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Day 2 – The European Dilemma: Unity or Diversity?

I. Introduction – Roman Empire; European Union

II. Europe: Unity or Diversity? – Rome, Napoleon, and Hitler

A. Changing European Borders Throughout History

Flipped through maps.

B. The Greatest Division: Western Europe and Eastern Europe

1. Western Europe – Roman Catholic Church, Protestant Reformation; Germanic,

Romance languages

Latin speaking, roman catholic

2. Eastern Europe – Eastern Orthodox Christianity; Slavic

Greek speaking, eastern orthodox

C. What are the Boundaries of Europe? – European Russia vs. Asiatic Russia

Geographically, the Ural Mountains.

D. Persistence of Nationalism – European colonialism, World War I, World War II, Holocaust,
Bosnian Civil War

Patriotism is not analogous with nationalism.

E. Europe after the Cold War and the Iron Curtain – 2004 European Union Expansion

F. Central Europe – Holy Roman Empire (aka Habsburg Empire)

G. European Union – single market; Eurozone

EU is a series of agreements since the 1950s.

III. What is Europe? Civilization, Culture, and Identity

A. Feudalism and Aristocracy, ca. 500 AD – 1500 AD - Middle Ages

Rome collapsed 500 A.D., modern age started 1500 ---> 1000 years between = Middle Ages
B. Renaissance to Revolution, ca. 1400-1848

1. Renaissance, ca. 1400-1600 - Protestant Reformation

Before the Renaissance, the worshipping of God was a communal act. Protestant Reformation was the idea
that the individual can seek God.

2. Scientific Revolution, 1500s-1600s

3. Age of Exploration – capitalism, mercantilism

4. The Enlightenment,1600s and 1700s – secular humanism - American Revolution

(1776), and French Revolution (1789)

Birth of democratic government. French Revolution was influential in spreading

democracy to Europe.

5. Industrial Revolution, 1700s -1800s – middle class (bourgeoisie)

Workers tied to capitalistic, industrial society. Craftsmen, merchant, and bankers.

IV. The State and Society, 1400s – 1800s

A. Liberalism (or Classical Liberalism), 1700s – democracy and capitalism

Ideas of democratic society

B. Socialism, 1800s – communism

Step beyond liberalism

C. Conservatism (or Classical Conservatism) – ancien regime

Old, feudal order

V. Culture and Identity

A. Nation States – Rejection of a constitution for the EU, 2005

B. Totalitarianism – Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Franco’s Spain; Soviet Union

C. The Turkish Question - Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

Day 3 – Absolutism in Early Modern Europe

I. Introduction

II. Absolute monarchy – Not totalitarianism

Chapter 2. Outline has the ideas you need to cover in essay on test. Emerged 1400-1600, lasted until

A. Theories and history

Kings were weak. Nobility, which sat in Parliamentary bodies, were strong. Two institutions in the
1400s that allowed Kings to bypass nobility and enhance king’s power: standing army (don’t need
knights) and bureaucrats (collect taxes so they don’t need high clergy and burghers).

1. Divine Rights - Divine Right of Kings

Kings claimed power because they said they rule by the grace of God.

2. Thomas Hobbes – Leviathan; “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”

Kings rule by the grace of God.
If Kings didn’t rule by divine right, society would be chaos because people are selfish.

B. Historical examples - Louis XIV (1638-1715) - L'état, c'est moi (I am the state); Palace of
Versailles, Sun King
I am the end all be all. Sun King because he was the center of France. Versailles reflected his idea of
absolute power. Was able to control and limit his scope of nobility.

III. The Bourgeoisie

A. Origin of the term - Middle class (between nobility and commoners)

People who were not associated with nobility, commoners, or clergy. Nobility had wealth in land,
bourgeoisie has wealth in cash—part of the urban economy.

B. Rise of the Bourgeoisie - Classical liberalism

They had cash so they could pay taxes, whereas nobility really couldn’t. Very literate group of people.
Critical to rise of democracy in US and Europe.

C. The Marxist View – Industrial capitalism; means of production (land, factories, offices,
capital, resources); proletariat
Bourgeoisie becomes the new oppressors/exploiters of the common people instead of nobility.

