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MAKALAH TPB

SANITATION AND CLEAN WATER IN INDONESIA

Arranged by:

Robby Gunadhi 140710170029

GEOPHYSICAL STUDY PROGRAMS

FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE AND NATURE KNOWLEDGE

UNIVERSITY PADJADJARAN

2017
FOREWORD

Praise and gratitude I pray to the presence of God Almighty who has given his grace
and hidayahnya so that he can finish a paper entitled "SANITATION AND CLEAN WATER
IN INDONESIA". This paper was made to meet the task of odd semester courses.

In the preparation, I would like to thank the Teaching Team for TPB courses that have
provided such great support, love and trust. That's where all this success begins, hopefully all
this can provide benefits for now and the future.

I am fully aware that this paper is lacking and far from perfect. Therefore, I hope there
will be criticism and suggestions for the improvement of the papers I have made in the future.

Jatinangor, Desember 2017

Penyusun

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Kata Pengantar.................................................................................................................................... i

Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................. ii

Chapter I. Preliminary .....................................................................................................................1

1.1 Background .................................................................................................................................1

1.2 Formulation of the problem ....................................................................................................2

1.3 Our purposes ...............................................................................................................................2

1.4 Benefit ...........................................................................................................................................2

Chapter II. Discussion .....................................................................................................................3

2.1 Condition of Sanitation and Clean Water in Indonesia .................................................3

2.2 The Causes of Sanitation and Clean Water Problems in Indonesia ............................4

2.3 Solutions.......................................................................................................................................5

2.4 Pancasila point of view ............................................................................................................6

Chapter III. Closing..........................................................................................................................8

3.1 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................8

3.2 Suggestion ...................................................................................................................................8

Chapter IV. Bibliography ...............................................................................................................9

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CHAPTER I
Preliminary

1.1 Background

Sanitation and poor hygiene behavior and unsafe drinking water contribute to
88% of child deaths due to diarrhea worldwide. For children who survive,
frequent diarrhea contributes to nutritional problems, preventing children
from reaching their full potential. This condition has further serious
implications for the quality of human resources and the productive capacity of
a nation in the future. In Indonesia, diarrhea is still the leading cause of death
for children under the age of five. The 2007 Riskesdas report shows diarrhea
as a cause of 31 percent of deaths among children aged 1 month to 1 year, and
25 percent of deaths among children aged one to four years. The rate of
diarrhea in children from households using open wells for drinking water was
34 percent higher than those of households using tap water. In addition, the
rate of diarrhea was higher by 66 percent in children of the family who do
defecate in rivers or sewers than they do on households with private toilet
facilities and septic tanks. The important role of cleanliness is often
overlooked. Deaths and diseases caused by diarrhea are generally preventable.
Even without improvements to the water and sanitation system, proper
handwashing with soap can reduce the risk of diarrheal diseases by 42 to 47
percent. The situation of the urban poor needs immediate attention. In urban
slums, inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene practices, excessive population
density, and contaminated water can simultaneously create unhealthy
conditions. Diseases associated with this disease include dysentery, cholera
and other diarrheal diseases, typhoid, hepatitis, leptospirosis, malaria, dengue
fever, scabies, chronic respiratory diseases

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and intestinal parasitic infections. In addition, poorly educated poor families
tend to practice poor hygiene practices, which contribute to the spread of
illness and increased risk of child mortality. The study of Jakarta's "mega-city"
(called Jabotabek), Bandung and Surabaya in 2000 shows that the poor living
in the suburbs of Jakarta are less educated than the citizens of Jakarta alone,
and have a high school graduation rate of only a quarter of those living in the
city center. The same study calculates child mortality rates up to five times
higher in poor sub-districts in the outskirts of Jabodetabek than in downtown
Jakarta.

1.2 Formulation of the problem

1.1.1 Condition of Sanitation and Clean Water in Indonesia

1.1.2 Causes of Sanitation and Water Problems in Indonesia

1.1.3 Solutions

1.1.4 Islamic views

1.3 Our purposes

To know the condition of sanitation and clean water that is currently happening
in Indonesia and to know the cause of sanitation and clean water problem that
currently happen in indonesia and give solution and view of islam about water.

