace
but
3.

Thus

:

in bello, in
in the second

war ;

secundo bello Punico,

Punic War.
senectute, take the

Expressions like in eo tempore, in

summa

preposition because they denote situation rather than tiine.

B. Time within which.
231.

either
Stella

Time within which is denoted by the Ablative with or without a preposition ; as,

Saturn! triginta annis cursum conficit, the planet Saturn
completes its orbit within thirty years

ter in
I.

anno,

thrice in the course

of the year.

Occasionally the Ablative denotes duration of time: as,
;

biennis prosperas res habult

/o/- two years he had a prosperous administration.

152

SYNTAX.

THE LOCATIVE.
232.

words
1.

:

The Locative

case occurs chiefly in the following

Regularly in the Singular of names of towns and small island
first

of the

and second declensions,
af

to denote the place in which ;

as,

Romae,

Rome

Corinthi, ai Corinth

RhodT, at Rhodes.
2.

In the following special fonns
dovai, ai hotne
belli, in

:


hntnl, on the ground
militiae, in

war

war

vesperi, at evening;
3.

heii, yesterday.
lit.

Note the phrase pendSre animi,

to be in suspense in one's

mind.
4.

For urba and oppidum

in apposition with a Locative, see § 169.

4.

Chapter
233.
I.

III.

— Syntax of Adjectives.
Adjective agrees
is

The word with which an
Subject.

called
2.

its

Attributive and Predicate Adjectives.
is

An Attributive
;

Adjective

one that

limits its subject directly

as,

vir sapiens, a wise man.

A

Predicate Adjective

is

one that
wise

limits its subject through
;

the

medium

of a verb (usually esse)

as,

vir est sapiens, the

man

is

vir videbatur sapiens, the

vir judicatus est sapiens, the

man seemed wise man was judged wise

hunc virum sapientem judicavimus, we adjudged this mun wise.
3.

Participles

and

Adjective Pronouns have the construction

o(

Adjectives.

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
AQREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES. Agreement with One Noun. When an
one noun
it

I

S3

234.
limits

Adjective

agrees with

it

in Gender,

Number, and

Case.

as,

is

Two Adjectives in the Singular may limit a noun in the Plural; prima et vicesima legiones, the first and twentieth legions. 2. A Predicate Adjective may stand in the Neuter when its Subject Masculine or Feminine and denotes a thing as,
1.
;

omnium rerum mors
235.

est

eztremum,
or

death

is

the

end of all things.

Agreement with Two
A.

More Nouns.

AGREEMENT AS TO NUMBER.
Adjective
is

1.

When the

Attributive,
;

in

number with the nearest noun
pater tuus et
raS.ter,

as,

it

regularly agrees

your father and mother

eadem
2.

alacritas et studium, the same eagerness

and zeal.
regularly

When
et

the Adjective

is

Predicative,

it

is

Plural; as,

pax

coQCordia sunt pulchrae, peace and concord are glorious.
B.

AGREEMENT AS TO GENDER.
;

1.

in

When the Adjective is Attributive, gender with the nearest noun as,

it

regularly agrees

res operae
2.

multae ac laboris, a matter of much
the Adjective them
in gender
is

effort

and

labor.

When
vfith

Predicative

a) If the nouns are of the same gender, the Adjective agrees
;

as,

pater et filius capti sunt, father and son were captured.
Yet with feminine abstract nouns, the Adjective quently Neuter as,
;

is

more

fre-

stultitia et timiditas fugienda sunt, folly

and cowardice

must be shunned.

154

SYNTAX.
i) If the nouns are of different gender
;

then,


is

a) In case they denote persons, the Adjective
line
;

as,

Mascu-

pater et mater mortui sunt, ike father and
died.
/8)

mot}i,er have

In case they denote

things,

the Adjective

is

Neu-

ter; as,

honores et viotoriae fortuita sunt, honors and
are accidental.
y) In
Adjective
case they include both persons
is,

victories

and

things, the

aa) Sometimes Masculine

;

as,


and children

domus, uxor,

liberi inventi sunt, home, wife,

are secured.
ySyS)

Sometimes Neuter

;

as,


as,—

parentes, Iiberos,

domos

vilia habere, to hold parents,

children, houses cheap.

yy) Sometimes

it

agrees with the nearest noun

;

populT provinciaeque liberatae sunt, nations and provinces were liberated.
c)

jective does not agree with a

Construction according to Sense. Sometimes an Adnoun according to strict gram;

matical form, but according to sense

as,

pars bestiis object! smA, part {of the men) were thrown
to beasts.

236.

I.

ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY. Plural Adjectives used Substantively.
in the

Adjectives are quite freely used as Substantives
Plural.

The Masculine denotes
;

denotes things

as,

persons;

the

Neuter

docti, scholars

parva, small things

mall, the wicked Graeci, the Greeks;

magna, great

things

utilia, useful things

nostri, our men.

ADJECTIVES USED SUBSTANTIVELY.
2.

1

55

Nominative and Accusative cases.

Neuter Plural Adjectives thus used are confined mainly to the Such forms as magnorum, omto
;

nium; magnis, omnibus, would ordinarily lead where there is no ambiguity, they sometimes occur
parvis

ambiguity; yet

as,

componere magna,
:

to

compare great things with small.
rebus,
etc.

Otherwise the Latin says

magnarum r§rum, magnis

237.

Singular Adjectives used Substantively.

Ad-

jectives are less

freely used as Substantives in the Sin-

gular than in the Plural.
1.

Masculine Adjectives occur only occasionally in this use; as,^

probus invidet nemini,
a.

the honest tnan envies nobody.

Usually vir,

homo, or some

similar

word

is

employed

;

as,

doctus, a scholar vir Romanus, a Roman.
6.

homo

But when limited by a pronoun any adjective may be so
used;
as,

hic doctus, this scholar

doctus quidam, a
2.

certain scholar.
as,

Neuters are likewise infrequent

;

verum, truth
justum, justice;

honestum,
a.

virtue.
is

This substantive use of Neuter Singulars
struction of the Genitive of the

commonest

in the con-

Whole, and

after Prepositions;

as,—

allquid veri, something true ; nihil novi, nothing new ;
in medio, in the midst.

238.

From

Adjectives which, like the above, occasionally admit the

substantive use,

must be
;

have become nouns

as,

carefully distinguished certain others

which

adversarius, opponent
aequalis, contemporary

hiberna, winter quarters ;

propinquus,

relativ:

amicus, friend cognatus, kinsman

socius, partner
sodalis, comrade
etc.
;

vicinus, neighbor;

156

SYNTAX.

ADJECTIVES WITH THE FORCE OP ADVERBS.
239.
lish

The Latin

often uses an Adjective

where the Eng,
;

idiom employs an Adverb or an adverbial phrase

as,

senatus frequens oonvenit, the senate assembled in great numbers; fuit assiduus mecum, he was constantly with me.

COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.
240.
with
'

I.

The Comparative often corresponds
'

rather^

somewhat^

'

too

'

;

as,


is

to the English Positive

seuectus est loquaoior, old age
2.
'

rather talkative.

So the
'
,•

very

as,

Superlative

often

corresponds to the Positive with

vir fortissimus, a very brave man.

Strengthening Words. Vel and quam are often used witli 3. the Superlative as strengthening particles, vel with the force of ' very^ and quam with the force of as possible ; as,
' '

vel masimus, the very greatest quam masimae oopiae, as great forces as possible.
4.

Phrases of the type

'

in both

members

;

as,

more rich than hrave regularly take the Comparative
'

exercitus erat ditior

quam

fortior, the army was more rich than brave.

OTHER PECULIARITIES.
241.
chiefly
I. Certain Adjectives may be used to denote apart of an object, primus, extremus, summus, medius, iniimus, imus; as,—

aummus mons,
extrema hieme,
2.

the top of the mountain in the last part of the winter.

Prior, primus, ultimus, and
;

lent to a relative clause

as,

postremns

are frequently equiva-

primus eam

vidi,

/ was

the first
last

ultimus dgcessit, he was the
3.

who saw her who withdrew.

When multus and
generally used
;

et

is

as,

another adjective both limit the same noun,

multae et magnae oogitstiones, many {and) great

thoughts.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. — POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

1

57

Chapter IV.

— Syntax of Pronouns.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
242.
are, as
I. The Personal Pronouns as subjects of verbs a rule, not expressed except for the purpose of

emphasis, contrast, or clearness.
video,

Thus
amat, Ae

ordinarily
loves.

:

/ see

But ego te video, et tu
2.

me vides, I see you, and you see me.
Thus:

The

Genitives mei, tui, nostri, vestrT are used only as Objective

Genitives;

nostrum and vestrum as Genitives of the Whole.

memoT

tui,

mindful ofyou
no one ofyou.

desiderium vestri, longing foryou

nemo vestrum,
a.

But nostrum and vestrum are regularly used in the place of the Possessive in the phrases

omnium nostrum, omnium vestrum.
editorial 'we.'

3.

The

First Plural

is

often used for the First Singular of Pronouns

and Verbs.
4.

Compare the Eng.

When two Verbs

govern the same object, the Latin does not
is

use a pronoun with the second, as
virtiis

the rule in English.

Thus

:

ships

amicitias oonciliat et conaervat, virtue establishes friendand maintains them (not e5s conservat)

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
243. I. The Possessive Pronouns, as a rule, are not employed except for the purpose of clearness. Thus
:

patrem amo, Hove my father de filii morte flebas, you wept for
But

the death ofyour son.


de morte
a.
filii

mel QebaB, you wept for the
its

death of my son.

When

expressed merely for the sake of clearness, the pos-

sessive usually stands after

noun

;

but in order to indias,

cate emphasis or contrast,

it

precedes

;

sua manii ITberos occidit, with his own hand he slew
children

hii

mea quidem

sententia, in

my opinion

at least.

158

SYNTAX.

2. Sometimes the Possessive Pronouns are used with the an Objective Genitive as,
;

force of

metus vester,yiar ofyou i desiderium tuum, longing for you.
3.

For special emphasis, the Latin employs ipaius or ipsorum,
;

in

apposition with the Genitive idea implied in the Possessive

as,

mea ipsius
a.

opera, by

my own

help

nostra ipsorum opera, 6y our own help
So sometimes
other Genitives
;

as,

mea uulus opera, dy the assistance of me alone,

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.
244.
I.

The

Reflexive Pronoun se and the Possessive
:

Reflexive suus have a double use
1.

They may

refer to the subject of the clause (either principal or

subordinate) in which they stand,'

— 'Direct Reflexives';

as,

Be amant, they love themselves suos amicos adjuvat, he helps his own friends; eum oravi, ut se servaret, / besought him to save himself.
II.

They may stand

of the principal clause,

in a subordinate clause
'

and
;

Indirect Reflexives

'

as,

refer to the subject

me

me

oravit ut se dSfenderem, he besought m.e to defend him (lit. thai I defend hitnself) ; oraverunt, ut fortunarum suarum defensionem susciperem,
they besought
a.

me

to

undertake the defense of their fortunes.

The

Indirect Reflexive is mainly restricted to those clauses which express the thought, not of the author, but of the sub-

ject of the principal clause.

regularly employed, like mei and tui, as an oblltus sui, forgetful of himself; but it occasionally occurs particularly in post -Augustan writers in place of the Possessive suus as, fruitur fama sui, he enjoys his oumfame.
2.

The

Genitive sui

is

Objective Genitive,

e.g.


;


;

3.

Se and suus
se amare,

are sometimes used in the sense,
is

one''s self,

onii

own, where the reference

not to any particular person

as,

to love one's self;

suum genium

propitiare, to propitiate one's

own genius.

RECIPROCAL AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
4.

159
etc.,

Suus sometimes

occurs in the meaning his own, their own,

referring not to the subject but to

an oblique case

;

as,

Hannibalem sui cives e oivitate ejecerunt,
drove out Hannibal.
a.

his

own fellow-citizens

This usage
;

quiaque

as,

is

particularly

frequent

in

combination with

suus quemque error vexat, his own error
J.

troubles each.

The

Reflexives for the

first

and second persons are supplied by
;

the

obUque cases of ego and tu (§ 85)

as,

vos def enditis, _)'02^ defend yourselves.

HECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.
245.
I
.

The
;

Latin has no special reciprocal pronoun

('

each other

'),

but expresses the reciprocal notion by the phrases

vos, inter se

as,

:

inter nos, inter

Belgae obsides inter se dederunt, the Belgae gave each other hostages (lit. atnong themselves); amamus inter nos, we love each other Gall! inter se cohortati sunt, the Gauls exhorted each other.
a.

Note that the Object

is

not expressed in sentences of tliis type.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
Hic, lUe, Iste.
246.
I.

Where
two

Mo

and

ille are

used in contrast, hie usually refers

to the latter of
2.

objects,

and

ille to the former.
'

Hic and

ille are often

used in the sense of the following'

;

as,

Themlstocles his verbis epistulam (couched) in the following words illud intellego, omnium ora in me conversa esse, / understand this, that the faces of all are turned toward me.
3.

misit, Themistocles sent a letter

Ille often

means

the fa?nous

;

as,

Solon
;

ille, the famous

Solon.
I

4.
5.

Iste frequently involves contempt

as,

iste

homo,

that fellow

The

above pronouns, along with is, are usually attracted to the
;

gender of a predicate noun

suum,

this is

an honor,

to be

as, hic est honor, meminisse offioium mindful of one's duty.

l6o

SYNTAX.
Is.

247.
Thus:

I.


a.

Is often serves as the antecedent of the relative

qui.

Maziniuni,
.

eum

qui Tarentum recepit, dilezi,

I loved Maximus,tht
oisuch (=
talis)
;

man who
as,

retook Tarentum.
is

Closely akin to this usage

is in the sense

non sum

is

qui terrear, f

am

not such a person as

to be

frightened.
b.

Note the phrase id quod, where id stands in apposition with an entire clause as,
;

non suspicabatur
testes nobis
nesses enough

(id

quod nunc
esse,

sentiet) satis multos

reliqiios

he

did not suspect

(a

thing -which he will
left.

now

perceive") that

we had

wit-

Yet

quod

alone, without preceding id,

sometimes occurs

in

this use.
2.

Is also in
^

all

cases serves as the personal pronoun of the
'they,'' 'them.''
i

third

person, ^he^
3.

she^

'it,''

When

the English uses 'that

of ^ those of
;

the noun, the Latin omits the pronoun

as,

to avoid repetition

of

in exercitu Sullae et postea in Crassi fuerat, he army of Sulla and afterward in that of Crassus

had

been in the

nullae

me

fabulae delectant nisi PlautT, no plays delight me

except

those of Plautus.

Note the phrases et is, et ea, etc., in the sense and that too ; as,— 4. vincula, et ea sempiterna, imprisonment, and that too permanently.
:

Idem.
248.
I.

Idem

in apposition with the subject or object often has
;

force of also, likewise

as,

tlie

contigit, which likewise happened to me (lit. which, same thing) bonus vir, quern eundem sapientem appellamus, a good man,
the
\

quod idem mihi

whom we call also wise.
For idem atque (ac), the same
as, see § 341. i.e.

DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS. l6l
Ipse.

249.
text
;

I.

Ipse,

as,

literally self, acquires its special force

from the con-

eo ipso diS, on that very day ad ipsam ripam, close to the bank vpBO teixoie, dy mere /right valvae se ipsae aperueruut, the doors opened of their own accord;
ipse aderat, he
2.

was present

in person.

pronouns are often emphasized by the addition of ipse, but ipse in such cases, instead of standing in apposition with the
reflexive
reflexive,

The

more commonly agrees with the subject

;

as,

secnm

ipsi loquuntur, they talk with themselves

se ipse continere

non

potest, he cannot contain himself.

3. Ipse is also used as an Indirect Reflexive marking a contrast or avoiding an ambiguity ; as,

for the

purpose

oil

Persae pertimuerunt ne Alcibiades ab ipsTs descisceret et cum suis in gratiam rediret, the Persians feared that Alcibiades would break with them, and become reconciled with his countrymen. ea molestiBsime ferre debent homines quae ipsorum culpa contracta sunt, men ought to chafe most over those things which have been brought about by their own fault (as opposed to the fault of
others).

250.
its
is

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Agreement. I. The Relative Pronoun

agrees with
its

antecedent in Gender, Number, and Person, but

case
it

determined by
;

stands

as,

its

construction in the clause in which

mulier quam videbamus, the woman whom we saw bona quibus fruimur, the blessings which we enjoy.
2. Where the antecedent is compound, the same principles for number and gender prevail as in case of predicate adjectives under similar conditions (see § 235. B. 2). Thus
:

pater et filius, qui capti sunt, the father
stultitia et

and son who were captured; timiditas quae fugienda saxit, folly and cowardice which

must be shunned; honores et victoriae quae sunt fortuita, honors and victories, which
are accidental.

l62

SYNTAX.

3. The Relative regularly agrees with a predicate noun as, Nominative or Accusative) instead of its antecedent
;

(either

career,

quae lautumiae vocantur,

the prison, which

is called

Law-

iumiae

Belgae, quae est tertia pars, ihe Belgians, who are the third part.
4. Sometimes the Relative takes meaning of its antecedent as,
;

its

gender and number from

the

pars qui bestiis object! sunt, a part (of the men) who were thrmvn
to beasts.
5.

Occasionally the Relative
as,

is

attracted into the case of

its ante-

cedent;

natus eo patre quo dixi, born of the father that I said.
251.

Antecedent.
;

I.

sometimes omitted as, qui naturam sequitur sapiens
2.

The

antecedent of the Relative

is

est, he

who follows Naiure

is wise.

The antecedent may be
an adjective)
;

rarely

as,

implied in a possessive pronoun

(or

nostra qui remansimus caedes, the slaughter of us who remained; servili tumultu, quos usus ac disciplina sublevarunt, at the uprising of the slaves, whom experience (servili = servorum).
3.

and

discipline assisted

Sometimes the antecedent
{routes).

is

repeated with the Relative; 13,—
routes, by which,

erant itinera duo, quibus itineribus, there were two

4.

antecedent
a)

Incorporation of Antecedent in Relative Clause. is often incorporated in the relative clause. Thus
:


let

The

When the relative clause stands first as, quam quisque novit artem, in hac se
;


each

exerceat, one practice the branch which he knows.
the antecedent
is

b)

When

an appositive

;

as,


oj

non longe a Tolosatium

finibus absunt, quae civitaa

the Tolosates, a state which
c)

est in provincia, they are not far from the borders is in our province.
the logical antecedent
is

When

a superlative

;

as,

Themistocles de servis

queni habuit fidelissimum miait, Themistocles sent the most trttsty slave he had.
suis,

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.— INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
d) In expressions of the following type

1

63


is your is

qua es prudentia
prudence
prudence")
5.
(lit.
.

quae tua est prudentia, such of which prudence you are; which
;

your

The Relative is never omitted in Latin as it is in English. Thiis I saw must be puer quern vidi. 6. The Relative is used freely in Latin, particularly at the beginning of a sentence, where in English we employ a demonstrative; as,
the boy

quo factum est, by this it happened quae cum ita sint, since this is so quibus rebus cognitis, when these things became known.
7.

The

Relative introducing
is

a

subordinate clause

may belong
it

grammatically to a clause which
as,

subordinate to the one

introduces

numquam

digne

satis

laudari philosophia

poterit,

cui

qui

pareat,

omne tempus

aetatis sine molestia possit degere,

philosophy can never be praised enough, since he

who
he

obeys her

can pass every period of life without annoyance
which,
etc.).

(lit.

who

obeys

Here cui introduces the subordinate clause possit and connects it with philosophia but cui is governed by pareat, which is subordinate to
;

possit.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
252.
I
.

Quis, any one,

is

the weakest of the Indefinites, and stands
ne,

usually in

combination with
SI

si, nisi,

num

;

as,

quis putat, if any one thinks.
aliqui)
is

2.

Aliquis

(adj.

more

definite

than quis, and corre-

sponds usually to the English some one, somebody, some; as,

nunc aliquis dicat mihi, now let somebody tell me utinam mode agatur aliquid, oh that something may
3.

be done.
;

Quidam, a

certain one,

is still

more

definite than aliquis

as,

homo quidam, a
a.

certain

man

(ie. one

whom I have
if)
is

in

mind).

Qmdam
sense
:

(with or without
of,

kind of: as, cognatio quaedam, a sort of relationship ; mors est quasi quaedam migratiS, death a sort

quasi, as

sometimes used in the

is

a kind of

transfer,

1

64

SYNTAX.

general than quis), 4. Quisquam, any one, any one whoever (more and its corresponding adjective uUua, any, occur mostly in negative and conditional sentences, in interrogative sentences implying a negativej and in clauses of comparison as,
;

justitia
bT

uumquam

nocet

cm.<¥Oi?cca, justice

never harms anybody^

quisquam, Cat5 sapiens

fuit, if anybody

was ever

wise, Cato was;

potestne quisquam sine perturbatione animi irasci, can anybody be angry without excitement ? SI ullo modo poterit, if it can be done in any way; taetrior hic tyrannus fuit quam quisquam superiorum, he was a
viler tyrant
5.

than any of his predecessors.
one, is used especially

Quisque, each
:

stances

under the following

circum-

a')
.

b) In

In connection with suus. See § 244. 4. a. connection with a Relative or Interrogative Pronoun;
as,

quod cuique
him
c) In

obtigit, id teneat,

what falls

to each, that

let

hold.

connection with superlatives; as,
all the best
;

optimuB quisque,

(lit.

each best one).

d) With ordinal numerals

as,


(lit.

quinto quoque anno, every four years
6.

each fifth year).

Nemo, no

one, in addition to its other uses, stands regularly with
;

adjectives used substantively

as,

nemo mortalis, no mortal; nemo Romanus, no Roman.

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.
253.
!•

Alius, another, and alter, the other, are often used

correl-

atively; as,

aliud loquitur, aliud sentit, he says one thing, he thinks another; alii resistunt, alii fugiunt, some resist, others flee; alter exercitum perdidit, alter vendidit, one ruined the army,
other sold
alterl se in
it

tht

montem

recSperunt, alter! ad impedimenta se contubetook

lerunt, the one party retreated to the fiiountain, the others
themselves to the baggage.

AGREEMENT OF VERB WJTH
2.

SUBJECT.

1

65

Where

the English says one does one thing, another anoffur, the
;

Latin uses a

more condensed form of statement

as,

alius aliud amat, one likes one thing, another another

aliud aliis placet, one thing pleases some, another others.
a.

So sometimes with adverbs

;

as,


'

alii alio fugriunt, somefiee in one direction^ others in another,

3.

The Latin
;

also expresses the notion

alius repeated

as,

each other

'

by means

ol

Galli alius
4.

alium cohortati sunt,

the Gauls encouraged each other.
;

Ceten means

the rest, all the others

as,

cSteris praestare, to be superior to all the others.
J.

ing,

— hence

Seliqui means the others in the sense of the rest, those remain' as, is the regular word with numerals
;

reliqui sex, the six others.
6.

Nesoio quis forms a compound
some one or other;
as,

force of

indefinite

pronoun with_ the

causidicus nescio quis, some pettifogger or other ;
misit nescio quem, he sent some one or other; nescio quo pacto, somehow or other.

Chapter V.

:

— Syntax of
Subject.

Verbs.

AGHEEMENT.
With One
254.
I.

Agreement
its

in

Number and

Person.

A
;

Finite
as,

Verb agrees with
pater
2.

subject in
see
;

Number and Person

vos videtis, you

filios instituit, the father trains his sons.

Agreement in Gender.

In the

compound forms
gender
;

of the verb

the participle regularly agrees with its subject in

as,

seditio repressa est, the

mutiny was

checked.

l66
3.
its

.

SYNTAX.
is

But when a predicate noun

of diffeijnt gender or number from
;

subject, the verb usually agrees with its nearest substantive

as,

Tarquiuii materna patria erat, Tarquinii was his native

country

non

on his mother''s side omnia error stultitia est dicenda,
folly.
a.

jiot

every error

is to be called

Less frequently the verb agrees with an appositive Corioli,

;

as,

oppidum Volscorum, '"iptum
was
captured.

eat, Corioli, a town of the

Volsci,

4.

Construction according to
its
:

Sense.

Sometimes

the verb

agrees with

form.

Thus
d) In

subject according to sense instead of strict grammatical

Number

;

as,


a crowd of nun had

multitado

hominum convenerant,
as,

gathered.
6) In

Gender

;

^sunt, two thousand {men) were

duo milia crucibus adfizi
crucified.

"With
255.
jects the
I.

Two
in

or

More

Subjects.

Agreement
is

Number.
;

With two
as,

verb

regularly plural

or more sub-

pater et filius mortui sunt, the father and son
.2.

died.

But sometimes the verb agrees with the nearest subject; viz.,— a) When the verb precedes both subjects or stands between

them

;

as,

mortuus est pater et filiua pater mortuus eat et filius.
b)

When
vel
.

the subjects are connected by aut;
.
.

vel

;

neque

.

.

.

ineque

;

as,

aut

.

.

.

aut;

neque pater neque
son died.
3.

filius

mortuus

est, neither father nor

When

the different subject's are
is

whole, the singular

used

;

as,

felt

together as constituting

a

temeritas ignoratioque vitioaa est, rashness and ignorance are had. u. This is regularly the case in senatus popultisque Bomanus,

VOICES.
4,

— TENSES.
With compound
as,

167
subjects of different

Agreement in Person.

persons the verb always takes the first person rather than the second,

and the second rather than the third;
si

tu et TuUia valetis, ego et Cicero yalemus, if you and Tullia are well, Cicero and I are well.
5.

participle in the

Agreement in Gender. With subjects of different genders the compound tenses follows the same principles as laid
See § 235, B,
2.

down

for predicate adjectives.

VOICES.
256.
I

The

Passive Voice sometimes retains traces of
;

middle or reflexive meaning

as,

its

original

ego non patiar
2.

eum

defend!,

/ shall not
many

allow him to defend himself.

In imitation of Greek usage

perfect passive participles are

used by the poets as indirect middles,
ing not

i.e.

the subject

is

viewed as act;

upon

itself,

but as doing something in his

own

interest

as,

velatus tempora, having veiled his temples.
a.

Occasionally

finite

tunica inducitur artus, he covers
3.

forms of the verb are thus used as, his limbs with a tunic.
; ;

Intran.sitive

Verbs may be used impersonally in the passive
(lit. it is
etc.')

as,

curritur, people run

ventum

est, he (they,

run) came (lit.
;

it

was come).

TENSES.

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.
257.
tiohs
:

I.

The

Latin tenses express

two

distinct

no-

a)

The period of time

to

which the action belongs

:

Present, Fast, or Future,
h)

The kind of
Completed.
its

action:

Undefined, Going on, or

The

Latin with

six tenses is able to express each of the three

kinds of action for each of the three periods of time

(making

practically

i68

SYNTAX.

nine tenses). It does this by employing certain tenses in more than one way, as may be seen by the following table
:

PERIOD OF TIME.

TENSES.
2. It is

169
Conative Present
')
;

used of an attempted action

('

as,


avoid

aum
3.
('

vTtant vitia, in contrSria ourrunt,
(vitant)
-vices,

tuhile they try to

they rush into opposite ones.

In lively narration the Present
')
;

Historical Present

as,

is

often used of a past action

Caesar imperat magnum numerum obsidum, Caesar demanded a large number of hostages (lit. demands').
4.

In combination with jam,
is

jam
;

diu,

jam pridem, and

similar

words, the Present
past

frequently used of an action originating in the
as,

and continuing

in the present

jam pridem cupio te visere, / have long been desiring [i.e. I desire and have long desired). Imperfect Indicative.
260.
I.

to visit

you

The Imperfect
as,

on in past time ;

primarily denotes action going

librum legebam, / was reading a
a.

book.

This force makes the Imperfect especially adapted to serve as the tense of description (as opposed Co mere narration)
the notion of action going on, there easily develops the
;

2.

From

notion of repeated or customary action

as,

legates interrogabat, he kept asking the envoys
C.

;

DuQium videbam
3.

pner, as a boy

/ ofte7i

used to see Gaius Duilius.

The Imperfect

often denotes an attempted action ('Conative Im('

psrfect') or

an action as beginning

Inceptive Imperfect')

;

as,

hostes nostros intra munitiones progredX prohibebant, the enemy tried to prevent (prohibebant) our men from advancing within
the fortifications
('

Conative

')

;

ad proeUum se ezpediebant,
battle (' Inceptive ')
4.

they were beginning to get ready for

The

Imperfect, with jam,

jam

diu,

jam dudum,

etc., is
;

some-

times used of an action

which had been continuing some time
he had

as,

domicilium

Romae

multos jam annos habebat, he had had
(i.e.
it

his

residence at

Rome for many years
it).

at this time

and had long had

lyo

SYNTAX.
Future Indicative.

261.
is

I.

The

Latin

is
:

much more
'

exact in the use of the Future than

If he comes, J shall be glad,'' where we really mean: < If he shall come J etc. In such cases the Latin rarely admits the Present, but generally employs the Future.
the English.
2.

We say

Sometimes the Future has Imperative force;
Perfect Indicative.

as,

dices, say

I

262.
Present;

A. Present Perfect.
a completed
(lit.

Several Present Perfects denote the
act,

state resulting from
as,

and so seem equivalent

to the

/ have become acquainted with) / have become accustomed) B. Historical Perfect. The Historical Perfect is the tense
novi, cognovi, / know
;

cSusuevT, / am wont

(lit.

of

narration (as opposed to the Imperfect, the tense oi description)

;

as,—

Regulus in senatum venit, mandata exposuit, reddi captivoa negavit esse utile, Regulus came into the Senate, set forth his commission, said it was useless for captives to be returned.
I.

Occasionally the Historical Perfect

is

used of a general truth

{'

Gnomic

Perfect').

Pluperfect Indicative.
263.
fect,

The Latin
RhSnum

Pluperfect, like the English Past Peras,

denotes an act completed in the past ;

Caesar
a.

transTre decreverat, sed naves deerant, Caesar'
cross the Rhine, but

had decided to

had no

boats,

In those verbs whose Perfect has Present force (§ 262, A), the Pluperfect has the force of an Imperfect; as,

noveram, / knew.
Future Perfect Indicative.

future time.

The Future Perfect denotes an action completed in Thus Ecribam epistulam, cum redieris, / will write the letter when you
264.
:

have returned
a.

(lit.

The
fect

Latin

is

than the

when you shall have returned). much more exact in the use of the Future PerEnglish, which commonly employs the Present

Perfect instead of the Future Perfect.
b.

In those verbs whose Perfect has Present force (§ 262, A) the Future Perfect has the force of a Future; as,

novero, I shall know.

SEQUENCE OF TENSES.
Epistolary Tenses.

171

In letters the writer often uses tenses which are not appropriate at the time of writing, but which will be so at the time when his

265.

letter is

received

;

the Present,
nihil

and the Pluperfect

he thus employs the Imperfect and the Perfect for the Present Perfect as,
;

for

habebam quod scrlberem, neque enim novi quidquam audieram et ad tuas omnes epistulas jam rescripseram, I have nothing to write, for I have heard no news and have
already answered all your
letters.

TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
266.

B. In Dependent Sentences.

A. In Independent Sentences. See §§ 272— 280. In dependent sentences the

tenses of the subjunctive usually

conform

to the so-called

Sequence
267.
I.

of Tenses.

In the Subjunctive the Present and Perfect are

Principal tenses, the Imperfect
2.

and Pluperfect,

Historical.

By

the Sequence of Tenses Principal tenses are

lowed by Principal, Historical by Historical.
Principal Sequence,

Thus

:

fol-

video quid facias, I see what you are doing. videbo quid facias, I shall see what you are doing. vTdero quid facias, I shall have seen what you are doing. videS quid feceris, t see what you have done. videbo quid feceris, / shall see what you have done. videro quid feceris, I shall have seen what you have done.
Historical Sequence,


I saw what you were
doing.

videbam quid

facerSs,

vidi quid faceres, I saw what you were doing. vTderam quid faceres, I had seen what. you were doing.

videbam quid
videram quid
3.

fScisses,

I saw what you had done.
had seen what you had done.
Subjunctive

vidi quid fecisses, I saw what you had done.
fecissSs, /

The Present and Imperfect

denote

incomplete

action, the Perfect
Indicative.

and Pluperfect completed

action, exactly as in the

172

SYNTAX.
Peculiarities of Sequence.

268.

I.

The

Perfect Indicative

is

usually an historical tense (even

when

translated in English as a Present Perfect),
;

and so

is

followed by

the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive

as,

demonstravi quare ad causam accederem, / have shown why I took the case (lit. / showed why, etc.).
2.

A
;

dependent Perfect
if

Infinitive is treated as

an
it

historical tense

wherever,
torical

as,

resolved into an equivalent Indicative,

would be

his-

videor ostendisse quales dei essent, / seem to have shown of what nature the gods are (ostendisse here corresponds to an Indicative,
3.

ostendi, /j^OTf««^).
Historical Present
historical.
is

I

The

sometimes regarded as a
:

tense,

sometimes as

Thus

principal

Sulla sues hortatur ut forti animo sint, Sulla exhorts
to be stout-hearted;

his soldiers

Gallos hortatur ut arma caperent, he exhorted the Gauls
arms.
4.

to take

Conditional

sentences

affected

by the principles

for the

of the 'contrary-to-fact' type are not Sequence of Tenses as,
;

honestum

tale est ut, vel si ignorarent id

homines, sua tamen
is

pulchritudine laudabile esset, virtue
even if men were ignorant of praise for its own loveliness.
5.
it, it

such a thing that
still

would

be worthy of

In conditional sentences of the

'

contrary-to-fact

'

type the Imper;

fect Subjunctive is usually treated as SI

an Historical tense

as,

solos eos diceres miseros, quibus moriendum esset, neminem tu quidem eorum qui viverent ezciperSs, if you called only
those wretched

who must

die,

you would except no

orte

of

those

who
6.

live.

In clauses of Result and

some

others, the Perfect Subjunctive

sometimes used as an historical tense.

Thus

:

is

rex tantum motus
enemy.

est, ut Tissaphernem hostem judicarit, the king was so tnuch moved that he adjudged Tissaphernes an

This construction is rare in Cicero, but frequent in Nepos and subsequent historians. The Perfect Subjunctive in this use represents a

SEQUENCE OF TENSES.

1

73

result simply as a fact without reference to the continuance of the act, and therefore corresponds to an Historical Perfect Indicative of direct Thus, judicarit in the above example corresponds to statement. To denote a result as something continuous, a judioavit, he adjudged.
all

writers use the Imperfect Subjunctive after historical tenses.
7.

Sometimes perspicuity demands that the ordinary principles of

Sequence be abandoned altogether.
a)

Thus

:

We

may have

the Present or Perfect Subjunctive after an
;

historical tense

as,

Verres Siciliam ita perdidit ut ea
Verres
so
:

r.estitui

non

possit,

ruined Sicily that it cannot be restored (Direct statement non potest restitui) ardebat Hortensius dicendi cupiditate sic, ut in uuUo flagrantius studium viderim, Hortensius burned so
;

•with eagerness to

greater desire (Direct statement: in uullo vidi,
seen in no one)

speak that I have seen in no one a I have
Here, by neglect of was used

Note.
as

— This
We

usage
is

is

different

from that cited under
;

6.

Sequence, the Perfect

used, though a principal tense

there the Perfect

an historical tense.
b)

may have a

principal tense followed
;

junctive used historically

as,

by the Perfect Sub-

nescio quid causae fuerit cur nuUas ad me litteras dares, / do not know what reason there was why you did not send me a letter.

Here fuerit

is historical,

as

is

shown by the following Im-

perfect Subjunctive.

Method
269.
to

of Expressing Future

Time in the Subjunctive.
Perfect,

The Future and Future
Subjunctive,
:

which are lacking
subordinate

the Latin

clauses as follows
I.

are

supplied in

a)

The Future
The Future
tenses,

is

supplied by the Present after principal tenses,
after historical tenses.
is

by the Imperfect
3)

Perfect

supplied by the Perfect after principal
after historical tenses.

by the Pluperfect
is

This

especially frequent

when
:

the context clearly shows,

by the presence of a future tense in the main
reference
is

to future time.

Thus

clause, that the

174

SYNTAX.
quae Caesar imperet,
the

Galli poUioentur se facturos,

Gauk
Gauls

promise they will do -what Caesar shall order Gall! poUicSbantur se facturos, quae Caesar imperaret, the promised they would do what Caesar should order Galli poUioentur se facturos quae Caesar imperaverit, the

Gauls

promise they will do what Caesar shall have ordered; Galli poUicebantur se facturos quae Caesar imperavisset, tk Gauls promised they would do what Caesar should have ordered.
2. Even where the context does not contain a Future tense in the main clause, Future time is often expressed in the subordinate clauses by the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive. Thus
:

timeo ne veniat, / am afraid he will come Caesar exspectabat quid consili hostes caperent, Caesar waiting to see what plan the enemy would adopt.
3.

was

Where

greater definiteness

is

necessary, the periphrastic forms

in -urus

Result,

sim and -urus essem are employed, especially in Indirect Questions, and after non dubito quin as,
;

clauses of

nen dubito quiu pater venturus
will come

sit,

/ do

not doubt that

my father
that

non dubitabam qum pater venturus

esset, T did not doubt

my father would come.
4.

Where

the verb has

no Future Active
its

Participle, or where

it

stands in the passive voice,
the use of the particles

Future character
as,

may be

indicated by

mox,

brevi, statim,
;

etc.,

in connection with

the Present and Imperfect Subjunctive

te mox hujus rei paeuiteat, I do not doubt that you will soon repent of this thing; non dubitabam qum haec res "itxeriii cbnfic^x%t-ar I did not doubt that this thing would soon be finished.

non dubito quin

,

270.

I.

TENSES OF THE INFINHIVE. The tenses of the Infinitive denote
Thus
:

time not

absolutely, but with reference

depend.
d)

to

the verb on which they

The Present

Infinitive represents

with the time of the verb on which

an act as contemporaneous it depends as,
;

videtur honores adsequi, he seems to be gaining honors; videbatur hon5r§s adsequi, ^^ seemed to be gaining honon.

TENSES OF THE INFINITIVE.
S)

175

The

Perfect Infinitive represents an act as prior to the time
it

of the verb on which

depends

;

as,

videtur hondres adsecutus esse, he seems
honors

to

have gdined
to

visus est honores adsecutus esse, he seemed gained honors.
c)

have

The Future

Infinitive represents
it

an
as,

of the verb on which

depends

;

act as subsequent to that

videtur honores adsecuturus esse, he seems to be about to gain honors visus est honores adseciiturus esse, he seemed to be about to gain honors.
2.
etc.,

Where

the English says

'

ought to have done^

the Latin uses debui, oportuit,

tnight have done^ potui (debebam, oportebat,
'

poteram), with the Present

Infinitive; as,
to say)
;

debuit dicere, he ought to have said (lit. owed it oportuit venire, he ought to have come potuit videre, he might have seen.
a.

Oportuit, V0I6, nolo (and

in

poetry
;

some

Perfect Infinitive instead of the Present

as,

other verbs),

may take
to

a

hoc jam pridem factum esse oportuit,
been done.
3.

this

ought long ago

have

cipial

Periphrastic Future Infinitive. Verbs that have no PartiStem, express the Future Infinitive Active and Passive by fore
;

ut or futuruni esse ut, with the Subjunctive

as,

spero fore ut te paeniteat levitatis,
fickleness
(lit.

/

hope you will repent of your
;

hope it will happen that you repent) spero futuruni esse ut hostes arceantur, / hope that the enemy will
be kept off.
a.