IV. The English Civil War and the Challenge to Absolutism

A. Tudors - Elizabeth I, 1558-1603 - Daughter of Henry VIII; Defeat of the Spanish Armada,
England became premier naval power in the world until WWI. England was prospering and
they didn’t challenge parliament for more power like monarch on continental Europe.

B. Stuarts - Charles I
Wanted to be absolute rulers. Charles I needed more tax revenue.

C. English Civil War 1642-1649 – Parliamentary Army (Roundheads); King’s Army (Cavaliers)
Parliamentary army “roundheads”. King’s army “cavaliers”. Parliamentary army won and King
Charles was behead

D. Oliver Cromwell, Puritan, Lord Protector, 1649-1660


Military dictator. Did not go well

E. Stuart Restoration 1660-1688 - Charles II; James II

Dominantly Protestant England. Charles was closet Roman Catholic. When he died, James was
openly Roman Catholic. Had a kid when he was 70 so they started Glorious Revolution to overthrow
James II.

F. Glorious Revolution 1688-1689 - William of Orange

James II was overthrown and William of Orange was new king

G. England and the Birth of Limited Government - Constitutional Monarchy

William of Orange can be king if and only if parliamentary was recognized as the supreme lawmaking
body of England. Definite legal limits to king’s power –constitutional monarchy.

Day 4 – The Development of Classical Liberal Thought

I. Introduction - Classical liberalism = human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights,
constitutional limitations of government, the protection of civil liberties, an economic policy with
heavy emphasis on free markets

II. Overview of the Ideas of Classical Liberalism

A. Sovereignty of the Individual

B. Laissez-Faire Economics (Free Markets)

C. Natural Rights - Thomas Jefferson: inalienable rights

1. Natural Rights in Classical Liberal Thought

2. Modern Social Liberalism – Socialism, welfare state

D. Principal Classical Liberal Thinkers - John Locke, Adam Smith, and the French thinkers
Voltaire, Montesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

III. The Enlightenment and the Development of Classical Liberal Thought

A. Secularism and Enlightenment Thought - Deism (Supreme Being)

B. Classical Liberal Political Theory

1. Major Subcomponents of Classical Liberal Political Theory

a. Individualism and Individual Freedom

b. Participatory government

2. Importance of the Middle Class (Bourgeoisie)

3. Importance of England and the Birth of Limited Government - Constitutional


4. Role of John Locke 1632-1704 – Isaac Newton; Two Treatises of Government; Sir
Robert Filmer, Patriarcha

a. Right to govern comes from the people

b. People have inalienable rights of life, liberty, and property

5. Locke’s theory of epistemology - Essay Concerning Human Understanding, tabula


C. The French Philosophes

1. Voltaire, 1694-1778 - Letters Concerning the English Nation

2. Montesquieu, 1689-1755 - The Spirit of the Laws

3. Rousseau, 1712-1778 - Jean Jacques Rousseau; The Social Contract

D. Adam Smith 1732-1790 - The Wealth of Nations; classical economic liberalism; laws of
supply and demand (“invisible hand” of the market)

Day 5 - Industrial Revolution

I. Introduction

II. The Rise of Industrialization

A. Origins of the Industrial Revolution and Industrial Capitalism

Basic origin
Capitalism: capital is worth of total assets. You must have growth. 3-4% annual growth. 1. Use
part of profits to grow operation. 2. Banking and credit that gives people access to money when they
need to grow operation.

1. Commercial Revolution and Commercial Capitalism – Joint stock company

Joint stock company: people pool resources and risk- people who put in most upfront
money get the most back.

2. Rise of Proto-Industrial Capitalism, ca. 1300-1500 – Putting-out system


Medieval merchant capitalism (1200s) + pulling-out system (1600s) = industrial

capitalism (1700-1800s)

B. Technological innovations
1. James Watt, steam engine 1760s-1830s
Converted steam into power. Revolutionized factory production because factories could
be built anywhere.

2. Bessemer Furnace, 1856

Mass produce steel for cheap.

3. Steam Locomotives – George Stephenson, Locomotion, 1825; Stockton and

Darlington Railway; Rocket, 1830
Because of Bessemer steel, railroads spread quickly. Steam power powered train.

C. The British Lead in Industrialization - Coal, iron ore, capital, workers

Steel, capital, and workers lead to industrial revolution in 1760.