1.4 Benefits

Provides an idea of the importance of proper sanitation and clean water in


Indonesia as well as providing info on proper sanitation and clean water because
proper sanitation and clean water are every right to be

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CHAPTER II

Discussion

2.1 Condition of Sanitation and Clean Water in Indonesia

Availability and access to clean water is one of the problems faced by the
government and communities in the country. In fact, of the eight targets set in
the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Indonesia is still struggling to
achieve the target of increasing access to clean water and sanitation quality.
Some areas in Indonesia still lack availability and access to clean water. In
Kalimantan, for example, the cities of Banjarmasin, Banjar, Kapuas,
Palangkaraya, Pontianak and Balikpapan are still difficult to obtain clean water
supply and access. While in East Nusa Tenggara, recorded Kupang District,
Ende, Sikka, East Flores, Belu, and East Sumba experienced a clean water crisis.
almost one in six children in Indonesia still has no access to safe drinking water,
a key factor contributing to diarrhea and related child mortality. Diarrhea that is
often caused by unclean water or by poor sanitation and hygiene practices
remains one of the biggest killers of children under five in Indonesia. The
existence of social gap between urban and rural population is also the reason
why the quality of sanitation and clean water in Indonesia is still poorly
maintained, the social gap determines the behavior of the people, especially the
poor. Many underprivileged people are still applying the Behavioral Disposal
behavior (BABS) to damage the environment, but there are still many people in
the area who have difficulty in accessing clean water even to use rain water to
meet the needs of life. The impact is the reduced quality of life of every
component of human life in particular. When the quality of life of society is not
good then it will also affect the development of a country in various aspects.
Various water problems often appear in Indonesia. Like the occurrence of floods
when the rainy season and the occurrence of drought during the dry season, lack
of clean water availability for some Indonesians still lack adequate sanitation as
well as the amount of liquid and solid waste that pollute Indonesian waters such
as rivers, seas, reservoirs and lakes.

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2.2 The Causes of Sanitation and Clean Water Problems in Indonesia

There are various causes of water crisis in big cities in Indonesia. First, the
problem of population. Factors associated with the decline in water quality
include:

(1) The rate of increase and migration of population to urban high enough;

(2) Land use that does not pay attention to soil and water conservation.
Construction of buildings in large cities that do not comply with the comparison
of land use and open land, thus disrupting the process of rainwater absorption
into the ground;

(3) High population growth and domestic, industrial, erosion and agricultural
activities;

(4) Excessive groundwater exploitation conducted by office buildings,


hospitals, shopping centers, apartments, laundry entrepreneurs, and other
buildings. Uncontrolled population growth has the potential to increase
impurities and pollution to existing sources of clean water, such as groundwater
and surface water in urban areas (Uitto and Biswas, 2000). Water bodies such
as rivers, gullies, swamps, and lakes in big cities are continuously used as waste
disposal sites and discharge waste that eventually accumulates in the ocean. In
large cities, raw water sources are generally polluted by industrial waste.
Kompas Expedition (2009) that runs along the Ciliwung River, for example,
finds the fact that the industry thrives along the banks of Ciliwung and some
branches. As a result the water quality of Ciliwung decreases and can not be
used as raw water for the Regional Water Company (PDAM). It is clear that
human behavior that is less directional and less friendly to the environment
affects water quality. Secondly, there is still little coverage of PDAM services
throughout Indonesia. Generally, urban clean water services in Indonesia until
2000 reached 39% or 33 million people, which means that about 119 million
people do not yet have access to clean water. At present, the performance of
clean water services in urban areas is still very less, especially in metropolitan
cities, big cities, municipalities and small towns. For example, DKI Jakarta is a
metropolitan city, in 2012 the number of people served by clean water is only
about 61.06% (PDAM DKI Jakarta Province, 2012). Third, the influence of the
changing seasons that causes the water supply uneven. Changes between the
rainy season and the dry season in Indonesia look to be very contrast where in
the rainy season floods occur but during the dry season clean water crisis.
Jakarta is one example of a contrasting urban area in both seasons. The high
population growth demanded a large supply of clean water. Ironically, in the
midst of the threat of water scarcity, the potential for rainfall in Jakarta reaching
2,000 million m3 / year is not optimally absorbed because only 26.6% is
absorbed into the soil and the remaining 73.4% is wasted in the sea.

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2.3 Solutions

The first and most basic step here is the government continues to promote efforts
to increase public awareness of the surrounding environment. It has actually been
done by the government through the PHBS program, namely Clean and Healthy
Behavior that seeks to empower household members to be aware, willing and able
to conduct Clean and Healthy Behavior. The extension target of this program is
class IV and V SD / equal. Another program that has been implemented by the
government is the PPSP Program for the Acceleration of Construction of Sanitary
Settlements. Through this program, the development of sanitation for the needy
settlements is expected to be accelerated. However, the lack of budget owned,
causing the program is far from the maximum word. Thus, it takes a bigger budget
to make it happen. Furthermore, to be implemented, after public awareness can
be grown, the government increases the budget to improve facilities to access
clean water and proper sanitation.

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2.4 Pancasila point of view

As a reflection of the nature of the 3rd and 4th principles of Pancasila, clean water
must be obtained fairly by all Indonesians, where it can prosper the community.
The Government has given considerable attention to the development of water
supply systems. Since the late 1970s until now the provision of drinking water,
especially with piping systems, has been developed and developed using various
approaches both sectoral and aligned and regional (urban and rural) approaches.