The

Periphrastic

Future Infinitive

is

often

used, especially in the
Participial

Passive, even in ease of verbs

which have the

Stem

;

as,

spero fore ut hostes vincantur, /
quered.
4.

hope the enemy will be con-

Passives and Deponents sometimes form a Future Perfect Infini;

tive

with fore

as,

spero epistulam scriptam fore, / hope the
written

letter

will have been

^c6 me

satis

adeptnm

fore,

/

say thai

I

shall have gained

enough.

176

SYNTAX.

MOODS
271.

IN

THE MOODS. INDEPENDENT SENTENCES.
in

The Indicative

Independent Sentences.

The

Indicative

the supposition
I.

is used for the statement of facts offacts, or inquiry afterfacts.
:

Note the following idiomatic uses
a)


(§ 270, 2).
est, melius
as,

With possum

;

as,


longum
it

possum multa
b)

dioere, / might say tmich poteram multa dioere, / might have said much
In such expressions as
est,

aequum
;

est, difficile est, iitilius est,

and some others

longum
difficile

est

raa

dicere,

would be
it

tedious to tell that;

est

omnia persequi,

would

be difficult to enu-

merate everything.

The Subjunctive
272.

in
is

Independent Sentences.

The Subjunctive
something

to express
1

used in Independent Sentences

2.
3.

As As

— Volitive Subjunctive — Optative Subjunctive Conceived of as possible — Potential Subjunctive.
-TO-illed

desired

VOLITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
Volitive Subjunctive represents the action as always implies authority on the part of the speaker, and has the following varieties
273.
willed.
It
:

The

A.

Hortatory Subjunctive.
exhorplural,

274.
tation.

The Hortatory Subjunctive expresses an
This use
eamus,
is

confined to the

first

person
:

of the Present.

The
let

negative
let

is

ns.

Thus

us go
us love our country \ us not despair.

amemus

patriam,

ne dSsperemua,

let

THE VOLITIVE SUBJUNCTIVE.
B. Jussive Subjunctive.

1 77

275.

The

Jussive

The Jussive stands regularly
is

used
1.

Subjunctive expresses a command. in the Present Tense, and
and the

Most frequently
dicat,
let

in the third singular

third plural; as,

him

tell;

let them tell; quare secedant improbi, wherefore

dicant,

let

the wicked depart

2.

Less

frequently in

the second person, often with indefinite

force; as,

-^
isto

bond

utare, use that advantage
live temperately.

modeste vivas,
C.

Prohibitive Subjunctive.
is

used in the second and third persons singular and plural, with ne, to express a prohibiBoth Present and Perfect occur, and without appretion.
276.

The

Subjunctive

ciable difference of

meaning

;

as,

ne repugnetis, do not resist'.. tu vero istam ne reliqueris, doii't leave her impii ne placare audeant deos, let not the impious dare
appease the gods
a. b.

to

Neither of these constructions

is

frequent in classical prose.

A

commoner method of expressing a
or by

prohibition in the second

person-is by the use of noli (nolite) with a following infinitive,

cave or cave ne with
lie !

the Subjunctive

;

as,

noli

hoc faoere, donH do

this (lit. be unwilling to do)

!

nolite mentiri, do not
pity!

cave ignoscas, cave t6 misereat, do not cave ne haec you do)
!

forgive, do not

facias, do not do this

(lit.

take care

lest

D. Deliberative Subjunctive. 277.

The

Deliberative Subjunctive

is

used in questions

and exclamations implying doubt, indignation, the imposThe Present is nbility of an act, obligation, or propriety.

178

SYNTAX.

used referring to present time, the Imperfect referring
to past.

The

negative

is

non.

Thus

:

quid faciam, -what shall I do ? ego redeam, I go back huic oedamus bujus condiciones audiamus are we bow to Mm! are we to listen to his terms I quid f acerem, what was I to do f huuc ego non diligam, should I not cherish this man f
!

!

to

a.

These Deliberative Questions are usually purely Rhetorical acter, and do not expect an answer. E. Concessive Subjunctive.

in

char

is used to indicate something as granted or conceded for the sake of argument. The Present is used for present time, the Perfect regularly for past. The negative is ne Thus

278.

The

Subjunctive

:


is

sit

hoc vSrum, I grant

that this

true

(lit. let

this be true)

;

ne sint in senectiite vires, I grant there is not strength in old age fuerit malus oivis aliis; tibi quando esse coepit, I grant that he was a bad citizen to others; when did he begin to be so towardyout
\

OPTATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE. The Optative Subjunctive occurs in wishing. The negative is regularly ne.
279.
1

expressions of

The
is

the wish

Present Tense, often accompanied by utinam, conceived of as possible.

is

used where

di istaec prohibeant,
falsus

may

the gods prevent that!

utinam vates sim, oh

that

I may

be a false prophet

ne veniant, may
2.

they not conu

The Imperfect

expresses, in the form of a wish, the regret that
;

something is not so
the past.
;

now

the Pluperfect that something

was

not so in

The

utinam as, utinam istud ex animo diceres, would
earnest
(i.e. I

Imperfect and Pluperfect are regularly accompanied by

that

you were saying
it

that in

regret that you are not saying

in earnest)

Pelides utinam vitasset Apollinis arctis, would that Achilles hai
escaped the bow of Apollo utinam ne natus essem. would that I had not been
born.

THE POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE.
POTENTIAL SUBJUNCTIVE.
280.

1

79

The

Potential Subjunctive expresses a possibility.
:

The negative is non. The following uses are to be noted 1. The 'May' Potential. — The Potential Subjunctive may designate u

mere

possibility (English

Perfect occur,

auxiliary may). Both Present and and without appreciable difference of meaning. Thus dicat aliquis, sojiie one may say ; dizerit aliqviis, some one may say.
:

a.

This construction is by no means frequent, and is confined mainly to a few phrases like those given as examples.
'

2.

'

Should '-' Would

Potential.

— The

Potential

Subjunctive

may

upon a condition expressed or understood (English auxiliary should, would). Both Present and Perfect occur, and without appreciable difference of meaning. Thus
represent something as depending
:

fortunam citius reperias
Fortune than keep
credlderim, /should
a.
,

quam retineas, one would more quickly find
one should make the
trial)
;

it (i.e. if

believe.

Here belongs the use of velim, malim, nolim, as softened

Thus velim mihi ignoscas, / wish you would forgive me ; nolim putes me jooari, / don't want you to think Ptn joking.
:
.

forms of statement for volo, malo, nolo.

b.

When

the condition

is

expressed,

we

get one of the regular
;

types of Conditional Sentences (see § 303)

as,

dies deficiat, si coner enumerare causas, time would
fail if I should attempt to enumerate the reasons.
3.
'

Can '-' Could Potential.
'

Potential occurs in the
§ 3561

In the Present and Imperfect the second person singular (with indefinite force

3) of a few verbs oi perceiving, seeing, thinking,

and the
5

like

;

as,

;

videas, cernas, one can
videres, cerneres,

see,

one can perceive

crederes, one could believe
otie

could see, perceive

putares, one could imagine.
4-

The Imperfect and

Pluperfect in the Apodosis of conditional

sentences of the contrary-to-fact type (see § 304) are also Potential iu character. By omission of "the Protasis, such an Apodosis sometimes
stands alone, particularly

vellem, nollem, mallem

;

as,

vellem id quidem, / should wish that
enough)

(i.e.

were

I

bold

l8o

SYNTAX.
Tbe Imperative.

281. The Imperative is used in commands, admonitions, and entreaties (negative ne) as,
;

egredere ex urbe, depart from the mibi ignosce, pardon me
val§, farewell.
1

city

The
a)

Present
is

is

the tense of the Imperative most

hut the Future

employed
there
is

commonly

used,

Where

a distinct reference to future time,
;

in the apodosis of conditional sentences

as,

especially

rem vobTs proponam

;

vos earn penditote, I will

lay the

matter before you ; do you {then) consider it; SI bene disputabit, tribuito litteris Graecis, if he speak well, attribute it to Greek literature.
b) In laws, treaties, wills,

shall

maxims,

etc.

;

as,

consules summum jus habento, the consuls shall have supreme power hominem mortuom in urbe ne sepelito, no one shall bury a dead body in the city amicitia regi Antiocho cum populo Romano bis Iggibus et condicionibus esto, let there be friendship between Antiochus and the Roman people on the following terms and conditions quartae esto partis Marcus beres, let Marcus be heir to
;

u fourth (of the property) ignoscito saepe alteri, numquam V^i, forgive your
;

neigh-

bor often, yourself never.
2.

Except with the Future Imperative the negative
b.

is

not used

in

dassical prose.

Prohibitions are regularly expressed in other ways.

See § 276,
3.

Questions in the Indicative introduced by quin {why

not?") are

often equivalent to an Imperative or to the Hortatory Subjunctive; as,—

quin abis, go away I (lit. why don't you go away ?) quin vocem continetis, keep still'. {\it. why donH you stop your
;

voices f)

;

quin equos conscendimus, iiot mount our horses T).

let

us mount our horses

(lit.

why

do

ivt

CLAUSES OF PURPOSE.

l8l

MOODS

IN

DEPENDENT CLAUSES.

Clauses of Purpose.
282. I. Clauses of Purpose are introduced most commonly by ut (utr), quo {that, in order that), ne (in order that not, lest), and stand in the Subjunctive; as,

edimus ut vivamus, we eat that we may
adjuta

live

me quo hoc

fiat facilius, help me, in order that this

may

be

done more easily

portaz clausit, ne

quam oppidanf
rule, is

the gates, lest the townspeople should receive
a.

injuriam acciperent, he closed any injury.
Occasional

Quo, as a

employed only when the purpose clause

contains a comparative or a comparative idea.

exceptions occur; as,

haec faciunt quo Chremetem absterreaut, they ar.e doing
this in
b.

order to frighten Chremes.

TJt

ne

is

sometimes found instead of ne.

Thus:

ut ne quid ueglegenter agamus, in order that we may not do anything carelessly.
c.

Vt non
Thus
:

(not ne)

is

used where the negation belongs to some

single word, instead of to the purpose clause as a whole.

ut non ejectus ad alienos, sed invitatus ad tuos videare, that you

but invited to your
d.

may seem not driven own friends.
not
as,
^

out

among strangers,

To

say

uses

and that neve (neu)
'
;

or

'

or that

not,^

the Latin regularly

ut earum rerum vTs minueretur, neu pontT nocerent, that the violence of these things might be lessened, and
that they might not

harm

the bridge

profugit,

ne oaperetur neve
(for

interficeretur, he fled, that he

might not be captured or
c.

killed.

/

sometimes used in a second Purpose Clause and, after the Augustan era, even when the first clause is introduced by ne. Purpose Clauses sometimes stand in apposition with a preceding noun or pronoun as, t— But
is

neque

neve)

when ut

stands in the

first,

;

hac causa, ut pacem baberent,
have peace.

on this account, that they might

1

82
2.

SYNTAX.

A

Relative Pronoun (qui) or

Adverb (udi, unde, quo)
;

quently used to introduce a Purpose Clause

as,

is fre-

Helvetii legates mittunt, qui dicerent, the Helvetii sent envoys to say (lit. who should say) haec habui, de senectute quae dioerem, / had these things to say
\

about old age

aon babebant quo se reciperent,
(lit.

they

had no place
is,

to

which

to flee

whither they might flee).
in such clauses
is

a.

Qui
ibi
;

equivalent to
;

unde

to

ut inde

quo

to

ut ut eo.

ut ego,

etc.

-•

ubl

to

ut

3.

Relative Clauses of purpose follow diguus, indignus, and ido;

neus

as,

-*'

idoneus fuit nemo quern imitarere, there was no one suitable for you to imitate (cf. nemo fuit quern imitarere, there was no one for you to imitate) dignus est qui aliquando imperet, he is worthy to rule sometime.
;

4. Purpose Clauses often depend upon something to be supplied from the context instead of upon the principal verb of their own sen-

tences

;

as,

ut haec omnia omittam, abiimus,
that)

to

pass over

all this, {I mill say

we

departed.

Clauses of Characteristic.
283.
I.

A

characteristic

used to express a quality of a general or indefinite antecedent is called of
relative clause

a

Clause of

Characteristic,
as,

and usually stands
there are

in

the

Subjunctive;

multa sunt, quae mentem aouant,
sharpen the wits.

many

things which

Clauses of Characteristic are opposed to those relative clauses which
are used merely to state

some

fact
;

about a definite antecedent, and
as,

which therefore take the Indicative

Cato, senex jucundus, qui Sapiens appellatuB est, Cato, a ful old man, who was called The Wise.''
'

delight-

The
who

Clause of Characteristic implies
;

'

a person of the
'

sort that doei

something''

the Indicative relative clause implies

a particular person

does something.''

CLAUSES OF CHARACTERISTIC.
2.

183

as,

est qui
;

qui

Clauses of Characteristic are used especially after such expressions sunt qui nemo est qui nullus est qui unus est solus est qui quis est qui is qui etc. Thus
; ; ; ; ; ;
; :

nemo

sunt qui dicant, there are (some) who say est qui nesciat, there is nobody who is ignorant
sapientia est ana
only

quae maestitiam pellat, philosophy is the away sorrow quae civitas est quae non everti possit, what state is there
thing that drives

that

cannot De overthrown ?

noa

is

sum

qui improbos laudem, /
rarely in Cicero
;

am

not the sort of man that

praises the wicked.
u.

Someiimes (very
tic is

and Caesar)

used

after

comparatives

as,

the clause of characteris-

non longius hostes aberant quam quo telum
iAe

adigri posset,
{lit further

enemy were not

off than \a p&iaf\ to
3.

far off for a dart to reacfi them which a dart could be cast).
too

The Clause of
a) Cause.

Characteristic often conveys an accessory notion

of cause (since) or

opposition (although).
relative is
;

Thus:

The

quippe, utpote

as,

then frequently accompanied by ut,

o fortunate adulescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneris, O fortunate man, since you have found a Ho?ner as the herald of your valor; ut qui Optimo jure earn provinciam obtinuerit, since
he held that province by excellent right.
b) Opposition
:


litteras attigissem,

egomet qui sero Graecas

tamen

compliires dies Athenis commoratus sum, /, although I had taken up Greek literature late in life,
nevertheless tarried several days at Athens.
4.

Clauses of Characteristic
;

quod) non as, nemo est quin saepe
(quae,

may

also be introduced

by quin

=

qui

audierit, there

is

no one who has not often

heard

nemo
5.

militum quin vulneraretur, there was no one of the soldiers who was not wounded.
fuit

Related to Clauses of Characteristic are also phrases of the type
so

quod Bciam,

far as I know, quem (quam, quod), audierim,

so

far as I have heard.

184

SYNTAX.
Clauses of Result.

284.

I.

Clauses of Result are usually introduced bynt
negative ut non {so that not), and take the The main clause often contains tantns, talis,
adeo, or

{that, so thai),

Subjunctive.
tot, is

(=
:

talis), tarn, ita, sic,

some

similar word.

Thus

quis tain
Sicilian!

as to

est ut sua voluutate maereat, who is so senseless mourn of his own volition f ita vastavit ut restitui in antiquum statum non posBit,

demens

he so ravaged Sicily that
condition

it

cannot be restored to

its

former

mons

altissimus impendebat, ut facile perpauci prohibere
sent, a very high mountain overhung, so that a very few
easily stop

poBcould

non

is es

them ut te pudor

umquam
is

a turpitiidine avoo^rit, you are not
called you back from baseness.
or

so constituted that
2.

shame ever

A

Result Clause
(

oftea introduced by a Relative Pronoun
(
;

Adverb, qui

=

ut

is),

qu5

nemo

est
is

tam senex qui

= ut eo), etc. as, — se annum non putet posse vivere, nobody

habetis

a year; qui parere vestrTs decretis non dubitet, you have a consul such as does not hesitate to obey your decrees.
so old as not to think he can live

eum consulem

a.

These Relative Clauses of Result are closely related to the Clause of Characteristic, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish the two constructions.
It is

best to class the relative clause as
is

one of Characteristic,

unless the result idea
3.

clear

and unmistakable.

Result clauses

may

also be introduced

by quin

=

ut non

;

as,—

nihil

tam
is

difBcile est

quiu quaerendo investigan possit,
it

nothing

so difficult that

cannot be discovered by searching;

nemo

est

tam

fortis

steadfast

quiu rei novitate perturbetur, no one is so as not to be thrown into confusion by a strange

occurrence.
4.

after

Note the use of comparatives as,
;

quam

ut (sometimes

quam

alone) to denote

Result

urbe erat manitior

quam

ut primo impeta capi posset, tlu
(lit.

city

was

toi

strongly fortified to be taken at the first attack than [sol that it could be taken, etc.).

more

strongly

firtifiii

CAUSAL CLAUSES.
Causal Clauses.
285.

iSj

Causal clauses are introduced chiefly by the
:

lowing particles

fol-

1.

Quod, quia, quouiam.

2.
3.

Cum.
Quando.
:

The use of moods is as follows Quod, quia, quoniam take the Indicative when the I. reason is that of the writer or speaker ; they take the Sub286.

junctive

when

the reason

is

viewed as that of another.

Thus

:

Farthos timeo quod diffido copiis nostris, I fear the Partkians, because I distrust our troops. Themistooles, quia non tutus erat, Corcyram demigravit, Themistocles, since

Deque

me

he was not safe, moved to Corcyra. vixisse paeuitet, quoniam bene vixT, / do not regret

having lived, since I have lived well. SCorates accusatus est quod corrumperet juventutem, Socrates was arraigned on the ground that he was corrupting the young. (Here the reason is not that of the writer but of the, accuser.

Hence the Subjunctive.) Haedui Caesari gratias egerunt quod se perioulo liberavisset, the Haedui thanked Caesar because he had delivered them from (The reason of the Haedui.) danger. quoniam Miltiades dicere non posset, verba pro eo fecit Tisagoras, since Miltiades could not speak, Tisagoras spoke for
him. (The reason of Tisagoras.) noctu ambulabat Themistooles, quod somnum oapere non pos. set, Themistocles used to walk at 'night because (as he said) he
couldn't sleep.
a.

in causal clauses as

Verbs of thinking and saying often stand in the Subjunctive though the act of thinking or saying,

and not the contents of the thought or language, constituted
the reason.

Thus

:

Bellovaci

suum numerum non compleverunt quod sS suo nomine cum Romanis bellum gestures dicerent, the Bellovaci did not furnish their complement.

r86

SYNTAX.
because they said they were going to

wage war with

tht

Romans on
b.

their

own

account.
attraction for
;

Won

quod, non quo (by

quia, not that, not because

non eo quod), non and non quod non, non quo
.

non, non quin, not that-. not; not because .not; not but that, are usually employed merely to introduce a hypothetical reason, and hence take the Subjunctive as, —
. .
. .

;

id feci,

non quod vos banc defensionem desiderSre arbitrarer, sed ut omnes intellegerent, this I did not because I thought you needed this defense, but that all

might perceive

Crasso commendationem non sum pollioitus, non quIn earn valituram apud te arbitrarer, sed egere mihi commendatione non videbatur, / did not promise a
recommendation to Crassus, not that
to
c.

I did

not think

it

would have weight with you, but because he did not

seem

me

to

need recommendation.

But clauses introduced by non quod, non quia take the Indicative if they state a fact, even though that fact is denied to be the reason for something as,
;

hoc

ita sentio, non quia sum ipse augur, sed quia sic existimare nos est necease, this I think, not because 1 am myself an augur {which I really am), but because it
is

necessary for us to think so.
as,

2.

Cum

causal regularly takes the Subjunctive;
is

quae cum

ita sint, since this

so
since

cum

sis mortalis,

quae mortalia sunt, cura, care for what is m.ortal.
a.

you are

mortal,

Note

the phrase
;

cum

especially since

as,

praesertim

(praesertim cum),
ad-

HaeduoB accusat, praesertim cum eorum precibus

ductus bellum susceperit, he blamed the Haedui, especially since he had undertaken the war at their
entreaties.
3.

Quando
;

(less frequent
as,

the Indicative

than the other causal particles) governs

id omitto,
wish.

quando vobis

ita placet,

/ pass

over that, since you

se

CLAUSES WITH POSTQUAM, UBI, ETC.

1

87

Temporal Clauses introduced by Postquam, Ut, Ubl,

Simul

a,c,

etc.

287. I. Postquam (posteaquam), after ; ut, ubi, when; cum primum, simul, simul ao (simul atque), as soon as, when used to refer to a single past act regularly take the Perfect

Indicative

;

as,


'

Epaminondas postquam audivit vicisse Boeotios, Satis inquit vixi,' Epaminondas, after he heard that the Boeotians had conquered, said, / have lived enough id ut audivit, Corcyram demigravit, when he heard this, he nwvedto
'
'

'

'

Corcyra

Caesar

cum primum

potuit,

soon as he could, hurried to the

ad exercitum contendit, army

Caesar, as

ubi de Caesaris adventu certiores facti sunt, legates ad eum mittunt, when they were informed of Caesar''s arrival, they sent envoys to him.
a.

The

Historical Present

may

take the place of the Perfect in this con-

struction.
2.

To

denote the repeated occurrence of an

act, ut, ubi,
ten.se,

simul

atque, as often as,
perfect Indicative

when

following an historical
3
;

take the Plu-

(compare §§ 288,

302, 3)

;

as,

ut quisque Verrls

animum

offenderat, in lautumias statim coniVerres''s feelings,

cieb§tur, whenever anybody had offended was forthwith put in the stone-quarry
hostes,

he

ubi aliquos egredientes conspe:serant, adoriebantur, whenever the enemy had seen any meti disembarking, they
attacked them.
a.

In Livy and succeeding historians the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive are used to denote this repeated occurrence of an act (' Indefinite

Frequency

')

;

as,

id ubl dixlsset hurled a spear.
3.

hastam mltt§bat,

whenever he had said

that,

he

Occasionally the above conjunctions are followed by the PluperIndicative of a single occurrence.
in expressions
etc.'),
:

fect

postquam
postquam.

months, years,

Thus

This is regularly the case with denoting a definite interval of time (days, such as post tertium annum quam, triennio

1 88

SYNTAX.

quinque post diebus quam Iiuca discesserat, ad Sardinian! veuit, five days after he had departed from Liica he came to Sar-

postquam occupatae Syracusae
ginem, after Syracuse had been
4.

erant, profectus est Carthaseized, he set out for Carthage.
occurs, to denote a continued

The Imperfect

Indicative also sometimes

state ; as,

postquam

Eomam adventabant, senatus consultus est,
stabant,
after they

after they were

on the march toward Rome, the Senate was consulted;

postquam strtlcti utrimque
sides
5.

had been drawn up on

both

and were

in position,

Rarely

postquam, posteaquam,

following the analogy of
;

cum,

take

the Subjunctive, but only in the historical tenses

as,

-

posteaquam sumptuosa
after fimerals

fieri fflnera

had begun

to be elaborate, they

coepissent, lege sublata sunt, were done away with by law.

Temporal Clauses introduced by Cum.
A.

Cum

REFERRING TO THE PAST.
to the past, takes,

288.

I.

Cum, when referring

A, The Indicative (Imperfect, Historical Perfect, or
Pluperfect) to denote the point of time at which something occurs.

B, The Subjunctive (Imperfect or Pluperfect) to denote the situation or circumstances under which something
occurs.

Examples
Indicative.

:

an tum eras consul, cum in Falatio mea domus ardebat, or were you consul at the time when my house burned up on the Palatine f
credo tum

cum Sicilia florgbat opibus et copiis fuisse in ea insula, / believe that at the time
island i

magna
when

artificia

Sicily

was
that

powerful in riches and resources there were great crafts in

eo tempore paruit

cum

parere necesse erat, he obeyed at the timt

when
illo dig,

it

was

necessary to obey

cum

est lata lex

de me, on

that day

when

the

law

concern'

ing

me was passed.

CUM-CLAUSES.
Subjunctive.

1 89

Lysander

cum

vellet Lycurgi leggs

commutare, prohibituB

est,

•when Lysander desired to change the laws of Lycurgus, he

was

prevented I

Pythagoras

cum in geometria quiddam novi invenisset, Musis bovem immolasse dioitur, when Pythagoras had discovered
something
the Muses.
a.

new

in geometry, he is said to

have

sacrificed

an ox

to

Note

that the Indicative

is

much
is

less frequent in

such clauses

than the Subjunctive, and

regularly confined to those cases

where the main clause has turn, eo die, eo anno, eo tempore or some similar correlative of the cum. Sometimes it depends entirely upon the point of view of the writer whether he shall employ the Indicative or Subjunctive.
2.

Cum
we

Inversum.
find

When

the logical order of the clauses

is

inverted,
in the

cum

with the Perfect Indicative or Historical Present,

sense of when,

when

suddenly.

The main
as,

often has

jam, vix, aegre,

nondum

;

clause in such cases

jam Galli

ex. oppido fugere apparabant, cum matres familiae repente procurrerunt, the Gauls were already preparing to flee, when suddenly the matrons rushed forth (logically, the matrons rushed forth as the Gauls were preparing to flee) TrevirT Labienum adoriri parabant, cum duas legiones venisse cognoscunt, the Treviri were preparing to attack, when {suddenly') they learned that two legions had arrived.
;

3.

To denote a recurring action in the past, cum is followed by the Inof the Pluperfect (compare §§ 287, 2
;

dicative, particularly

302, 3)

;

as,

cum ad aliquod oppidum

venerat,

eSdem

lectTca ad cubiculum

deferebatur, whenever he had arrived at some town, he was
{always) carried in the same
litter to his

room

cum

equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis gmittebat, whenever our cavalry had advanced into the fields, he would send his charioteers out from the woods.
a.

Sometimes the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive

is

thus used

;

as,

videret minus bene vestitum, suum amlculum dedit, often, whenever he saw some one more poorly clothed, he gave him his own mantle ; cum procucurrissent, Numldae effuglebant, as often as thtf had advanced, the Numidians ran away. This construction is frequent in Livy and subsequent historians.

saepe

cum aliquem

I90
B.

SYNTAX.

Oum

REFERRING TO THE PRESENT OR FUTURE.
refers to the Present or

289.

When cum

larly takes the Indicative; as,

Future
own

it

regu-

turn tua res agitur, paries

cum proximus
see,

ardet, your
is

interests

are at stake when your neighbor's house

oum

videbis, turn scies, when you
u.

burning; then you will know.

The

Indicative of the Present or Future

may

denote also a recurring

action; as,

Btabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest,

cum homines

ou-

pidinibus imperabunt, ^rm friendship can whenever men shall control their desires.
C.

be established

Other Uses op Cum.

290. I. Cum Explicative. Cum, with the Indicative, is sometimes used to indicate the identity of one act with another as,
;

cum
2.

tacent clamant, their
silent, they

silence is

a shout

(lit.

when

they are

shout)

Cum

.

.

.

turn.
is

When cum
;

.

.

.

the cum-clause
while, though,
it

in the Indicative

but
;

turn mean both when cum has the
.

.

.

and,

may

take the Subjunctive

as,

force oi

cum

te semper dilezerim, turn tuis factis incensus sum, while I have always loved you, at the same time I am stirred by your
conduct.

Clauses introduced
A.

by Antequam and Priusqnam.
Indicative.
.
.

With the

Antequam and priusquam (often written ante quam) take the Indicative to denote an qaam, prius
291.
.
.

.

.

actual fact.
1

Sometimes the Present or Future Perfect

;

as,


in

prius respondes
nihil

quam

rogo, you answer before

I ask

contra disputabo priusquam dizerit, / will say nothing
opposition, before he speaks.

2.

Sometimes the

Perfect, especially after negative clauses; as,

n5n prius jugulandi

finis fult,

quam

Sulla

omnes suos

divitiis

explevit, there was no end of murder until Sulla his henchmen with wealth.

satisfied

aU

CLAUSES WITH DUM, DONEC, ETC.
B.

I9I

With the

Subjunctive.

292.

Antequam and priusquam take the Subjunctive

to

denote an act as anticipated.
1.

Thus the Subjunctive may denote
a)


act takes place
est,
i.e.
;

An

act in preparation for

which the main

as,

priusquam dimicarent, foedus ictum
tion

in anticipa-

of the fight, a treaty -was struck.
this usage, the

By an extension of
truths,

Subjunctive
;

is

sometimes used of general

where the anticipatory notion has faded out

as,

tempest&s minatur antequam surgat,
6)

the tempest threatens before it rises.
;

An

act anticipated

and

forestalled

as,

^

priusquam telum adici posset, omnis acies terga vertit, before a spear could be hurled, the whole army fled,
c)

An act anticipated and deprecated animum omittunt priusquam
rather than quit their post.

;

as,


they
die
is

loop demigrent,

2.

After historical tenses the Imperfect Subjunctive

used, espe-

cially

by some

writers,

where the notion of anticipation has practically
vidlt

vanished; as,
sol

antequam se abderet fugientem it set saw Antony fleeing.
Clauses introduced by

Antonium, the sun before

Bnm^ Donee, Quoad
Indicative of

293.

I.

Dum,

wAiie, regularly takes the

the Historical Present ; as,

Alexander,

dum

inter primores pugnat, sagittS ictus est, Alex-

ander, while he

dum haec
II.

was fighting in the van, was struck by an arrow geruntur, in fines Venellorum perveuit, while these things were being done, he arrived in the territory of the Venelli.

Dum, donee, and quoad, as long

as,

take the Indica-

tive; as,

dum anima est, spes est, as long as there is life, there is hope Laoedaemoniorum gens fortis fuit, dum Lyciirgi leges vigebant, the race of the Lacedaemonians was powerful, as long as the
Oato,

quoad

laws of Lycurgus were in force; visit, virtiitum laude crevit, Cato, as long as he
increased in the

lived,

fame of

his virtues.

192
III.
1.

SYNTAX.
Dum, donee, and quoad,
rediit, fuit silentinm, there

until,

take

:


as,

.The Indicative, to denote an actual event ;
was
silence till he catne

donee

ferrum in eorpore
the Boeotians
a.

retiuuit,

vicisse, he kept the iron

quoad renuntiatum est Boeotida in his body until word was brought thai

had conquered.

In Livy and subsequent historians and donee in take the Subjunctive instead of the Indicative as,
;

dum

this sense often

trepidatlonls aliquantum edebant donee timer quletem fecisset, they showed some trepidation, until fear produced quiet.
2.

The

tancy; as,

Subjunctive,

to

denote anticipation or

expec-

ezspeetavit Caesar

dum

naves convenirent, Caesar waitedfor the
the letter to come.

ships to assemble

dum

litterae veniant,

morabor, I shall wait for

Substantive Clauses.

Substantive Clause is one which as a whole serves as the Subject or Object of a verb, or stands in some other case relation.
294.

A

A. Substantive Clauses developed from the Volitive.
295.

Substantive Clauses Developed from the Volitive
:

are used with the following. classes of verbs
I
.

With verbs
etc.

signifying

to

admonish, request, command, urge, per;

suade, induce,^

(conjunctions ut, ne, or ut ne)

as,

postulo ut
orat,

fiat,

/ demand that
let it

it
;

be

done (dependent form

of the

Jussive fiat,

be done .')

ne abeas, he begs that you will not go away; milites oohortatus est ut hostium impetum sustinerent, he exhorted his soldiers to withstand the attack of the enemy Helvetiis persuasit ut exirent, he persuaded the Helvetii to march
forth.
a.

Jubeo, command,

order, regularly takes the Infinitive.

1

Especially:

flaglto;

moneo, admoneo; rogo, oro, peto, postulS, precor, mando, impero, pr"eclplo- suade hortor, eohortor: per>,

auadeo, impello.

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.
2.

I93
etc.

With verbs
;

junction ut)

as,

signifying to grant, concede, permit, allow^

(con-

huic

conoedo ut ea praetereat, / allow him
ent form of
tlie

to

pass that by (depend-

Jussive ea praetereat,

let

him pass

that by

.')

;

cousuli

permissum est ut duas legioues
to enroll

scriberet, the consul

was

permitted
3.

two

legions.
etc.

Witii verbs
;

of hindering, preventing^
s«,

quominus, quiu)

(conjunctions ne,

ne lustrum perficeret, mors prohibuit, death prevented him from finishing the lustrum (dependent form after past tense of ne

lustrum
prohibuit

perficiat,

let

him

not finish,

etc.")

;

quominus in unum

coirent, he prevented them from combe prevented

ing together

nee quin erumperet, prohiberi poterat, nor could he

from rushingforth.
a.

used only when the verb of hindering is accompanied by a a. question implying a negative it is not necessarily used even then.
is

Quin

negative, or stands in

;

4.

Witli verbs of deciding, resolving^
;

etc.

(conjunctions ut, ne, or

ut ne)

as,

constitueram' ut pridie Idus AquTni manerem, I had decided to remain at Aquirium on the 12th; decrevit senatus ut Opimius videret, the Senate decreed that Opimius should see to it convenit ut unis castris miscerentur, it was agreed that they should be united in one camp.
;
.

With verbs of striving,^ etc. (conjunctions

ut, ne, or

ut ne)

;

as,

eum exores, see to it that you prevail upon him I cura ut vir sis, see to it that you are a man laborabat ut reliquas oivitates adjungeret, he was striving the remaining states to him.
fac ut
u,.

to join

Conor,

try,

always takes the

Iniinitive.

Note.
poetry.

— Verbs of
:

all

the above classes also admit the Infinitive, especially in

1

Especially

2 Especially:
• <

Especially

:

Especially:

permitto, concedo, non patior. prohibeo, impedio, deterreo. constituo, decerns, censeo, placuit, convenit, paciscor. laboro, do operam, id ago, contends, impetro.

194
6.

SYNTAX.
With a few other
expressions, such as
;

est, sequitur, licet,

oportet

as,

necesse
to

est,

reliquum

sequitur ut doceam,
licet redeas, you

it

remains for me

shawi

may return oportet loquamur, we must speak.

i

On

the absence of ut with licet

and oportet, see paragraph

8.

7.

Here
;

also belong phrases of the type: nulla

quin

non

est cur,

etc. ;

nihil est cur,

etc. ; as,

causa est

cur,

nulla causa est cur timeam, tkere
(originally Deliberative
:

nihil est
8.

quin dicam, there

is

is no reason why J should fear why should Ifear ? There''s no reason) no reason why I should not say.
;

Many

of the above classes of verbs at times talce the simple Sub-

junctive without ut.

In such cases

we must not

recognize any omis-

sion of ut, but simply an earlier form of expression which existed
before the ut-clause arose.
est, licet,

and oportet

;

see 6.

This is regularly the case with necesse Other examples are
:

eos moneo deainant, / warn them to stop huic imperat adeat civitates, he orders him

to visit the states.

S,

Substantive Clauses developed from the Optative.

396. Substantive Clauses

Developed from the Optative

occur
1

:

With verbs

of wishing; desiring, especially cupio, opto, vol5,
;

malo

(conjunctions ut, ne, ut ne)

as,

opto ut in hoc judicio nemo improbus reperiatur, / hope that in this court no bad man may be found (here ut reperiatur represents a simple optative of direct statement, viz. reperiatur, may no bad man be found'.) cupio ne veniat, / desire that he may not come.
;

u.

The
this

class.

simple Subjunctive (without ut) sometimes occurs with verbs o) (See § 295, 8.) Examples are: velim scribas, / wish
written.

you would write ; vellem scripslsset, / wish he had
2.

With expressions of fearing (timeo, metuo, vereor, Here ne means that, lest, and ut means that not ; as,

etc.).

timeo ne veniat, I fear that he will come
come'.

(originally:

may

he not

Pm

afraid \he wiliy)

;

timeo ut veniat, I fear that he will not come
cornel

(originally:

may

lu

Pm afraid

\he won'i']^.

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.
a.

195

Ne nou sometimes occurs instead of ut, especially where the verb of /taring has a negative, or where the writer desires to emphasize some particular word in the dependent clause as,
;

non vereor ne hoc non
happen ;

flat, [

am

not afraid thai this will not
that

vereor ne exercitum firmum habere non possit, I fear he is unable (non possit) to have a strong army.

C.

Substantive Clauses of Result.
ut,

297.

Substantive Clauses of Result (introduced by

ut non) are

a development of pure Result clauses, and
:

occur with the following classes of words
1
.

As

object clauses after verbs of doing, accomplishing (especially

facts, efBcio, conficiS).

Thus:

gravitas

morbi facit ut medicina egeamus, the makes us need medicine.

severity

of disease

2.

As

the subject of several impersonal verbs, particularly

fit,

effici-

tur, accidit, evenit, contingit, accedit, fieri potest, fore,
ttir,

relinquitur.
efficitur,

Thus

:

sequi-

ex quo
ita
fit,

ut voluptas non

sit

summum

bonnm,/n7»2 which

it follows

that pleasure is not the greatest good;

ut nemo esse possit beatus, thus it happens that no one can happy ; accSdebat ut naves deessent, another thing was the lack of ships (lit. it was added that ships were lacking')
be
3.

est,

As predicate or appositive afjer expressions like jus est, mos consuetudo est; ^so after neuter pronouns, hoc, illud, etc.
:

Thus
est

mos hominum ut
it is

nSlint

eundem

pluribus rebud ezcellere,

the

way of men

not to wish the same person to excel in

many
D.
298.

things.

Substantive Clauses introduced by

<^VLin.

Substantive Clauses introduced by quin (used sometimes as subject, sometimes as object) occur after negative and interrogative expressions of doubt, omission, and the
like,

particularly after

non dubits, / do not doubt ;

quia

ig6

"

SYNTAX.

dubitat,

doubt.

who doubts f ; non (haud) dubium est, there The mood is the Subjunctive. Examples
:

is.

no

quis dubitat quin in virtute divitiae Bint, who doubts that in virtm
there are riches f

aon dubium erat quin venturua esset, was about to come.
a.

there

was no doubt

that he

In Nepos, Livy, and post-Augustan writers an Infinitive sometimes takes the place of the quin-clause after non dubito as,
;

non dubitamus Inventos esse, we do not doubt that men were fount.
b.

Non

dubito, / do not hesitate, is regularly followed by the though sometimes by a qtun-clause.

Infinitive,

JE7.

Substantive Clauses Introduced by QvLod.

299.
tive

I.

Quod, the fact

that, that, introduces

Substan-

Clauses in the Indicative.

especially

This construction occurs

d) In apposition with a preceding demonstrative, as hoc, illud, ilia, ex eo, inde, etc. Thus
:

id,

illud est admiratione dignum,

quod captTvos

retinen-

dos censuit,

this

is

especially

worthy of admiration,
feris,

that he thought the prisoners ought to be kept

hoc uno praestamus vel mazime

mur
b) After
etc.
;

inter nos, in this one respect

quod coUoqui-. we are especially
facere, miror,

superior to the beasts, that

we

talk with each other.
fit,

bene
as,

fit,

bene

accidit,
'

male

bene

bene mibi evenit, quod mittor ad mortem,
for me that I am sent
to

it

is

well

death

bene
2.

fecisti

quod

mansisti, you did well in remaining.

Quod

at the beginning of the sentence

of as regards the fact that.

Thus

:

sometimes has the

force

quod multitudinem Germanorum in Galliam trtduco, id mei muniendi causa faoio, as regards the fact that I am transporting a multitude of Germans into Gaul, I am doing it for
the sake

of strengthening myself i
putSs, falleria, as regards yout
mistaken.

quod me Agamemnona aemulari
thinking that

I emulate Agamemnon, you are

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.
F. Indirect Questions.
300.
I.