D. Diffusion of Industrialization – Crédit Mobilier; William Cockerill and his son John.
William; Liege, Belgium
English engineers went to other countries to sell their knowledge. Lead to industrial revolution in
other countries.

E. Social Effects of Industrialism

1. Economic disparities
Poor workers. Worked 12-14 hours a day

2. Population

Increased dramatically in cities.

3. Urbanization
Cites got a lot bigger.

4. Decline of the Feudal Social, Political, and Economic Foundation of the Ancien
Regime – bourgeoisie
Nobility rapidly decline. Bourgeoisie class dominates as industrialists.

III. Early Ideologies and Ideas Concerning Industrialization: Pessimistic Views of the Industrial
A. Thomas Malthus (1766–1834) - An Essay on the Principle of Population
Population grows faster than food supply.

B. David Ricardo (1772-1823) - Iron Law of Wages

Wages will always be at starvation level for industrial workers.

C. British Working-Class Responses to Industrialization


1. Luddism – Ned Ludd

Intentionally break machines (secretly). Blamed on fictional character Ned Ludd

2. Trade Unionism
Workers organizing to demand higher wages and better conditions from employers.

3. Chartism, 1838 - The London Working Men's Association:

Charter movement demands in Britain met in 100 years

a. Universal male suffrage

only a small percentage of people could vote

b. Annual election of House of Commons

election was elected every 5 years. This demand was never met.

c. Secret ballots
voter retaliation was an issue because they had to declare their vote

d. Equal electoral districts (to prevent "rotten boroughs")

due to old electoral districts, big industrial cities didn’t have representation

e. Abolition of property requirements for the House of Commons

you needed more property than the average voter to run for House of Commons

f. Salaries of members of the House of Commons.

Salary would give working class members a chance at House of Commons

Day 6 – Romanticism, Nationalism, and Socialism

I. Introduction – nations, nationalism, and nation states; classical conservatism, ancient regime
Nation: an ethnic group with common language, common nature, common homeland
Nationalism: sense of identity an ethnic group has
Nation state: political entity out of an ethnic group

II. Romanticism, 185-1848: Emotion and Nature

Universe and world is full of unpredictability and emotion

A. Characteristics
Dominated by artists and writers
Embrace liberalism and nationalism

B. Literature of the Romantic Era


1. English Romantic Writers - Lord Byron (1788-1824), Mary Shelley (1797-1851)

Frankenstein, 1818

2. German Romantic Writers – Johann von Goethe (1749–1832) Faust, 1832

C. Romanticism and Music

1. Classical Music of the Enlightenment - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

2. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827)

D. Romanticism and German Idealist Philosophy

1. Meaning of Idealism
The mind is a subjective tool because it takes objective reality and shapes it (like being
filtered through our senses)

2. Background: Immanuel Kant (1724 - 1804) 1) rationalism, which held that

knowledge could be attained by reason alone a priori (prior to experience) 2) empiricism; Critique of
Pure Reason, 1781
Our mind is rational. We learn things through experience.

E. Georg Hegel (1770 - 1831) – geist; dialectic: thesis, antithesis, synthesis

World is dynamic. Human history is the unfolding of God’s mind.

IV. New Ideologies in Europe after 1815

A. Nationalism (Romantic Nationalism) - Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814); Volkstum, "To

the German Nation," 1806

B. Socialism
Broad umbrella term of ideas

1. Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)

Buildings of 1600 people called Phalanstries. Live, eat, sleep together and share
2. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) - phalanstries

Day 7 – Intellectual Foundations of the 20th & 21st Centuries

I. Introduction

II. Intellectual Trends of the Late Nineteenth Century and Early Twentieth Century
A. Biological Evolution and Charles Darwin 1809-1882 - Origin of Species (1859) and Descent
of Man (1871)

Biologist training to be a medical doctor.

Origin of Species - Process of natural selection is based on random genetic mutations (finches).

Descent of Man – humans are a product of natural selection.

B. Social Darwinism
1. Herbert Spencer – “Survival of the Fittest”
The strongest people in society survive. Rich are socially powerful and better equipped to

2. Arthur de Gobineau – Racial Social Darwinism; An Essay on the Inequality of the

Human Races (1853 - 1855); Aryans
Some human races are genetically superior to others.