Initially the development of drinking water supply system (SPAM) is mostly done
by the central government. But in line with decentralization efforts through PP
No.14 of 1987 on the Delivery of Part of Government Affairs of Public Works to
the Regions, development affairs, maintenance and management of drinking
water infrastructure and facilities are handed over to the district / city government.
Although the matter has been submitted, the funding can still be assisted in part
by the central government. The submission of development affairs, maintenance
and management of drinking water infrastructure and facilities as the authority
and responsibility of the Regency / City Government is further clarified in Article
16 of Law No.7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Article 40 of PP No.16 of 2005
on Development Drinking Water Supply System with the formulation "to meet
the drinking water needs of the community in its territory in accordance with the
minimum set of service standards."

Regulation of the State Minister of the Environment No. 01 of 2010 on the


management of water pollution of State Minister of Environment,

1. Law Number 7 Year 2004 regarding Water Resources (State Gazette of the
Republic of Indonesia Year 2004 Number 32,

2. Law Number 32 Year 2004 regarding Regional Government (State Gazette of


the Republic of Indonesia Year 2004 Number 125 and amended by Act
Number 12 of 2008

3. Law Number 26 Year 2007 on Spatial Planning (State Gazette of the Republic
of Indonesia Year 2007 Number 68

4. Law Number 32 Year 2009 on Environmental Protection and Management

5. Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and


Water Pollution Control (Statute Book of 2001 No. 153, Supplement to
Statute Book of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4161);

6. Government Regulation Number 42 Year 2008 on Water Resources


Management (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Year 2008 Number
82, At the time this Ministerial Regulation comes into force, Ministerial
Decree
Currently, regarding the government regulation, the State of the Environment
Number 111 Year 2003 concerning Guidelines Concerning Terms and Procedures
of Licensing and Guidelines for Waste Disposal of Water into Wastewater Or
Water Sources as amended by Decree of State Minister of Environment Number
42 Year 2003 on Amendment to Decision State Minister of Environment Number
111 Year 2003 concerning Guidance on Terms and Procedures of Licensing and
Guidelines for Wastewater Disposal Assessment to Water or Water Resources
shall be revoked and declared null and void.

Then one example of activities that can increase the values of Just and Civilized
Humanity in the second precepts is the preservation of the environment. By using
natural resources wisely and accompanied by environmental conservation efforts
means loving the nation of Indonesia and helping the next generation of
Indonesian life. Utilizing natural resources wisely is an effort to defend the truth
and justice for all the people of Indonesia, because all this time the entire natural
wealth of Indonesia exploited by other nations. With the soul of Pancasila we
have, we should open our eyes and mind. All the people and the government
should struggle to reclaim the wealth of Indonesia from other nations for the sake
of the welfare of the Indonesian nation itself.

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BAB III

CLOSING

3.1 Conclution

The availability and access to clean water is one of the problems faced by the
government and the people in the country. In fact, of the eight targets set in the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Indonesia is still struggling to achieve
the target of increasing access to clean water and sanitation quality. Some areas
in Indonesia still lack availability and access to clean water. the causes of clean
water crisis in big cities in Indonesia include the rate of increase and migration of
population to urban high enough, the use of land that does not pay attention to soil
and water conservation. The solutions include Clean and Healthy Life Behavior
that seeks to empower household members to be aware, willing and able to
conduct Clean and Healthy Behavior. The extension target of this program is class
IV and V SD / equal.

3.2 Saran

1. Implementation of PHBS is immediately implemented for a better Indonesia

2. Need cooperation with the people of Indonesia to be done smoothly

3. Extensive greenland clearance.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Unicef Indonesia (2012). Air Bersih, Sanitasi & Kebersihan.

Retrieved From https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/id/A8_-


_B_Ringkasan_Kajian_Air_Bersih.pdf

accessed December 14, 2017.

Admin (2013). Menanggulangi Masalah Ketersediaan Air Bersih dan Sanitasi di

Indonesia. Retrieved From https://hydro.co.id/menanggulangi-


masalah-ketersediaan-air-bersih-dan-sanitasi-di-indonesia/

accessed December 14, 2017.

Prihatin, Rohani Budi (2013). Problem Air Bersih di Perkotaan.

Retrieved From http://berkas.dpr.go.id/puslit/files/info_singkat/Info%20Singkat-V-

7-I-P3DI-April-2013-31.pdf

accessed December 14, 2017.

Chrisbiyanto, Anton (2014). Indonesia butuh air bersih .

Retrieved From https://nasional.sindonews.com/read/862939/18/indonesia-


butuh-air-bersih-1399907826/

accessed December 14, 2017.

Diantini, Ajeng, dkk (2017). Clean Water And Sanitation.

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accessed December 14, 2017.

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