197

Indirect Questions are Substantive Clauses used

after verbs of asking, inquirmg, telling,

take their verb in the Subjunctive.^
(see § 162)
a)

they

may be

introduced

and the like. They Like Direct Questions
as,

By

Interrogative Pronouns or Adverbs

;


were,
fluat Arar,

die mihi nbi fueris, quid feceris,

tell

me where you

what you did;
oculis judicarT
it

n5n potest

in

utram partem

cannot be determined by the eye in which direction the

Arar flows bis bina quot assent, nesciebat, he did not

know how

many two
Note.
^

times two were.

— Care
:

should be taken to distinguish Indirect Questions

from Relative Clauses.
in the following

The

difference

between the two appears

clearly

effugere
is

nemo id

potest quod futurum est, no one can escape what
;

destined to come to pass
not even

but
but often

Baepe autem ne utile
it is

quidem est scire quid futurum sit, useful to know what is cojning to pass.
;

b)

By num or -ne, without distinction of meaning Epamlnondas quaesivit uum salvus esset
his shield

as,

clipeus, or

salvusne esset clipeus, Epaminondas asked whether

was

safe

disputatur
question

num
is

interire virtiis in

homine

possit, the

raised whether virtue can die in a

ez Socrate quaesitum

est

man nonne Archelaum beatum

putaret, the question was asked of Socrates whether he did not thi7ik Archelaus happy.
Note.

— Nonne in Indirect Questions occurs only
as,

after

quaero, asinthelasi

example above.
'2.

Often the Indirect Question represents a Deliberative Subjunctive
;

of the direct discourse

pi
to do.

neaoio quid ia-cinta, / do not know what

(Direct: quia'faciam,

what
1

shall

I do .')

sidera.
desires

Exclamations, also, upon becoming indirect, take the Subjunctive, as convariae sint hominum cupidlnes, consider how varied are thk

quam

of men.

(Direct

:

quam variae sunt hominum

oupidines I)

198

SYNTAX.

3. After verbs of exfectation and endeavor (exspeoto, conor, ezperior, tempto) we sometimes find an Indirect Question intro-

duced by

SI

;

as,

conantur

si

perrumpere possint,

they try whether they can break

through.
a.

Sometimes the governing verb

is

omitted

;

as,

permit ad
thither.

proximam speluncam

si

forte eo vestigia

fer-

rent, he proceeded

to the nearest cave (to see)

if the tracks lei

4.

Indirect Double Questions are introduced
particles as direct double questions (§ 162, 4)
;

in tlie
viz.
;

same

main by

tlie

utrum
-ne

.

.

.an;
an;

Examples

:

.... an .... ne.
sit,

quaero quaero quaero quaero
a.

utrum verum an falsum verumne an falsum sit, verum an falsum sit, verum falsumne sit,
'

I ask whether it is true orfalse?

second member of the double question is ordinarily neone, less frequently by an non as, di utrum slnt necne, quaeritur, // is asked whether there are gods

Or

not' in

tlie

expressed by
or not.
J.

;

Haud

scio an, nescio an, by omission of the

first

membpr
:

of

the double question, occur with the Subjunctive in the sense
inclined to think, probably, perhaps ; as,

/

am

haud scio an
6.

ita sit,

/ am

inclined to think this is so.
is

In early Latin and in poetry the Indicative

sometimes used

in

Indirect Questions.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
301.
(§ 164)

Conditional Sentences
consisting of

are

compound
the
Protasis

sentences
(or con-

two

parts,

dition),

usually introduced

Apodosis (or conclusion). of Conditional Sentences

:

by si, nisi, or sin, and the There are the following types

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
First T3rpe. -r Nothing

I99

Implied as to the Reality of the Sup-

posed Case.
302.
I.

Here we regularly have the

Indicative in both

Protasis
81

and Apodosis.

Any

tense

may be

used

;

as,

hoc credis, erras, ifyou believe this, you are mistaken uaturam si sequemur, numquam aberrabimus, if we follow Nature, we shall never go astray 81 hoc di^sti, errasti, ifyou said this, you were in error.
*

2.

Sometimes the Protasis
as,

talces

the Indefinite Second Person Singu^

lar (§ 356,

3) of the Present or Perfect Subjunctive, with the force of
;

the Indicative


it.

memoria minuitur,
you
3.

nisi earn ezerceas,

memory

is

impaired unless

exercise

Here belong

also those conditional sentences in
;

which the Prot;

asis

denotes a repeated action (compare §§ 287, 2

288, 3)

as,

81

quis

equitum deciderat, pedltes circumsistebant,

if any one

of the horsemen'fell, the foot-soldiers gathered about him.
a.

Instead of the Indicative, Livy and subsequent writers employ the Subjunctive of the Historical tenses in the Protasis to denote repeated
action; as, si

dicendo quis diem eximeret,
in pleading ; si

if {ever) anybody consumed a day
sat by.

quando

adsideret, if ever he
it,

4.

Where

the sense

demands

tences of the First

Type may be an

the Apodosis in conditional senImperative or one of the Indeas,

pendent Subjunctives (Hortatory, Deliberative, etc.);
sT 81

hoc creditis, tacete, ifyou hoc credimus, taceamus, if we

believe this, be silent

believe this, let us keep silent.

Second Type. — Should '-' Would Conditions.
'
'

Here we regularly have the Subjunctive (of the Present or Perfect tense) in both Protasis and Apodosis as,—
303.
;

81 si

si

be mishoc die as, erres, taken. hoc dizeris, erraveris, J velim Hannibalis proelia omnia desoribere, dies mS defioiat, Hannibal, timi if I should wish to describe all the battles of would fail me
1

if you should say

this,

you would

200

SYNTAX.

mentiar, si negem, I should lie, if I should deny it; haec SI tecum patria loquatur, nonne impetrare debeat, if your country should plead thus -with you, would she not deserve to
obtain her request f
a.

The
is

Subjunctive in the Apodosis of conditional sentences of

this type

of the Potential variety.

b.

Sometimes we find the Indicative in the Apodosis of sentences of the Second Type, where the writer wishes to assert the accomplishment of a
result

more

positively ; as,

aliter si faciat, nailaiu habet auctorlt^tem, if he should otherwise he has no authority.
f

da,

Third
304.

Type.

— Supposed

Case

Represented

as

Contrary

to

Fact.

Protasis
time,
si

Here we regularly have the Subjunctive and Apodosis, the Imperfect referring to and the Pluperfect referring to past ; as,
I.

in

both

present

amicT mei adessent, opis non indigerem, if my friends were

here,

SI

I should not hoc dizisses,
erred;

lack assistance

errasses, zf

you had said

this,

you would have
would
not

sapientia

non expeteretur,

si nihil eiSoeret, philosophy

be desired, if it accomplished nothing;

consilium, ratio, sententia nisi essent in senibus, non summum consilium majores nostri appellassent senatum, unless deliberation, reason,

and wisdom

existed in old men, our ancesdeliberative

tors

would not have

called their highest

body a

senate.

2.

past, especially to

Sometimes the Imperfect Subjunctive is found referring to the denote a coiitintied act, or a state of things still exist-

ing;

as,—
Cato sT nihil litteris adjuvarentur, numquam se ad earum studium oontullssent, Laelius, Furius, and Cato would never have devoted themselves to the study of letters, unless they had been {constantly) helped by them igitur si ad centesimum annum vizisset, senectiitis eum suae paeniteret, if he had lived to his hundredth year, would M have regretted (and now be regretting) his old age ?

Laelius, Furius,

num

CONDTTIONAL SENTENCES.
3.

20I
sometimes

The Apodosis

in conditional sentences of this type

stands in the Indicative (Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect), viz.

a) Frequently in expressions of ability, obligation, or necessity
as,

nisi felicitas in

socordiam vertisset, exuere jugum potuerunt, unless their prosperity had turned to folly, they could have thrown off the yoke;
this type,

Note.
Thus

— In sentences of

however,

it is

not

itie

possibility that is repre-

sented as-contTEiry-to-fact, but something to be supplied in thought irom the context.
in the foregoing

sentence the logical apodosis
it off\.

is

et exuissent tinderstood
itself is

(and they would have shaken
Subjunctive
is

When

ihe possibility

conditioned, the

used.

eum

patris loco colere debebas, si

uUa

in te pietas

esset, j/o» ought to revere

him as a father, if you had
as,

any sense of devotion.
b)

With both the Periphrastic Conjugations
61 Sestius ocoTsus esset, f uistisne
'

;


if
to

Sestius

had

been slain,

ad arma ituri, would you have proceeded

arms f
sT

Qnum diem morati
fnit, if

essetis,

moriendum omnibus
all

you had delayed one day, you would

have

had to

die.

Protasis expressed without Si.
305.
but
as,
I.

The

Protasis

is

not always expressed by a clause with

si,

may be implied

in a word, a phrase, or merely

by the context;

aliSqui haeo

non soriberentur,

otherwise

(i.e. if

matters were other-

would not be written non potestis, voldptate omnia dirigentes, retinere virtutem, you cannot retain virtue, if you direct everything with reference to
wise) these things
pleasure.
2.

Sometimes an Imperative, or a Jussive Subjunctive, serves as

Protasis.

Thus

:

eras petito, dabitur, if you ask to-morrow,

it

shall be given you (Ht.

ask to-morrow,

etc.)

haec reputent, videbunt, tf they consider this, they will see (lit. let them consider, etc.) ; /oges Zenonem, respondeat, if you should ask Zeno, he would
answer.

202
Use
306.
I.

SYNTAX.
of Nisi,

SI Non, Sin.
non
nega-

Nisi, unless, negatives the entire protasis; si

tives a single

word

;

as,

ferreus essem, nisi te
loved yote
;

but

amarem, / should

be hard-hearted unless 1

ferreus essem, si te

non amarem, /
it is

should be hard-hearted if I did

NOT
In the

love you.

first

example,

the notion of loving you that

is

negatived,

in the second, the notion of loving.
2.

ST non
a)

(si

minus)

is

regularly

employed

:


;

When

an apodosis with at, tamen, certe follows
si

as,


if

dolorem
b)

non potuero

frangere,

tamen occultabo,

I cannot crush

my sorrow, yet I will hide it.

When
as,

an

affirmative protasis is repeated in negative form

si feceris,

magnam babebo gratiam; si non feceris, ignoscam, if you do it, I shall be deeply grateful; ifyou do not do it, I shall pardon you.
sin
;

a.

if the verb is omitted in the repetition, only si minus or minus is admissible as, — boc si assecQtus sum, gaudeo; si minus, me consolor, have attained this, I am glad; if not, I console myself.

But

z/7

3.

Sin.

Where one

protasis

is

followed by another opposed
is

in

meaning, but affirmative in form, the second

introduced by sin

;

as,

hunc mihi timorem eripe
founded, that [
that
4.

;

si

virus

ut timgre desinam,

relieve

est, ne opprimar, sin me of this fear; if it
it is

falsus,
is

well

may

not be destroyed; but if

groundless,

I may
as,

cease to fear.

Nisi has a fondness
nihil)
;

for

combining with negatives (non, nemo

nihil cogitavit nisi
a. 5.

caedem, he had no thought but murder,
always separated in the best Latinity.
si,

Non and nisi are

Nisi forte, nisi vero, nisi
vero, quia

unless perchance, unless indeed

(often with ironical force), take the Indicative; as,
nisi

perfeota res non

est,
is

non videtur

punienda,

unless indeed, because

an

act

not consummated,

U

does not

seem

to

merit punishment.

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES OF COMPARISON.
Conditional Clauses of Comparison.
307.
I.

203

Conditional Clauses of Comparison are intro-

duced by the particles, ac si, ut si, quasi, quam SI, tamquam 81, velut si, or simply by velut or tamquam. They stand in the Subjunctive mood and regularly involve an ellipsis (see
§

374)

i)> 3-S

indicated in the following examples

:

tantus patres

metus

cepit, velut si

jam ad portas hostis

esset, as

great fear seized the senators as {would have seized them) if the enemy were already at the gates

sed quid ego his testibus utor quasi les dubia aut obscura sit, 6ui why do I use these witnesses, as (/ should do) if the matter were doubtful or obscure serviam tibi tam quasi emeris me argento, I -will serve you as
though you
2.

had bought me for money.

Note that in sentences of this kind the Latin observes the reguthe Sequence of Tenses. Thus after principal tenses the Latin uses the Present and Perfect (as in the second and third examples), where the English uses the Past and Past Perfect.
lar principles for

Concessive Clauses.

clauses

Concessive is best restricted to those developed from the Jussive Subjunctive which have the force of granted that, etc.; (see § 278) as,
308.
'
'

The term

Bit fur, sit

sacrilegus, at est

bonus imperator, planted
good commander

that he

is

a

thief and a robber, yet he is a

haec sint falsa, granted that this is false ne sit summum malum dolor, malum certe est, granted that pain is not the greatest evil, yet it is certainly an evil.

Adversative Clauses with
309.

Qnamvis, Qnamguam, etc

intro4uced by quamvis, quamquam, etsl, cum, although, while often classed as 'Concessive,' are yet essentially different from genuine Concessive clauses. As a rule, they do not grant or concede anyClauses
tametsi,

thing,

but rather state that something

is

true in spite of

204
something
sative
else.

SYNTAX.
They accordingly emphasize the adverand are properly Subordinate Adversative
different particles used to introduce these

idea,

Clauses.

The

clauses have different meanings
structions, as follows
:

and take

different con-

Quamvis, however much, although, does not introduce a state1 ment of fact, but represents an act merely as conceived. It is followedby the Subjunctive, usually of the present tense; as,

homines quamvTs

in turbidis rebus sint, tarn en

interdum animTs

non

relazantur, in however stirring events men may engage, yet at times they relax their energies; est potestas opitulandi rei publicae quamvis ea prematur
periculis, there
is

no opportunity

to succor the state, though

it

be beset by dangers.
2.

Quamquam,

etsi,

tametsi, although, introduce a statement
;

fact,

and are followed by the Indicative (of any tense)
virtus nos
allicit,

as,

of

quamquam omnis
efficit,

tameu

justitia id

mazime
espe-

although all virtue attracts us, yet justice does so

cially

;

Caesar, etsi nondum consilium hostium cognoverat, tamen Id quod accidit suspicabatur, Caesar, though he did not yet know
the plans
u..

of the enemy, yet was suspecting what actually occurred,

Etsi, although, must be distinguished from etsi, even if. The latter is a conditional particle and teikes any of the constructions admissible
for si.

(See §§ 302-304.)
is

,

3.

Cum,

although,

followed by the Subjunctive
petiit,

;

as,


seek.

Atticus honores non

cum

ei paterent, Atticus did not

honors, though they were open to him.

Licet sometimes loses its verbal force (see § 295, 6) and sinks to 4. the level of a conjunction with the force of although. It takes the Subjunctive, Present or Perfect as,
;

licet

omnes

terrores impendeant, succurram, though hang over me, {yet) I will lend aid.

aU

terrors

5.

Quamquam,
;

with the force

principal clauses

as,

and yet,

is

often used to introduce

quamquam quid

loquor, and yet why do

I speak f

CLAUSES OF PROVISO.— RELATIVE CLAUSES.
6.

2oS
Sub-

In post-Augustan writers
while

guamquam
Thus
:

is

freely construed with the

junctive,

quamvis

is

often used to introduce statements of fact,

either the Indicative

or the Subjunctive.

and takes
words;

quamquam moveretur his v5cibus,

although he was

moved by

these

quamvis multi opinarentur, though many thought; quamvis infesto anlmS perveneras, though you had come with

hostile intent.

Clauses with

Dum, Modo, Dumznodo,
or a Proviso.
particles are followed

denoting a AVish

310.

These

by the Subjunctive
:

(negative ne)

and have two

distinct uses

L They
entertained

are used to introduce clauses embodying a wish

by the subject

of the leading verb; as,

multi honesta neglegunt dummodo potentiam oonsequantur, many neglect honor in their desire to obtain power (^if only th^

may

attain)

;

omnia postposm, dum praeceptis patris parerem, I made everything else secondary, in my desire to obey the injunctions of my father ^ nil obstat tibi, dum ne sit ditior alter, nothing hinders you in your desire that your neighbor may not be richer than you.

n. They are used to express
tJmt'); as,
oderint,

a proviso

{'provided

dum metuant, let them hate, provided they fear ; manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria,
old

men

retain their faculties, provided only they retain their

interest

and vigor
fiat

nubant,

dum ne dos
it.

comes,

let

them marry, provided no dowry

goes with

Relative Clauses.
311.

Relative Clauses are introduced by Relative Pro-

nouns, Adjectives, or Adverbs.
312.
I.

Relative

especially clauses

clauses usually stand in the Indicative Mood, introduced by those General Relatives which aro

doubled or have the suffix

-cumque

;

as,

2o6
quidquid id
est,

SYNTAX.
timeo Danaos et dona ferentes, whatever
offer gifts;
it is, 1

fear the Greeks even when they

quidquid

oritur,

qualecumque

est,

causam a uatura habet, whatit is,

ever cotnes into being, of whatever sort
in Nature.
2.

has

its

primal cause

Any

simple Relative

may

introduce a conditional sentence
in §§

any of the thVee types mentioned

302-304

;

as,

of

qui hoc dicit, errat, he who says this is mistaken (First Type) qui hoc dicat, erret, he would be mistaken who should say this (Second Type) qui hoc dixisset, errasset, the man who had said this would have
;

been mistaken.

INDIRECT DISCOURSE {OUATIO OBLTQUA).
313. When the language or thought of any person is reproduced without change, that is called Direct Discourse The die is cast' When, (yOratio Recta) ; as, Caesar said, on the other hand, one's language or thought is made to
'

depend upon a verb of saying, thinking,
the

etc.,

that

is called

Indirect Discourse {Oratio Obllquci); as, Caesar said that
die

was

cast

;

Caesar thought that his troops wen

victorious.
a.

For the verbs most frequently employed to introduce
Discourse, see § 331.

Indirect

MOODS
314.

IN

INDIRECT DISCOURSE.

Declarative Sentences.
I.

Declarative Sentences upon becoming Indirect

change
tive

their

main clause
all

to the

Infinitive with Subject

Accusative, while
;

as,

subordinate clauses take the Subjunc-

Regulus dixit quam diu jure jurando hostium ten§retur non esse se senatorem, Regulus said that as long ns he was held by his pledge to the enemy he was not a senator. (Direct quam diu teneor non sum senator.)
:

INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
2.

207

The verb

of saying, thinking,
;

from the context

as,

etc., is

sometimes to be inferred

tum Romulus legates circa viclnas gentes misit qui societatem conubiumque peterent urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex luSiao nasci, then Romulus sent envoys around among the neighboring tribes, to ask for alliance and the right of intermarriage, {saying that) cities, like everything else, start from a
:

modest beginning.
3.

Subordinate clauses which contain an explanatory statement of

the writer

and so are not properly a part of the Indirect Discourse, or
;

which emphasize the fact stated, take the Indicative

as,

nuutiatum est Ariovistum ad occupaudum Vesoutionem, quod est oppidum mazdmum Sequanorum contendere, it mas reported that Ariovistus was hastening to seize Vesontio, which the largest town of the Sequani.
4.
is

Sometimes a subordinate clause
is

is

such only in

its

external form,

and in sense
Accusative.

principal.

,

It

then takes the Infinitive with Subject
hie,
etc. ; as,

This occurs especially in case of

qui

is

equivalent to et

Mo,

nam

relative clauses,

where

dixit urbem.

baris,

Atheniensium propugnaculum oppositum esse barapud quam jam bis classes regias fecisse naufragium, he said the city of the Athenians had been set against the barbarians like a bulwark, near which ( = and near it) the fleets of the King had twice met disaster.
refers

5.

The
it

when

Subject Accusative of the Infinitive is sometimes omitted to the same person as the subject of the leading
;

verb, or

can easily be supplied from the context

as,

cum

id nescire
this

Mago

diceret,

when Mago said he did

not

know

(for se nescire).

Interrogative Sentences.

Real questions of the Direct Discourse, upon becoming indirect, are regularly put in the Subjunc315.
I.

tive; as,

Ariovistus Caesari respondit

populum Romanum.
sessiones
veniret,

se prius in Galliam venisse quam Cur in suas possibi vellet? replied to Caesar that ht Ariovistus
:

Quid

2o8
had come
{Caesar)

SYNTAX.
into Gatd before the Roman mean 1 Why did he come into

people.
his

What

did

hi

quid
2.

tibi

domain ? vis ? cur in meas possessiones venis ?)

(Direct;

Rhetorical questions, on the other hand, being asked
effect,

merely for
course.

and being equivalent

in force to emphatic
Dis-

statements, regularly stand in the Infinitive in Indirect

Thus

:

quid est levius
direct.
3.

(lit.

what

is

more

trivial,

=

nothing

is

more

trivial)

of the Direct Discourse becomes

quid esse levius

in the In-

Deliberative Subjunctives of the Direct Discourse remain unin the Indirect: as,

changed in mood

qaid

fiLceiet, le/hai

was he

to

do ?

(Direct:

quid faciat?)

Imperative Sentences.
316.

Direct

All Imperatives or Jussive Subjunctives of Discourse appear as Subjunctives in the

the
In-

direct; as,
milites certiores fecit paulisper intermitterent proelium,
told the
soldiers to
he

stop

the

battle

for a
as,

little.

(Direct:

iutermittite.)
a.

The

negative in such sentences
let

is

ne

;


it to

ne suae virtuti tribueret,
valor

him not attribute

his

own

TENSES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
A. Tenses of the Infinitive.
317.

These are used
The

in

accordance with the
§

regular

principles for the use of the Infinitive as given in
a.

270.
the

Perfect Infinitive

may

represent any past tense of

Indicative of Direct Discourse.

Thus

:

scio te haeo egisse

may mean


(Direct: (Direct:

/ know you were doing this. I know you did this. I know you had done this.

(Direct

:

haec agebas.) haeo egisti.) haeo egeras.)

INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
B. Tenses
318.
of the Subjunctive.

2o9

These follow the regular principle
being Principal
if it is if

for the

Sequence
is

of Tenses,

the verb of saying'

Princi-

pal; Historical
vividness,
after

Historical.

Yet for the sake
as,

of

we

often find the

Present Subjunctive used
;

an

historical tense {Repraesentatio)
si

Caesar respondit,

obsides dentur, sese

pacem

esse facturum,

Caesar replied that, if hostages be given, he would make peace.
a.

For the sequence

after the Perfect Infinitive, see § 268, 2.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
Conditional Sentences of the First Type.
319.
is

A. The Apodosis. Any tense of the Indicative changed to the corresponding tense of the Infinitive

(§§ 270; 317. «)•

B.
the

The

Protasis.

The

protasis takes those tenses of

Subjunctive which are required

by the

Sequence

of Tenses.

Examples

:


Indirect.

Direct.

dico,
si

SI

hoc credis, erras,
dixi, SI
(

hoc credas, te errare hoc crederes, te errare.
;

dico, si
,.

SI

hoc credes, errabis, ' '

J 1

.

., .

dixi, SI

hoc credas, te erraturum esse _, - .-^hoc crederes, te erraturum esse. hoc credideris, hoc credidisses,
-,.,.
-

f

dico, sl

te
.-

erraturum

esse
si

hoc credideris, errabis, '

•{

,.

_

-,_

dixi, SI

te

erraturum

-^-

esse.
Sl

hoc credebas, erravisti, '
a.

<,...,_ dixi, Sl hoc
[

f

dico, si

hoc crederes, te erravisse _ _, _ ^_
.

crederes, te erravisse.

Note that a Future Perfect Indicative of the Direct Discourse
regularly appears in the Indirect as a Perfect Subjunctive
after a principal tense,

and as a Pluperfect Subjunctive

after

an historical tense.

2IO

SYNTAX.
Conditional Sentences
of.

the Second Type.

320.

A.

The

Apodosis.

The Present

Subjunctive

of

the Direct Discourse regularly
tive of the Indirect.

becomes the Future

Infini-

B.

The

Protasis.

the Subjunctive

Examples
si

:

The Protasis takes those tenses demanded by the sequence of tenses.
dico, SI

of

h5c credas, erres,
dixl, SI

hoc credas, te erraturum esse hoc crederes, te erraturum esse.

Conditional Sentences of the Third Type.
321.
1.

A.

The

Apodosis.
of the Direct Discourse

The Imperfect Subjunctive
Infinitive.
a.

becomes the Future
But
sical Latinity

this construction is rare,

being represented in the
29. 2).

clas-

by a single example (Caesar, V.

Some

scholars question the correctness of this passage.

2.

The
:

becomes
d)

Pluperfect Subjunctive of the Direct Discourse

a) In the Active Voice the Infinitive in -urus fuisse.
In the Passive Voice
it

takes the form

futurum

fuisse ut

with the Imperfect Subjunctive.

B.

The

Protasis.'

The

protasis

in

Conditional Sen-

tences of this type ahvays remains unchanged.

Examples
SI

:

hoc crederes, errares,
h5c credidisses, erravisses,

dico (dixi),

sT

hoc orederes,

te er-

raturum esse
si

dico (dixT),

si hoc credidisses, erratiirum fuisse

te

SI

hoc dizisses, punitus esses,

dico (dixI), si hoc dixisses, futui

rum
322.

fuisse ut pumrSris.

When

Type

referring to the past

an apodosis of a conditional sentence of the Third is at the same time a Result clause, or »

INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
quin-clause (after
junctive in the

211

non dubito, etc.), form -urua fuerim; as,

it

stands in the Perfect Sub-

Ita territi sunt,

ut arma trSditurl fuerint,i nisi Caesar subito advenisset, they were so frightened that they would have given up their arms, had not Caesar suddenly arrived; non dubito quin, si hoc dixisses, erraturus f ueris,i / do not doubt
that, ifyou

had said this, you would have made a
is

mistake.

a.

This peculiarity
Passive,

such

confined to the Active Voice. In the sentences, when they become dependent,
;

remain unchanged

as,

non dubito

quin, si

do not doubt that,
been blamed.
b.

hoc dirzisses, vituperatus esses, / if you had said this, you would have

When

an Indirect Question becomes an apodosis in a con^ Third Type, -urus fuerim (rarely -urus f uissem) is used as,
ditional sentence of the
;

quaero, num, si hoc
fuisses)
c.

dixisses, erraturus

fueris

(01

Potui, when

it becomes a dependent apodosis in sentences of Type, usually changes to the Perfect Subjunctive ; as,

this

concursQ. totius civitatis defensi sunt, ut Irigidissimos quoque oratores populi studia excitare potuerint,
they were defended before a gathering of all the citizens, so that the
interest of the people would have most apathetic orators.
beeyi

enough

to excite

even the

IMPLIED INDIRECT DISCOURSE.
323.

The

Subjunctive

is

often used in subordinate clauses

Indirect character is merely implied by the context ; as,

whose

dSmonstrabantur mihi praeterea, quae Socrates d§ imxnortalidisseruisset, there were explained to me bearguments -which Socrates had set forth concerning the immortality of the soul {i.e. the arguments which, it was said, Socrates had set forth) Paetus omnes libros quos pater suus reliquisset mihi donavit,

tate

anlmSrum

sides, the

;

Paetus gave
1

me all the books which

(as he said) his father

had left.
repre-

senting tradlttiri
J

Tradituri fuerint and erraturus fueris are to be regarded as fuerunt and erratiiruB fulsti of Direct Discourse.
*0

(Sm

304- 3-

212

SYNTAX.
SUBJUNCTIVE BY ATTRACTION.

junctive

Subordinate clauses dependent upon the Sub. attracted into the same mood, especially when they do not express a fact, but constitute
324.
I.

are frequently

an

essential part

of one complex idea ;
est, cui,

as,

nemo avarus adbuc inventus
had;

quod haberet,
satisfied

esset

satis,

no miser has yet been found who was

with what he

cum

quod

diversas causas afferrent, dum formam sui quisque et animi et ingenii reddereut, as they brought forward different arguments, while each mirrored his own individual type of mind and natural bent ego f atear, pudeat ? should I be ashamed of a thing which I
adtnit f

2.
is

Similarly

put in the Subjunctive
as,

a subordinate clause dependent upon an Infinitive when the two form one closely united

whole;

mos

est

Athems quotannis

proeliis interfecti,

it is

in contione laudari eos qui sint in the custom at Athens every year for
killed in battle.

who have been (Here the notion of 'praising those who fell an inseparable whole.)
those to be publicly eulogized

in battle' form.s

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE
325.

VERB.

Infinitive, participle. Gerund, and All of these partake of the nature of the Verb, on the one hand, and of the Noun or Adjective, on the

These are the

Supine.

other.

Thus

:

As Verbs,
d)
^)
c)


tense.

They may be limited by adverbs They admit an object They have the properties of voice and
or Adjectives,

As Nouns
a)
b)


or Adjective constructions.

They They

are declined

take

Noun

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.
THE
326.

213

INFINITIVE.
Subject Accusative.

Infinitive 'without

This

is

used chiefly as Subject or Object but also as
was

Predicate or Appositive.
Note.

— The

Infinitive

originally

a Dative, and traces of

this are still to

be

seen in the poetical use of the Infinitive to express/w^^oj^ ; as,

uec dulces occurto snatch kisses.

rent oscula nati praeripere, and no sweet children imll run

A.
327.
I.

As

Subject.

The

Infinitive without

Subject Accusative

is

used as the Subject of esse and various impersonal verbs,
particularly

opus

est,

necesse

est, oportet, juvat, delectat,

placet, libet, licet, praestat, decet, pudet, interest, etc. ; as,

dulce et

decorum

est pro patria mori,

it is

sweet

and

noble to die

for one''s country virorum est fortium toleranter dolorem pati,

it is

the part of brave

endure fain with patience senatui placuit legates mittere, /^f Senate decided
to

men

(lit. it

pleased tht

Senate) to send envoys.
2.

Even though the

Infinitive itself appears without Subject,
;

take a Predicate

Noun

or Adjective in the Accusative
esse, aliud iratum,
it is

as,

it

may

aliud est
ble.,

iracundum

one thing to be irasci-

another to be angry;
esse, to do whatever

Impune quaelibet facere, id est regem
a.

you

please with impunity, that is to be a king.
But when licet
is

Noun

or Adjective with

followed by a Dative of the person, a Predicate esse is attracted into the same case; as,

licult esse otioso Themlstocli, lit. it was permitted to Themistocles to be at leisure. So sometimes with other Impersonals.

B.
328.
I.

'As Object.

The

Infinitive without

Subject Accusative

is

used as the Object of
of the

many
;

verbs, to denote another action

same

subject, particularly after

V0I6, cupio, malo,

nolo

cogito, meditor, purpose, intend',

debeo, ought; Statuo, constituo, decide

neglego, neglect; vereor, timed, fear

214
audeo, dare Btudeo, contends, strive paro, prepare (so paratus)
pergo, continue; desino, desisto, cease

SYNTAX.
mature, f estino, propero, oontendo, hasten asauesco, consuescS, accustom
;

;

incipio, coepi, instituo, begin

myself (so assuetus, insuitua, assuef actus)
;

disco, learn
scio,

possum, can
Conor, try

know how

soleo,

am

wont;

as,

tu hos intueri audes, do you dare to look on these men ? Demosthenes ad Suctus maris declamare solebat, Demostkene, used to declaim by the waves of the sea.
2.

A

Predicate

Noun
;

or Adjective with these Infinitives

is

attracted

into the

Nominative

as,

beatus esse sine virtute
virtue

nemo

potest, no one can be happy without
to be

Cats esse quam videri bonus malebat, Cato preferred
rather than to seem
so.

good

Infinitive writh Subject Accusative.

329.

This

is

used chiefly as Subject or Object but

also

as Predicate or Appositive.

A.
330.

As

Subject.

The

Infinitive with
is

Subject Accusative

(like the

used as Subject with ease and Impersonal verbs, particularly with aequum est, utile est, turpe est, fama est, spes eat, fas est, uefas est, opus est, necesse
simple Infinitive)
est, oportet, constat, praestat, licet, etc. ;

as,

nihil in bell5 oportet

contemn!, nothing ought

to be despised in war;
it is

apertum est

sibi

quemque natura
is

esse carum,

manifest that

by nature everybody

dear

to himself.

B.
331.

As

Object.

The

Infinitive

with Subject Accusative

is

used as

Object after the following classes of verbs
I.

ceivtng,

Most and

frequently after verbs of saying, thinking, knowing, perthe like {Verba Sentiendi et Declarandi).

This

is

th«

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB. 21$
regular construction of Principal Clauses of Indirect Discourse.
that take this construction are,

Verbs
sentlo,
;

among

others, the following

:

audio, video, cognosco memini dioo, affirmo,
;

;

puto, jiidico, spero, confido
{say that
.
.

soio,

nego

.

not),

trado, narro,

fateoT,

certiorem facio (infortn),

respondeo, scribo, promitto, glorior. Also the phrases; memoria teneo (remember), etc.
:

Examples
Epiciirei

putant

cum

corporibu3 simul animos iuterire,

the Epi-

cureans think that the soul perishes with the body Thales dixit aquam esse initium rerum, Thales said that water was
the first principle of the tmiverse; Democritus uegat quicquid esse sempiternum, Democritus says

spero
II.

nothing is everlasting; eum venturum esse,

/ hope

that he will come.

With

jiibeo, order,

and

-veto, forbid; as,
soldiers to

Caesar milites pontem facere jussit, Caesar ordered the make a bridge.
u.

When

the

name
is
;

of the person

who

is

something
the Passive
III.

omitted, the Infinitive with
as,

ordered or forbidden to do jube5 and veto is put in

Caesar pontem

fieri Jussit.

With patior and sino,/«-w?z^, fl/^a',- as, QuUo se implioari negotio passus est, he did not permit himself be involved in any difficulty.
IV.

to

With volo, nolo, malo, cupio, when

the Subject of the Infini;

tive is different

from that of the governing verb

as,

neo mihi hunc errorem extorqueri volo, nor do I wish
be wrested from

this error to

me
was unwilling
that these matters should be

eUs res jactari uolebat, he
discussed;
te tut frui virtiite
a.

cupimus, we

desire that you enjoy your worth.

When the Subject of both verbs is the same, the simple Infinitive is occur, esregidarly used in accordance with \ 328. x. But exceptions
pecially in case of

esse and Passive

Infinitives

;

as,

esse clementem, I desire to he lenient; Timolson maluit se diligi quam metui, Timoleon preferred

cupio

me

to

be loved rather than feared.
6.

Volo

also admits the Subjunctive, with or without
(.See § 296. 1. a.)

ut

;

n51o

the

Sub

junctive alone.

2l6

SYNTAX.

V. With Verbs of emotion (Joy, sorrow, regret, etc.), especiallj gaudeo, laetor, doled aegre ferS, molests fero, graviter fero, am annoyed, distressed ; miror, queror, indignor as,
;

;

gaudeo

tS

salvum advenire, I rejoice

thai you arrive safely^

non molests ferunt se libidinum vinculis laxatos esse, they art not troubled at being releasedfrom the bonds of passion miror te ad me nihil scribere, I wonder that you write me nothing.
u..

Instead of an Infinitive these verbs also sometimes admit a guodclause as Object.

(See

}

299.)

Thus

:

miror quod non loqueris, / wonder that you
VI.

do not speak.

Some

verbs which take two Accusatives, one of the Person and

the other of the Thing (§ 178, i), second Accusative as,
;

may

substitute an Infinitive for the

cogo te hoc facere, I compel you to do this (cf. te hoc cogo) docui te contentum esse, /• taught you to be content (cf. te modestiam docui, I taught you temperance).
;

Passive Construction of the Foregoing Verbs.
332.

Those verbs which

ha the

Active are followed by

the Infinitive with Subject Accusative, usually admit the

personal construction of the Passive.
following and of

some others
;

:

This

is

true of the

d) jubeor, vetor, sinox

as,

milites

pontem

facere jussi sunt, the soldiers were ordered

a bridge jussus est, a bridge was ordered built niHites castris exire vetiti sunt, the troops were forbidden to go out of the camp ; Sestius Clodium accusare non est situs, Sestius was
to build
fieri

pons

not allowed to accuse Clodius.
6) MiAeor,

I am

seen,

I seem;

as,

videtur comperisse, he seems
c) dicor,

to

have discovered,
all

putor, existimor, judicor (in
is

persons)

;

as,


into

dicitur in Italiam venisse, he
Italy

said to have come

Romulus primus rek Romanorum
lus is thought to

fuisse putatur, Romuhave been the first king of the Romans.

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.
d)
fertur,

217
third

feruntur, trSditur, traduntur
;

person)
fertur

as,

(only in

the

Homerus caecus

fuisse,

Homer

is

said to have been

blind;

carmina Archilochi contumSliis referta esse traduntur, Archilochus''s poems are reported to have been full of abuse.
Note.

— In

verbs, «), <0i niore

compound tenses and periphrastic forms, the commonly take the impersonal construction

last
;

as,

two classes of

tradltuin est
blind.

Homerum caecum

fuisse, the story goes that

Homer was

Infinitive 'with Adjectives.

333.
etc. ;

The
;

Infinitive with Adjectives

(except paratus,

assuetus,

see § 328, i) occurs only in poetry
as,

writers

and

post- Augustan prose

oontentus demonstrasse, contented to have proved; audax omnia perpetT, bold for enduring everything.
Infinitive in Exclamations.

334.

The

Infinitive is

used in Exclamations implying scorn, indigis

nation, or regret.

An

intensive -ne
:

the clause.

Examples

often attached to

some word

in

huncine solem tarn nigrum surreze mihi,
rose with such evil

to think that to-day's

sun

omen for me!
to stay

sedere totos dies in villa,

whole days at the

villa.

Historical Infinitive.
335. The Infinitive
Imperfect Indicative.
is

often used in historical narrative instead of the

The

Subject stands in the Nominative
flagitare,

;

as,

interim cottidie Caesar

Haeduos frumentum

meanwhile

Caesar was daily demanding grain of the Haedui.

PARTICIPLES.
Tenses of the Participle.
336.
I.

The

tenses of the Participle, like those of the

Infinitive (see § 270),

express time not absolutely, but with

reference to the verb

upon which the

Participle depends.

2l8
2.

SYNTAX.
The
Present Participle denotes action contemporary with that

the verb.

Thus

:

ol

audio te loquentem =you are speaking and / hear you audiebam te loquentem =you were speaking and I heard you; ^udiam te loquentem = you will be speaking and I shall hear you.
a.

The
force

Present Participle as, —.
;

is

sometimes employed with Conative
the king

assurgentem regem resupinat, as rise, he threw him down.
3.

was

trying

to

The

Perfect Passive Participle denotes action prior to that
:

the verb.

Thus looutus taceo = / have spoken and am

of

silent;

looutus'tacui = / had spoken and then was silent locutus tacebo = / shall speak and then shall be
4.

silent.
is

The absolute time
Certain Perfect

of the action of a participle, therefore,

determined entirely by the
5.

finite

verb with whicli
Participles
;

it is

connected.

Passive

Deponent Verbs

are used as Presents

viz.

Deponent and Semiarbitratus, ausus, ratus,
of

gavisus, solitus, ubus, confisus, diffisus, secutus, veritus.

Use
337.

of ParticipleB.

As an

Adjective the Participle

may be

used either

as an attributive or predicate modifier of a Substantive.
1.

Attributive Use.
:

amples are

This presents no special

peculiarities.

Ex-

gloria est consentiens laus

bonorum,

glory

is

the

unanimous praise
walls

of the good; Coaon- murds a Lysandro dirutos
destroyed by Lysander.

reficit,

Conon restored the

2. Predicate Use. Here the Participle is often equivalent to a subordinate clause. Thus the Participle may denote
:

a)

Time

;

as,

omue malum nasceus
b)

facile opprimitur, every evil

is

easily crushed at birth.