3. Heinrich von Treitschke - anti-Semitism

Semites – any people ascending from ancient semitic tribes (Jews/Arabs)

C. Marxism and Karl Marx 1818-1883 – Georg Hegel, dialectic; Dialectical Materialism; The
Communist Manifesto (1848), Das Kapital (1867)
Developed ideas of communism and socialism from Hegel.
Hegelian Dialectic – thesis generates an anti-thesis, reconciled into a synthesis. Process repeats
until God’s mind unfolds.
Ex: French revolution: thesis is feudalism. Anti-thesis is overthrowing it. Synthesis is
constitutional monarchy.
Dialectical materialism – not ideas like Hegel, but the struggle between competing economic

D. Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Revolution

Russia didn’t have an advanced industrial economy. Wasn’t really communism.

E. Irrationalism and Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844-1900

Fanatic atheist. Rejected Christianity, socialism, and liberalism because they portrayed the idea
that all human beings are equal. Only 10% of people have the will to power – the ability to dominate
the other 90% of people. Rejected Science: ability to live a better life is the ability to access your
irrational mind.

Day 8 – Europe’s Dark Side: War and Tyranny

I. Introduction

II. Effects of European Ideologies and Political Theories

A. Theories of Colonial Rule – capitalism, Social Darwinism; imperialism, ca. 1500 – 1975 –
British Empire, India

B. Balance of Power System – Treaty of Westphalia, 1648, Congress of Vienna, 1815


Treaty of Westphalia ended religious wars in Europe.

Congress of Vienna – stabilized Europe after Napoleon until WWI.
Balance of power system – 5 to 10 powers at a time

1. Numerous sovereign powers - sovereignty

Government has absolute control over anything that happens within its borders.
2. Flexible alliances
Alliances based on perceived threats, not religion, political structure, etc.

3. Limited objectives
States did not pursue goals that threatened other powers

4. Limited means
Limited technology to make war.

5. A keeper of the balance

Great Britain main country to keep war down and negotiate a peaceful resolution.

C. Demise of the Eurocentric System – World War I, League of Nations

Countries violated #3, #4, and #5; lead to WWI. No more balance of power system, lead to League of
Nations, which also failed. US has become keeper of the balance after WWI.

III. Totalitarian Interlude – French Revolution

1. French Revolution forward, Europe set on a path to democracy.

2. WWI throws balance of power system into disarray
a. Creates two speed bumps
i. Communism after WWI
ii. Fascism

A. Communism – Bolshevik Revolution, 1917, Marxism-Leninism

Marxism-Leninism is a socialist ideology of a revolution from the top down.

B. Fascism – Nazi Germany; nationalism, Irrationalism

Principal cause of WWI, not addressed after and worsened and lead to WWII.

1. Treaty of Versailles, 1919 – Weimar Republic; War Guilt Clause, reparations

War Guilt Clause blamed Germany for starting the war.
Demanded billions in dollars of gold for reparations from Germany.

2. National Socialism (Nazism) – racial anti-Semitism, anti-communism

3. Fascist Party, Italy; Franco’s Spain

C. Why Fascism and Communism triumphed in Europe after World War I


1. Failure to maintain the balance of power at Versailles

2. Desire to punish Germany – France, Congress of Vienna, 1815

France wasn’t punished after Napoleon, but Germany was punished after WWI.

3. Failure of the League of Nations

Did not recreate balance of power system because US was not a member.

4. Failure of the United States to join the League of Nations

5. Great Depression of the 1930s

IV. War and Revolution: An Ambiguous Legacy

A. Decline of the European Powers after World War II, Rise of the United States and Soviet

B. History of Western Europe after World War II: Integration

1. Marshall Plan, 1947

2. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949

3. European Common Market (predecessor to European Union).

C. History of Eastern Europe after World War II: Soviet Domination – Joseph Stalin

1. Creation of East and West Germany, 1949

2. Soviet Satellite States in Eastern Europe – Iron Curtain

3. Soviet Territorial Adjustments – East Prussia, Silesia; Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

4. Warsaw Pact, 1955

5. COMECON, 1958

D. “United States of Europe?” European Constitution, 2005; Eurozone Crisis, 2012; Brexit,

Unit 2

Day 11 – Western Europe

I. Introduction

II. Western Europe: Common Civilization, Disparate National Cultures - Islamic Civilization

A. Western Civilization vs. European Civilization

B. Nation States vs. the European Union

C. The Shifting Center of European Civilization

1. Greece and Rome, ca, 500 BC – 500 AD

2. Spain and Habsburg Empire, ca. 1500 – Austria, Netherlands

3. The “Great Powers,” 1648-1914 – Britain, France, Sweden, Prussia, Russia; balance
of power

III. Post-World War II Western Europe: Miraculous Recovery, Post-Modern Malaise

A. The Post-World War II Western European Paradigm: Integration – NATO, European

Common Market

B. Europe’s Post-War Economic Miracles – Germany, Italy

C. Post-Industrial Society
Post WWII heavy economic growth, slowed down in 1970s due to OPEC quadrupling the price for a
barrel of crude oil.
Asian countries are starting to make factories, undercutting domestic manufacturing jobs like steel

1. Shift from heavy industry to a service sector economy – two-income families

Lots of manufacturing jobs moved from Western Europe to places that were cheaper. Service jobs
don’t pay as much, which lead to two-income families.

2. Shift from Western countries to non-Western countries

Lots of manufacturing jobs moved. Service sector jobs outsourced.

3. Shift from local and regional markets to international markets

Products once sold locally and regionally are much more common to buy internationally.

4. Slowly increasing unemployment rates, especially for the young


D. Overdevelopment

1. Overcrowded European Cities

2. Urban problems in Europe

E. European Welfare State

1. United States = 11% social spending; minimum wage = 39% average wage

2. Europe = 25% social spending; minimum wage = 53% average wage

F. Narrowing of the Ideological Spectrum in Western Europe

IV. Western Europe Today

A. Western Europe: The Downside of Modernity – modernity

1. Positive effects of Modernity – liberalism, secularism

2. Negative effects of Modernity – Islamic world

B. Welfare States: Broken Beyond Repair? –

1. Taxes in United States = 29% of GDP

2. Taxes in Western Europe = 45% - 50% of GDP

3. Defense Spending in the United States = 3.3% of GDP

4. Defense Spending in Western Europe = %1 – 2% of GDP

5. Rising Debt, Rising Taxes in Europe

C. Economic Growth in Western Europe since World War II

1. Western Europe from 1945 to 1973 – 40% to 70%

2. Western Europe from 1973 to the Present – stuck at 70%

3. Comparison Rates

United States Economic Growth, 2005 = 3.5%

Italian Economic Growth, 2005 = 1.3%


British Economic Growth, 2005 = 1.6%

Chinese Economic Growth, 2005 = 9.1%

D. Fall in Birth Rates

1. Italy 58 million in 2012 – 45 million in 2050

2. Germany 83 million in 2012 – 25 million in 2112

3. Europe’s Aging Population

E. Bumpy Road Ahead – globalization

1. Most countries: national and international levels

2. EU countries – national, supranational, international

3. Supranational level: Eurocrats - Brussels, Belgium


Day 12 – United Kingdom

I. Introduction – “splendid isolation”; England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland; reigning paradigm:
tradition, stability, and all-powerful lower house

II. A Short History of Britain

A. Made in England

B. A Fortunate Geography

1. English Annexation of Wales, 1535; union with Scotland 1707; union with Ireland,

3. Protestantism: Glue of the United Kingdom

4. Irish Home Rule, 1922 - Northern Ireland

C. Importance of the English Channel – keeper of the balance

D. A Seafaring Nation – British Empire

1. British “Euroskeptics”

2. Resistance to the Chunnel, 1994 to the Present

E. British resistance to Absolutism – constitutional monarchy; Whigs (liberals), Tories


1. British Parliament – Members of Parliament (MPs)

2. House of Commons and House of Lords – bicameral legislature

3. Parliamentary System vs. Separation of Powers

III. Britain: Mother of all Parliaments

A. Constitution by Evolution

1. Four sources of the United Kingdom’s unwritten constitution – statutory law,

common law, works of authority, custom and convention

a. Statutory law - Parliament Act of 1911

Law made by a legislature. Made only by House of Commons.
Parliament Act of 1911: House of Commons stripped House of Lords of any
power to make laws.

b. Common law and works of authority – parliamentary sovereignty, rule of law:

Laws made by courts and judges.