A

Condition
uti

;

as,

mente

non possumus cibo et potione completi, if gorged with food and drink., we cannot use our intellects-

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.
c)

219

Manner; as, Solon senesoere se dicebat multa in dies addiscentem,
Solon said he grew old learning
as,

d) Means

;


diem
though ')
;

many new

things daily.

sol oriens
day.
«)

conficit, the sun, by

its rising,

makes

the

Opposition

('

as,


though he speaks the truth.

mendaci homini ne verum quidem dicentl credimus,
•we
;

do not believe a

/) Cause as, perfidiam veritus
3.

liar,

ad suos

recessit,

since he

feared

treachery, he returned to his

own

troops.

Video and audio,
the Predicate use

besides the Infinitive, take the Present Par;

ticiple in

as,

video te fugientem, I see you fleeing,
a.

So

frequently faclo, flngo,

induco,

etc.; as,

eis

Catonem respondentem faclmus, we
ing to them ;

represent Cato reply-

Homerus Laerteni colentem agrum
Laertes tillmg the field.
4.

faoit,

Homer

represents

The Future Active
it

fined to its
writers

Pajticiple (except futurus) is regularly conuse in the Periphrastic Conjugation, but in poets and later is used independently, especially to denote purpose ; as,

venerunt castra oppugnaturi, they came
5.

to assault the

camp.

The

Perfect Passive Participle
;

nate clause

as,

is

often equivalent to a coordi-

urbem captam

diruit, he captured

and

destroyed the city

(lit.

he de-

stroyed the city captured).
6. The Perfect Passive Participle in combination with a noun is sometimes equivalen* to an abstract noun with a dependent Genitive

as,—
post

urbem conditam, after the founding of the city Quinctius defensus, the defense of Quinctius quibus animus occupatus, the preoccupation of the mind with which.
7.

Habeo sometimes
;

cate construction

takes a Perfect Passive Participle in the Prediwith a force not far removed from that of the Perfect
as,

or Pluperfect Indicative

equitatus
collected.

quem coactum

habSbat,

the cavalry which he

had

220
8.

SYNTAX.
The Gerundive denotes obligation, necessity, etc. Like may be used either as Attributive or Predicate.
a) Less frequently as Attributive.
other Par-

ticiples it

Thus

:

liber legendus, a book worth readings

leges observandae, laws deserving of observance.
b)

More
i)

frequently as Predicate.

In the Passive Periphrastic Conjugation
etc.').

(amandus

In this use Intransitive Verbs can be used only impersonally, but admit their ordinary case-construction
est,

(Gen., Dat., Abl.)

;

as,

veniendum

est,

it is

necessary to come
off ensarnm, one

oblivTscendum est

numquam

proditori

credendum

est, you

must forget injuries must never trust
use his

a traitor

suo ouique utendum est judicio, every man must

own judgment.
2) Mtcr euro, provide for ; do, trado, give over ; zelinquo, leave; concedo, hand over; and some other verbs, instead of an object clause, or to denote purpose as, Caesar pontem in Arari faciendum curavit, Caesar providedfor the construction of a bridge over the Arar; Imperator urbem militibus diripiendam concessit, the general handed over the city to the soldiers to plunder.
;

9.

For the Gerundive as the equivalent of the Gerund,

see § 339,

i.

THE GERUND.
338.

As

a verbal noun the Gerund admits noun con:

structions as follows
I.

Genitive.
a)

The Genitive of the Gerund is used With Nouns, as objective or Appositional
§§ 200, 202)
;


Genitive (see

as,

oupiditas dominandi, desire of ruling; ars scribendi, the art of writing.
b)

With Adjectives

;

as,

c)

oupidus audiendi, desirous of hearing. With causa, gratia as,
;

discendi causa, /or the sake of learning.

NOUN AND ADJECTIVE FORMS OF THE VERB.
2.

221

Dative.
a)

The Dative
Adjectives
utilis est
;

of the
as,

Gerund

is

used

With


is

aqua
b)

bibendd, water
;

usefulfor drinking.

With Verbs

(rarely)

as,

adfuT scribendo,
3.

/was present

at the luriting.

Accusative.

Prepositions, chiefly

The Accusative of the Gerund is used only ad and in to denote purpose as,
;

with

homo ad ageudum
4.

natus

est,

man

is
is

born for action.

Ablative.

The

Ablative of the

Gerund

used


etc.

a) Without a Preposition, as
(see §§ 218, 219);

an Ablative of Means, Cause,
the

as,—
mind is nourished

mens discendo alitur et cogitando, by learning and reflection.

Themistocles maritimos praedones consectando mare tutum reddidit, Themistocles made the sea safe by following up the pirates.
b")

After the prepositions a, de, ex, in

;

as,


the keenest pleas-

summa
ure

voluptas ex discendo capitur,
is

derived from learning;

multa de bene beateque vivendo a Platone disputata
sunt, there -was m.tich discussion by Plato on the subject

of living "well and happily.
5.

As a

rule,

only the Genitive of the Gerund and the Ablative

(without a preposition) admit a Direct Object.

Gerundive Construction instead of the Gerund.
339.
I.

Instead of the Genitive or Ablative of the Gerund with a

Direct Object, another construction -may be,

and very

often

is,

used.

This consists in putting the Direct Object in the case of the Gerund (Gen. or Abl.) and using the Gerundive in agreement with it. This
is

called the

Gerundive Construction.

Thus

:

Gerund Construction.

Gerundive Construction.
'^«^>-''«n
)

cupidus

urbem videndi,

cupidus urbis videndae

;

of seeing the city. deleotor oratores legendo,

/

«»/

)

^.j^^^^^ .^.^.^^^^^ 1^^^^^^,^

charmedwithreadmgthe orators,

i

222
2.

SYNTAX.
The Gerundive
;

Construction

must

be used to avoid a Direct

Object with the Dative of the Gerund, or with a case dependent upon

a Preposition

as,

locus castris muniendis aptus, a place adapted to fortifying a camp; ad pacem petendam venerunt, they came to ask peace multum temporis consumo in legendTs poetis, / spend much time
in reading the poets.
3.

struction

In order to avoid ambiguity (see § 336, 2), the Gerundive Conmust not be employed in case of Neuter Adjectives, used

substantively.

Thus

regularly

philosophi oupidi sunt

verum

investigandi, philosophers are
;

eager

for discovering truth (rarely verT investigandi) Btudium plura cognoscendi, a desire of knowing more (not plurium

cognoscendonim)
4.

From

the nature of the case only Transitive Verbs can be used
;

in the Gerundive construction
inally transitive) regularly

but utor, fruor, fungor, potior
it
;

admit

as,

(orig-

hostes in

spem potiundorum castrorum veneraut,
Genitives mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri,

the enemy had

conceived the hope of gaining possession of the camp.
5.

The

when used

in the

Gerundive Construction, are regularly employed without reference to Gender or Number, since they were originally Neuter Singular Adjectives used substantively. Thus
:

mulier sui servandi causa aufugit, the woman fled for

the sake of

saving herself; legati in castra venerunt sui purgandi causa, the envoys came camp for the purpose of clearing themselves. So nostri servandi cauaa, for the sake of saving ourselves.
6.

into

Occasionally the Genitive of the Gerundive Construction

to denote

purpose

;

as,

is

used

quae

ille

cepit legum ao libertatis subvertundae, -which he under-

took for the purpose of overthrowing the laws
7.

and liberty.
ex-

The Dative

of the Gerundive Construction occurs in some
;

pressions which have the character of formulas

as,

decemviri legibus scribundis, decemvirs for codifying the laws quindecimviri sacris faciuudis, quindecimvirs for performing
sacrifices.

the

COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.

223

THE
340.
I

SUPINE..
used
after

The Supine

in

-um

is

purpose ;
legati

as,

Verbs of motion

to express

ad Caesarem grStulatum couvenSrunt, envoys came
sar to congratulate him.
a.

to Cae^

The Supine in -um may take an Object as, pacem petitum oratores Romam mittunt, voys to Rome to ask for p)eace.
;

they send en'

b.

Note the phrase

:


nuptum, / give my daughter
in

do (coUooo)
riage.
2.

filiam

mar-

The Supine

in -u

is

facilis, difBcilis,

incredibilis, jucundus, optimus,

used as an Ablative of Specification with etc. ; also with
;

fas est, nefas est,

opus est

as,

haec res est facilis cognitu, hoc est optimum factu, this
a.

this

thing is easy to learn

is best to do.

Only a few Supines in -u are in cognitu, diets, factu, vTsu.

common

use, chiefly

auditu,

b.

The Supine

in

-ii

never takes an Object.

Chapter VI.

— Particles.
These join one word,

COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.
341.

Copulative Conjunctions.

phrase, or clause to another.
I.

a) et simply connects.
b)

-que joins more closely than et, and is used especially where the two members have an internal connection with each
other; as,

parentes liberique, parents and children cum homines aestu febrlque jaotantur, wken people art
tossed about with heat

andfever.

224
c)

SYNTAX.

— and of likeness and than. Thus —
connected,
:

atque (ac) usually emphasizes the second of the two
also,

thingii

and indeed, and in fact.
atque (ac) has the

After words
force of
as,

difference,

ego idem sentio ac tu, J think the same as you; haud aliter ac, not otherwise than, d) neque (nee) means and not, neither, nor.
a.

a) -que

is an enclitic, and is appended always to the second of two words connected. Where it connects phrases or clauses, but it is appended to the first word of the second clause when the first word of the second clause is a Preposition,' -que is regularly appended to the next following word as,—
;
;

Ob eamque rem, and on
b)

account of that thing.
;

atque
et

is

used before vowels and consonants
g,

ac never

before

vowels, and seldom before c,
c)

qu.
negative
,

non

is

used for neque when the emphasis of the
special

rests

upon a

word

;

as,

vetus et non ignobilis orator, an old and not ignoble orator.
d) For
said
3.

and nowhere, and
Copulative

never,

and

none, the Latin regularly
etc.

nee iisquam, nee umquam, nee uUus,
Conjunctions
are

Correlatives.
;

frequently used

•fflrrelatively

as,
.

et

.

.

et, both
.

.

.

neque (nee)

.

.

and neque (nee),
.
.

neither

.

.

.

nor;

"

cum
turn
.

.

.

.

turn, while

.

.

at the
. .

same time

.

.

tum, not only

.

but also.

Less frequently
et
1*.
.
. .

:


;

neque

neque
its

.

.

.

et.

Note that the Latin, with

tendency to emphasize antithetical relations, often uses correlatives, especially et neque, neque . et, et . . . et, where the English employs but a single connective. . .
. . .

4.

In enumerations
a)



odia, discidia, discordiae, seditiones,

The different members of a series may follow one another without connectives (Asyndeton; see § 346). Thus:

ez cupiditatibuB
bella

nascuntur, from, covetous desires spring up hatred, dissension, discord, sedition, wars.

COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS.
d)

225
by et

The

different

(Polysyndeton).

members may Thus
:

severally be connected

horae cedunt et dies et menses et anm, hours and days and months and years pass away.
c)

The

connective

may be

omitted between the former members,
;

while the last two are connected by -que (rarely et)

as,

Caesar in Carnutes, Andes Turonesque legiones deducit, Caesar leads his legions into the territory of the farnutes, Andes, and Turones.
342.
1.

Disjunctive Conjunctions indicate an alternative.

a) aut must be used
clusive; as,
.

when the

alternatives are

mutually ex-

cita

mors venit aut victoria laeta, glad victory comes.
as,

{either')

swift death or

i) vel,
tives

-ve (enclitic) imply a choice between
;

the

alterna-

qm aether vel
or heaven.
2.

caelum nominatur, which

is

called aether

Correlatives.

Disjunctive Conjunctions are often used correla-

tively; as,

aut vel
sive
343.
sition.
I
.

.

.

.

aut, either
vel, either
.

.

.

.

or or

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

sive, if

.

.

.orif.

Adversative

Conjunctions.

These

denote

oppo-

a) Bed, but, merely denotes opposition.
b)
c)

verum, but, is stronger than sed, but is less frequently used. autem, but on the other hand, however, marks a transition.
It is

always post-positive.

Definition.
tence, but is

A

post-positive

word

is

one that cannot begin a sen-

placed after one or more words.

disputation, to introduce an £) at, but, is used especially in opposing argument.
e)

atqui means but yet.
not usually stands after the emphatic word, but

/) tamen, yet,

always. truth, i) vero, howevar, indeed, in

is

always post-positive.

226
2.

SYNTAX.
Note the
correlative expressions
. :


. . .

sed etiam, not only but also Hon solum (non mode) quidem, not only not, but sed ne nou modo non
. .

even

;

as,

.

.

.

.

.

.

not

non modo

tibi

non

irasoor,

tuum, / not only your action.
a.

am

not angry with you, but

sed ne reprehendo quidem factum I do not even blamt

But when the sentence has but one verb, and this stands with the second member, non modo may be used for non modo non; as, adsentatio non modo amico, sed ne libero quidem dlgna est, fiattery is not only not worthy of a friend^ but not even, of Ct free man,

344. Illative Conjunctions. These represent the state« ment which they introduce as following from or as in con-' formity with what has preceded.
1

d) itaque
b')
c')

= and so,

accordingly,

ergo

=

therefore, accordingly.
^)

igitur (regularly post-positive
is

=

therefore, accordingly.

2.

Igitur

never combined with at, atque, -que, or neque.

345. Causal Conjunctions. These denote cause, or give an explanation. They are nam, namque, enim (post-positive),

etenim, for.
346.

Asyndeton.
coordinate

The conjunction

is

sometimes omitted
lively

be-

tween

narration.

Thus

:

members, particularly

in

or

impassioned

d)

A

copulative Conjunction
infinita,

is

omitted

;

as,


is

avarltia

insatiabilis est, avarice

boundless

(and') insatiable^

Cn. Pompejo, M. Crasso consulibus, in the consulship of Gnaeus Pompey (and) Marcus Crassus.

The
b)

conjunction

is

regularly omitted between the names

of

consuls

when the praenomen (Marcus,

Gains, etc.) is expressed.
as,

An

Adversative Conjunction

may be

omitted;

rationes defuerunt, ubertas orationis non defuit, argU' ments were lacking, (but) abundance of words was not,
1

Except in Sallust and Silver Latin.

ADVERBS.

— WORD-ORDER.

227

ADVERBS.
347.
I.

The

Conjunctions, are
etiam, abo, even.

following particles, sometimes classed as more properly Adverbs
:

quoque (always post-positive), quidem (always post-positive)
It is

also.

lays stress upon the preceding word. sometimes equivalent to the English indeed, in fact, but more frequently cannot be rendered, except by vocal emphasis. quidem means not even ; the emphatic word or phrase always ne . stands between as, ne ille quidem, not even he. tamen and ver5, in addition to their use as Conjunctions, are often
. . ;

employed as Adverbs.
2.

Negatives.

Two
etc.,

affirmative as in English, as
nihil,
.
. .

numquam,

regularly equivalent to an some ; but when non, nemo, neque, non are accompanied by neque

negatives

are

non
. .

nullT,

.

.

.

take

quidem, the non, non modo, or ne up the negation and emphasize it as,
.
;

latter particles

simply

habeo bic neminem neque amicum neque cognatum, / have here no one, neither friend nor relative. non enim praetereundum est ne id quidem, /iir not even that must
be passed by.
a.

Haud

in Cicero and Caesar occurs almost exclusively as a modifier of Adjectives and Adverbs, and in the phrase haud scio an. Latei

writers use

it

freely with verbs.

Chapter VII.

— Word-order and SentenceStructure.

A.
348.

WOHD-ORDER.

In the normal arrangement of the Latin sentence the Subject stands at the beginning of the sentence, the
Predicate at the

end

;

as,

Darius olassem quingentarum

navium comparavit, Darius

got

ready a fleet offive hundred ships.

228
349.

SYNTAX.

ment
at

But for the sake of emphasis the normal arrange, often abandoned, and the emphatic word is put the beginning, less frequently at the end of the senis
;

tence

as,

magnus

in h5c bello Themistocles fuit,
other course

great was Themistocks in

war vliud iter habemus nullum,
this

we have none.

SPECIAL PRINCIPLES.
Nouns. A Genitive or other oblique lows the word upon which it depends. Thus
350.
I.
:

case regularly

fol-

a) Depending upon a

Noun

:

tribunus plebis, tribune of the plebs ; niius regis, son of the king; vir magni animi, a man of noble spirit.
Yet always senatus consultum, plebis scTtum.
V)

Depending upon an Adjective

:

ignarus rerum, ignorant- of affairs digni amioitia, worthy offriendship ; plus aequo, more than {what is) fair.
2.

Appositives.
Philippus, rex

An

Appositive

regularly

follows

its

Subject;

IS,-

Macedonum,

Philip, king

adsentatio, vitiorum

SL&\vXxix., flattery,

of the Macedonians; promoter of evils.
in

Yet flumen Rhenus, the River Rhine; and always urba Roma, the city Rome.
3.

good

prose

The Vocative

usually follows one or

more words

;

as,


posi-

audi, Caesar, hear, Caesar
4.

Adjectives.
of Adjectives.
it.

tion

No general law On the whole

can be laid down for the
they precede the noun

oftener

than they follow
a.

Adjectives of quantity (including numerals') cede their noun as,
;

regularly pre-

omnes homines, all men ; septingentae n^ves, seven hundred vessels.

WORD-ORDER.
b.

22g
:

Note the force of position

in the following

media urbs,

the middle of the city;

urbs media, the middle city eztremuta bellum, the end of the war bellum eztremum, the last war.
c.

Romanus and Latinus
People

regularly follow
the

;

as,


Senate and

senatus populusque Romanus,
ludi RomaiiT, the Roman games feriae Latinae, the Latin holidays.
d.

Roman

When a Noun
tive,

is

modified both by an Adjective and by a Geniis
:

a favorite order

Adjective, Genitive,

Noun

;

as,

summa omnium rerum
dance of all things.

abundantia,

the greatest abun-

Pronouns. a. The Demonstrative,
regularly precede the

Relative,

and Interrogative Pronouns

Noun

;

as,

hic

ille

homo, this 7na7t homo, that man erant duo itinera, quibus
routes, by which, etc.

itineribus,

etc.

,

there wire two

qui
b.

homo ? what sort
ille in the
its

of man
'

?

But

sense of

that well
;-as,

known^

'

tfiat

famous^

usually stands after

Noun

testula

ilia, ilia,

that well-known ciistotn of ostracism
that famous Medea.
Indefinite

;

Medea
c.

Possessive and

Noun

;

as,

Pronouns

usually follow

their

pater meus, tny father i

homo quidam, a
But
its

certain

man

;

mulier aliqua, some woman.
for purposes of contrast the Possessive often precedes
;

d.

Noun as, meus pater, my father (i.e. as opposed to yours, Ms, etc.). Where two or more Pronouns occur in the same sentence,
the Latin
is

fond of putting them

in close

proximity

;

as,

nisi forte

ego vobis cessare videor,
doing nothing.

unless perchance 1

seem

to you to be

230
6.

SYNTAX.
Adverbs and Adverbial phrases regularly precede the word
as,

they

modify;

valde diligens, extremely diligent i saepe dixi, I have often said; te jam diu hortamur, we have long been urging you; paulo post, a little after.
7.

Prepositions regularly precede the words they govern.
a.

But limiting words often intervene between the

and

its

case

;

as,

Preposition

de communi hominum memoria, concerning memory of men ad beate vivendum, for living happily.
b.

the

common

When
magno

a noun

is

modified by an Adjective, the Adjective
;

often placed before the preposition

as,

is

in dolore, in great grief

Eumma cum

laude, with the highest credit
thing.
is

qua de causa, for which cause ; banc ob rem, on account of this
c.

For Anastrophe, by which a Preposition

put after

its

case, see § 144,

3,

8.

Conjunctions.

the second place in the

Autem, enim, and igif-.ur regularly stand in sentence, but when combined with est or sunt
as,

they often stand third

;

ita est enim, for so
9.

it is.

Words
it,

or Phrases referring to the preceding sentence or to some
;

part of

regularly stand first

as,

id ut audlvit,

Corcyram demigravit,

w?ien he heard that (referring

to the contents of the preceding sentence), he

moved to

Corcyra,;

BO

cum

Caesar venisset, timentea connrmat, when Caesar had
(i.e.

come thither
timid.
10.

to the place just mentioned),

he encouraged

the

The

Latin has a fondness for putting side by side words which
;

are etymologically related

as,

at ad seuem senez de senectute, sic hoc libro ad amicum amicissimus de amicitia scrips!, as I, an old man, wrote to

an old man, on old age,

so in this book, as

a fond friend, I havt

written to a friend, concerning friendship.

WORD-ORDER.
11,

231
emphasis
are

Special
:

following

rhetorical

devices

for

indicating

the

a)

Hyp^rbaton, which

consists in the separation of words that
;

regularly stand together

as,

Septimus mihi Originum liber est in manibus, thi seventh book of my Origines is under way reoepto Caesar Orioo profiolscitur, having- recovered
'
.

'

Orictts,

Caesar

set out.

b)

Anaphora, which consists in the repetition of the same word or the same word-order in successive phrases as, sed pleni omnes sunt librl, plenae sapientium voces,
;

c)

plena exemplorum vetustas, but all books are full of it, the voices of sages are full of it, antiquity is full of examples of it. Chidsmus,! which consists in changing the relative order of words in two antithetical phrases as,
;

multos defendi, laesi neminem, many have I defended, I
have injured no one borribilem ilium diem
aliis,

nobis faustum, that day

dreadful to others, for us fortunate.

d) Synchysis, or the interlocked arrangement.

This is mostly confined to poetry, yet occurs in rhetorical prose, especially that of the Imperial Period ; as,

simulatam Pompejanarum gratiam partium, pretended' interest in the Pompeian party.
12.

Metrical Close.
;

At the end

of a sentence certain cadences

were avoided

others were

much employed.
as, as,

Thus

:

a) Cadences avoided.

— WW
b)

w

;

www;
;

esse videtur (close of hexameter). esse potest (close of pentameter).

Cadences frequently employed. as, auxerant. w

w
w
1

www
\j

w

;

as,

comprobavit.
esse videatur.

w
;

;

as,
as,

rogatu tuo.
to the strokes
laesi

So named from a fancied analogy
:

Thus

of the Greek letter

X

\chi\

multos

X
defendi

neminem

232
JB.

SYNTAX.

SENTENCE-STRUCTURE.

351.

I.

Unity of Subject,

— In

complex sentences the

Latiii

regularly holds to unity of Subject in the different

members; as,—

Caesar primum su5, deinde omnium ex oonspectu remStis equis, ut aequato periculo spem fugae toUeret, oohortatus suos proelium commisit, Caesar having first removed
his

own

horse

from

sight,

then the horses of

all,

in order, by

making
his
2.

the danger equal, to take

away hope offlight,

encouraged

men and joined battle.
serving as the

A word

common

Subject or Object of the main
;

clause

and a subordinate one, stands before both

as,

Haedui cum se defendere non possent, legates ad Caesarem
mittunt, since the Haedui could not defend themselves, they sent envoys to Caesar etsi flagrabat bellandi cupiditate, tamen paoi serviendum
putavit, although he

ille

was burning with a

desire to fight, yet he

thought he ought to aim at peace.
a.

The same
i)

is

true also

When

the

Subject

of the

main clause
;

(Direct or Indirect) of a subordinate clause

as,

is

Object

Caesar,

cum hoc
set

ei

proiicTsci,
,

when

this

nuntiatum esset, maturat ab urbe had been reported to Caesar he
city.
is at

hastened to
2)

out fro7n the

When
;

the Subject of a subordinate clause
Indirect)

the

same time the Object (Direct or
clause
as,

of the

main

L. Manlio,

cum

dictator fuisset,

M. Fomponius

tri-

biinus plebis

Pomponius, tribune of the people, instituted proceedings against Lucius Manlius, though he had been dictator.
dixit,

diem

M.

Of subordinate clauses, temporal, conditional, and adversative more commonly precede the main clause indirect questions and clauses of purpose or result more commonly follow as, postquam haec dixit, profectus est, after he said this, he iet out; 81 quis Ita agat, imprudens sit, if any one should act so, he would,
3.

clauses

;

;

be devoid of foresight accidit ut iina nocte omnes

Hermae

deicerentur,

it

happened

that in a single night all the

Hermae were thrown down.

SENTENCE-STRUCTURE.— HINTS ON STYLE.
4.

233
sub-

Sometimes in Latin
;

ordinate clause
SI

as,

tlie

main verb

is

placed within

tlie

quid est in me ingeni, quod sentio quam sit exiguum, if there is any talent in me, and I know how little it is.
5.

designates a

The Latin Period. The term Period, when strictly used, compound sentence in which the subordinate clauses are
main clause;
as,

inserted within the

Caesar etsi intellegeba!: qua de causa ea dicerentur, tamen, ne aestatem in Treveris consumere cogeretur, Indutiomarum ad se venire jussit, though Caesar perceived why this was
said, yet, lest

he should be forced to spend the

summer among

the Treveri, he ordered Indutiomarus to come to him.

In the Periodic structure the thought
the sentence
this
is

is

suspended until the end of
to

reached.

Many Roman
and
;

writers were extremely fond of

sentence-structure,

it

was well adapted

the inflectional
it.

character of their language
6.

in English

we

generally avoid

When

there are several subordinate clauses in one Period, the

Latin so arranges

them as

to avoid a succession of verbs.

Thus

:

At hostes cum misissent,

qui, quae in castrTs gererentur, cognoscerent, ubi se dSceptos intellezerunt, omnibus copiis snbsecuti ad flumen contendunt, but the enemy when they had sent men to learn what was going on in camp, after discovering that they had been outwitted, followed with all their

forces

and hurried to

the river.

Chapter VIII.
352.

— Hints

on Latin Style.
is

In this chapter brief consideration

given to

a few features of
style

Latin diction which belong rather to

than to formal grammar.

NOUNS.
353.
I.

Where
ie

a distinct reference to several persons or things
is

is

involved, the Latin

frequently

much more

exact in the use

of

tht

Plural ^zr:

the English; as,

234
domos

SYNTAX.
eunt, they go hoine
(i.e. to

their homes');

Germani corpora curant, the Germans care for the body; animos militum recreat, he renews the courage of the soldiers; dies noctesque timere, to be in a state offear day and night.
2.

In case of Neuter Pronouns and Adjectives used substantively,

the Latin often employs the Plural where the English uses the SingU'
lar; as,

omnia sunt perdita, everything is lost quae cum ita sint, since this is so ; haeo omnibus pervulgata sunt, this is very well known
3.

to all.

The

Latin

is

usually

more

concrete than the English, and espe-

cially less
9.

bold in the personification of abstract qualities.

Thus

:

puero, a pueris, /rozw boyhood; Sulla dictatore, in Sulla's dictatorship me duce, under my leadership Roman! cum Cartbaginiensibus pacem fecerunt = Rome made peace with Carthage; liber doctrinae plenus = a learned book prudentia Themistoclis Graecia servata est = Themistocles''s foresight saved Greece.
4.

The Nouns

of Agency in -tor and -sor (see § 147. i) denote a

permanent or

characteristic activity ; as,

accusatores (professional) accusers;
oratores, pleaders ;

cantores, singers

Arminius, Germaniae liberator, Arminius,
u.

liberator

of Germany.
are

To

denote single instances of an action, other expressions
;

commonly employed

as,

Numa, qui Romulo
qui qui
J.

sucoessit, Numa, succsssor of Romulus;
auditors.

mea leguut, my readers ;

me audiunt,

my

The

a Noun.

Latin avoids the use of prepositional phrases as modifiers of In English we say The war against Carthage ; ' a journey
:

'

'

through

GauV;
;

Cities on the sea''

;

'the book in

my

hands''; 'the fight

at Salamis'

etc.

mode

of expression.

The Latin Thus
:
;

in such cases usually employs another

a)

A

Genitive

as,


injuries.

dolor injuriarum, resentment at

-HINTS ON STYLE.
S)

235

An

Adjective

;

as,

urbes maritimae, cities on the sea pugna Salaminia, the fight at Salamis.
c)

A Participle A

;

as,


facta, the battle at Cannae.
as,
;

pugna ad Cannas
d)
Relative clause


est, the book in

liber qui in

meis manibus
certain limits
modifiers.
is

my

hands.

Note.
sitional

— Yet

within

the Latin does

employ Prepofollowing are

phrases as

Noun

This

is

particularly frequent

when the governing noun
typical

examples

:

derived from a verb.

The

transitus in Britanniam, the passage to Britain excessus e vita, departure from life;

odium erga Romanos,
liber

hatred of the

Romans

de senectute,

the book on old age

amor

in patriam, love for one's country.

ADJECTIVES.
354.
tives are
a)
I.

Special

Latin

Equivalents

for

English

Adjec-

A

Genitive

;

as,


=
moral virtues

virtutes animi

dolores corporis
b)

=
;

bodily

ills.

An

Abstract
rei

Noun

as,


;

no vitas
c)

asperitas

= the strange circumstance; viarum = rough roads.
as,

Hendiadys (see § 374, 4)
ratio et

ordo =

systematic order

ardor et impetus

=

eager onset.
;

d) Sometimes an Adverb

as,


modified

2.

omnes circa populi, all the surrounding tribes su5s semper Taostes,- their perpetual foes. Often a Latin Noun is equivalent to an English Noun
;

by an Adjective

as,

dootrlna, theoretical knowledge ;

prudentia, practical knowledge;
libellus,
little

oppidum, walled town

book.

236
3.

SYNTAX.
Adjectives are not used in immediate agreement with propel
;

names but an Adjective may limit vir, homo, ille, or some word used as an Appositive of a proper name as, Socrates, homo sapiens — the -wise Socrates;
;

other

Scipio, vir fortissimus

=

the doughty Scipio

Syracusae, urbs praeclarissima
4.

= famous

Syracuse.

An
;

Adjective
as,

Genitive

may

be equivalent to a Possessive or Subjective
1

pastor regius, the shepherd of the king;

tumultus

servilis, the uprising of the slaves.

PRONOUNS.
355.
I.

In

Compound Sentences
itself

the Relative Pronoun has a fondthe

ness for connecting

main one
a

;

as,

with the subordinate clause rather than

quo cum quaereretur, quid mazime ezpediret, respondit, when it was asked of him what was best, he replied. (Less commonly, qui, cum ab eo quaereretur, respondit.)
2.

Uterque, ambo.

Uterque means each of two ; ambo
of the two brothers departed
(i.e.

means

both; as,

uterque frater
rately)
;

abiit, each

sepa-

ambo

fratres abierunt,
a.

i.e.

the two brothers departed together.

The
i)

Plural of

uterque occurs With Nouns used only in the

Plural (see § 56)

;

as,—

in utris'que castris, in each camp.
2)

Where

there
;

is

a distinct reference to two groups

persons or things

as,

of

utrique duces clari fuerunt, the generals on each eral in number) were famous.

side (sev-

VERBS.
356.
supplied
:

I.

In case of Defective

and Deponent Verbs, a

Passive

is

a)

By

the corresponding verbal
;

esse, etc

as,

Nouns

in combination with

in odio sumus, we are hated; in invidia sum. I atn envied;

HINTS ON STYLE.
admirationi est, he is admired \ oblivione bbruitur, he is forgotten
oblivion)

237

(lit. is

overwhelmed by

in
b)

usu esse,

to be used.

By

the Passive of Verbs of related meaning.

Thus

:

— —

agitari as Passive of persequi

temptari as Passive of adoriri.
2.

The
a)

lack of the Perfect Active Participle in Latin
Participle

is

supplied

Sometimes by the Perfect Passive
nent; as,

of the Depo-

adhortatus, having exhorted veritus, having feared

^)'By the Ablative Absolute; as, hostium agris vastatis Caesar ezercitum reduzit, having ravaged the country of the enemy, Caesar led back
his
c)

army.
clauses
;

By subordinate
eo

as,


there,

cum

advenisset, castra posuit, having arrived

he pitched a camp hostes qui in urbem irruperant, the enemy having burst
into the city.

the

The Latin agrees with English in the stylistic employment of Second Person Singular in an indefinite sense (='one^). Cf. the English Vou can drive a horse to water, but you can't make him drink.'' But in Latin this use is mainly coniined to certain varieties of the Subjunctive, especially the Potential (§ 280) Jussive (§ 275), De3.
' ,

and the Subjunctive in conditional sentences of the Examples sort included under § 302, 2, and 303. videres, you could see utare vTribus, use your strength, quid h5c homine facias, what are you to do <wi'h this man? mens quoque et animus, nisi tamquam lumini oleum TnstillSs,
liberative (§ 277),
:

exstingttuntur seneotute, the
into the laM.p

intellect

tinguished by old age, unless, so to speak,

and mind too are exyou keep pouring oil
eis

tanto

amore possessiones suas amplexi tenebant, ut ab

divelli oitius posse diceres, they clung to their possessions -with such an affectionate embrace, that you would have

membra

said their limbs could sooner be torn from their bodies.

238

SYNTAX.

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE ACCUSATIVE
357.
I.

To

denote 'so

many years,

etc.,

afterwards or

before'' the

Latin employs not merely the Ablative of Degree of Difference with post and ante (see § 223), but has other forms of expression. Thus :^

post quinque aiinos, five years afterward; paucos ante dies, a few days before; ante qnadxienniuin, four years before; post diem quartum quam ab urbe discesseramus,/oar days

after

we had left
ante tertium
died.
2.

the city

annum quam

decesserat, three years before he had

The Latin seldom combines both
Infinitive
;

same

as,

Subject and Object with the

Romanos Hanniba^em

vTcisse constat.

Such a sentence would be ambiguous, and might mean either that the Romans had conquered Hannibal, or that Hannibal had conquered the Romans. Perspicuity was gained by the use of the Passive Infinitive
;

as,

Romanos ab Hannibale
that the

victos esse constat,
defeated by Hannibal.

it is

well established

Romans were

PECULIARITIES IN CONNECTION -WTITH THE USB OP THE DATIVE.
358.
I
.

The English for does

not always correspond to a Dative

notion in Latin, but
viz. in the senses

is

often the equivalent of

pro with the

Ablative,

a) In defense of; as,


to die for one's country.
as,

pro patria mori,
b) Instead

of, in behalf of ;

unus pr5 omnibus dixit, one spoke for all; haec pro lege dicta sunt, these things were said for
law.
c)

the

In proportion

to

;

as,


angusti,

pro multitudine hominum eSrum fTn.es erant for the population, their territory was small.

HINTS ON STYLE.
2.

239
motion
is

Similarly, English to

when

it

indicates

rendered in

Latin

by ad.
a.

Note, however, that the Latin may say either soribere ad aliquem, or scribere alicui, according as the idea of motion
is

or

is

not predominant.

So

in several similar expressions.

3.

In the poets, verbs of mingling with, contending with, joining,
to,

clinging

etc.,

sometimes take the Dative.
:

Grecism.

Thus

This Construction

is

a

se miscet viris, he mingles with the men oontendis Homero, you contend with Homer deztrae deztram jungere, to clasp hand with hand.

PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE GENITIVE.
359.
I.

The

Possessive Genitive gives emphasis to the possessor,
;

the Dative of

Possessor emphasizes the fact of possession

as,

hortus patris est, the garden is my father'' s mihi hortus est, /possess a garden.
2.

The
as,—

foolish to say;
tive;

Latin can say either stulti or stultum est dioere, it is but Adjectives of one ending permit only the Geni-

sapientis est

haeo secum reputare,

it is

the

part of a wise

man

te

consider this.

Part VI.
PROSODY.

«

360.

Prosody

treats of metres

and

versification.

Latin Poetry was essentially different from English. In our own language, poetry is based upon accent, and poetical form consists essentially in a certain succession of accented and unaccented syllables.
361.

Latin Verse.

in character

Latin poetry, on the other hand, was based not upon
accent, but
cal

upon

quantity, so that with the
in

Romans

poeti-

form consisted

a certain succession of long andshori

syllables,

i.e. of long and short intervals of time. This fundamental difference in the character of English and Latin poetry is a natural result of the difference in

character of the two languages.
nate.

English
is

is

a strongly

accented language, in which quantity
Latin, on the other hand,

relatively subordi-

was a

quantitative lan-

guage, in which accent was relatively subordinate.

QUANTITY or VOWELS AND SYLLABLES.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
362.

The

general principles for the quantity of vowels

and
I.

syllables

peculiarities are to

have been given above be noted here
:

in § 5.

The

following

A
A.

vowel

is

usually short

when
24.0

followed
:

5.

2), but the following exceptions occur

by another vowel

QUANTITY OF VOWELS AND SYLLABLES.
;

241

as, illius, a) In the Genitive termination -ius (except alterius) totius. Yet the i may be short in poetry as, illius, totius.
;

b)

In the Genitive and Dative Singular of the Fifth Declension But fidSi, rSi, sp6i (§ 52, i). as, diei, aoiei.
In £10, excepting
fit

c)

and forms where
fiunt
;,

i

is

followed by er.

Thus

:

flebam,

fiat,

but fieri, fierem.
the

d) In a few other words, especially words derived from Greek as, dius, Aeneas, Darius, heroes, etc.
;

2. A diphthong is usually long (§5. B. 2), but the preposition prae in composition is often shortened before a vowel as, praeacutus 3. A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants long, even when one of the consonants is in the follow(§ 5. B. 2) is Occasionally the syllable is long ing word; as, terret populum.
;

when both consonants are in the following word;
Bpicas.
4.
first

as,

pro segete
etc.,

Compounds of jacio, though
syllable long, as

written inicit, adicit,
inj-, adj-.

have the

though written

ejus,

in major, pejor, j, S and 6 made a long syllablfe, e.g. ejusdem, Pompejus, rejecit, etc. These were pronounced, So also somemai-jor, pei-jor, ei-jus, Pompei-jus, rei-jeoit, etc. times before i, e.g. Pompe-i, pronounced Pompei-i; re-icio, pro5.

Before

nounced rei-ioio.

Quantity of Pinal Syllables.
A. Final
363.
I.

Syllables ending in
is

a Vowel.
:

Final a

is

mostly short, but

long


;

a) In the Ablative Singular of the First Declension
b) In the
c)

as,

porta.

Imperative

;

as,

lauda.
;

In indeclinable words (except itS, qui5) tra, postea, interea, etc.
is

as, triginta,

con-

2.

Final e

usually short, but

is

long

:

as, die, a) In the Ablative Singular of the Fifth Declension hence hodig, quare. Here belongs also fame (§ 59. re
;

;

2. i).

b) In the Imperative of the

Second Conjugation;

as,

mone,

habS,
c) In

etc.

;

yet occasionally cavS, valS.

sion,

Adverbs derived from Adjectives of the Second Declenalong with fere and ferme. BenS, malg, temerS,
se,

saepS have S. d) In e, de, me, te,

ne

{not, lest),

ne

{verily).

242
3.

PROSODY.
Final
i is

usually long, but

is

short in nisi and quasi.
i,

Mihi,

have regularly ibidem, ibique, ubique.
tibi,

sibi, ibi, ubi,

but sometimes i

;

yet always

4.

Final o

is

regularly long, but

is

short

:


;

a) In eg6, du6,

modS

{only), citS.

b) Rarely in the

c)

First Person Singular of the Verb, and in Nominatives of the Third Declension as, amS, le6. In a few compounds beginning with the Preposition pro, especially before f as prSfundere, prdficiaci, prSfugere.
;

5.

Final

u

is

always long.

,

B. -Final Syllables ending in a Consonant.
364.
short.
I.

The

Final syllables ending in any other consonant than Bare following words, however, have a long vowel sSl, sol,
:

Lar, par, ver, fur, die, due, en, non, quia, sin,
the adverbs hie, illic, istic.^
2.

sic,-

cur.

Also

Final syllables in -as are long

;

asj

terras,

amas.
:

3.

Final syllables in -es are regularly long, but are short

a) In the Nominative and Vocative Singular of dental stems (§ 33) of the Third Declension which have a short penult in
as, seggs (segetis), obsSs (obsidis), milSs, But a few have -es viz. pes, aries, abies, paries. b) In Ss {thou art), penSs.

the Genitive

;

divSs.

;

4.
5.

Final -os
Final -is

is
is

usually long, but short in 6s (ossis),
usually short, but
;

is

long

:

compSs, impSs.

a) In Plurals
b) In the
as,

as, portis, hortis, nobis, vobis, nubis (Ace). Second Person Singular Perfect Subjunctive Active; amaveris, monueris, audiveris, etc. Yet occasional

exceptions occur.
c)

In the Second Person Singular Present Indicative Active the Fourth Conjugation as, audis.
; ; ; ;

of

d) In vis, force ; is, thou goest ; fis sis velis thou wilt (mavis, quamvis, quivis, etc.).
6.

nolTs

;

vis,

Final -us

is

usually short, but

is

long

:

a) In the Genitive Singular and in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative Plural of the Fourth Declension as, fructfls.
;

The pronouns hie, hoe, and the adverb hue, probably had a The syllable was made long by pronouncing hicc, hoco, etc.
1

short vowel

VERSE-STRUCTURE.
S) In the

243

the Third Declension in which the
as,

Nominative and Vocative Singular of those nouns of u belongs to the stem palus (-udis), servitus (-utis), tellus (-uria).
retain in

365.

Greek Nouns

Latin their original

quantity

;

as,

Aenea, epitome, Deles, Pallas, Simois, Salamis, Didus, Faridi, Yet Greek nouns in -top (-or) regularly aer, aether, crater, bero&s. shorten the vowel of the final syllable as, rhetSr, HectSr.
;

VERSE-STRUCTURE.

GENERAL
366.
I.

PRINCIPLES.
is

The

metrical unit in versification

a short

syllable, tech-

nically called
lent

a mora (w)to two morae.

A

long syllable (_^)is regarded as equiva-

2.

A

Foot

is

a group of syllables.
:

important kinds of fundamental feet

The

following are the most

Feet of Three Morae.

Feet of Four Morae.

_
yj 3. 4.
tylic,

vj

Trochee.

_ww
feet.

Dactyl.

_
is

Iambus. a succession of

ww_

Anapaest.

A Verse
The

different kinds of verses are

named

Trochaic, Iambic, Dac-

Anapaestic, according to the foot which forms the basis of their

structure.
5.

Ictus.

ceives the greater
is

In every fundamental foot the long syllable naturally reprominence. This prominence is called ictus.i It
:

denoted thus
6.

Z.

ww

;

Z.

w
The
syllable
is

Thesis and Arsis.
thesis
;

which receives the

ictus is

called the
7.

the rest of the foot

called the arsis.

Elision.

are regularly elided before

reading,

we omit

Final syUables ending in a vowel, a diphthong, or -m a word beginning with a vowel or h. In the elided syllable entirely. This may be indicated
;

as follows:

corpora in un5

mult"" ill* et

;

m5nstr-'« horrendum
and

causae irarum.
a.

Omission of elision is called Hl&tus. It occurs as, O at praesidium. after monosyllabic interjections
;

especially before

1

Ictus

Dimply the quantitative
feet.

but was neither stress accent nor musical accent, was not accent, prominence inherent in the long syllables di fundammtaX

244

PROSODY.

8. The ending of a word within a foot is called a Caesiira {cutting). Every verse usually has one prominent caesura. The ending of a word and foot together within the verse is called a diaeresis.

Verses are distinguished as Catalectic or Acatalectic. A Cataone in which the last foot is not complete, but lacks one or more syllables an Acatalectic verse has its last foot complete.
9.

lectic verse is

;

10.

At

the end of a verse a slight pause occurred.
either long

Hence

the

final

syllable

may be

terminate in a vowel or
vowel.
1 1

m,

or short (syllaba auceps), and may even though the next verse begins with a

Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapaestic verses are further designated

as dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, according to the
(pairs of feet) single feet,

number of

dipodies

which they contain.

Dactylic verses are measured by
tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter,

and are designated as

accordingly.

SPECIAL PECULIARITIES.
367.
I.

Syniz^sis (Syna^resis).

Two

successive vowels in the
;

interior of a

word are often united

into a long syllable

as,

aureis, deinde, auteire deesse.
2.

Diastole.

A

syllable usually short is

sometimes long

;

as,

videt, audit.
3.

Systole.

A syllable usually long
stetSrunt.

is

sometimes short

;

as,

a.

Diastole

usually represent

and Systole are not mere arbitrary processes. an earlier pronunciation which had
and u sometimes become
;

They
passed

out of vogue in the ordinary speech.
4.

After a consonant,

i

preceding syllable then becomes long

as,

j

and v.

The

abjete for abiete
5.

;

genva

for

genua.

Sometimes V becomes u
silua for silva

;

as,

;

dissoluo

for

dissolvo.

6.

Sometimes a verse has an extra

syllable.

Such a verse

is

called
is

an Hyp^rmeter.
united with the

The

extra syllable ends in a vowel or -m, and

Thus

:

initial

vowel or h of the next verse by Synaph^ia,
ignar'

hominumciue looorum""*

erramus.

VERSE-STRUCTURE.
7.

245

Tmesis

(cutting).
;

into their

elements

as,

Compound words

are occasionally separated

quo
8.

mS cumque
;

rapit tempestas, for
is

quocumque,

etc.

Syncope.
as,

consonants

A

short vowel

sometimes dropped between two

repoBtus

for repositus.

THE DACTYLIC HEXAMETER.
consists theoretically of six dactyls.

Hexameter, or Heroic Verse, But in all the feet except the fifth, a spondee ( ) may take the place of The sixth foot may be either a spondee or a the dactyl. trochee, since the final syllable of a verse may be either
368.
I.

The

Dactylic

long or short (syllaba anceps).
the

The

following represents

scheme of the verse

:^

—cxu, .j^oo, _^oo, —^yo-j S-^j^t
2.

_^'
Such verses are
;

Sometimes we find a spondee
Spondaic.

in the fifth foot.

called
fifth

A

dactyl usually stands in the fourth place, and the

and sixth

feet are generally

made up

of a quadrisyllable

as,

armatumo"^ auro circumspicit Oriona. cara deum suboles, magnum Jovis incrementum.
3.

Caesura.
a)

The
eter

favorite position of the caesura in the Dactylic
is

after the thesis of the third foot
||

;

as,

Hexam-

arma virumque cano
fourth foot, usually
foot; as,

Trojae qui primus ab

oris.

b) Less frequently the caesura occurs after the thesis of the

accompanied by another
sic orsus

in

the second

inde toro
c)

||

pater Aeneas

{{

ab

alto est.
syl-

Sometimes the caesura occurs between the two short
lables of the third foot
;

as,

O

passi graviora
is

||

dabit deus his quoque finem.

This caesura
after a

called Feminine, as opposed to the caesura

long

syllable,

which

is

called Masculine

(as under

a and

b)

246
d)

PROSODY.

A

pause sometimes occurs at the end of the fourth foot. This is called the Bucolic Diaeresis, as it was borrowed by the Romans from the Bucolic poetry of the Greeks. Thus
: ; {{

solstitium pecori defendite

jam venit

aestas.

DACTYLIC PENTAMETER.
369. I. The Dactylic Pentameter consists of two parts, each of which contains two dactyls, followed by a long
syllable.

Spondees may take the place of the

dactyls

but not in the second. The long syllable at the close of the first half of the verse always ends a

in the first part,

word.

The scheme

is

the following

:

2.

the Hexameter.

The Pentameter is never used alone, but only in connection with The two arranged alternately form the so-called EleThus
:

giac Distich.

Vergillum vidi tantum, nee amara TibuUo Tempus amicitiae fata dedere meae.

IAMBIC MEASURES.
370. I. The most important Iambic verse is the Iambic Trimeter (§ 366. ii), called also Senarius. This is an acatalectic verse. It consists of six Iambi. Its pure form is
:

W
The Caesura
2.

W
ille

W

\J

w

w
less fre-

Beatus

qui procul negotiis.

usually occurs in the third foot;

quently in the fourth.
In place of the Iambus, a Tribrach (kj <j w) In the odd feet (first, third, and

may
fifth)

stand in any

foot but the last.

may

stand a

Spondee, Dactyl, or Anapaest, though the last two are less Sometimes a Proceleusmatic (w w w o) occurs.
3.

frequent.

In the Latin comic writers, Plautus and Terence, great freepermitted, and the various equivalents of the Iambus, w>. the Dactyl, Anapaest, Spondee, Tribrach, Proceleusmatic, are freely admitted in any foot except the last.

dom

is

SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.
I.

JULIAN CALENDAR.
:

371.
rius,

I. The names of the Roman months are Januarius, FetfruaMartius, Aprilis, Majus, Junius, Julius (Quintilis i prior to

46
in

B.C.),

ber,

Augustus (Sextilis 1 before the Empire), September, Octo. November, December. These words are properly Adjectives
Dates were reckoned from three points in the month
a)
b)
:

agreement with mensis understood.
2.

The Calends, the first of the month. The Nones, usually the fifth of the month, but
in

the seventh

March, May, July, and October.
Ides, usually the

c)

The

thirteenth of the month, but the

fif-

teenth in March, May, July, and October.
3.
all

From

these points dates were reckoned backward

;

consequently

days after the Ides of any

before
4.

month were reckoned the Calends of the month next following.

as so

many days

month is Ealendas, Nonas, Idiis. The second day before was designated as die tertio ante Kalendas Nonas, etc. Simi larly the third day before was designated as die quarto, and so on
before the Calends, Nones, or Ides of any
designated as pridie

The day

These designations are arithmetically
reckoned both ends of the series.
date
is

inaccurate,

but the

Romans

The Roman numeral

indicating the

before
5.

therefore always larger by one than the actual number of days Nones, Ides, or Calends.

In indicating dates, the

of an Adjective agreeing with
of expression occur, of

name of the month Ealendas, Nonas,

is

added

in the form

Idiis.
is

Various forms
:

which that given under d)

most common

quTnto ante Idiis Martias b) quinto ante Idiis Martias c) quTnto (V) Idiis Martias d) ante diem quintum Idiis Martias.
a) dig
; ;

' Originally the Roman year began with March. This explains the names Quintilis, Sextilis, September, etc., fifth month, sixth month, etc.

247

248
6.

SUPPLEMENTS TO THE GRAMMAR.
These designations may be treated

the prepositions in, ad,

ex

;

as,

as

nouns and combined

with

ad ante diem IV Kalendas Octobres, up to the 28tA of September. ex ante diem quintum Idas Oototrcea, from the nth of October.
In leap-year the 25th was reckoned as the extra day in February. diem VI Kalendas Martias, and the 25th as ante diem bis VI Kal Mart.
7.

The

24th was designated as ante

372.
Days
of the

CALENDAR.

month.

FIGURES OF SYNTAX.
II.

249

PROPER NAMES.
Roman
citizen regularly consisted of three

373.
parts
:

I

.

the

The name praenomen

of a

(or given name), the

nomen (name

of the gens

or clan),

and the

ex'emplied by

cognomen (family name). Such atypical name is Marcus TuUius Cicero, in which Marcus is the prae-

a second

Qomen, TuUius the nomen, and Cicero the cognomen. Sometimes cognomen (in later Latin called an agnomen) is added as, expecially in honor of military achievements

;

Gaius Cornelius Scipio Africanus.
2.

Abbreviations of Proper Names.
App.

= Aulus. = Appius. C. = Gaius. Cn. = Gnaeus. D. = Deoimus. K. = Kaeso. L. = Lucius. M. = Marcus. M'. = Manius.
A.
III.

Mam. = Mamercus.

= Numerius. = Publius. Q. = Quintus. Sex. = Sextus. Ser. = Servius. Sp. = Spurius. T. = Titus. Ti. = Tiberius.
N.
P.

FIGURES OF SYNTAX AND RHETORIC.
A. Figures
of

Syntax.
;

374.

I.

Ellipsis

is

the omission of one or more words
?

as,

quid multa, -why (should I say) much
2.

Brach^logy

is

at ager sine cultara

a brief or condensed form of expression as, fructuSsus esse non potest, sic sine doo;

tion, so the

trina animus, as a field cannot be productive without cultivamind {cannot be productive') without learning.

Special varieties of

Brachylogy are
in


;

a)

Zeugma,

which one verb is made to stand for two as, minis aut blandimentis corrupta = (terrified) by threats
or corrupted by flattery.

b)

Compendiary Comparison, by which a
object
is

modifier of an

mentioned instead of the object

itself;

as,—

dissimilis erat Chares

eorum et factis et moribua, lit. Chares was different from their conduct and character^
Chares's conduct and character were different,
etc.

i.e.

25o
3.

FIGURES OF SYNTAX AND RHETORIC.
Pleonasm
is

an unnecessary fullness of expression
lit.

;

as,

prius praedicam,

/ ivill first say

in advance.

4. Hendiadys (Iv Stot Svoiv, one through two') is the use of two nouns joined by a conjunction, in the sense of a noun modified by a Genitive or an Adjective as,
;

f ebris et aestus, the heat offever celeritate cursuque, by swift running.
5. Prol^psis, or Anticipation, is the introductior^ of an advance of the action which makes it appropriate as,
;

in

epithet

Bubmersas obrue puppes,
i.e.

lit.

overwhelm their submerged

ships,

overwhelm and sink

their ships.

a.

The name
it

Prolepsis

is

also applied to the introduction of a noun

or pronoun as object of the main clause where

we should expect
Thus
:

to stand as subject of a subordinate clause.

nosti

Marcellum quam tardus sit, you know how slow Marcellus is (lit.you know Marcellus, how slow he is).
varieties of Prolepsis are chiefly confined to poetry.
is

Both
6.

Anacolilthon

a lack of grammatical consistency in the con;

struction of the sentence

as,

turn

Anci

filii

.

.

.

ija-peasias eis inda^cataa oresceie, then the sons
.

of Ancus
7.

.

.

their indignation increased all the more.

Hysteron Prdteron
et in

consists in the inversion of the natural
;

order of two words or phrases

as,

moriamur

media arma ruamua =

let

us rush into the midst

of

arms and die.

S. Figures of Rhetoric.
375.
I.

Litotes

(literally softening) is
;

by the denial of its opposite

as,

the expression of an

idea

baud parum laboris, no little toil (i.e. much toil) non ignoro, I dm not ignorant (i.e. I am well aware).
;

2.

as,


3.

Oxymdron
Alliteration

is

the combination of contradictory conceptions; sapiens Tnsania, wise folly.
is

the

employment of a succession of words
letter

presenting frequent repetition of the same
as,

(mostly

initial)

sensim sine sensu aetas senescit.
4.

Onomatoptieia

is

the suiting of sound to sense
sonitii quatit

;

as,

quadrupedante putrem

ungula campum, 'And shake

with horny hoofs the solid ground.''

INDEX OF THE SOURCES OF THE H^LUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES CITED IN THE SYNTAX.'
p. ii8,

nonne

videtis, Sesi. 47.

num

exspectas,

PhU.
30.
15.
ii,

ii,

86.

videsne,

Vatm.

sensistine, Cat. i, 8.

non te, Fam. ii, 16, 3. omnes artes, Ljti. 25, 37. rogatus, de Dom. 16. multa, N. D. ii, 166.
milites,

a rebus, de Sen.
p. iig,

B. C.

i,

54.

visne locum, Leg.
estisne, Liv.
i,

i,

p. 127, tremit, Lucr.
'

iii,

489.

38, 2.

jam
p. 120,

ea, Ter. Phor. S2Sestne frater, Ter. Ad. 569.

p. 121,

decorum est, Hor. Od. iii, 2, 13. opportune acddit, Alt. i, 17, 2. Nimia, Eut. i, 3. philosophia, Tusc. Disp. ii, i6.
assentatio, Lael. 8g.

p. 122,

Corinthi, Tac. E.ii, audi tu, lAvy, i, 24.
nate,

1.

mea, Aen.
est, Ter.

ij

664. 185.

rumor
p. 123,

And.

galeam, Aen. ii, 392. ductus, Ov. Am. iii, g, 61.

nuda, Aen. i, 320. manus, Aen. ii, 57. hie locus, B. G. i, 49. indomum, Ac. i, 13. p. 128, Thalam, SaU. Jug. 75, 1. Thurios in, Nep. Ale. 4. cum Acen, Nep. Dat. 5. Italiam venit, Aen. i, 2. p. 130, amids, Sail. C. 16, 4. Orgetorix, B. G.i, 2. p. 131, munitioni, 5. G. i, 10. mihi ante, Verr. v, 123. illi, Tac. Ag. 9. intercludere. Pi. JW. G. 223.

p. 124,

nodo sinus, Aen. i, 320. idem gloriari, de Sen. 32. eadem peccat, N. D. i, 31. multa egeo, Gell. xiii, 24. multum valet, 'Hor. Epp. i,
nihil peccat, Stat. 161.

oppidum, .B. tumihi, Verr.
p. 132, erit ille. Eel.
6, 52.

C

iii,

80.

3, 213.
i,

quid mihi, Hor. Epp.
i,

3, 15.

7.

quae ista. Par. 41. honorem, Verr. iv,
Caesar,
Dii).
ii,

25.

minitaritem vana, SU. i, 306. acerba tuens, Lucr. v, 33. dulce loquentem, Hor. Od. i, 22, 24 multum sunt, B. G. iv, 1, 8. servitutem, PI. Pers. 34 a. vitam, Ter. Ad. 859.
stadium, Qff. iii, 10, 42. Olympia, de Sen. 14.
p. 125, pisds,

79.
i,

sdntillam, Aen.

174.
ii,

disputatio, Tusc. Disp.

2.

honesta, Off. iii, 38. p. 133, castris, B. G. vii, 16.
legiones, B. C.ii, 22.

receptui, B. G. vii, 47.

fortunae,

Fam.

vi, s, i.

Sen. N. Q. iii, 18, 2. orationes, Brut. 82. homines, Rose. Am. loi; otium, Hor. Od. ii, 16, i.

quibus, Flac. 19.

hos

tibi, iVe^.

Paus.

2.

me
p.

duas, Att.
te,

ii,

7, x.

gerendo, ijii. i, 23. noxiae, Leg. iii, 11. p. 134, it clamor, Aen. v, 451.
p. 137,

me

126, te litteras, Pis. 73.

hoc

Ter. Hec. 766.

me

id, PI.

Tr. 96.

dum Latio, Aen. i, 6, magni, Nep. Cat. i, 2. tantae molis, Aen. i, 33.
p. 257-

For explanation of the abbreviations, see 251

252

INDEX TO THE EXAMPLES.
ii,

p. 138, viri, Tusc. Disp.

43.

memoria, Or. 54.
Epicuri, i''. V, 3. praeteritorum, Div. i, 63. nomina, PI. Foen. 1062. reminiscere, B. G. i, 13. reminlscens, Nep. Ale. 6.
p. 139,

sunt specie, B. G. vi, scopuUs, Aen. i, 166. Helvetii, B. G. i, 2, z.

28, 1.

me
p. 149,

dignor, Aen. i, 335. Cn. Pompeio, B. G. iv,
virtutes. Fin.
ii,

1.

omnes

117.

perditis,

Fam.

vi, i, 4.
2.

mihi patriae, Stdl. 19. te veteris, ad Her. iv, 24, 33. me admones, ad All. v, i, 3.

nuUo adversante, Tac. A.i,
passis palmis, B. C.
p. 150, stant litore,
Stella,
iii,

98.
7.

audito eum, Liv. xxviii,

pecuniae, Flacc. 43. p. 140, miseremini, Verr. i, 72. p. 141, desine, Hor. Od. ii, 9, 17. operum, Hor. Od. iii, 17, 16.
p. 142, curis,
caret,

Aen. vi, 901. p. 151, a Gergovia, 5. G. vii, 59,

1.

N. D.

ii,

52.

Marc. 34.
s, 51.
i,

P- IS3,
3, 66.

biennjo, Tac. Agr. 14. prima et, Tac. A. i, 37.

Caesar, B. G.

omnium
eadem
12, 9.

Hor. Sat.

alacritas,

rerum, Fam. vi, B. G. iv,
5.

21, i.
24, 4.

p.

urbem, Nep. Thras. 1. 143, abstinere, Plin. Epp. i, hostes, B. G. i, 1, 4.
praedones, Verr. dissentio, Plane,
secernaiitur. Cat.
iv,

res operae, B. G. v, 11,
p. 154,

144.
32.

g.
i,

stultitia, F. iii, 39. domus, (^ !or, Ter. j4»i. 891. pars, Sail. Jug. 14, 15. sencctus, de Sen. 55. p. 156, exercitus, lAvy, xxxix, 1.

ab Ulixe, Liv. i, 49, 9. a fortuna, B. G.v, 34, 2. a multitudine, B. G. iii, 2,
p. 144, melle dulcior, de Sen. 31. patria. Cat. i, 27.

p. 157, virtus, Lael. 100. p. 158,
1.

me me

oravit, Phil,

ii,

45.
2.

suum genium,
p. 159,

oraverunt, Div. Caec. Tae. Dial.

9.

amplius, 3. G. vii, ij, i. opinione, B. G. ii, 3, i.

Hannibalem, Sest. 142. suus quemque, Rose. Am. Belgae, B. G. ii, i, 1.
B. G. vi, 8, i. Themistodes, Nep. Them.
Galli,

67.

munere, Aen. vi, 885. came, 5aW. Jus. 89. castris, B. G. ii, ,26, 4. opus est properato. Mil. 49. p. 145, nititur, Aen. vi, 760.
uervis, JV.

9.
5.

illud intellego. Sail. Jug. 85, hie est, PI. Tr. 697.

p. 160,

D.

ii,

59.

mortali, Lucr. v, 65. quid hoc, Sest. 29.

de Sen. 10. non is sum, B. G. v, 30, non suspicabatur, Verr.
vincula, Co/, iv,
7.
ii,

Maximum,

2.
i,

36.

quid mea, Fom. xiv, 4, 3. fossas, B. G. iii, 18. vinum, /»». vii, 121. p. 146, militibus, B. G. i, 8, i. victoria, B. G. i, 14, 4. natura lod, B. G. iii, 9, 3.
p. 147, nulla est. Brut. 164. exstinguitur, Tae. A.ii, 72. longo, Aen. v, 320.

quod idem, 4c.
bonus
valvae
p. 161, ipso terrore,
se,

32.

vir, Lael. 63.

B. G.
i,

iv, 33, 1.

Div.

74.

Persae, Nep. Ale. 5. ea molestissime, Q. Pr.

i,

i, i.

p. 162, career quae, Verr. v, 143.

Belgae, B. G. ii, nostra qui. Cat.
servili,

1, i.
i,

cum febri, de Or. iii, 6. improbitas, de Or. ii, 237. aer calore, N. D. ii, 27.
assuetus, de Or. iii, 58. p. 148, puella, PI. Merc. 13. vir singulari, PI. Vid. 41.

7.

B. G.

i, i,

40.
6.

erant, B. G.

quam
41-

quisque,

Tusc.

Disp.

i,

non

longe, B. G. i, 10, i. Themistodes, Nep. Them.

4, 3.

INDEX TO THE EXAMPLES.
p. 163,

253

numquam
mors
est,

digne, de Sen,
2.
i,

2.

ne

sint,

(2e

Sen. 34.
i,

cognatio. Arch.
p. 164. justitia,

fuerit, Fcr*-.

37.

Tusc. Disp.

27.

di istaec, Ter.

H. T.

1038.

F. i, so. si quisquam, Lael. g. potestne, Tiisc. Disp.
si ullo,

falsus utinam, Liv. xxi, 10, 10.
p. 179, dicat aliquis, Ter.
iv, 54.

And. 640.
xiii,

fortunam, Pub. Syr. 193.
velira mihi,

Alt.

xii,

23,

1,

Fam.

75,

1.

taetrior, Verr. iv, 123.

nolim putes, Fam.
dies deficiat,

ix, is, 4.
iii,

quod cuique,

Off.

i,

21.
ii,

N. D.
i,

81.

quinto quoque, Verr.

139.

p. 180, egredere. Cat.

20.

nemo Romanus,
alteri se,

Liv. viii, 30, 3.
26, 1.
i,

rem
si

vobis, Verr. iv, 1.

alter exercitum, Plane. 86.

B. G.

i,

p. i6S, causidicus, de Or.
p. 166,

202.

bene, de Sen. 3. consules, Leg. iii, 8. hominem. Twelve Tables.

Tarquinii, Liv.

non duo

34, 7. oimiis, Div. ii, 90.
i,

amidtia, Liv. 38, 38, i. quin equos, Liv. i, S7i 7p. 181, adjuta, Ter.

Coiioli, Liv.

ii,

33, 8.
iii,

Eun.
ii,

iso.

milia. Curt,
iii,

2, s-

portas, B. G.

33, i.

temeritas, F.
p. 167, si tu,

72.

xiv, s, ivelatus, On. Met. v, no.

Fam.

haec. And. 472. ut ne, Of. i, 103.

tunica,

Aen.

viii,

457.
i,

p. 168, virtus, Lael. 100. p. 169.

dum

vitant. Ear. Sat.
Att.

2,

24.

Caesar, B. G.

vii, go, 2.
ii,

ut non. Cat. i, 23.^ ut earum, B. G. iv, 17, 10. p. 182, Helvetii, B. G. i, 7, 3. haec habui, de Sen. 85. non habebat, B. G. iv, 38,
idoneus,
Fer;'.
iii,

2.

jam pridem,

5,

*

41.

p.

Duilium, de Sen. 44. hostes, B. G. v, 9, 6. domidlium. Arch. 7. 170, Regulus, Of. iii, 100. Caesar, B. G. iv, 17, i.

dignus. Leg.

iii,

S-

multa, Tusc. Disp. i, 80. p. 183, sunt qui, Inv. ii, 144.

nemo, Fam.

i,

4, 2.
i,

sapientia, F»«.

43.

p. 171, nihil

habebam,

Alt. ix, 10, 1. 72.

p. 172, videor, iV. Z).

ii,

B. G. vii, '4, 4. honestum, F. ii, 49. si solos, Tusc. Disp. i, 9. rex tantum, Nep. Con. 4.
Gallos,
P- 173,

quae, Lael. 23. non is sum, B. G. v, 30, 2. non longius, 5. G. ii, 21, 3. o fortunate. Arch. 24.

ut qui, Phil, xi, 30. egomet, lie Or. i, 82.

Verres, Verr. Act. Pr. 12.

ardebat. Brut. 302.
P- 174, p. I7S,

Caesar, B. G. hoc jam. Cat.

iii,
i,

24, i.

nemo est, Verr. iv, 115. nemo fuit, B. C. iii, S3i 3quem audierim, NepfAr. 1,
p. 184, quis

a.

5.

tam, Tusc. Disp.

iii,

71.

dico me, StM. 27.
P- 177.

quare. Cat. 1, 32. isto bono, de Sen. 33. ne repugnetis, Cluent. 6. tu vero, Tmjc. Disp. i, 112.

Sidliam, Verr. Act. Pr. 12. mons, B. G. i, 6, i.

non

is.

Cat.

i,

22.

nemo

est,

de Sen. 24.

habetis. Cat. iv, 24.
nihil, Ter.

impii ne. Leg. ii, 41. cave ignoscas, Lig. 14. P- 178, quid fadam, Pi. Cure. 589. ego redeam, Tef. Bun. 49. huic cedamus PhU. xiii, 16. quid facerem, Ter. Eun. 831.
I

B. T. 675.
5. G.

,

nemo

est,

vi, 39, 3.
8, 3.

p. i8s, Themistocles,

Nep. Them.
7, s.

neque, de Sen. 84.

quoniam, iVe^. MUt.

hunc

ego. Arch. 18.

noctu, ruse. Disp. iv, 44. Bellovaci, B. G. vii, 73.

254
Crasso,

INDEX TO THE EXAMPLES
trepidationis, Liv. xxi, 28, 11.

p. i86, id feci, Caec. loi.

Fam.

xiii, i6, 3.

exspectavit, B. G. iv, 23,

4.

hocita, Leg' "i, 3iHaeduos, B. G. i, 16, 6. id omitto, Sail. Jug. no,
p. 187, id ut,

dum
7.

litterae,

Fam.

xi, 23, 2.

postulo, Ter.
orat, Ter.
milites,

And. 550. Ad. 882.

Epaminondas, Nep. Ep. Nep. Them. 8, 3.
Caesar, B. G.
iii,

g, 4.

£.

C

ii,

21, z.
i,

Helvetiis, 5. G.
p. 193, huic. Rose.

2, i.

g, 2.

Am.

54.

ubi de, B. G. i, 7, 3. ut qiiisque, Ferr. v, 143. hostes, B. G. iv, 26, 2.
id ubi, Liv.
p. 188,
i,

consuli, Liv. xxxv, 20, 4. ne lustrum, lAv. xxiv, 43, 4.

prohibiut,

iiji.

xxv, 35,

6. 4.
i.

32, 13.

nee quin, Liv. xxvi, 40,
Liv. xxiv,
decrevit. Cat.
28,
i,

postquam occupatae,
35, 4-

constitueram, 4«. xvi, 10,
4.

postquam Romam, SoH. Jug.
2.

couvenit, iiu. x, 27, 2. fac ut, P;. JJ«(i. 1218.

postquam
an

stnicti, Liv.
ii,

i,

23, 6.

I)osteaquam, Leg.
turn, Pis. 26.

64.

credo turn, Fej'r. iv, 46. eo tempore, ijg. 20. illo die. Mil. 38. p. 189, Lysander, Dio. i, 96. Pythagoras, JV. Z). iii, 88. jam Galli, B. G. vii, 26, 3. Treveri, B. G. vi, 7, i.

cura ut. Cat. iii, 12. laborabat, 5. G. vii, 31, i. p. 194, sequitur, iV. D. ii, 81. eos moneo. Cat. ii, 20. huic imperat, B. G. iv, 21,
opto, Verr. Act. Pr. so.
p. 19s, vereor ne, Att. vii, 12,
z.

8.

ex quo, F.
ita est

ii,

24.
ii,

fit, Tusc. Disp. mos. Brut. '84.

16.

cum cum
cum
6.

ad, Verr. v, 27.

p. 196, quis, Par. 48.
2.

equitatus, B. G. v, 19,
4, 2.
iU.

saepe cum, Nep. Cim.
procucurrissent,
tua. Ear.

C.

ii,

41,

p. 190,

tum cum

Epp. i, 18, 84. videbis, PI. Bacch. 145. stabilitas, Lael. 82.
tacent. Cat.
te, Alt. xiv,
i,

p.

cum cum

21.

17 A, 4.

prius, PI.

Merc. 456.

OS. iii, in. hoc uno, de Or. i, 32. bene mihi, Tusc. Disp. i, 97. quod, B. G. i, 44, 6. quod me, Nep. Ep. 5, 6. 197, oculis, B. G. i, 12, I. bis bina, N. D. ii, 49. effugere, N. D. iii, 14. saepe autem, N. D. iii, 14. Epaminondas, F. ii, 97.
illud,

nihil contra. Place. 51.

non

prius. Sail.

C 51.
i,

ex Socrate, Tusc. Disp.
nescio, PI.
p. 198, conantur,
6.

v, 34.

Amph.
B. G.
i, i,

1056.
8, 4.

p. 191, priusquam, Liv.

24, 3.

tempestas. Sen. Ep. 103, 2. priusqu'am telum, B. C. ii, 34,

pergit, Liv.

7, 6.

animum,
sol

PI.

Amph.
Quint.
iii,

240.
xiv, 27. p. 199,
6,

quaeritur, N. D. i, 61. haud sdo, Tusc. Disp.

ii,

41.

antequam, Phil,

Alexander,
17-

Curt,
17, 1.

iv,

dum

naturam. Off. i, 100. memoria, de Sen. 21. si quis, B. G. i, 48, 6.
si

haec, 5. G.

dicendo, Tac. Dial. 19.
si.

dimi anima, Att.
loi.

ix, 10, 3.
i,

p. 200, mentiar, Lael. 10.

Lacedaemoniorum, Tusc. Disp.
Cato, Nep. Cat. 2, 4. 0. 192, donee, ijs. xxiii, 31, 9. ferrmn, iVe#. £^. 9, 3.

haec

Cat.

i, i,

19.

42. consilium, de Sen. 19. Laelius, Arch. 16.

sapientia, F.

num

igitur, de

Sen. 19.

IJNJJiiA

lU

IJtlJi

JiJi.Ajyj.Ji'l^JiS.

255

p. 201, nisi felicitas,

eum
si si

Tac. Agr. 31paths, Phil, ii, 99.

Sestius, Sest. 81.

unum, Liv. ii, 38, Snon potestis, F. ii, 71.
eras, Fl. Merc. 770. haec reputent, Tusc. Disp. roges, F. iv, 69. p. 202, ferreus,
i,

virorum, Tusc. Disp. ii, 43. aUud est, Tusc. Disp. iv, 27. impune. Sail. Jug. 31, 26. licuit, Tusc. Disp. i, 33. p. 214, Demosthenes, F. v, 5.
beatus,
Si-

N. D.

i,

48.

Cato, Sail. Cat. 54, 5. apertum est, F. v, 34.
P- 215, Epicurei, Lael. 13.

Fam.

xv, 21,

3.

dolorem, Phil. 12, 21.
si feceris,

Thales,
^.

N. D.

i,

23.
i,

hoc

si,

Fam. v, 19, Fam. vii, i, 6.
i,

Democritus, N. D.
nullo
se,

29.

hunc mihi, Cat.
nihil, Cat.
nisi. P- 203,
ii,

18.

10.

Lig. 3. nee mihi, de Sen. 85. eas res, B. G. i, 18. te tua. Brut. 331. cupio. Cat. i, 4.
p. 216,

Mil. 19sed quid, Div. Caec. 14. serviam, PI. Men. iioi. sit fur, Verr. v, 4.

ft.

haec sint, Ac. ii, 105. ne sit, Tusc. Disp. ii, 14. 204, homines, Phil, ii, 39. non est. Rep. i, 10.

Timoleon, JVe^. Tim. 3, 4. gaudeo, PZ. Bacch. 456. non moleste, de 5e». 7.
Sestius, Sest. 95.

p. 217, traditum, Tmsc. Disp. v, 114.

quamquam.
Atticus,
licet,

Off.

i,

56.
1.
.1.

Caesar, £. G. iv, 31,

Nep.

Alt. 6,

Rose.

Am.

31.
i,

quamquam
t).

quid, Cal.

22.

audax, ffor. Od. i, 3, 23. hundne, Hor. Sat. i, 9, 72. interim, B. G. i, 16, i. p. 218 assurgentem, Liv. iv, 19. gloria, Tusc. Disp. iii, 3. Conon, Nep. Con. 4, 5.

20s,

quamquam,
quamvis

i»». xxxvi, 34, 6. quamvis, multi, Tac. Dial. 2.
infesto, Liv.
ii,

omne, Phil,

v, sr.

mente, Tmsc. Disp. v, 100.
p. 219, Solon, ie Sen. 26.
sol, iV.
;

40, 7.

multi. Off. iii, 82. omnia postposui, Fam. rvi, 2
nil obstat,

D.

ii,

102.

6-

Hor. Sat.

i,

i,

40.

mendaci, Div. ii, 146. perfidiam, B. G. vii, s,
eis

S-

oderint, Ace. 204.

p. 206,

manent, de Sen. 22. nubant, P/. Aid. 491. quidquid, 4e«. ii, 49. quidquid oritur, Div. ii, 60.
Regulus, Off.
iii,

Catonem, (Ze Sen. 3. Homerus, ie 5e». 54urbem, Liv. xxii, 2f equitatiun, 5. G. i, iS, i.
-

p. 220, obliviscendum, Tac. ffis*.

ii, i.

100.
i,

numquam,
9, 2.
i.

Verr.

i,

38.

p. 207,

tum Romulus,

Liv.

t).

p.

nuntiatum, B. G. i, 38, dixit, Nep. Them. 7, SAriovistus, 5. G. i, 44, 208, milites, B. G. iii, s, 3209, Caesar, 5. G. i, 14, 6.

suo cuique, N. D. iii, 1. Caesar, B. G. i, 13, ip. 221

scribendo,

Fam.
i,

xv,

6, 2.

7.

mens, 0/.
multa, P.
p. 222,

105.
2,

Themistocles, Nep. Them.
i,

3

S.7

p. 211,

concursu, Tac. Dial. 3^. demonstrabantur, de Sen. 78.

ad pacem, Liv. xxi, ij hostes, B. G. iii, u, i,
legati,

Paetus, Alt.
p. 212,

ii,

1,

12
i, 4.

5. G.

iv, 13, 5i,

nemo, Par. 52.

quae

ille,

Sail. Fr.

77,

"•

cum

diversas, Tac. Dial,

mos est, Oro/. 151. quod ego, PI. Capt. 961.
P- 213, dulce,

p. 223, legati, B. G.i, 30, ido (colloco), PI. Tr. 73S-

hoc

est, Att. vii, 22, 2.

Hor. Od.

iii,

2, 13.

cum

homines. Cat.

i,

31.

256

INDEX TO THE EXAMPLES.
p. 232, Caesar,

p. 224, discidia, F. i, 44. p. 22s, horae, de Sen. 69.

Caesar, B. G.
cita,

ii,
i,

35, 3.
1, 8.
ii,

Hor. Sat.

qui aether, N. D.

41.

p.

p. 226, adsentatio, Lael. 8g.

p. p.
p.

Cn. Pompeio, B. G. iv, 1, 227, Darius, Nep. Milt. 4, i. 228, magnus, Nep. Them. 6, 1. 22g, erant duo, B. G. i, 6, i.
nisi forte, de Sen. 18.

j..

p.

p.

B. G. i, 25, 1. Haedui, B. G. i, 11, 2. Caesar cum, B. G. i, 7, 1. accidit, Nep. Ak. 3, 2. 233, si quid. Arch. 1. Caesar, 5. G. v, 4, i. 237, hostium, B. G. iii, 29, 3. mens quoque, de Sen. 36. tanto, 5mS. S9. 238, pro multitudine, B. G. i, 2,
ii,

j.

p. 249, ut agar, Tusc. Disp.

13.

p. 230, id ut,

Nep. Them. eo cum, B. G. vii,

8, 3. 7, 4.

minis, Tusc. Disp. v, 87.
dissimilis,

Nep. Chab.
i,

3, 4.

ut ad, Lael. 5. p. 231, Septimus, de Sen. 38. recepto, B. C. iii, 12, 1. sed pleni. Arch. 14. horribilem, Tusc. Disp. i, 118. simulatam, Tac. A. i, 10.

p. 250, febris. Cat.

31.
i,

submersas, Aen.
nosti,

69.