Ex: Law passed by court that said Parliament is supreme in Britain, and king plays secondary role to

Ex: Rule of Law: courts said that the law applies to everyone, including kings and parliament

A.V. Dicey, An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (1885)
British legal scholar that studied common law from court cases to clarify common law.

c. Custom and convention – King or queen = head of state; prime minister =

head of government
House of Commons is supreme lawmaking body. King or queen have no power.

2. Unitary system
All laws are made by central government and local bodies carry out law.

3. Fusion of Powers – collective ministerial responsibility

Major cabinet members are from House of Commons and have both legislative and executive
4. Two-party system –Tory (Conservative), Labour Party; Liberal Democratic Party
(formerly Liberal Party or Whigs); coalition government; 2010, Tory-Liberal coalition government,
David Cameron
If conservative or liberal parties don’t get a majority, they need to form a coalition with a third party.

B. Westminster
Where Parliament meets

1. House of Lords – hereditary peers; life peers

Up to 1100 members, only 200 or 300 presents at any time. Hereditary peers inherit job from father.
Life peers are appointed for life. Party has no power, only power is a suspensive veto. Suspensive veto
can delay the signing of a law from the House of Commons.

2. House of Commons – 646 members, five year terms; vote of no confidence

Can have elections sooner than five years if a majority of the House of Commons has a vote of no
confidence for the Prime Minister.

3. “Loyal Opposition” – shadow government

Ministers of the minority party are ready to take over if they win surprise election.

C. 10 Downing Street: Prime Minister and Cabinet

Where prime minister lives.

D. Whitehall: Administrative Nerve Center

Where beurocracy works.

IV. Britain: The Great Dilemma

A. Britain’s Early Post-War Blues: A Stalled Economy – stagflation

B. Politics of Economic Policy: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) and

Thatcherism - Ronald Reagan

C. Northern Ireland: Peace at Last? – Provisional Irish Republican Army; Sinn Fein; Ulster

1. Good Friday Agreement, 1998

2. Future of Northern Ireland

D. Scotland, Independence, and the “Brexit”

1. Scottish National Party and devolution, 1997 – Tony Blair

2. Failure of the referendum on Scottish independence, September 18, 2014

3. The Brexit vote, June 23, 2016 - Prime Minister Theresa May

Day 13 – France

I. Introduction – northeastern border with Germany; Low Countries; reigning paradigm: strong
president in the tradition of Napoleon and de Gaulle

II. France: In Search of Lost Grandeur

A. Paris: The Capital and So Much More

1. Rural France vs. Urban France

2. Importance of agriculture in France

B. Ambiguous Legacy: Benevolent State, Stagnant Economy

1. Protectionism

2. Indicative Planning – decentralized socialism

C. Population Blues

1. Stagnant Population, 1860-1940

2. Immigration into France – North and West Africa

D. Religion and Society – Roman Catholic, Islam

E. History of Triumph and Turmoil

1. French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era, 1789-1815

2. French Third Republic, 1871 – 1940

F. Paradoxes of French Politics

1. Variety of parties that support republican government, royalists government,

Bonapartism, socialism, communism

2. Less cohesive, less stable vis-à-vis Britain

3. High level of patriotism and national pride combined with marked tendency toward
popular revolt - Paris Commune, 1871

III. France’s Fifth Republic

A. French Constitution: The Fifth Republic and a Strong President - General Charles de Gaulle;
Algerian Crisis, 1958

B. National Assembly – cabinet, prime minister

C. Who Rules?: President and Prime Minister

1. Powers of the French president –

a. Dissolve National Assembly as much as every 12 months

b. Appoint prime minister

c. Elected on two-ballot system

2. Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister

a. Liaison between legislative and executive branches

b. Cabinet

D. French Technocracy: An Elite Civil Service – le grands corps; Ecole Nationale


1. Technocrats

2. Tutelage System – unitary system

E. Taming of the Parliament

1. Lower House: The National Assembly - 577 deputies.

2. Upper House: Senate

3. Role of the Executive (President and Prime Minister) – package vote

F. A Multiparty System

1. Socialists and Communists

2. Gaullist Parties

3. Far Right Parties – National Front, Jean-Marie Le Pen

Anti-immigrant, anti-muslim. Restrict Muslim immigration.