Fam. viii, 10, 3. tum And, Liv. i, 40, 2.
moriamur, Aen. quadrupedante,
ii,

353.

vle». viii, sg6.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN INDEX TO THE ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
Ac, Gcero, Academica. Ace, Acdus. ad Hei., ad Herennium.
Aen., Virgil, Aeneid.
Arch., Cicero, pro Archia.
Att., Cicero,

Cbab. Chabrias.
Cim., Cimon. Con., Canon. Dat., Datames. Ep., Epaminondaj. Milt., MUtiades.
Paus., Pausamas. Them., Themistocles. Thras., Thrasybuhis.

Episiulae ad AtUcum.
Bella Civili.

B.

C, Caesar, de

B. G., Caesar, de Bella Gallia).
Brut., Cicero, Brutus. Caec, Cicero, fro Caecina.
Cat., Cicero, in

Tim., Timoleon.
0£E., Cicero, de Officios. Or., Cicero, Orator.

CatUinam.

Cluent., Cicero, pro Clitentio.
Curt.,

^

Quintus Curtius;

Ov., Ovid.

de Dom., Cicero, de Doma Sua. de Or., Cicero, de Oratore. de Sen., Cicero, de Senectute. C, Cicero, de Divinatione.
Div.

Am., Amores. Met., Metamorphoses.
Par., Cicero, Paradoxa.
Phil., Cicero, Philippics.

Cicero, Caec, CaeciHum.

Divinatia

in

Eel., Virgil,

Eclogues.

Eut., Eutropius.

i» Pisonem. Plane, Cicero, i>ro Plancit. PL, Plautus. Amph., Amphitruo.
Pis., Cicero,

de Finibus. Fam., Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares. Fkc, Cicero, pro Placco.
F., Cicero,
Gell.,

Aul., Aulularia.

Bacch., Bacchides.
Capt., CapHvi.

Aulus Gellius.
Epp., Epistles.
Od., Odes.
Sat., Satires.

Hor., Horace.

Cure, CurcuUo. Men., Menaechmi.

Mere, Mercalor.

M.

G.,

Afj/e* Gloriosus.

Pers., Persa.

Inv., Cicero,

de Inventione.

Juv., Juvenal.
Lael., Cicero,

Poen., Poemihis. Rud., Rudens.
Tr.,

LaeUus, de AmicHia.

Trinummus.

Leg., Cicero, de Legibus.

Vid., Vidtdaria.

pro Ligario. Livy. Lucr., Lucretius.
Lig., Cicero,

Liv.,

Marc, Cicero, pra Marcello.
Mil., Cicero, pro Milone. N. D., Cicero, de Natura Deorum. Nep., Nepos. Ale, Alciiiades.

Younger, irftefi. Pub. Syr., Publilius Syrus. Q. F., Cicero, od Quintum Fratrem. Rose Am., Cicero, ^o Roscio Amerint.
Plin. Epp., Pliny the
Sail., Sallust.

C,
Fr.,

Catiline.

Fragments,

Jug., Jugurtha.
Sen., Seneca.

Ar., Aristides.
Att., Atticus.

Ep., Epistles.

Cat., Cato.

N.
257

Q.,

Naturaks Quaestiones.

2S8
Sex.
Sil.,

ABBREVIATIONS IN THE EXAMPLES.
And., Andria. Eun., EuniKhus. Hec, Eecyra. H. T., Bautontimoroumenos. Phor., Phormio. Tusc. Disp., Cicero, Tusculan Disputations.

Sest., Cicero, pro SesHo.

Rose, Cicero, pro Sexto Roscio.
Silius Italicus.

Stat.,

Caedlius Statius.
pro Sulla.

Sull., Cicero,

Tac, Tacitus.
A., Annals.

Agr., Agricola.
Dial., Dialogus de Oratoribus.

Ger., Germarda.

H., Histories. Ter., Terence. Ad., Adelphoi.

of the Twelve Tables. Vatin., Cicero, in Vatitimm. Yen., Cicero, in Verrem. Verr., Act. Pr., Cicero, AcUo Prima in C.

Twelve Tables, Laws

Verrem.

INDEX TO THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE

MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.
Note.

— Compounds axe not given unless they present

some

special irregularity.

The

references are to sections.

A.
abdo, 122,
1, 2.

ascends, 122,

1, 4.

coUigS, 122,

1, 3.

aspicio, 122, III.

cols, 122, 1, s.

abido, 122, III. abnuo, 122, II.
aboleo, 121, 1,

assentior, 123, VII. assuefacio, 122, III.
assueflo, 122, III. audio, 123, 1, aufero, 129.

comminlscor, 122, V. comperiS, 123, V. compleo, 121, I.
concutio, 122, III.

abstergeo, 121,

in.

absum, 125.
accendo, 122,
accidit, 138,
1, 4.

condS, 122,
2.

1, 2.

m.
N.

augeo, 121, in. aved, 121, II, a, N.

cSnferS, i2g.
cSnfiteor, 121, VII.

accio, 121, 1,

accipio, 122,

m.
1, 6.

congruS, 122, II. consenesco, 122, IV,
cads, caedo, 122,
122, 1, 2.
1, 2.

2.

acqmro, 122,
acuo, 122, II.

cSnsero, 122, consero, 122,

1, 5.

1,

6 {plant)

adds, 122,

1, 2.

cSnsido, 122,

1, 4.

adhaeresco, 122, IV, 2.
adiplscor, 122,

calefaciS, 122, III.
calefio, 122, III.

V.

consists, 122, 1, 2. cSnspicio, 122, III.

adolesco, 122, IV, i.

caleo, 121, II, a.

adsum, 125.
advenio, 123, IV.
aSero, i2g.
afficio,

calescS, 122, IV, 2.

constat, 138, III. cSnstltuS, 122, II.

cans, 122, 1, capessS, 122,

2.
I, 6.

122, III.
122, 1, I, a.
i.

capio, 122, III.
cares, 121, II, a.

consuesco, 122, IV, consuls, 122, 1, s. contineo, 121, II, b.
contingit; 138, III.

1.

affligo,

agnSsco, 122, IV,
ago, 122, 1, 3. algeS, 121, III.
alo, 122, 1, 5.

carpo, 122, 1, I, u. caveS, 121, V. cedS, 122, 1, I, b.
censeo, 121, II, b,

coquS, 122,

1, I, a.

crepS, 120, II.
crescS, 122, IV, 1.

cubs, 120, II.
cupiS, 122, III.
cuiro, 122, 1,
:i.

amicio, 123, III.

cams, 122,

1, 6.

amo, 120,

1.

cieo, 121, 1.

unplector, 122, V. ango, 122, 1, 7.
aperio, 123, II.

cingS, 122, 1,

I, a. 1, 2.

circumsistS, 122,

appeto, 122, 1, 6, arceo, 121, II, n.
arcesso, 122, 1, 6.

claudS, 122, Clauds, 122,

D.
debeo, 121, II, a. decerns, 122, 1, 6.
decet, 138, II.

1, I, b. 1, 7.
I, 3.

coemS, 122,
coepl, 133.

ardeo, 121, III.
aresco, 122,

coerceo, 121, II, a.
j.

IV,

arguo, 122,

n.

cognosco, 122, IV, cogo, 122, 1, 3.

I.

dedecet, 138, II. dedo, 122, 1, 2. defends, 122, 1, 4,

2S9

26o
deled, 121, 1,

INDEX TO THE PRINCIPAL PARTS
The
references are to sections.
feriS, 123,

VI.

induS, 122,
Infers, 129.

n.
2.

deligo, 122, I, 3.

ferS, 129.

demo, 122,

1, 3.
1, 5.

ferveo, 121, VI.
figo, 122, I, 1, b.

ingemisco, 122, IV,

desero, 122,

insum, 123.
intellego, 122, 1, 3. interficio, 122, III.

desino, 122, 1, 6.

finds, 122, 1, 2, N.
fingo, 122, 1, i,
fIS,
it.

desum, 125.
dico, 122, 1, 1, u,
differs, i2g.

131.
121, 1.

fleets, 122, I, I, b.
fleo,

dlligo, 122, 1, 3.

intersum, 125. invado, p. 87, footnote, inveniS, 123, IV.
irascor, 122,

dimico, 120, dirimo, 122,

H.
I,

flSreo, 121, II, o, N. I.

V.

3.

flSresco, 122, IV, z.
fluS, 122, II.

diripio, 122, III.

diruo, 122, II.

fodiS, 122, III.
I, 6.

discerno, 122,

foveS, 121, V.

jaceo, 121, II, a.
jacio, 122, III.

disco, 122, IV, I.
dissero, 122, 1, 5.

frangS, 122,

1, 3.
I, 5.

fremS, 122,
fries, 120,

distinguo, p. 87, footnote, divido, 122, I, I, 6.

n.
n,
V.
ii,

jubeo, 121, III. jungo, 122, 1, 1, N. 2. juvo, 120,

14.

frigeS, 121,

m.

do, 127.

fruor, 122,
b.

doceo, 121, II,

fugiS, 122, III.

doles, 121, II, a.

fuldS, 123, III.
fnlgeo, 121, III.
fulget, 138, 1,

domo,

120, II.
I, 1, iz.

labor, 122, V.
lacesso, 122, 1, 6.

dues, 122,

E.
edo, 122,
edS, 122,
efifero,

funds, 122, 1, 3. fungor, 122, V.
furS, 122, 1, 7.

laedS, 122, 1,

I, t,

lambs, 122,
lateS, 121,

1, 7.

largior, 123, VII.

I,

:i.

n,

ii,

N.

1.

I, 3.

lavS, 120, III.
lego, 122, 1, 3.

129.

eflfuglS, 122, III.

gemS, 122,
i.

1, s.
I, a.

libet, 138, II.

egeo, 121, II, a, N.
eUciS, 122, III.

gero, 122, I,

liceor, 121,
licet, 138,

VII.

glgno, 122,
</,

I, 5.

n.

emineS, 121,

II,

N.

j..

gradior, 122, V.

loquor, 122, V.
luceo, 121, III.

emo, 122,
eS, 132.

1, 3.

esurio, 123,

VI.

H.
habeS, 121, II, a. haereo, 121, III. haurio, 123, III. horreS, 121, II, li, N.

ludS, 122,

1, I, b.

luges, 121, III.
luS, 122, II.

evadS, p. 87, footnote. evanescS, 122, IV, 3.
excolo, 122,
I, 5.

excudo, 122,

1, 4.

M.
1.

exerceS, 121, II, a. experior, 123, VII.
expleo, 121,
I,

maereS, 121, malS, 130.
I.

II, a, N.

2.

N.

maneS, 121,
i.

III.
3.

explico, 120, II.

ignosco, 121, IV,
illicio,

exstinguo, p. 87, footnote. extimescS, 122, IV, i.

122, III.

matQrescS, 122, IV, medeor, 121, VII.
n. a.

imbuS, 122, II. immineo, 121, II,
impleo, 121, 1, N. implies, 120, n.
incipiS, 122, III.

ij,

memini, 133. mereo, 121, II,

a.

F.
facie, 122, III.
falls, 122, 1, 2.

mereor, 121, VII. mergS, 122, 1, i, b. metior, 1.23, VII.

incolS, 122, I, 5.

metuS, 122,
mico, 120,
I

II.

fateor, 121,

VII. faveo, 121, V.

incumbS, 122,

I, $.

n.
II.

indulges, 121, III.

minus, 122,

OF THE MOST IMPORTANT VERBS.
The references
misceo, 121,
are to sections,

261

n,

b.

patefado, 122, III.
pateflo, 122, III.

miseret, 138, II.

misereor, 121, VII.
mitto, 122,
1, I, b.
1, 5.

pateo, 121, II,
patior, 122,

o, N. I.

rado, 122,

1, I, 6.

V.

rapio, 12 2, III.

molo, 122,

paveo, 121, V.
pellido, 122, III.
pello, 122, 1, 2.

moneo, 121, II, a. mordeo, 121, IV.
morior, 122,

redds, 122, I, 2. redimo, 122, I, 3.
referdo, 123, III. refers, I2g.
rSfert, 138, II.

V. moves, 121, V.

pendeo, 121, IV. pendS, 122, I, :i.
perago, 122,
1, 3.
I, 2,

regS, 122,

1, i, a.

N.
nandscor, 122, V.
lulscx)!,

percello, 122,

N.

percrebresco, 122, IV, 3. perdo, 122, I, 2.
perfido, 122, III.
perfringo, 122, 1, 3. periruor, 122, V.
perlego, 122, 1, 3. pennulceS, 121, III.

relinquS, 122, 1, 3. reminlscor, 122, V.
reor, 121,

VII.

122,

V.

necto, 122, 1, I, b.

reperis, 123, repS, 122, 1,

V.
I, a.

neglego, 122, 1, 3.
ningit, 138, 1.
niteo, 121,
nitor, 122,

resists, 122, 1, 2.

n,
V.

a,

N. 1.

respuS, 122, II. restinguS, p. 87, footnote.
retineS, 121, II, b.
rides, 121,

perpetior, 122, V.

noced, 121, II, a.
nolo, 130.

pervado, p. 87, footnote,
peto, 122,
1, 6.

in.
I, 1, b.

rSdo, 122,

nosco, 122,

IV,

I.

piget, 138, II.

rubeo, 121, II,

a,

N. i.

nubo, 122,

1, I, a.

pingo, 122,

1, I, a.

rumps, 122,
ruS, 122,

1, 3.

places, 121, II, a.

n.
S.

O.
obduiesco, 122, IV, 3.
oblino, 122, 1, 6.
obfiTascor, 122,

plaudo, 122,
pluit, 138, 1,

1, i, 6.

polleo, 121, II, a, N. a.
polliceor, 121, VII.

saepiS, 123,

HE.

saliS, 123, II.

V.

obmutesco, 122, IV, 3.
obraS, 122,

n.
rv,
i.

obsolesco, 122,

obsum, 125.
obtineo, 121, II, b.
odi, 133.

poUuo, 122, II. pono, 122, 1, 6. posco, 122, IV, pos^do, 122, 1, possum, 126.

sands, 123, III.
saplo, 122, III.
I.

sarciS, 123, III.

4.

sdndo, 122,
scisco, 122,

1, 2,

N.

IV,

2.

poto, 120, 1, praebeo, 121, II, a.
praestat, 138,
1.

scnbs, 122,

1, I, a.
I,

ofiero, 129.

HI.

sculps, 122, 1, sees, 120, II.

a.

oleo, 121,

operio, 123,

oportet,

H, a, N. n. 138, n.

praesum, 123.
prandeo, 121, VI. prehendo, 122, 1, 4.

sedeS, 121,

V.

sentio, 123, III.
sepeliS, 123, 1.

opperior, 123, VII.
ordior, 123,
orior,

premo, 122,
prodo, 122,

1, i, b.

sequor, 122, V.
serS, 122, 1, 6.

VII. 123, VII.

1, 2.

P.
paenitet, 138, II.
palleo, 121, 11, a, N. 1.

promo, 122, 1, 3. piosmn, 125. prostemo, 122, 1,
pudet, 138,

serpS, 122, 1,
sileS,

I, a.

121, II, a, N.

6.

sinS, 122, 1, 6.

n.
1, z.

pungS, 122,

solvS, 122, 1, 4. sonp, 120, II.

spargo, 122, sperno, 122,

1, I, b. I, 6.

pando, 122,

1, 4.

parco, 122, 1, 2. pareo, 121, 11, «.
pario, 122,

Q.
quaero, 122,
1, 6.

splendeo, 121, II, 0, N. | spondee, 121, IV.
status, 122, II.

in.

quatio, 122, III.

pasco, 122, IV, I.
tascor, 122, IV, i.

queror, 122, V.
quiescS, 123, IV, 1.

stems, 122,

1, 6.

-stinguo, 122, 1, I, a,

262
sto, 1 20,

INDEX TO THE MOST IMPORTANT
The
IV.
references are to sections,
I, Sli,

VERBS.
V.

tex5, 122,

strepo, 122, 1, 5. strtdeo, 121, VI.
strings, 122,
1, I, a.

times, 121, II,
tingo, 122, I,
tolls, 122, 1, 2,

s.

I.

1,

a.

vado, 122,
veho, 122,

I, I, b.

N.

vales, 121, II, o.
I, I,
li.

struo, 122, II.

tonat, 138, I.

studeo, 121, II, a, n. 1.

suadeo, 121, III.
subigo, 122,
1,

tondeS, 121, IV. tons, 120, II.
torpeS, 121,

veils, 122, I, 4.

3.

n,

0,

N.

I.

subsum, 125. sum, 100. sums, 122, 1,
suo, 122, II.

torques, 121, III.
torreS, 121, II, b.
3.

veniS, 123, IV. vereor, 121, VII. vergo, 122, I, 7.
verrS, 122,
I, 4.

trado, 122, I,

2.

supersum, 125.
sustineS, 121, II, b.

traho, 122, 1, i, a. tremo, 122, I, 5. tribuS, 122, II.

verts, 122, 1, 4. vescor, 122, V.

vets, 120, II. videS, 121, V.
vigeS, 121, II, a, N.
vincio, 123, III.
I

trudS, 122, 1, I, tueor, 121, VII.

b.

tundS, 122,
taceo, 121,

1, z.

vines, 122,

I. 3.
i.

n,

u.

vireo, 121, II, a, N.
visS, 122, I, 4.

taedet, 138, 11.

tango, 122,
tego, 122,

1, 2.

U.
uldscor, 122, V.

vivo, 122,

1, I,

il.

1, I, a. 1, i, a.

temno, 122,

tends, 122, 1, 2. teneo, 121, II, b.
tero, I22i I, 6.

unguo, 122,

1, I,

a.

vols, 130. volvS, 122, 1, 4. vomS, 122, 1, 5.

urges, 121, III. urS, 122, I, I, u,.
utor, 122, V.

voveS, 121, V.

terreo, 121, II, a.

GENERAL INDEX.
The
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

Abl., ablative; ace, accusative; adj., adjective; adv., adverb, advercompare; comp., comparison or comparative; conj., conjunction or conjugation; const., constr., construction; dat., dative; decL, declension; gen., genitive; ind., indicative; indir. disc., indirect discourse; loc, locative; n., note; nom., nominative;
bial,

Abbeevutiohs.

or adverbially;

c£.,

plu., plural;

prep., preposition;

subject; subjv., subjunctive ;

pron,, pronoun -or pronunciation; voc, vocative; w., with.

sing., singular; subj.,

i,

pronundation, 3, i ; development of o; before a single consonant, 7, i,a; before two consonants, & as ending of nom. sing, of 7, I, 4;
vowel,
2,

I

;

Abbreviations of proper names, 373. Ablative case, 17 ; 213 f.

m-dbus,

21, 2,

e.

ist decl.,

20;

in voc. sing, of Greek
;

in -d in prons., 84, 3 ; 85, 3. -formation of sing, of adjs. of decl., 67, a; 70, 1-5.

3d

nouns in -es of ist decl., 22
sing, of

in

nom.

Greek nouns in -e of ist decl., 22, 3; termination of nom. and ace. plu. of neuters, 23 ; 35 ; 48 ; termina-

nouns of 3d decl., 3d decl., 43, 3; ending of ace. sing, of Greek nouns of 3d decl., 47, i regular quantion of
sing, of

nom.

37 ——genuine abl. uses, 214 —— absolute, 227. —— of agent, 216. —— of accompaniment, 222.
;

of i!-stems,

38.

f.

28 ; gender of nouns in -i of

— —-of association,
of cause, 219.

of accordance, 220, 3. 222, A.
;

;

of attendant circumstance, 221

227,

tity of final a, 363,

i;

exceptions to

d,

quantity of final a, 363, i, a-c. pronunciation, 3, i ; arising
traction, 7, 2
decl.,
;

by

con-

of comparison, 217.

as ending of stem in ist 18; a-stems inflected, 20 ; in voc.

of degree of difference, 223. of fine or penalty, 208, of manner, 220. of material, 224, 3.
J, 4.

Greek noims of ist decl., 22 in voc. sing, of Greek noims in -as of 3d decl., 47, 4; distinguishing vowel
sing, of

of means, 218.

of ist conjugation,

perative act. of ist conj., loi long by exception, 363, i, a-c.
a, ab,

98; ending of imfinal a ;

—— of place where, 228.
of price, 225.

of penalty, 208,

2, b.

of place whence, 229. of quality, 224. of separation, 214 ; with

ahs, use, 142, i

;

with town names,

229, ^.

a to denote agency, 216. to denote separation, 214. place from which, 229.
'

compounds

of dis- and se-, 214, 3. of source, 215-. of specification, 226.
b.

with town names, 229, 2. with abl. of gerund, 338, 4,
a-stems, 20; g8;

of time at which, 230.
of time during which, 231,
x.

loi.

363

264
The

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

Ablative case of time witJiin which, 231. Ablative case, of way by which, 213, 9. with conlmeri, cSnsistere, cSnslare,
218, 4.

with impersonal verbs, 175, a, c. with intransitive verbs, 175, 2, a. with passive used as middle, 175,
2, d).

with special phrases, 218, 7. with jungere, miscere, mulire, tk.,
222,

with verbs of remembering and
getting

for-

(memni, oHimscor,
;

reminis-

A.

cor), 206, I

2.

with facid, fid, 218, 6. with prepositions, 142; 213 f. with verbs of filling, 218, 8. with verbs and adjs. of freeing, 214,
j:,

with verbs expressing emotion,
2, 6.

175,

with verbs of tasting and
176, S.

smelling,

a,

and N.

i.

with verbs _ of making,
calling, regarding, etc., 177.
ves-

choosing,

with adjs. of plenty, 218, 8. with Utor, fruor, fungor, potior,
cor, 218, I.

with verbs of asking, requesting, demanding, teaching, concealing, 178,
i-S-

with opus and asus, 218, 2. with nltor, mnixus, and fretus,
abs, 142, 1.

2 1 8, 3
3-

with adjs. (propior, ^oximus), with adverbs
141, 3
;

141,

ahsens, 125.

(propius,
2.

proxime),

Absolute, ablative, 227. time, of participles, 336, 4. use of verbs, 174, o. ^ Abstract nouns, 12, 2, b) ; plural
,

clam, prtdie, 144,

Genavam ad oppidum,
of, 55,

182,

2, a.

4, c).

cognate ace, 176, 4. Greek ace, 180. synecdochical ace, 180.

-abus, 21,
ac,

2, e).

two

aces., direct obj.

and pred. ace,

as, than, 341, i, c). 341, 2, 6); Acatalectic verses, 366, 9.

=

accHit

ut, 297, 2.

177 ; person affected and result produced, 178 ; with compounds of trans, 179; with other compounds, 179, 2.

Accent, 6;

in gen. of nouns in -ius

and

ium,
^cidit

25, I

and

2.

ut, 297, ^•

; 179 f. retained in pass., 178, 2. Accusing, verbs of, constr., 208 f.

with prepositions, 141

accidit quod, 299, t, i.

accuso, constr., 178,
deer, decl.,

i, d).

Accompaniment,

abl. of, 222.

Accordance, abl. of, 220, 3. Accusative case, 17; in -an and -en, of Greek nouns, 22; in -om in 2d decl., 24 ; in -on and -on in Greek nouns, 27 in -S in sing, of Greek noims, 47, i
in -Ss in plu., 47, 3; in and -is in t-stems, 37 ; 38 ; ace. sing. neut. as
adv., 77, 3 ; 176, 3 ; 172 f. of duration of time, 181.
of result produced, 173, of extent of space, 181. of limit of motion, 182

4m

68; compared, 71, 3. Acquitting, verbs of, constr., 208 f ac si, with subjv., 307, i. ad, 'toward,' 'in vicinity of,' 182, 3; ad with ace alternating with dat., 338, 2. compounds of ad governing dat., 187, III; 188, 2,d. with gerund denoting purpose, 338,
3.

-ades,

patronymic ending,
3.

148, 6, a.

B;

176.

adg- = agg-, 9, Adjectives, 62

f.;

354;

derivation

of,

f.

of neut. prons. or adjs., 176, 2. of person or thing affected, 173,
,175-

A

;

— —

isof.

in exclamations, 183. as subj. of inf., 184.

of ist and 2d dec!., 63 ff. in -MM, gen. sing., 63, 0. of 3d decl., 67 ff. in abl., 70, 5. -comparison of adjs., 71 f. ; in -er, 71, 3; in -«7m, 71, 4; comparative


73

;

with admoneo, commoneo, with adv. force, 176, 3. with compounds, 175, 2.

etc.,

207.

lacking, 73, 3;
;

defective comparison,

not admitting comparison, 75 comparison by magis and maximl, 74-

GENERAL INDEX.
The
Adjectives, numerals, 78
references are to sections
f.

26s
aequum
;

and paragraphs.
est

aequum
and
7.

=

syntax,

233

ff.

;

attributive
2.

aes, in plu., SS, 4, *

271, i, h). lacks gen. plu., 57,
sit,

predicate adjs., 233,

agreement, 234, f used substantively, 236 f denoting part of an object, 241, with force of adverbs, 239.
force of

aetds, decl., 40,

r, e)

;

id aetatis, 185,

z.

-aeus, suffix, 152, 3.
i.

aevom, decl., 24.
Affected, ace. of person or thing, 175. Agency, dat. of, r89; abl., 216.

comp. and

superl., 240, i.

not followed by infinitive, 333. not used with proper names, 354, 3. equivalent to a poss. gen., 354, 4. special Latin equivalents of Eng.
adjs., 354, i.

Agent,

abl.,

216; with names of animals,

216, 2.
ager, decl., 23.

Agreement, nouns, 166; 168; 169,2; 3;
4-

equiv. to rel. clause, 241, 2. as pred. ace, 177, 2.

adjs. 234; niunber, 23s,

A;

in gender, 235, prons., 250 ;

B;

in

verbs,

position of adj., 350, 4. pronominal adjs., 92.

with one

subj.,

254, i;

with two or
ist
decl.,

more
-ai,

subjs., 255, i.

governing gen., 204. governing dat., 192. governing ace, T4T, 3. construed with abl., 214, i, d; 217, i; 218,8; 223; 226,2; 227, i. with supine in -u, 340, 2.
ail-

case-ending,
13s, N.

gen.

sing.,

poet., 21, 2, b).

am,
<5/o>

^35 ; quantity of first syllable, 362, -al, declension of nouns in, 39. alacer, decl., 68, i ; comp., 73, 4.
aliqua, gi, 2.
aliqui,

3.

= = =

all-, g, 2.

admoned, constr., 207. Admonishing, const, of verbs
airadsarr-, 9, 2. ass-, 9, 2.

91

; ;

91, 2.

of, 207.

aliquis, gi

252, 2

;

aliquis dicdt, dixerU,

280, I.
-SUs, suffix, 151, z.
z, c;

ai
4-

sensum, constr., 23s, B,

254,

aUter ac, 341,
alius,

i,

66 ;

g2,

used correlatively.
i, c).

aiuliscens, spelling, 9, 2.
aiulter, decl., 23, 2.

2S3, ' alius ac, 'other than,' 341,
Allia,

aiultus, force, 114, z.

gender

of, 15, 3,

N.

Adverbs, defined, 140; formation and comparison, 76 f. ; 140, 157.

allicio, conj., log, 2, 6).

Alliteration, 37s, 3.

from adjs. in -^us, in -tus and -tim, 77, Sin and -0, 77, 2.
in -dter

77, 4-

Alphabet,
alter, decl.,

i.

66; g2, i; used correlatively,
indirect,

.2S3, I.

numeral, 79.
as preps., 144, z. derivation of, 157.

Alternative questions, 162, 4;
300, 4.
alteruter, decl., g2, 2.

with gen., 201, 2 ; 3 ; and special meanings, 347.
position, 350, 6. Adversative clauses, 309.

a.

alvus,

gender

of, 26, i, b.

amandus sum,

conj., 115.

conjunctions, 343.
adversus, prep,
ae,

with ace, i4r.
3,

how pronounced,
7, i, d.

2;

phonetic

amatarus sum, conj., 115. amb- (ambi-), 159, 3, N. ambo, 80, 2, a; usage, 355, 2. amo, conj., loi. ampUus = ampUas quam, 217,
amussis, -4m, 38,
fl»,

3.

changes,

i.
;

aedes, plu., 61.

162, 4,

and

a)

300, 4;
6-

Aowd

JC»S o»i

aequSHs, abl. sing, of, 70, 238.
eequor, dec!., 34.

s,

o; as subst.,

nescio an, 300, J.

Anacoluthon, 374. Anapaest, 366, 2.

266
The

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

Anaphora, 350, 11, i). Anastrophe of prep., 141, 2;
144, 3. anceps (syllaba
10.

142,

3;

ArckiaSj declension of, 22. -ar, declension of nouns in, 39. arguS, constr., 178, i, d).
-dris, suffix, 151, 2.

anceps),

defined,

366,

-drium,

suffix, 148, 3.

Androgeds, •dec!., 27. animal, decl., 39. Animals, as agents, 216, 2. animi, locative, 232, 3. annSn, in double questions, 162, 4.

-drvus, suffix, isi, 2.

Arrangement

armiger, decl., 23, ^. of words,
clauses, 351.

348-350;

of

Arsis, defined, 366, 6.
artHs, dat.

Answers, 162, 5. as adv., 144, i ante, prep. w. ace, 141 dat. w. verbs compounded w. ante,
;

and
in

abl. plu. of, 49, 3.

arx, decl., 40.
-Ss, ace. plu.

Greek nouns,

in expressions of time, 357, i; 371,5; ante diem, 371, s; 6.
187, III;

-as,

old gen. sing.,

47, 3. ist decl., case-end-

ing, 21, 2, a).

Antecedent of

rel.,

251.
251, 4.
4.

ending
sing, in, 22.

of

Greek

nouns,

nom,

attraction

of,

-incorporated with rel., 251, Antecedent omitted, 251, i. repeated with rel., 251, 3.
Antepenult,
6, 2. 2.

gender of noims in -as, 43, 2 45, i. voc. of Greek nouns in -as, anUs,
;

47,4aHs, abl. of patrials in, 70,
s, c).

antepSno, with dat., 187, III,

Asking, case const, with verbs
c; subst. clauses w., 29s, I tions, 300, I.
;

of, 178,1,

antequam, with
2g2.

ind.,

2gi;

with subjv.,

ind. ques-

Anticipation,

denoted by subjv., w. antequam and prmsquam, 292 by subjv. with dum, donee, quoad, 293,
; ;

Aspirates,

2, 3, c.

Assimilation of consonants, 8, 4 Association, abl. of, 222, A.

f.

;

9, ».

III, 2 ; 374, s. -anus, suffix, 151, 2 152, i ; 3. Aorist tense, see Historical perfect.

Asyndeton, 341,
at,

4, a)

;

346.

343. I, <^). -atim, suffix, 157,
Atlas, decl., 47, 4.

2.

Apodosis, 301 ff. in conditional sent, of ist type, 302, 4 ; result clauses as apodoses, 322 qumclauses as apodoses, 322; ind. questions as apodoses, 322, b; potuerim in apodosis, 322, c apodosis in indir. disc, 319-321; in expressions of obligation, ability, etc., 304, 3,0; with periphrastic conjugations, 304, 3, b. Apposition, i6g; agreement, 169, 2;
; ;

atomus, gender
atqtie,

of, 26, i, c),
;

341,

2, 6)
1, e).

=

as,

341,

I, e).

atqui, 343,

Attendant circumstance,
227,
2, e).

abl.

of,

221:

Attraction of demonstratives, 246, 5 ; of relatives, 250, s; subjunctive by attraction, 324;

of adjectives, 327,
2.

2,

a;

328,

2.

partitive, 169, 5;

with voc. in nom.,

Attributive adjs., 233,
auddr.ter,

171, 2

;

genitive w. force of appositive,

-atus, its force as suffix, 151, 4.

202;
i,

b;

id as appositive of clause, 247, inf. as appositive, 326; 329;
282,
i,

formation

and

comparison,

76, 2.

subst. clauses as appositives,

/; 294;

297, 3.
;

audeo, conj., 114, i. audio, conj., 107; with
337, 3aulal, archaic gen., ?i,

pres.

partic,

Appositive of locative, 169, 4 with ace. of limit of motion, 182, 2, a with town names, in abl. of place whence, 229,
;

2, b. 5.

2.

position of, 350, n. aptus, w. dat., 192, 2.

ausus, force as participle, 336, aut, 342, 1, a). autem, 343, i, c) ; 350, 8.

apud, prep. w. ace, 141.

Auxiliary omitted in finite forms, 166, 3.

infin.,

116, 5;

in

GENERAL INDEX.
The
auxiHum, auxiUa, 61. 4x, sufSx, ISO, 2.
rftferences are to sections

267

and paragraphs.
conjunctions, 345.

Cause, abl.
cave, cave
-ce, 6,

of,

219; 227,

2, d).

cavi, 363, 2, b).

B.
balneum, balneae, 60,
barbiios, decl., 27.
2.

3

f.

ne in prohibitions, 376, 87, footnote 2.
;

b.

Believing, verbs of,
belli,

with

dat., 1S7, 11.

cedo, cette, 137, 3. cedo, with dat., 187, II.
celeber, decl., 68, 1.
celer, decl., 68, 2.

locative, 232, 2.

bellum, decl., 23.

comparison, 77, 1. Benefiting, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II. benevolus, comparison, 71, 5, a).
bene,
-ber,

celo, constr., 178, i, e).

cenatus, force, 114, 2.
celera,

adverbial ace, 185,

n.

declension of

month names

in, 68, i.

celeri, use,

-bilis, suffix,

150, 4.
;

233, 4. Characteristic, clauses of, 283

ionu^, decl., 63
bos, dec!.,

comparison, 72.
2.

; denoting cause or opposition {'although'), 283,

41.

3

;

gen.

of, 203, I

;

abl., 224.

Brachylogy, 374,

Bucolic diaeresis, 368, 3, d. -btdam, suffix, 147, 4. -bundus, suffix, 150, i.

Charge, gen. of, 208, i ; 2. Chiasmus, 350, 11, c). Choosing, const, w. verbs of, 177, 1-3. circa, circiter, circum, preps, w. ace,
141. circum,

J«m,

decl., 38, i.

compounds

of,

w. dat., 187, III.

C.

circumdd, const., 187,

i, a.

C,

for

G. as abbreviation of Gams, 373.

caedes, decl., 40.

Circumstance, abl. of attendant, 221. CM, prep. w. ace, 141. citerior, comparison, 73, i.
cito, 77, 2, a.

Caesura, 366, 8; in dactylic hexameter,
368, 3.

citrd,

prep. w. ace, 141.

edcar, decl., 39.

civitds, decl., 40, i, c.

Calendar, 371 ; 372. Calends, 371, 2, a), campesler, decl., 68, i.
canis, decL, 38, 2.

clam, with ace, 144, 2. Clauses, coord, and subord., 164, 165. purpose, Clauses of characteristic, 283
;

capio, conj.,

no.
of, 26, 1, 6).

carbasus,

gender

career, carceres, 61.

Cardinals, defined,
decl.,

78,

i

;

list

'

of,

79

282; result, 284; causal, 285; temporal with postquam, tit, ubi, simul ac, with cum, 288 substantive etc., 287 clauses, 294 f ; condition, 301 f ; conditional comparison, 307; concessive,
; ;
.

.

80; with and without

et,

81, i;

3; expressed by subtraction, 81, 2; replaced by distributives in poetry, 81,
4, d.

308 ; adversative, 309 ; wish or proviso, 310; relative, 311 f.; 283 f.
cldvis, decl., 38, i.

Clinging, construction of verbs of, 258, 3.
j.

care,

comparison, 76,
carrum, 60,
i.

clipeus,

cHpeum,

60, i.

card, decl., 42.

Close of sentences, cadences used, 350,
12.

carrus,

Cases, 17; alike in form, 19;

170

ff.

coepi, conj., 133;

coeptus
4.

est,

133, i.

Case-endings, 17, 3.
eastrum, castra, 61.

Cognate ace, 176,
cognomeri, 373.
cago,

Catalectic verses, 366, 9.
causa,

w. ace, 178,

i,

d);
2,

w.

infin., 331,

with gen., 198, i nulla causa est cur, with subjv., 29s, 7. clause of Causal clauses, 285; 286; characteristic with accessory notion of
;

VI.
Collective nouns, verb, 254, 4colus,
12,

a);

w.

plu,

gender

of, 26, 1, b).

cause, 283, 3.

com-,

compounds

of,

w.

dat., 187, III.

268
The
comedo, conj., 128,
comiies, decl., 22.
2.

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

trary-to-fact apodoses, 304, 3 ; praasia omitted or implied, 305, i; protasis

conUHa, as time expression, 230, i. Commanding, dat. w. verbs of, 187, II; subst. clause w. verbs of, 295, i commands expressed by jussive subjv.,

contained in imperative,
subjv., 30s, 2
;

or jussive
of nisi,
si

employment

nSn, sm, si mirms, 306; relative sentences, 3T2, 2.
cSnfido,

conditional

Common

27s; by imperative, 281. gender, 15, £, N. i. nouns, 12, I.
syllables, s, jB, 3.

w.

abl., 219, i, a.
;

Conjugation, 11

93

f.;

the four conju-

gations, 98; periphrastic, 115; peculiarities of conj., 116.

commonefacio, w. gen. and ace, 207. commoneo, w. gen. and ace, 207. communis, w. gen., 204, 2; with dat.
204,
2, a.

commHtS, w. abl., 222, A. Comparatives, decl., 69; w. abl., 217; w. qnam, 217, 2; occasional meaning,
240.

341 f. ; with inf., 295, s, a. Consecutive clauses, see Result clauses. consistere, with abl., 218, 4. Consonant stems, nouns, 29 f.; adjs.,
Conor,
70, 1.

Conjunctions, 14s, r

partially adapted to i-stems, 40.

Consonants,
,

2, 2 f . 2, 9.

;

pronunciation,
of,

3, 3.

two required in Latin, 240, 4. Comparison of adjs., 71 f.; of adverbs,
,

double,

combinations
syllables, 4, 2 f

in division into

76; 77participles as adjs., 71, 2.
adjs. in -dicus, -ficus, -vohts, 71, 5.

Consonant changes, 8
8,

;

omission of
f

finals,

defective, 73.
abl. of, 217.

3 ; assimilation of, 8, 4 following stems, 29; {-stems, 40.
conspicio, conj., 109, 2, i).
constdre,

analogy of

Comparison, conditional, 307. Compendiary comparison, 374, 2, 6); w. result clauses, 284, 4 ; w. clauses of
characteristic, 283, 2, a.

Completed

action,

tenses

expressing,
of, 9, a.

w. abl., 2r8, 4. Construction ace to sense, 254, 4; 235, B, 2, c). consuetudd est, with subjv. substantive
cdnstievl

262-4; 267, 3. Compounds, 158 f.; spelling

clause, 297, 3. pres., 262,

=

A.
with
dat., 338, 3.

Compound

sentences, r64.

consularis, abl. sing, of, 70, s, a.

verbs governing ace, 175, 2, o ; governing dat., 187, III; 188, 2, d. Conative uses of pres., 259, 2 ; of imperf ., of pres. partic, 336, 2, u. 260, 3 Concessive clauses, 308; 'although' as accessory idea to clause of character;

Contending, verbs

of,

contentus, w. abl., 2T9, i.

contmerl, with abl., 218, 4. canUngit ut, 297, i.
contra, prep.

Continued action, tenses for, 257, w. ace, 141 ; as adv.,
Contraction,
,

i, h.

144,

1.

istic,

283, 3.

7, 2.
of, s.

subjunctive, 278. Conclusion, see Apodosis. Concrete nouns, 12, 2, a). Condemning, verbs of, constr.,208, f. Conditional clauses of comparison, 307. sentences, ist type (nothing implied), 302; in indir. disc, 319; 2d type ('should'-' would'), 303 ; in indir. disc, 320; 3d tyjie (contrary to fact), 304; in indir. disc, 321; abl. abs. equivalent to, 227, 2, 6); introduced by relative pronouns, 312; general conditions, 302, 2 ; 3 ; indicative in con-

length of vowel as result

A,

,,b).

Contrary-to-fact conditions, 304. Convicting, verbs of, constr., 208

f.

Coordinate clauses, 165. conjunctions, 341 f
copia, copiae, 61.

Copulative conjunctions, 341.
cor, lacks gen. plu., S7. 7-

cornu, decl., 48. Correlative conjunctions, 341, 3 adverbs, 140.
coltidie, spelling, g, 2.

;

342, a

GENERAL INDEX.
The
Countries, gender of, 26,
references are to sections
i,

269

and paragraphs.
of reference, 188. of separation, 188, of the gerund, 338,

a.

Crime, gen.

of, 208, i

;

2.

2, i). 2.

-crum, sufSx, 147, 4.
-culum, suffix, 147, 4.
-cuius (a,

um),

suffix, 148, i.

cum, appended, 142, 4. cum (conj.), 'when,' 288-290;
ever,' 288, 3.

'wlien-

adversative, 309, 3.
causal, 286, 2.

with adjs., 192 ; with proprms, communis, 204, 2; similis, 204, 3. with compound verbs, 187, III. with intrans. verbs, 187, n. with nomen est, 190, i. with impersonal pass, verbs, 187,
II, J.

explicative, 290.

to denote
289, u.

a recurring action, 288, 3
z.

with trans, verbs, 187, 1. with verbs of mingling, 338,
ethical dat., 188,
de, prep.
2, b).
;

3.

inversum, 288,
. .
.

w.

abl.,

142

with abl. instead

turn, 290, 2. cum cum primum, 287, i.

of gen. of whole, 201, i,a; with verbs of reminding, 207, a; compounds of

cum, spelling

of, 9, 1.
,

cum

(prep.)

with abl.

with abl. of manner, 220; of accompaniment, 222; ap4.

de governing dat., 188, 2, d;de m, with verbs of accusing and convicting, 208, 3; with gerund and gerundive, 338, 4,6.
dea, dedbus, 21,
2, e).

pended to prons., 142,
-cundus, suffix, 150, 1.
cupiS,
conj.,

109,

2,

o);

with subst.

clause developed

w.
cur,

inf.,

331, IV,

from and 0.

optative, 296;
7.

dgbebam, debui in apodosis, 304, 3, a). debeS, governing obj. inf., 328, i.

nuUa causa

est cur,

w. subjv., 295,

euro,

with gerundive const, as
i
;

obj., 337,

with pres. inf., 270, 2. decemvir, gen. plu. of, 23, 6, b). dlcernd, w. subst. clause developed
debut,
volitive, 29s, 4.
decet,

from

8, J, 2.

Customary action, 239,

260, 2.

w. ace, 17s, 2, c). Declarative sentences, defined, 161, i;
in indir. disc, 314. Declension, 11; heteroclites, 59. , stems and gen. terminations, 18.

D, changed to
3
;

j, 8, 2 ; assimilated, 8, 4. Dactyl, 366, 2.

d

final

omitted,

8,

Dactylic hexameter, 368. pentameter, 369.
iapis, defective, 57, 6.

2d decl., 23-27; 28-47; 4th decl., 48-30; 3th decl. 31-53; of Greek nouns, 22; 27; 47 ; of adjs., 62-69 of prons., 84-90. Decreeing, verbs of, w. subjv., 295, 4.
,

ist decl., 20-22;

3d

decl.,

,'

Daring, verbs of, with obj. inf., 328, i. Dates, 371, 2-s; as indeclinable nouns,
371, 6; in leap year, 371, 7. Dative, 17; irregular, ist decl., 21, i, c)

dedecet, 175, 2, c).

Defective verbs, 133 f ; nouns, 54 f ; 32, 4; 57; comparison, 73. Definite perfect, see Present perfect.
.

.

3d decl., 47,
decl., 52, I

s

;

4th
;

decl., 49, 3

;

3

;

Sth

and 3

186

fE.

Degree of difference, abl. of, 223. Degrees of comparison, 71 ff.
inf. as subj., 327, i. w. abl. of cause, 219. Deliberative subjv., 277; in indir. ques-

in the gerundive const., 339, 7. of agency, 189. ^

delectat, dilector,

w.

of direction
of

and limit of motion, 193

of indir. obj., 187.

tions, 3i50, 1

;

in indir. disc, 315, 3.

advantage or disadvantage, so Demanding, verbs of, w. two aces., 178, w. subst. clause, 295, i. I called, 188, 1. Demonstrative pronouns, 87; 246; of of local standpoint, 188, a, a). position of ist, 2d, and 3d persons, 87 of person judging, 188, 2, c).
; ;

of possession, 190; 339, iof purpose or tendency, 191

demonstratives, 3S0,
;

5,

•'•

339, 7-

Denominative verbs, 136.

270
The
Dental mutes,
stems, 33.
^, 4.

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

do, conj., 127.

doeed,

with ace, 178,
232, *.

i,

ft);

with

inf,

Dependent clauses, 282 S. 331, VI. Deponent verbs, 112; forms witl\ passive domi, locative,
meanings,
114.
112,
b);

semi-deponents,
abl., 214, i,
ft.

domo, 229, i, ft). domes, 182, i, ft.

Depriving, verbs of, w. Derivatives, 147 f
-des,

domwm,
N.

182,

i,

ft) ;

'house,' in ace, 182,

patronymics

in, 148, 6.

domus,
of,

Description, imperf. as
I, a.

tense

260,

decl., 49; 4 ; gender, 50. donee, with ind., 293; with subjv., 293,

III, 2.

Desideratives, 155, 3. Desire, adjs. of, w. gen., 204, of, w. subst. clauses, 296, i.
deterior, 73, 1.

i

;

verbs

dono, constr., 187, dos, gender, 44, 3.

i, u.

Double consonants,

2, 9.

deus, decl., 25, 4.
devertor, 114, 3.
dexter, dec!., 65, i.
dl-, 159. 3,

N.

questions, 162,4; indirect, 300, 4. Doubting, verbs of, w. quin, 298. Dubitative subjunctive, see Deliberative. dubito, dubiitm est, nSn dubito,- non dubiwn est, with gain, 298 ; non dubito w. inf.,
298, a. due, 116, 3. dued, accent of 116, 3.

Diaeresis, 366, 8; bucolic d., 368, 3, d).

Diastole, 367,
die, 116, 3.

2.

compounds

of, in imper.,

dicitur,

died,

dictum est, w. inf., 332, note. accent of compounds of, in impera-

tive, 116, 3.

-dicus,

comparison of adjs.
gender, S3.

in, 71, 5.

duim, duint, 127, 2. -dmn, 6, 3. dum, temporal with
293, III, provisos, 310.
subjv.,

ind.,

293;

with

Dido,

decl., 47, 8.
;

2;

in wishes and

dies, decl., 51

Difference, abl. of degree
diffieUe est
difficilis,

of,

223.
i, ft).

dummodo, 310.
duo, decl., 80, z.

=

Eng. potential, 271,
2.

comp., 71, 4. Mgnor, with abl., 226,
;

dignus, 226, 2
282, 3.

in rel. clauses of purpose,

Duration of time, 181, 2. Duty, expressed by gerundive, 189; 337, 8; verbs of duty in conclusion
cond. sentences contrary-to-fact, subst. clauses dependent 3, a; on verbs of, 29s, 6 inf. w. verbs oi duty, 327, i; 328, i; 330; 'it is th? duty of,' 198, 3; 'I perform a duty,'
of

Dimeter, verses, 366, 11. Diminutives, 148, i. Diphthongs, 2, i ; 3, 2 diphthong stems, 41 ; diphthongs shortened, 362, z. diphlkongus, gender of, 26, i, e).
;

304,

;

218, I.

' Dipodies, 366, 11. Direct reflexives, 244, i.

duumvir, gen. plu.
dux, decl., 32.

of, 25, 6,

ft).

object, 172.

quotation, 313.
discourse, 313. questions, 162.
dis-, in
e,

compounds, 159,

3,

N.

Disjunctive conjunctions, 342. dissimdUs, comp., 71, 4. Distributives, 63, 2 ; 78, i ;
4-

as vowel, 2, i ; as second member of diphthongs, 2, i ; sound of, 3, i change, to i, 7, i, 0; for S, 7, i, c; in voc. sing, of 2d decl., 23; in abl.
sing, of

3d

decl.,

31

;

dropped in nom.
39 ;
-i for

79 ;

81,

of neuters of
abl.

3d

decl.,

4

in
»

of

mare,

39;

alternating w.

dia,

compared,

77, i.
;

dives, decl., 70, i
dixfi, 116, 4, e.

compared, 71,

6.

in abl. sing, of )f-stems, 37,38; for e in in abl. gen. sing, of 5th decl., 52, i
;

sing, of adjs. of

3d

decl., 70, i

;

3 ; in

GENERAL INDEX.
The
beni
references are to sections
;

271

and paragraphs.

and mail,

vowel of 3d

77, conj.,

i

distinguishing
,

erga, prep.

w. ace, 141.

g8;

before

j,

i,

S ; for -l in imperatives, 363, 2, temeri and saepl, 363, a, c. pronundation, 3, i ; by contraction, 2;

362, b; in

ergo, 344, I, 6).

7,

-errms, suffix, 154. -fa, gender of nouns in, 43, i ; exception, 44, s ; in nom. plu. of Greek nouns of

as ending of
;

Greek nouns, 22;
decl.,

3d
-es,

decl., 47, 2.

e-stems, 51

ending of dat. of 5th

ending of Greek nouns, nom. sing.
,

distinguishing vowel of S2, 3; conj., 98; -I in Jame, 363, 2, a; adverbs, 363,
S,

2d in

in, 22.

gen.

-is,

decl. of

nouns
;

in, 40, i, a).
of,

2, c.
;

ex, use, 142, 2

see ex.

ecqnis, gi, 6.
edic, 116, 3.

conjugation of, 100 compounds 12s; 126; e;.se omitted, 116, 5. est qui, with subj., 283, 2. et, 341, I, a; in enumerations, 341, 4,
esse,

c).

Editorial 'we,' 242, 3.
edd, 128.

edec, 116, 3.
efficiB ut,

247, 4. neque, 341, 3. Ethical dative, 188, 2, b).
et
.

et is,

.

.

2g7, i.

etiam, in answers, 162, 5.
et

297, a. Effort, subjv. w. verbs of, 295, 5.
efficitur ut,

nSn, 341,

2, c).
etsi,

etsi,

'although,' 309, 2;

'even

if,'

egeo,

w.

abl., 214, i, c.

ego, 84.

309, i, a. -etum, suffix, 148, 3.
-eus, inflection of

egomet, 84, 2.

Greek nouns

in, 47,

6

diphthong, 2, i ; 3, 2. -«, gen. of 5th dec!., 52,
ei,

adj. suffix, 151, I.
i.

iienitut, 297,
ex, 142, 2
;

2.

-Us, 148, 6, 6).
e/»j,

with
1,

as poss., 86,

i

;

quantity, 362,

S-

whole, 201,
dat.,

Elegiac distich, 369, 2.
Elision, 266, 7.
Ellipsis, 374, I.

188, .2,

abl., instead of gen. of a; compounds of, with d; with abl. of source,

215, I.

Exchanging, verbs
1.

of,

with
183.

abl. of asso-

um), 148, Emphasis, 349.
-ellus
(fi,

ciation, 222,

A.
of,

Exclamation, ace.

Enclitics,

accent of preceding syllable,
;

6,3.
,

Exclamatory sentences, 161, 3. Expectancy, clauses denoting, in subjv.,
292, I ; 293, III, 2. exposed, constr., 178, j., a),
exsisto, spelling, 9, 2.

-met, 84, 2

-fte, 86,

3

;

cum

as en-

clitic,

142, 4.

End

of motion, see Limit. Endings, case endings, 17, 3; personal, of verb, 96 ; in formation of words, 147 f. enim, 345. -ensimus {-ensumus), 79, N.
-insis, 151, 2;

exspecto, spelling, 9, 2.
exteri, exterior, 73, 2.

extremus, use, 241,
exuo, w. abl., 214,

1.
i, b.

152, 3.

Envy, verbs
eo,

of,

with

dat., 187, 11.

' 132; cpds., 132, I. Epexegetical genitive, 202. Epistolary tenses, 265.

f,

pronunciation,

3,

3;

»/,

quantity of
5.

epislula, spelling, 9, 2.

vowel before, s, i, a. with subjv., 295, fac, 116, 3
;

epitome, decl., 22.

facile, 77, 3.
i.

epuhim, epulae, 60,
equdbus, 21, 2, e).

Jacio, 109,
,

facUis, comp., 71, 4. 2, o) ; pass, of, 131.

equester, decl., 68, i.

in imper., 116, 3.
2, J).

equos, decl., 24.
-er, decl.,

falsus, comparison, 73, 3.
in,

of

nouns

23

;

adjs., 63

;

64

fame, 59,

6s;

68;

adjs. in -er

compared,

71, 3.

Familiarity, adjs. of, w. gen., 204, i.

272
The
famUias, 21,
fori, 136.
2, a).

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paxagrapha.

fratide, abl. of

manner, 220,

2.
i.

fas, indeclinable, 58.

Free, abl. w. adjs. signifying, 214, i, Freeing, abl. w. verbs of, 214, i, a.

fauces, decl,, 40,

frenum, plu. of, 60, 2. i, d). Favor, verbs signifying, with dat., 187, II. Frequentatives, iss, 2. fretus w. abl., 218, 3. Fearing, verbs of, constr., 296, a.
Fricatives, 2, 7.

febris, decl., 38, i.
felix, 70.

Friendly, dat. w. adjs. signifying, 192,
frOcUis, decl., 48.
3,
c-.

i,

Feminine, see Gender.

Feminine caesura, 368,
femur,
fero,
decl., 42, 4.
-fer, decl.

frUgi,

compared, 72;

70, 6.

frilgis, 57, 6.

and

its

of nouns in, 23, 2 ; adjs. 6s, i. compounds, 129.
in, 71, 5.

fruor,

with

abl.,

218,

i;

in gerundive

-ficits,

comparison of adjs.
;

constr., 339, 4. fugio, conj., 109, 2, a).

fidel, s^t I.

fui, fiiisti, etc., for
i, u.

sum,

es, etc.,

in comp. 61,

with abl., 219, fidus, compared, 73, 3.
fidl, 114, I

pound

tenses, p. 60, footnote;

footnote.
Fullness, adjs. of, w. abl., 218, 8; w. gen.,
204, X.

fierem, fieri, 362,
298, 2.

i,

c;

fieri potest ut,

Fifth decl., 51 f. Figures of rhetoric, 375. of syntax, 374.
flH, 25, 3.
filia, ftiidbus, 21, 2, e).

fungor, w.

abl.,

218,

i

;

in gerundive

constr., 339, 4. fur, decl., 40, I, d).
fUrto, abl. of

manner, 220, 2. Future tense, 261 ; w. imperative
261, 3.
perfect, 264;
133, 2
;

force,

w. abl., 218, 8. Final clauses, see Purpose clauses. Final consonant omitted, 8, 3.
Filling,

verbs

of,

time in the subjv., 269. with future meaning,
inf.,

Final syllables, quantity, 363, 364.
finis, fines, 61.

270, 4.
1.

imperative, 281,
inf.,

Finite verb, 95. fiS, conj., 131.
fid,

infinitive, 270, i,c; periphrastic fut.

270, 3,

and

a.

with

abl., 218, 6.
;

First conj., loi
of,

principal parts of verbs
conj.,
;

participle, 337, 4. futarum esse ut, with subjv., 270, 3.

120;

deponents of ist
.

113.

First decl., 20 f

;

peculiarities, 21

Greek

nouns
fit ut,

of ist decl., 22.

G.
gaudeS, semi-deponent, 114,
gerrio,
i.

297, 2.

fldgitS, constr., 178, i, a),

fodio, conj., 109, 2, a).

Foot, in verse, 366, 2. Tor,' its Latin equivalents, 358, fore, page 57, footnote 3.
fore ut, 270, 3
;

i.

w. ace, 175, 2, 6. Gender, 13-15 in ist decl., 20, 21 ; in 2d decl., 23; exceptions, 26; in 3d decl., 43 f. ; in 4th decl., 50; in 5th decl., 53 ; determined by endings, 14
;

297, a.

by
57, footnote 2.

signification, 15,

A

;

heterogeneous

forem, fores,

etc.,

page

noims, 60.
gener, decl., 23, 2.

foris, 228, I, c.

Formation

of words, 146 f

fors, forte, 57, 2, u.
fortior, decl., 69.
fortis, decl., 69.

General relatives, 312, i; general truths, 259, 1 ; 262, B, I ; 'general' conditions,
302, 2; 3. Genitive, 17
;

in -4 for
-t,

-ii,
;

25, i

and
;

2

;

of
-», -8,

fort&na, fortunae, 61.

4th

decl., in

49, i

of 5th decl. in in

Fourth Fourth

conj., 107.
decl.,
;

52, 2;

of 5th decl. in -M, 52, i

48; dat. in

in -i, 49, i

-U, 49, 2 ; gen. dat. abl. plu. in -nhus, 49, 3.

52, 3; of ist decl. in -di, 21, 2, h); of ist decl. in -is, 21, 2, a) ; gen. plu. -H9I

GENERAL INDEX.
The
for -arum,
2S.

273
21, i.
of,

leferences are to sections

and paragraphs.

21,
2
;

2,

d);

-um

for-

drum,
;

Hadria, gender,

6 ; 63,

-«»» for -»««», 70, 7
;

gen.
f.

Happening, verbs

w.

ind., 299, i> 2;

plu. lacking, 37, 7

syntax

of,

194

of characteristic, 203, i. of charge with judicial verbs, 208.
of indefinite price, 203, 4.

w. subjv., 297, 2. Hard consonants, 2, Hardening, 367, 4.
hatul,

3, o),

footnote

i.

use,

347,

2,

a;

haud

scio

an,

of indefmite value, 203, 3. of material, 197.
of measure, 203, 2.

300, 5.
have, 137, s-

Help,

verbs

signifying,

w.

dat.,

187,

of origin, 196.
of possession, 198. of quality, 203. of the whole, 201.

U.
Hendiadys, 374,
Heteroclites, 59.
4.
2.'

heri, locative, 232,

appositional, 202.
objective, 200.
of separation, 212, 3.

Heterogeneous nouns, 60. Hexameter, dactylic, 368.
Hiatus, 366, -7, a.
hie,

subjective, 199.

87;

246, i;

246, 2;

hie, 364, foot-

with

adjs.,

204;

with

participles,

note.

204, I, a.

hiems, 35, footnote.

with causa, gratia, 198, i. with verbs, 205 f. ; of plenty and want, 212 ; with impers. verbs, 209.
position of gen., 350, 1. genus, decl., 36; id genus, 185,
-ger, decl.

Hindering, verbs
3-

of,

with subjv., 295,

Historical tenses, 258; historical present2SQ, 3 ; 268, 3 ; historical perfect, 262. historical infinitive, 335. honor, decl., 36.

i.

B;

of

nouns
I
;

Gerund, 95,
103;

in, 23, 2 ; adjs., 65, i. ist conj., loi ; 2d conj.,

3d

conj.,

los;

4th

conj.,

107;

Hoping, verbs of, w. inf., 331, Hortatory subjv., 274.
hortus, decl., 23.

1.

.

sjTitax, 338; with object, 338, 5. Gerundive, 95, i ; ist conj., 102 ; 2d conj., 104; 3d conj., 106; 4th conj., 108; in periphrastic conj., 115; 337,8. Gerundive, const., 339, 1-6; in passive gen. deperiphrastic conj., 337, 8 f. noting purpose, 339, 6; with dat. of
;

hoseine, 87, footnote i.
hostis, decl., 38.

hHjusce, 87, footnote i. humi, locative, 232, 2.

humilis, comp., 71, 4.

humus, gender

of, 26, i, J).
i.

purpose, 191, 3
gnarus, not

;

339, 7.
z.

himcine, 87, footnote
1.

compared, 75,
i;
t-.

Gnomic present, 2S9,
gradior, conj., 109, 2,

perfect, 262,

Hyperbaton, 350, 11, a). Hypermeter, 367, 6. Hysteron proteron, 374, 7.

Srafjo,

Grammatical gender, 15. with gen., ig8, i ;
61.

gratia, gratiae,

Greek nouns, ist
decl.,

decl., 22 2d decl., 27 exceptions in gender, 26, i, c) ; 3d
;

?,

I,

I

;

in diphthongs,
J, 7, 1,

2, i

;

pron., 3, *
;

from

a

;

from
4
;

5, 7, i, 6

dropped

47

;

Greek ace, 180; Greek nouns

by

syncope,

7,

for
e,

»

in

some words,
j, 367,

in verse, 365.
gfus, decl., 41, 2.

9, i;

changes to

39; dropped, 39;
;

final i short, 363, 3
42,

becomes
J.

S« = gv, 3, 3Guttural mutes,
stems, 32.

4.

J-stems, 37; 39; not always ending
38, 3-i,

m -M,
.

H.
h,

pron.,

3,3; ph,
.

ch, th, 2, t^;

3,3-

gen. and voc. of 2d decl. nouns m -tus and -ium in, 25, i and 2. gen. of 4th decl. nouns in -us, 49, i.

Meo, with

perf pass, partic, 337, 6.

gen. of sth decl. nouns, 52,

2.

274
The
i-stem, vis, 41.
»,

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.
61.

-im, -is in subjv., ii6, 4, d.
;

in abl.,
3.

3d

decl., 38, i

39

;

in adjs., 67,
;

impedimentum, impedimenta,
;

«; 70. S; participles, 70, 3 7o< S, <:) ; nom. plu., of is, 87 acteristic of 4th conj., 98. ia, 149.

patrials,

;

as char-

Imperative, 281 ; tenses in, 94, 3 ; 281, future indie, with force of, 261, 3. I as protasis of a conditional sent.,
305,
2
;

as apodosis, 302, 4.

Iambus, 366, 2. Iambic measures, 370.
trimeter, 370.

sent, in indir. disc, 316.

Imperfect tense, 260; conative, 260, 3; inceptive, 260, 3 withiom, etc., 260, 4
;

HSnus,

suffix, 152, I.

epistolary imp., 265.

-ias, suffix, 148, 6, b).

Imperfect

subjv.

in

conditional

sent.

•ibam, in imperf., 116, 4, ft). -ibo, in future, 116, 4, b).
Ictus, 366, 5.
-icus, suffix, 151, 2
ti2
;

referring to the past, 304, 2. Impersonal verbs, 138; gen. with, 209;
dat. with, 187, II, 6 ; in passive, 256, 3

152, 2.

aeHUs, 185,

2.

Ai ^enjtf, i8s, 1. id quod, 247, i, ft.

with substantive clauses developed from volitive, 29s, 6 ; of result, 297, 2 with infin., 327, i ; 330.
impetus, defective, S7> 4. Implied indir. disc, 323. imus, ' bottom of,' 241, i.
in, prep.,

id temporis, 185, 2. Ideal 'you'; see Indefinite second person.

idem, 87

;

248.

idem

ac, 248, 2.

143 ; verbs compounded w. in governing ace, 17s, 2, o, 2; verbs compounded w. in governing dat.,
187, III.

Ides, 371, 2, c).
-jdej, suffix, 148, 6, o).
ri!(j&s,

suffix, 148, 6, a).

in with abl. of place, 228; with abl. of time, 230, 2 ; 231.
-ina, suffix, 148, 5.

-idd, suffix, 147, 3, c).

idSneiU, not compared, 74, 2; w. dat., 192, 2; vr. ad and ace, 192, 2, and N.

Inceptives, iss. i. Inchoatives, 155, 1.

with

rel.

clause of purpose, 282, 3.

^w,
-ie,

suffix, 150, 3.

IdHs, fem.

by exception, so. in voc. sing, of adjs. in -ias, 63,

Incomplete action, 257, i, ft; 267, IndecUnable adjs., 70, 6 ; 80, 6. nouns, 58; gender of, 15, 3.
1.

3.

tens, pres. partic.

-tens,

from eo, 132. as ending of numeral adverbs, 97
ending, 116, 4, u.
in, 51.

Indefinite price, 225, i ; 203, 4. Indefinite pronouns, 91; 252;
ditions, 302, 3.

in con356, 3

and N.
-ier, inf.
-iej,

nouns

Indefinite second person, 280, 3 302, 2. Indefinite value, 203, 3.

;

igitur, 344, I, c).

Indicative,
271.
2.

equivalent to Eng. subjv.,
sent, of

»g»M, decl., 38. -ti, in gen. sing, of ti-stems, 25,
its,

in dat.

and

abl; plu. of is, 87.

-in apodosis of conditional 3d type, 304, 3, 0) and ft).
indiged, constr., 214, i, N.
2.

-t2e, suffix,

148, 3.

lUon,

decl., 27.

-ilis, suffix, 151, 2. -ilis, suffix,

150, 4. 246,

ille,

Illative conjunctions, 344. 87; 'the following,'

indignus, with abl., 226, 2; with rel. clause of purpose, 282, 3. Indirect discourse, defined, 313 f. : mood in, 313 fit. ; tenses in, 317-18; declara2;

'the

tive sentences in, 314;

interrog. sen-

former' 246, i; 'the well-known,' 246,
3
;

tences

position, 350, s.

ft-

t//*;, 87,

-illus (a,

footnote 3. um), diminutive
decl., 38, i.

imperative sentences in, 316; conditional sentences in, 319-22; verbs introducing, 331, t; verb of
in,

31S

;

suffix,

148,

1.

saying,

4m, in ace, 3d

ind. in etc., implied, 314, 2; subord. clauses of indir. disc, 314, 3i

GENERAL INDEX.
The
sab},
ace. omitted,
references are to sections

275

and paragraphs.

inf. for subjv. in indir. disc, 314, 4;

314,

$',

implied

indir. disc, 323.

ing, 300,

questions, 300; partides introducI, a; deliberative subjv. in
indir. quest,
indir.

Interlocked order, 330, 11, d. Interrogative pronouns, 90. sentences, 162; particles, 162, 2; omitted, 162, ^, d); in indir. disc,
31Sintra, prep.

indir. quest., 300, 2;
si,

w.

w. ace, 141.
verbs,

300.

3;

double

questions,

Intransitive

with cognate ace,

in indir. quest., 300, 6; 4; in conditional sents. of 3d type, 322, b.
300,
reflexives, 244, 2.

176, 4; in passive, 256, 3; 187, II, 6; impersonal intransitives, 138, IV.

object, 187.

vnferum, inferior, 73, 2. infimus, 241, x.
Infinitive,

gender
a;

116,

4,
£f.

oi, t.%. A, 3; in -ier, force of tenses in, 270;

^nus, suffix, 151, 2 ; 132, i ; 152, 3. •id, verbs of 3d conj., 109. -ior, ius, comparative ending, 71. ipse, 88; 249; as indir. reflexive, 249, 3. ipsUis and ipsorum, with possessive pronouns, 243, 3.
-»r,

326

fut. perf. inf., 270, 4; periphrastic future, 270, 3. without subj. ace, 326-328; 314,
S-

decl. of nouns in, 23. Irregular comparison, 72 verbs, 124 f.

ff. ;

noims, 42

is,

with subj. ace, 329-331. asobj., 328; 331. as subj., 327 ; 330! with adjs., 333. denoting purpose, 326, N.
in abl. abs., 227, 3. in exclamations, 334.
historical inf., 335. mfilias, constr., 182, 5.
Inflection, 11.
Inflections, 11
£E.

87; 247; as personal pron., 247, 2. is, as patronymic ending, 148, 6, 6); nouns in -is of 3d decl., 37 f. ; adjs. in
-is,

69.
plu.,

——
iste,

-Is,

ace
,

3d

decl.,

37

;

40.

-ttis,

abl. of partials in, 70, s, c).

istaec, 87,

footnote
246, 4.

2.

87

;

istic, 6, 4.

istUc, 6,
ita,

4 ; 87, footnote 2. in answers, 162, 5.
42, I.

itaque, 344, i, a).
iter,

mfra, prep. w. ace, 141. ingms, comp., 73, 4.
injuria, abl. of

-itia,
-ito,

149.

manner, 220,
i;

2.

injttssu, defective, 57,
2.

the

abl., 219,

frequentatives in, iss. ', "• ium, gen. of nouns in, 25, 2 ; ending of gen. plu., 3d decl., 37 f.; 39; 40; 147,

inl-

=

ill-,

9, 2.
'

3,6); 148, 2. -MM, gen. and voc. sing, of nouns
I

in, 25,

innixus, w. abl., 218, 3.
inofs, decl., 70, i.

2; of adjs., 63,0; 151,2; 152,2; -ius for ins, 362, i, a), 152, 3
;

and

inquam, conj., 134, Inseparable prepositions, 139, 3, N.
insidiae, plu. only, s6. 3ittslar,

-ivus, suffix, 151, 2.

58.
abl.,

Instrumental uses of
Intensive pron., 88.

213

;

218

ff.

J, I, 2.

jacio, conj., 109, 2, o)

;

compounds

of, 9,

Intensives (verbs), iss> 2. 3; 362, 5. compounded jam, etc., with present tense, 259, 4 ; with inter, prep. w. ace, 141 ; imperfect, 260, 4. w. verbs, governing dat. 187, III; to jecur, decl., 42, 3. express reciprocal relation, 245.
interdicS, const., 188, i, a.
interest, constr.,

joco, abl. of

manner, 220,

2.

210;
i.

211.

jocus, plu. of, 60, a.
\jubeo, constr., 295,

interior,

comp., 73,

Interjections^ 145.

Joining, verbs of, construction, 358, 3. i, a; 331, 11.

276
The
w. inf., 332, jugerum, S9, i.
judicor,
c.

GENERAL INDEX.
leferences are to sections

and paragraphs.

Us, decl., 40, J, d). Litotes, 375,. I.
litter a, litter ae,

JuKan calendar, 371. jungo, w. abl., 222, A. Juppiter, decl., 41.
juratus, 114, 2. jure, abl. of manner, 220,
2.

61.

jus

est,

with substantive clause, 297,

3.

Locative, 17, i; in -ae, 21, 2, c); in -^ 25, S; syntax, 232; apposition with, 169, 4; loc. uses of abl., 213 ; 228 f. loco, locis, the abl., 228, i, b, locus, plurals of, 60, 2.
syllables, 5, B, 1. vowels, 5, .4, I. longius = longius quam, 271, 3.

jussu, 57, I ; the abl., 219, 2. Jussive subjv., 27s; equiv. to a protasis,
30s. 2.

Long

jmat, w. ace, 17s,

2, c)

;

with inf., 327,
;

i.

longum
lildis,

est

=

Eng. potential, 217,

i, b.

JuvenSle, abl., 70, s, b. juvenis, a cons, stem, 38, 2

lubet, hibidS, spelling, 9, i.

comparison,

the

73,4juvo, with ace, 187, II, N.

-Uis, -la,

abl., 230, i. -lum, diminutives in, 148,
«

i.

lux, 57, 7.

juxtd, prep. w. ace, 141.

M.
K.
k, I, I.

m, pron.,
8, 5, c;

3,

3

;

changed to » before

d, c,

Knowing, verbs of, w. inf., 331, 1. Knowledge, adjs. of, w. gen., 204.

ffj-stem, 35, footnote;

m-fimal

L.
I,

pron., 3, 3.
2, 4.

Labial mutes,

in poetry, 366, 10. maereo, w. ace, 175, 2, 6. magisj comparison, 77, i; comparison with, 74. magni, gen. of value, 203, 3. magnopere, compared, 77, i.
x.

stems, 31; gender of, 43, 3; 46,
lacer, decl., 65, i.

magnus, compared, 72. Making, verbs of, w. two accusatives,
177. male, comparison, 77, i. maledicens, comparison, 71, 5, a), malim, potential subjv., 280, 2, a.

locus, decl., 49, 3. laedo, w. ace, 187, II, N.
laetus,

w. adverbial force, 239.

ia#M, decl., 33.
largior, 113.

Latin period, 351,

5.

mallem, potential subjv., 280, 4. mold, 130 with inf., 331, IV, and a with
; ;

Length Length

of syllables, s, B. of vowels, s, A.

subjv., 296,

I, a.

malus, comparison, 72.

-lenius, suffix, 151, 3.
led, decl.,

mane, indeclinable, 58.

35.

Manner,

abl. of, 220.
i, c).

Liber, decl., 23, 2.
KS«»', adj., decl., 65, i.

mare, decl., 39, 2 ; mari, 228, mas, decl., 40, i, d).

libero, constr., 214, i, N. i.
liberta, libertdbus, 21, 2, e).

MascuKne, see Gender. Masculine caesura, 368,
a;

3, t.

liberum, gen. plu., 25, 6, c).
licet,

with subjv., 295, 6 and 8; 308, with inf., 327, I 330.
;

Material, abl. of, 224, 3. mdteries, materia, 59, 2. a). mature, compared, 77, i.

Meet, adversative, 309, 4.

matHrus, compared, 71, 3.
i.

Likeness, adjs. of„w. dat., 192, Limit of motion, ace of., 182.

maxime, adjs. compared with, maxirm, as gen. of value, 203,

74.
3.

Lingual mutes,
Unter, decl., 40.

2, 4.

maxumus, 9, Means, abl.

1.

of,

218, abl. abs. denoting,

Liquids,

2, 5.

stems, 34.

227, 2 ; denoted med, for me, 84, 3.

by

partic, 337,

2, d.

tiKlNERAL INDEX.
The
Mediae (consonants),
medius, 'middle
of,'

277
;

references are to sections

and paragraphs.

2, 3, b), i.

footnote

2.

muUus, compared, 72
241. 3mils decl., 40,
i,

with another

adj..

241,

met, as objective gen., 242, 2.

d).

mdior, comparison, 72.

mUtdre, with abl., 222, A.
i, b).

mdius

est

=

Eng. potential, 271,

Mutes,

2, 3.

memini, 133; constr., 206, 1, o; memor, decl., 70, 2. -men, -mentum, sufiSxes, 147, 4. mmsis, 38, 2, footnote i.

2, a.

Mute

stems, 30.

N.
pronunciation, n adulterinum, 2,
n,
3, 3
;

mentem

{in

mentem
;

venire), 206, 3.

»-stems, 3s.
2, d.

met, enditic, 6, 3 84, 2. Metrical close of sent., 350, 12. metuo, w. subjv., 296, 2.
mi, dat., 84, i. mi, voc. of mens, 86, 2.

6.

-nam, appended to quis, go,

Names, Roman, 373. Naming, verbs of, w. two
177, I.

accusatives,

Middle voice, verbs
miles, decl., 33.

in, 175, i, d).

Nasals,
nMta,
'

2, 6.

Nasal stems, 35.
S7,
I
;

miliUae, locative, 232, 2.
mille,

maximus

natu,

minimus
1.

mUia, decl., 80, minime, comparison,
162, s, J).

5.

77,

i

;

in answers,

natu, 73, 4, footnotes 4, s; Natural gender, 14.
natus, constr., 215.
ndvis, ded., 41, 4. nd, vowel short before, 5, 2, a,

226,

minimus, comparison, 72. minor, comparison, 72.
mindris, gen. of value, 203, 3
203, 4.
;

of price,

-ne, 6, 3

f.

;

162,

2, c)

;

300, i,b); -ne

.

.

.

an, 162, 4; in indir. double questions,
i
;

minus, comparison, 77,
217, 3 306, 2
J

= minus quam,
si

300,4.
ne, in prohibitions,

QUO minus, 295, 3;
a.

minus,

276 ; vith hortatory

and

Bisfor, conj.,

113.

subjv., 274 ; with concessive, 278 ; with optative, 279; in purpose clauses, 282;

mirus, comparison, 75, 2. miscere, with abl., 222, yl ; with dat., 358,
3-

in substantive clauses, 295 f ., 296 provisos, 310.
ne,
'

;

in

lest,'

282, i
fit

;

296, 2.

with gen., 209, a. miseresco, with gen., 209, 2.
misereor,
miseret, constr., 209.

ne ndn for
2, u.
.

after verbs of fearing, 296,

Mixed stems,

40.

modium, gen. plu., 25, 6, o). modo, in wishes and provisos, 310.
moneo, 103; constr., 178, i, d). months, gender of names of, 15,
68, 1
;

guidem, 347, i ; :a. ne . . Nearness, adjs. of, w. dat., 192, 1. nee, 341, I, d); nee usquam, 341, 2, d). necesse est, w. subjv., 29s, 8. necne, in double questions, 162, 4.
decl.,

i

;

nefas, indeclinable, 58.

abl., of
i.

month names,

70, 5, a)

names, 371,

Moods,
in

94, 2. in independent sentences, 271

Negatives, 347, 2 ; two negatives strengthening the negati-n, 347, 2. nemo, defective, 57, 3 ; use, 252, 6.

f.

nequam, indeclinable, 70, 6;
72.

compared,

dependent
I.

clauses, 282 f

Mora, 366,

neque,

341,

i,

d);
i, e. 1.

neque in purpose

morior, conj., 109, 2, c). mos, ded., 36; mores, 61.

clauses, 282,

nequeo, conj., 137,

mos est, with subjv. clause, 297, 3. muUebre secus, constr., 185, i. Multiplication, distributives used to
dicate, 81, 4, c.

ne quis, use, 91, 5. nequiter, compared, 77,
in.

i.

mulhm,

77, 3

;

compared,

77, i.

nesciB an, 300, 5. nesciS quis, as indef pron., 253, 6, Neuter, see Gender.

278
The
neuter, decl., 66;

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

use, 92, 1.

neve {neu), in purpose clauses, 282, i, d. nf, quantity of vowel before, s, i, a.
nihil, indeclinable, 58.

nihU

est cSr, quin, 295, 7.

nom, as pres., 262, A. nomis, compared, 73, 3. ns, quantity of vowel before, s, -ns, decl. of nouns in, 40, i, c). nt, quantity of vowel before, s,
nilbes, decl., 40, i, a.

i,

<fc

2, a.

ningit, 'it snows,' 138, i.
nisi, 306, I

and
s.

4.

nulla causa

est cUr,

quin, 295, 7.
i, b).

nisi forte, 306, 5.
nisi
St,

niUlus, decl., 66;

S7, 3! use, 92, i.

306,

nisi vera, 306, 5. ntior, constr., 218, 3.
nix, decl., 40, i, d).

num, 162, 2, b) ; 300, Number, 16; 94, 4.
Numerals,
of, 81.

78

f.

;

peculiarities

in use

No, in answers,

162, s, b.

-no, class of verbs, 117, 4.

numquis, decl., 91, 5. nuper, compared, 77,
-nus, suffix, 151, 2.

1.

noU, with inf., in prohibitions, 276, b. nolim, potential subjv., 280, 2, a. nollem, potential subjv., 280, 4. nolo, 130; with inf., 331, IV and a; 276,

with subjv., 296, 1,1*. 2, ; nomen, decl., 35 ; nomen est, constr., 190, I nomen, as part of Roman name, 373. Nominative, 17; 170; used for voc, 171,
'

S,

vowel,
(K,

2,
;

I

;

as element in diphthong

;

pron., 3, i ; alternating w. it in certain classes of words, 9, i ; 2 ; 4
2,

I

i;

nom.

sing,

lacking, 57, 6;

pred.

3-stems, 23 ; 24 ; in citS, 77, dud,.8o, 2; in egS, 84; 363,

2,

a

;

in

4,

a; in

nom., 168. Nones, 371, 2,
subjv., 280
;

mods, 363,
b).
s, b)
;

4,

a; in

compounds

of pro-,

non, in answers, 162,

with poten.

0,

with deliberative, 277. non dubito quin, with subjv., 298; non
dubito, w. inf ., 298, a;
b.
2, o.

363, 4, c ; in amd, leS, etc., 363, 4, b. pron., 3, 1 ; f or o«, 7, i, e ; by contraction, 7, 2 ; in abl. sing, of 2d decl., 23

non modo non
quia,

for
2,

nSn modo nSn, 343,
a)
;

nonne, 162,
286,
I, b.

300,

i, b),
;

N.

in nom. sing, of 3d decl., 35 ; in Greek nouns, 47, 8 ; in adverbs, 77, 2 ; in ambo, 80, 2, a; in personal endings, 96. ob, prep. w. ace, 141 ; verbs comjraunded

with

ind., 286, i, c

with subjv.,

non quin, with subjv., 286, i, b. non quod, with ind., 286, i, c with
;

subjv.,

286,

i, b.

nds

=

ego, 242, 3.

nostri, as objective gen., 242, 2.

nostrum, as gen. of whole, 242, 2; as possessive gen., 242, 2, u. Nouns, 12 £E. 353; derivation of, 147 f. in -is not always l!-stems, 38, i. of agency, force, 3S3, 4. used in plu. only, 56used in sing, only, SSused only in certain cases, 57.
;

w. governing dat., 187, III. Obesdng, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II. Object, direct, 172 f. two objects w. same verb, 177; 178; indirect, 187 f.; inf. as obj., 326; 328; 329; 331. Objective gen., 200. Obligation, verb in expression of, 304, 3, a ; see also Duty. Oblique cases, 71, 2.
;

obHviscor, constr., 206,

i, J; 2. octodecim (ior iindevigintl), 81, 2.

Sdi, 133.
oe, 2, I
;

pron., 3, 2.
servos, 21, 2, a; aulal, «, aevom, equos, etc., 24;

Old forms, famiUds,
2,

b;

indeclinable, 58.

mid,

ted, 84,

3

;

sed, 8$, 3.

with change of meaning in plural, 6 1
syntax, 166
appositives,
f. f.

oUe, archaic for Ule, 87.

predicate, agreement of, etc., 167

agreement

of,

etc.,

169

f.

um), 148, i. -Mm in 2d decl., -on, Greek nouns, 2d decl. Onomatopoeia, 375, 4.
-oUis {a,

-om, later

23.
in, 27.

Noun and

adj. forms of the verb, 95, a.

opera, operae, 61.

GENERAL INDEX.
The
expressing, 138, 1.
references are to sections

279

and paragraphs.

Operations of nature, impersonal verbs
opiniSne with comparatives, 217, 4. opis, 57, 6; opis, 61. oportet, 138, II ; w. subjv., 295, 6 ; 8
inf.,

pars, paries, 61.
parte, abl. of place, 228, i, b.

partem, adverbially used, 185, i. Participation, adjs. of, w. gen., 204,
;

i.

w.

327
:

;

330.

Participial stem, 97, III; formation, iig. Participles, in -dns and -ens, 70, 3 ; gen.
plu. of in -um, 70, 7 97,
1,
;

oporiwU, with pres. inf. 'ought to have,'

pres. act. partic,

with perf. inf., 270, 2, a. oppidum (Genavam ad oppidum),
270, 2
2, a.

,182,

s; loi; 103; los; 107; no; 113; fut. act. partic, 97, III as one of the
;

principal parts of the verb, p. 55, foot-

Optative subjv., 272; 279; substantive clauses developed from, 296. tpUmdtes, decl., 40, i, d). opUmus, comp., 72. opto, w. subst. cl. developed from optative, 296, I.

note; 100; loi; 103; 105; 107; no; 113; perf. pass, partic, 97, III; 102; 104; 106; 108, in; 113; gerundive,
see Gerundive ;
fut. act., peculiar for;

ophtmtis, spelling, 9, i.

opus
-or,

est,

w.

abl., 218, 2;

w. partic, 218,
-or for -os,
;

4 perf. pass., w. act. or neuter meaning, 114, 2 ; of deponents, 112, 6; syntax, 336 ff. Participles, fut. act., 119, 4; denoting

mation

of, 119,

2, c.

purpose, 337,
in,

4.

nouns

34;

36;

gender of nouns

in, 43, i

36; exceptions

perf. act.,

how

supplied, 356,

2.

in gender, 44, 2; as suffix, 147, 2.

perf. pass., 336, 3 ; as pres., 336, 5. pres. partic, 336, 2 ; with conative
force, 336, 2, a.

Oratio Obliqua, 313

f.

Order of words, 348
Ordinals, 78, i
orior,
;

f

perf.

pass.,

with active meaning,

79.

conjugation, 123, VIX.
2.
i, a).

oriundus, constr., 215,
dro,

114, 2; pred. use of partic, 337, 2; participles equivalent to subordinate clauses, 337, 2 ; to coordinate clauses,

with ace, 178,

337, S;

Orpheus, decl. 47,
ortus, constr., 215.
Ss, decl., 57, 7.
OS, decl.,

6.

noun,
337, 6
;

w. opus est, 218, 2, c; with equivalent to abstract noun,

Orthography, peculiarities, 9.

with habed, 337,
;

7.

with

video, audio, facio, etc., 337, 3.

Particles, 139 f

341

f

42.

-OS, later -tis
-ds,

in 2d decl., 23.
in, 27.

Partitive apposition,. 169, 5. Partitive gen., so called, 201.

later -or in
OS,

-osus,

3d decl., 36, i. Greek nouns, 2d decl. fomi of suffix, 151, 3.
38, 1.
z.

ovis, decl.,

Oxymoron, 375,

P.
p, pron., 3, 3
;

by

assimilation,

8,

4; by

Parts of speech, 10. parum, comparison, 77, iparm, gen. of value, 203, 3. parvus, comparison, 72. Passive, verbs in, with middle meaning, 175, 2. <'); 256; verbs governing dat. used in pass, only impersonally, 187, II, b; constr. of passive verbs of saying, etc., 332, and note; how supplied

partial assimilation, 8, 5.

when
pM>r,

missing, 356,
2,

i-

paemtel, 138, II; with gen., 209. palam, as prep. w. abl., 144, :«.

conj., 109,

c);

113; with

inf.,

Palatal mutes,

2, 4.

paluster, decl., 68, i.

331, ni. Patrial adjs., 70, s, c). Patronymics, 148, 6.
pauhifit, formation, 77, 3-

Parasitic vowels,

7, 3.

paratus, with infin., 333. Pardon, verbs signifying, w. dat.,

paidus, speUing,
187,

9, 2. i.

pauper, decl., 70,

n.
Paris, 109,
2, a).

pedester, decl., 68, i.

p^or, quantity

<rf

first syllable,

362, 5,

z8o
The
pelagiis,

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.
of, constr., 212;

gender

of, 26,

:;.

Plenty and Want, verbs
cf.

Penalty, abl.

of, 208, 2, b.
i, <J).

218, 8.

penates, dec!., 40,

plenus, w. gen., 218, 8, a.

penes, prep. w. ace, 141. Pentameter, dactylic, 369.

Pleonasm, 374,
plerdque, 6, 5.
pluit, 138, 1.

3.

Penult,

6, 2.

per, prep.

w. ace, 141
of,

;

with ace. of time
331, I. supplied in Latin,
inf.,

Pluperfect tense, formation, 100; syntax,
; 287, 2 ; 288, 3 ; with immeaning, 133, a. Plural, 16; in sth decl., 52, 4; of proper names, SS. 4i o) of abstract nouns, S, 4, c); nouns used in, only, 56; with change of meaning, 61 ; stylistic

and

space, 181, 2.

263

;

26s

Perceiving, verbs

w.

pejrfect

Perfect active ptc,

how

3S6, '. Perfect pass, partic, force of w. depo-

'>

nent verbs, 112, b; dat. of agency sometimes used w., 189, 2; opus, 218,
2,
1..

use, 3S3, I

;

2.

PluraUatantum, %6;
203, 4. plus, decl.,

81, 4, i).

Perfect stem, 97, II; formation, 118. in -avi, -evi, -iiii contracted, 116,
I.

pluris, gen. of value,

203, 3;

of price,

70 ;

70,

4;

=

plus quam,

historical perf., 262.

217, 3-

with force of
pres. perf.

pres.,

262;

133,

2;

gnomic perf., 262, i 237, I ; perf. subjv. as historical tense, 268, 6

and and 2
;

hist. perf. distinguished,

poema, decl., 47, 5. Polysyndeton, 341,
porticus, gender, 50.
port/us, decl., 49, 3.

4, b).
e.

por-, inseparable prep., 159, 3,

and

7,

b

perf. inf.

perf. prohibitive, 279,

280, I

and 2;

perf. concessive,

w. oportuit, 270, 2 a perf. potential, 278;
;

posco, constr., 178,

1,

a).
3.

sequence of
268,
2.

tenses

after

perf.

inf.,

of —— of words, 348; 351, 350;
clauses,

Position

Periodic structure, 351, s. Periphrastic conj., 115; 269, 3; in conditional sentences of the 3d type, 304, in indir. disc, 322 ; in passive, 3, b)
;

351. Possessive dat., 190; gen., 198; contrasted with dat. of poss., 3S9, i. Possessive pronouns, 86 ; 243 = objec;

tive gen.,
I,

243,

2;

position

of,

^43,

a.

337,

8, b, I.

Possibility, verbs of,

put in indie, in cond.
infin.,

fut. inf., 270, 3.

sentences, 304, 3, o.
sing,

Persons,

95, 4; subject, 356, 3.

2d

of indefinite

possum,

126;

with present
I,

'I

might,' 271,
304, 3. apost, prep.

o)

;

in cond. sentences,

Personal pronouns, 84; 242; as subject, omission of, 166, 2 ; as objective genitives, 242, 2.

endings, 96. persuades, with dat.,
subjv., 295, I.

187, II,

a;

with
II.

w. ace, 144, i ; in expressions of time, 3S7, i. Post-positive words, 343, i, c). postedquam, 287; separated, 287, 3; with imperf. ind., 287, 4; w. pluperf. ind.,
287, 3
;

Persuading, verbs
ph,
2, 3,

of,

w. dat., 187,

with subjv., 287,
a.

5.

c;

2,

4;

3, 3.

posterus, posterior, comp., 73. 2.

with gen., 209. Pity, verbs of, w. gen., 209, i and 2. Place to which, 182 ; whence, 229; place where, 228.
piget,

poslremus, use, 241,
postridie,

with gen., 201,

3, a.

posttdo, constr., 178, i, a.

placitus, force, 114, ^.

Potential subjv., 272; 280. potim, with gen., 212, 2; with abl., 218,
I
;
,

Pleasing, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II, a; w. ace, 187, n, a, N.
pllbes, heteroclite, 59, 2, d),
filebi,

in gerundive constr., 339, 4,
adj., 73, I.

potius,

gen., 52, 2.

compared, 77, i. potni, poteram, in apodosis of conditional

GENERAL INDEX.
The
sent, of
references are to sections
3, a)
;

281
r,

and paragraphs.
4

3d type,
1,.

304,
inf.

in indir.

Privation, verbs of, w. abl, 214,

disc, 322,
potui,

and

c.

with pres.

=

'could

have,'
c.

pro, prep.

w.

abl., 142.

270, 2.

poUterim, in dependent apodosis, 322,
potus, force, 114, 2.

procid, as prep. w. abl., 144, 2. prohibed, w. abl., 214, 2; w.

subjv.

prae,

prep. w. abl.,

142;

verbs comdat., 187, III
2.

pounded with governing
Praenomen, 373.
praesenSy 125.

clause, 29s, 3. Prohibitions, method of expressing, 276. Prohibitive subjv., 276.

short in praeacuitts, etc., 362,

Prolepsis, 374, 5.

Pronominal
sonal,

adjs., 233.
;

Pronouns, defined, 82
86
;

praesum, w. dat., 187, III. prdnsus, force, 114, 2.
preci, -em, -e, S7, S, «•

; classes, 83 per84; reflexive, 85; possessive, demonstrative, 87 ; intensive, 88

Predicate, 163.
gen., 198, 3; 203, sPredicate nouns, 167; 168; in ace, 177; predicate nouns or adjs. attracted to dat., 327, 2, a; to nom., 328, 2.

relative, 89 ; interrogative, 90 ; indefinite, 91; pronominal adjs., 92; per-

sonal, omission of, as subject, 166, 2;

syntax,

242

f.;
.

personal,

242

f.

-adjectives, 232, 2;

177, 2.

possess., 243 f ; reflex., 244 f . ; reciprocal, 245 f.; demonstrative, 246 f. relative, 250 f.; indef., 252 f.; position,

Prepositions,

of, in compounds, 8, 4 ; g, 2 ; with ace, 141 with abl., 142; as adverbs, 144; inseparable

assimilation

3SO, 5

;

355-

;

Pronunciation,

Roman,
i.

3.

prope, compared, 77,

prepositions, 159, 3, N. ; position, 350, 7 ; prepositional phrases as attributive
modifiers, 353, s ; anastrophe of, 144, 3 ; 14T, 2 ; 142, 3 ; usage with abl. of
Sep.,

Proper names, abbreviated, 373.
nouns, 12,
3r.
;

propior, compared, 73, i

with ace, 141,

214

f.

;

with

abl.

of

source,
co-

proprius, with dat., 204, 2,0; with gen.,
204, 2. propter, prep. w. ace, 141.

2IS-

Present tense, 259
native, 259, 2
;

;

gnomic, 259,

i
;

;

historical, 259, 3

with

Prosody, 360

f.

jam pridem,jam

diu, etc., 259, 4; with d/um, 'while,' 293, 1; in Repraesentdtio,

prosper, decl., 63,

1.

318; pres. subjv., in-jm, 127, 2; pres.
partic, see Participle.

prosum, conj., 125, N. Protasis, 301 ;• denoting repeated action, 302, 3 ; without si, 30s \ of indef. 2d
sing., 302, 2
;

stem, 97, 1; formation,' 117.
perf., 257, I

see Conditions.

and
of,

2.

Provisos, 310.

Preventing, verbs

w. subjv. clause,

proxime, -us, comp., 73,

i

;

77,

i

;

with

29s, 3Price, indefinite, special 203, 4; also 22s, i. , abl. of, 225.
pridie,

ace, 141,

3.

words in

gen.,

prUdens, decl., 70.
-pte, 86, 3.

pudel, with gen., 209; w.
3,

inf.,

327,

1.

with gen., 201,

a;

with

ace.,

puer, decl., 23.
pulcher, comp., 71, 3-

144, 2.

Primary
primus,

tenses, see Principal tenses.
'first

who,' 241,
list,

2.

princeps, decl., 31. Principal parts, 99;
tenses, 258 f prius,

p. 251.

puppis, decl., 38, I. Purpose, dat. of purpose, 191 ; with dat. and gerundive, 191, 3; yr. ad and ace, 192, 2; subjv. of purp., 282, i; w. quo, 282, I, a ; yr.utne, 281, i,b; with
in purpose clause, 282, i, c; neve (neu) in purpose clauses, 282, i, d; neque, 282, i, e; rel. clauses of pur-

compared, compared, prmsquam, with
prior,

73, 1. 77, i.
ind.,

non

291

;

with subjv.,

292; separated, 291.

pose, 282, 2

;

w. disnus, mdigtms,

idd-

282
The

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

neas, 283, 3 ; independent of principal verb, 282, 4; inf., denoting purpose,

denoting purpose, 337. 4; gerund, w. ad, 338, 3; gerun326, N.
;

fut. partic,

with ind., 281, 3; in indir. disc, 323 and a nulla causa est quin, 295, 7. quinam, 90, 2, d.
;

Quintilis

(=

Julius), 371.

dive, 339, 2

;

supine, 340.

qulppe qui, in clauses of characteristic^
283, 3Quirites, decl., 40, i, d.
quis, indef., 91

Q.
-?»-, pron., 3, 3
;

both

letters consonants,

I

;

interr., 90 ; 90, 2, c ; 252, ; nescid quis, 253, 6 ; with ne, si, nisi,

74, ».

num,
i, b),

91, S-

guaero, w. indir. questions, 300, quteso, 137, 2.

N.

quis est qui, 283, 2. quis quibus, 89.

=

Quality, gen., 203; abl., 224. quam, in comparisons, 217, 2;
perl., 240,
. .

with su. . .

3 ; ante . quam, post quam, prius quam, see antequam,
.
.

quisnam, inflection, go, 2, d. quispiam, inflection, 91. quisguam, inflection, 91; usage,
4.

252,

.

postquam, priusquam;
2, a.

quam

qui, 283,

quisgue, inflection, 91 ; usage, 252, 5. quisquis, inflection, 91, 8.

quam quam

si,

307,

i.

with subjv., 284, 4. quamquam, with ind., 309, 2 ; with subjv., 309, 6; = 'and yet,' 309, 5. quamvis, with subjv., 309, i ; 6 ; denotut,

quims, inflection, gi. quo, in purpose clauses, 282, i, a. quoad, with ind., 293 ; with subjv., 293,
III, 2.

ing a fact, 309, 6. quandS, 286, 3, h. quantii as gen. of price, 203, 4; of value,
203, 3.

quod, in causal clauses, 286, i ; in substantive clauses, 299; 331, V, a; 'as

quod

regards the fact,' 299, 2.' audierim, 283, 5; guod
283, 5-

sciam,

Quantity,

5.

of syllables, 5, of vowels, 5,

B A

; ;

363 f 362 ;

in

Greek

quod {si), adverbial ace, 185, 2. quom, early form of cum, 9, i. quo minus, after verbs of hindering,
29s, 3.

words, 365.
quasi, 307, i.

guoniam, in causal clauses, 286,
6,

i.

quota, conj., log, 2, a). -que, accent of word preceding,
s ; 341, 1, *) queo, 137, 1.
ical, 162,
;

3

;

6,

guoque, post-positive, 347. -quus, decl. of nouns in, 24.

2.

»)

;

4. <;)

Questions, word, sentence, 162
3
;

f.

;

rhetorr,

R.
pron.,
3,

4;

double (alternative), 162, indirect, 300; questions in indir.
89 ;
interr.,

3

;

for
8, 1.

j

between voweh

('Rhotacism'),

disc, 3x5.
qui, rel.,

90 ; indef ., 91
2, b
;

;

for

rapid, conj., 109, 2, a), rastrum, plurals of, 60, 2.
ratus, 'thinking,' 336, 5.

quis in indir. questions, 90,
ne,
si,

with

nisi,

nam,
;

91,

s;
i.

ii purpose

Reciprocal pronouns,
2S3. 3.

85,

2;

245;
4,

cf.

clauses, 282, 2

abl., 90, 2, a.

quia, in causal clauses, 286,

Reduplication in perf ., 118,
pres., 117, 7.

a)

;

in

quicum, 89. Quicumque, decl., 91, 8. quidam, decl., 91 syntax, 252, 3. quidem, post-positive, 347, 1.
;

refert, constr.,

Reference, dat. of, 188. 210; 211, 4. Reflexive pronouns, 85 ; 244 ; 249, 3.
rego, conj., 105.

quUibet, decl., 91. quin, in result clauses, 284, 3; in substantive clauses, 295, 3 ; 298 ; qui

=

mm in clauses of characteristic,

283, 4

Regular verbs, 101-113. rH, 362, 1, b). reicid, quantity, 36i2, S-

GENERAL INDEX.
The
Relative adverbs, in
282, 2.
rel.

283

references are to sections

and paragraphs.
of monosyllables in, preceded

clauses of purp.,

-J,

decl.

by one
;

or

more consonants,
;

40, i b).

clauses, of purp., 382, 2

w. dignus,

i-stems, 36.
sacer, ded., 65

indignus, idSneus, 282, 3; of characteristic, 283 ; denoting cause or opposition, 283, 3

comparison, 73,

3.

troduced by guin, 283,

283, 5 ; in284, 3; conditional rel. clauses, 311; 312, i and 2 ; relative as subj. of inf., 314,
;

restrictive,

saepe, compared, 77, i. s^, S7> 7; siUis, 61.
sdlubris, decl., 68, 3.
salHtaris,

4;

comp., 73,

4.

salve, sahete, 137, 4.

4;

rel. clause standing first, 251, 4, a. Samni^, decl., 40, i, d). pronouns, inflection, 8g; use, 250 sane, in answers, 162, 5. = Eng. demonstrative, 251, 6 sapid, conj., 109, 2, a). ff. agreement, 250; not omitted as in satur, decl., 65, 2. Eng., 2SI, s; fondness for subordinate Sajdng, verbs of, w. inf. of ind. disc,
;

clauses, sss-

331, 1.

relinguilur ut, 297, 2. reUqui, use, 253, 5.

sdo, quod sciam, 283, 5. -sco-dass of verbs, 117, 6; 155.
6.

reliquum

est,

with subjv., 295,
of,

scribere
si,

ad aUquem, 358,

2.

remex, decl., 32.

use, 244.

Remembering, verbs
206.

cases used w.,
207.

se-,

compoxmds

of, 159, 3,
;

»
;

Second
of, const.,
2.

conj., 103

ded., 23

peculiarities

Reminding, verbs

reminiscor, constr., 206,

Removing, verbs

of,

w.

abl., 214, 2.

reposes, constr., 178, i, a).

second person indefinite, 280, 3; 356, 3; 302. 2Secondary tenses, see Historical tenses. secundum, prep. w. ace, 141.
25;
securis, decl., 38, i.

RepraesetUdlid, 3t8. reqmes, requiem, requietem, 59,
res, decl., 51.

2, c).

secus,

compared,

77, i.
i
;

secus (virile secus), 185,
sed, se, 85, 3.
sed-,

s8.

Resisting, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.

secutus, 'following,' 336, 5.

Restrictive clauses, 283, 5. Result, ace. of, 173, B; 176; clauses of, 284; 297; in dependent apodosis,
322,
reverter,

compoimds
I,

of, 159, 3, e.

sed, 343,

o).

and a;

sequence of tense

in,

268, 6.

sedile, decl., 39. sementis, decl., 38, i.

semi-deponent, 114, 3. Rhetorical questions, 162, 3; 277, a; in
indir. disc, 315, 2.
8, i

Rhotadsm,

;

36,

j..

Rivers, gender of

names
;

of, is,

A,

1.

rogata, abl. of cause, 219, 2.
rogd, constr., 178, i, c)

Semi-deponent verbs, 114. Semivowels, 2, 8. sertex, decl., 42 ; compared, 73, 4. Sentences, classification, 160 f.; simple and compound, 164; sentence-structure, 3SI ; sentence questions, 162, 2.
senlentia, abl. of accordance, 220, 3.

178,

i, a).

Roman prommdation,
Root, 17, 3, footnote
-rs,

3.

Separation, dat. of, 188,

2,

d)

;

gen., 212,

i.

3;

abl., 214.

decl. of

nouns

in, 40, i, c).

Sequence of tenses, 267 ; 268.
sequester, decl., 68, i.

place from which, 229, i, h. rwri, abl., place in which, 228, i, c. •"US, 57, 7 ; ace, limit of motion, 182, i,
riire, abl.,

sequitur ut, 297,
h.

-i.

sequor, conj., 113.

Serving, verbs of, w. dat., 187, II.
servos, decl., 24.

S.
s,

sese, decl., 85.

pron.,
Tow<5ls,

3, 8,

3;

changed to r between i; JT, ss, from dt, tt. Is,

Sexlilis

(

=

Augustus), 371.
of,

Sharing, adjs.

w. gen., 204,
;

i.

8,^.

Short syllables,

5, JB, 2

vowels,

Si

A,

3.

284
The

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.
omitted, 314,
5;

Showing, verbs of, w. two aces., 177. in prosi, with indir. questions, 300, 3 tasis, 301 omitted, 305.
; ;

ject ace. of inf., 184;

clauses as subject, 294 ; 29s, 6 ; subj., 327 ; 330.

inf. as

signifer, decl., 23, n.

sUentio, abi. of

manner, 220,
;

2.

Silvester, decl., 68, 3.

with dat., 204, 3 3; comp., 71, 4. si mirms, use, 306, 2. Simple sentences, 164.
similis,

with gen., 204,

Subjective gen., 199. Subjunctive, tenses in, 94, 3. in independent sentences, 272; by tenses of, 266 f.; attraction, 324; method of expressing future time in, 269;
volitive

(hortatory,

jussive,

prohibitive,
^
;

deliberative,

concessive),

simul, as prep., w. abl., 144, i.

simul

ac,

w.

ind., 287, i

2. 2.

si non, usage, 306, i svn, usage, 306, 3.

and

sin Tmmis, 306, 2, u. Singular, second person indefitiite, 280,

3

;

356, 3

;

302, 2. 331, III.

optative (wishes), 279; poten280; in clauses of purpose, 282; of characteristic, 283; of result, 284; of cause, 286; temporal clauses with postquam, postedguam, 287, 5 ; temporal clauses with cum, 288-290; with antequam and priusquam, 292; with

273

f.

;

tial,

sino,

with

inf.,

dum, donee, quoad, 293,
stantive clauses,
tions,
2.

III, 2;

sub-

siUs, decl., 38, i.

Smelling, verbs of, constr., 176, 5. Soft consonants, 2, 3, b), footnote
-so,

300;

294 f. ; indir. quesin apodosis of first tyjM

verbs

in, 155, 2.

conditions, 302, 4 ; jussive subjunctive as protasis of condition, 30s, 2 ; with
velut,

socer, decl., 23, 2.

iamquam,

etc.,

socium, gen. plu., 25,
sol, decl., 57, 7.

6, c).

est,

oportet, etc.,

295, 6

307 ; with necesse and 8; with

Ucet, 309,
etsi,

soleo, semi-dep., 114, i.

4 ; with quamvis, quamquam, cum, 'although,' 390 f.

soKtus, used as present partic, 336, 5. solus, 66 ; solus est qui with subjv., 283,
•z.

sublatus, p. 99, footnote.

Sonant consonants,
Soracte, decl., 39, 2.

2, 3,

ft),

footnote

2.

Sounds, classification, of the letters, 3.
Source, abl., 215. Space, extent of, 181.

2.

subm- = summ-, g, 2. Subordinate clauses, 165. Substantive clauses, 294 f. ; developed from the volitive, 29s, 1-8 ; developed from the optative, 296 with non dabilo, 298 ; indir. questions, 300 without ut, 295, 8 ; of result, 297 ; introduced by
; ;

Sparing, verbs

of,

w. dat, 187, II.

quod, 299. use of adjs., 236-238.
suiter, prep.

Specification, abl. of, 226.
spli, quantity, 362, i, 6.

w. ace, 143,

i.
;

Suffixes, 17, 3, footnote i
sui,

147

f.
;

Spelling, see

Orthography.

8s

;

as objective gen., 244, 2

=

pos-

Spirants, 2, 7. Spondaic verses, 368, 2.

sessive gen., 244, 2.

sum, conj., 100; omitted
166, 3.

when

auxiliary,

Spondee, 368,

1.

sponte sua, abl. accordance, 220, 3. spontis, -e, defective, 57, 2, ft.
Statutes, fut. imperative used in, 281, 1,
ft.

summus, 'top

of,'

241, i.
2.

sunt qui, with subjv., 283,
suopte, suSpte, 86, 3. supellex, decl., 42, 2.

Stem,
,

17, 3.

verb, 97; 117. Structure of sentences, see Sentences. Style, hints on, 352 f.

su

=

sv, 3, 3.

sub, pfep.

with ace. and abl., 143 ; comw. dat., 187, III. Subject, 163; nom., i66; ace, 184; sub-

super, prep. w. ace, 143, i. Sui)erlative degree; of adjs., 71, i; 2; in -^imus, 91, 3; in -Umus, 71, 4; irregular superl., 72 ; 73 ; lacking, 73. 4 ; formed w. maxime, 74 ; of adverbs,
76, 2
;

pounds

of,

irregular, 77, i

;

force of, 240,

2.

superus, compared, 73, 2.

GENERAL INDEX.
The
oupine, 340.
supra, prep. w. ace,
references are to sections

285

and paragraphs.

141.

Tetrameter verses, 366, ii. Thematic verbs, 101-113.
vowels, 117, footnote.

-sura, suffix, 147, 3, a.

Surd consonants,
sus, decl., 41.

2, 3, a),

footnote

i.

Thesis, 366,

6.

suslull, p. gg, footnote.

Third conj., 105; gender in, 43 f

log

f.;

decl.,

28

f.;

suus, decl., 86, i

;

244 ; suus quisque, 244,

4,0. Syllaia anceps, 366, 10. Syllables, division, 4 ; quantity Synapheia, 367, 6.
Synaeresis, 367, i. Synchysis, 350, 11, d).

of, s,

B.

Threatening, verbs of, t87, II. -tim, adverbs in,, IS7, 2. Time, at which, 230; during which, 181; 231, I ; within which, 231. timed ne and ut, 2q6, 2.
-tinus, suffix, 154.

-Ho, suffix, 147, 3.

Syncope, 7, 4 ; 367, 8. Synecdochical ace, 180.
Synizesis, 367, i.

Tmesis, 367,
-to

7.

Syntax, 160

f.

as suffix of verbs, 155, 2. -tor, use of uoims in, 353, 4. totus, 66; preposition absent w., in ex-

Systole, 367, 3.

pression of place relations, 228,

i, b).

Towns, gender
of,

of

names of,

is, 2

;

names

; th, 2, 3, c 3, 3; changes. dropped, 8, 3. laedet, 138, II ; w. gen., 209. Takiiig away, verbs of, w. dat., 188, 2, d.

t,

pron., 3, 3
8, 2
;

denoting limit of motion, r82, i, a denoting place where, 228, i, a; place from which, 22g, ji, a; appositives of town names, i6g, 4; 22g, 2. trSditur, traditum est, w. inf., 332, N. trans, prep. w. ace, 141 ; constr. of verbs

talenltim, gen. plu., 25, 6, a),

(amen, 343,

1, /.

tametsi, 309, 2.

compounded with, i7g. Transitive verbs, 174. Trees, gender of names of, is,
ires, decl., 80, 3.

2.

tamquam, tamguam
lanton, 6, 4.
-tas,

st,

w. subjv.. 307.
decl. of

Tribrach, 370,
-tatis,

2.
;

149;
I, e).

gen.

nouns

in.

trihus, decl., 4g, 3

gender, 50.
11.

40,

Trimeter verses, 366,
of, constr.,

Tasting, verbs
ted

176, 5.

Teaching, verbs

of, constr., 178, i, b.

trim, use, 81, 4, b). triummr, gen. plu. of, 23, 6, J).
-trlx, suffix, 147, I.

=

te,

84, 3.

Temporal
simvl

clauses,

ac,

w. postguam, ut, ubi, 287; w. cum, 288; 289; w.
;

Trochee, 366,
-trvm,
suffioc,

2.

147, 4.
of,

antequam and priusquam, 291 with dum, donee, quoad, 2g3.

292

Trusting, verbs
tii,

w. dat., 187,

II.

decl., 84.

Tendency, dat.
lener,

temporis {id temporis), 185, of, igi.

2.

-tudo, suffix, i4g.
tul,

as objective gen., 242, decl, 57,
7.

2.

ded., 64. of inf., 270; of Tenses, g4, 3; 257 ff. inf. in indir. disc, 317; of participles,
;

-tura, suffix, 147, 3. a).
tus,

-tus, suffix, 147,

3

;

iSi) 4.
2.

336; of subjv., 266 sequence of, 266268; in indir. disc, 317 ; 318. Tenues (consonants), 2, 3, a), footnote i.
;

tussis, decl, 38.
tute,

mtemet, tutimet, 84,
accusatives, 177;
datives, 191, 2.

knus, position, 142, 3. Terminations, 17, 3.
terni,

Two Two

178.

how

used, 81, 4, b.
i, c.

U.
», instead of i in

-ternus, 154terra marigue, 228,
krrester, 68, 3.

some words,
;

9, i

;

ir-.

stead of a,

9, i

g, 4-

286
The
«,

GENERAL INDEX.
references are to sections

and paragraphs.

becomes

»,

567, 4.

iSf-stems, 48.

utinam, with optative subjv., 279, i and 2. in gerundive utor, with abl., 218, i;
constr., 339, 4.
utjiote qui,

a-slems, 41.
-fi,

dat. sing., 4th decl., 49, 2.
i
;

introducing clauses of char-

liber, decl., 70, i.

acteristic, 283, 3.
2
;

«W, with ind., 287,
3-

with gen., 201,

utrdque, 6, 5.

uirum

.

.

.

fl«,

162, 4; 300, 4.

-ubKS, dat., plu., 4th decl., 49, 3. iUUis, decl., 66.
ulterior,

compared, 73,

i.

ullimus, use, 241, 2. »//ro, prep. w. ace, 141.
-ulus,

»,

I,

i; pron., 3, 3;
u, 367, S-

developing from «,

diminutive ending,
I.

150,

2;
d)
;

(a,
V,

367, 4-

«m), 148,
-um,

becomes

I St decl.,
;

gen. plu.

in, 21, 2,

2d

valde,
vaia,

by syncope,

for vaUde, 7, 4.

decl., 25, 6

for -ium, 70, 7.

-«nf2»f , -«n(2i, in
116, 2.

gerund and genmdive,
;

Cmis,

decl.,

66

;

92, i

ilnus est qui, with

363, 2, b). Value, indefinite, in gen., 203, 3. vatmus, gender of, 26, x, J). Variations in spelling, 9.
vds, decl., S9, i.

subjv., 283, 2.

«W», ending
3-

of desiderative verbs, 15s,

vel,

^rus, ending of
;

fut. act. partic, loi 103 ff. -Mr»j fuisse in apodosis of conditional sentences contrary-to-fact, in indir. disc, 32T, 2; -urus fuerim in indir. questions serving as apodoses,

3; 342, I, b). 342, I, 6) ; with superl., 240, 3. veUm, potential subjv., 280, d, a.
-ve, 6,

vellem, potential subjv., 280, 4.
velut, vehit si,

w. subjv., 307,

i.

venter, decl., 40, i, d).

Verba sentievdi
indir.

et declarandi,

w.

inf. of

322,
-»J,

b.

disc,

331,

I;

passive use of

neuter nouns of 2d decl. in, 26, 2 these, 332. nom. in 3d decl., in -«j, 36 gender of Verbal adjs., 150, 1-4. nouns in -«m of 3d decl., 43, 3 excep- Verbs, 94 f depersoiml endings, 96 tions in gender, 46, 4. ponent, 112; archaic and poetic forms, -Us, nouns of 3d decl. in, 43, 2. 116, 4; irregular, 124; ddective, 133;
; ;
.

;

;

usque ad, w. ace, 141, i. with abl, 218, ^. ut, temporal, 287, i ut, uli, in pur2 pose clauses, 282; in result clauses, 284; in substantive clauses, 295 f. substantive clauses without, 295, 8; with verbs of fearing, 296, a. ut ni = ne, 282, i, h; 29s, r, 4, 5. ut non instead of ne, 282, i, c ; in clauses
ilsus est,
; ;

substantive omission of, 166, 3; transitive, 174; used absolutely, 174, o; passives used as middles, 175, 2, (Q ; of smelling and tasting, constr., 176, s; not used in passive, 177, 3, a; intransitives impersonal in passive, 187, II, b 256, 3

impersonal,

138;

with
;

clauses of result, 297, 2

;

compounded with
III;

preps., constr., 187,

of result, 284, 297. ut qui, introducing clauses of characteristic,

283, 3.
1.

derivation of, 15s inchoative, 155, i;

of judicial action, constr., 208; inceptive or f. ;

frequentative or

ut

si,

w. subjv., 307,
66; 92,
i.

intensive, 155, 2; desiderative, ISS, 3;

uter, decl.,

ater, decl., 40, i, d).

denominative, 2S4f2.

156;

agreement

of,

utercumque, decl., 92,

Verb stems, 97; formation
vereor, conj.,

uterHbet, decl., 92, 2. uterque, decl., 92, 2 ; use, 355, a.

of, 117 f. 113; with subst. clause in
2.

subjv., 296,
i, J).

uterms, decl., 92, 2. iitUiu.t est Eng. potential, 271,

=

Vergilius, gen. of, 25, i.
veritus,

with present force, 336,

5.

GENERAL INDEX.
The
'*'».
;

287
of
adjs.
in,
71,

references are to sections

and paragraphs.

in answers, 162, s. 343. ii s) Verse, 366, 3. Verse-structure, 366 f
Versification, 361.
versus,

-volus,
S-

comparison
2, I s,
;

Vowels,

sounds of the,
;

3, i

;

quan;

tity of,

A

contraction
7.

of, 7, 2

para-

prep. w. ace,

141

;

follows its

sitic, 7, 3.

case, 141, J.

Vowel changes,
vulgus,

verum, 343, i,b).
vescor,

gender

of, 26, 2. in, 24.

with

abl., 218, x.

-imm. -vus, decl. of nouns

vesper, decl., 23, j.
vesperi, locative, 232, z.
vestri,

vestrum,

as obj./gen., 242, 2. as gen. of whole, 242, 2
j, u. inf.,

W.
;

as

Want, verbs and
c; d.

adjs. of,

w.

abl., 214, t,

possessive gen., 242,
veto,

with

veius, decl.,
vi,

331, II. 70; compared, 73, 3.
vicis,

Way by which,
We,
Whole, gen.
Wills,
I, i.

abl. of, 218, 9.

editorial, 242, 3.
of,

220, J.

201.
in,

vicem,

used adverbially, 185, i;
34.
3.

use of fut. imperative

281,

vice, 57, s, 6.
victor, dec].,

video,

with pres. partic, 337,
34.

Winds, gender of names of, 15, 1. Wish, clauses with dimi, etc., expressing
a,

vigil, decl.,

310.
in,

vioknler, formation, 77, 4, a.
vir, decl.,
,

Wishes, subjunctive
tive subjunctive.

279;

see Opta-

23.

gen. plu. of nouns
6, b).

compounded Wishing, verbs
296, I
;

with, 2$;
virus,

virile secus, constr.,

185, ±.

gender
41.

of, 26, z.

of, with subst. clause, with obj. inf., 331, IV. Word-formation, 146 f Word-order, 348 f

vis, decl.,

Word

questions, 162, r.

used in plu. only, 56, 3. Vocative case, 17 ; 19, i ; of Greek proper names in -as, 47, 4; of adjs. in
viscera,
-ius, 63,
I
;

171

;

in -i for

-ie,

25, i

I, 2,

9;

=

cj

and

gs, 32.

position of, 350, 3.

-X, decl.

of monosyllables in, preceded

by

Voiced sounds, 2, 3, u. Voiced consonants, 2, 3,
Voiceless consonants,

b).

one or more cons., 40, i, b) ; gender oi nouns in -x of 3d decl., 43, 2 ; exceptions, 45, 4.

2, 3, a.

Voices, 94; 256; middle voice, 256, 1. Volitive subjunctive, 272 f.

Y.
y, I. I-

vohms,
void,
2,
volt,

si)elling, 9, i.
inf.,

130; with

331,

IV and
1, a.

a; 270,

Yes,

a

;

with subj v., 296,

how expressed, 162, $. 'You,' indefinite, 356, 3 ; 280, 3
Z.

;

303, 2

spelling, 9, i.
z, I,

aolku, spelling, 8, i.
volucer, decl., 68, i.
I
;

2,

9.
2, a).

voPmUate, 220, j.

Zeugma, 374,

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