G. François Mitterrand, 1981-1995: “Rupture with Capitalism”

1. Cohabitation: Taming of the Left, 1986 – Jacques Chirac

2. Election of Mitterrand, 1988-1995

H. Election of the 2017: Emmanuel Macron (En Marche), Marine Le Pen (National Front) –
François Hollande (Socialist)

IV. France: Model or Relic?

A. France after World War II

Under Charles de Gaulle, France had a very independent foreign policy post WWII.

B. The Ghost of de Gaulle: French Foreign Policy

1. Withdrawal from NATO, mid-1960s

Withdrew from unified command of NATO, which meant US was supreme ally in
command. NATO was created by US to prevent Soviet expansion. NATO HQ
moved from Paris to Brussels as a result.

2. Opposed to American dominance in the World

One country determining foreign policies for all other countries is dangerous.

3. Distrust of U.S. and U.K. “special relationship”

Think US and UK are crafting a single foreign and world policy. Think countries
should be more independent.

4. Using Moscow as counterweight to Washington

Most French people saw Soviet Union as a greater military threat than US. France
would use Moscow and Washington as counterweights to each other.

5. Maintain strong nuclear deterrent

Had all US and Soviet Union cities targeted with nuclear missiles. Symbolically this
represented they didn’t choose either side.

6. Strong support for European Union

EU is important because US doesn’t have a say in it. EU is more influential in
Europe than NATO.

C. Immigrants in France - banlieues


Day 14 – Germany

I. Introduction – Reigning paradigm: preventing a replay of the Nazi period

II. Germany: Nationhood, Nazism, and a New Beginning

A. A Crisis of Geography – Mittel Europa

1. Thirty Years War, 1618-1648 – militarization of Prussia

2. Lack of Natural Borders and German Eastward Migration

B. The Concept of Germany

1. Holy Roman Empire: Middle Ages – early 1800s – “300 Little Germanies”;

2. Congress of Vienna, 1815 - German Confederation; Hohenzollern

3. Prussia and the Zollverein

C. Bismarck to Hitler

1. Franco-Prussian War and Germany Unification, 1871 – German Empire (Second

Reich); Kaiser, Chancellor

2. Germany and World War I

3. Adolf Hitler, World War II, and the Division of Germany – Third Reich; Western
Occupation zones = West Germany, 1949, Soviet Occupation Zone = East Germany, 1949

4. East and West Germany, 1949 – 1990 –Reunification, 1990

III. Germany’s Unified Federal Republic – Federal Republic of Germany;16 Länder (states)

A. Traditional Cleavages in Germany Society Throughout History and the Need for a Federal

1. Protestant/Catholic divide between North and South

2. German Confederation and German Kingdoms

B. Power of the Länder in the German System

B. Constitution - Basic Law - Grundgesetz

German Constitution was written in 1949 for West Germany. Was viewed as a temporary
Constitution. After the collapse of Communism in 1989, West Germany annexed East

Germany in the “reunification” of Germany. Was written with the idea of preventing
another Nazi regime in Germany.

1. Protection of Individual Rights

Articles 1-19 protect individual rights.

2. Article 19 – “In no case may the essential content of a basic right be encroached
Articles 1-18 cannot be changed.

3. Article 18 – Prohibition against “attacking the democratic order”

Outlaws use of violence to overthrow democratic order in Germany.

4. Amendment Process (Article 79) and Article 23

2/3 of both houses of German Parliament to amend Constitution, but the first 19
articles can never be changed. Article 23 was used to include East German states
into Germany as part of Reunification.

D. Chancellor

1. Appoints cabinet member

2. Veto budget measures

3. Commander-in-Chief – parliamentary army

4. Political Parties and Coalition Governments – Social Democratic Party (SPD), right
of center Christian Democratic Union (CDU); Green Party, Free Democratic Party (FDP, Die Linke

E. German Parliament

1. Bundestag: the lower house – 598 members

2. Bundesrat: the upper house – 69 members

F. Parties and Elections – first-past-the-post system, proportional representation; Five Percent

Rule; overhang seat

IV. Germany: Beyond Reunification

A. German Reunification, 1989-1990 – Helmut Kohl; October 3, 1990; Article 23.

1. Challenges of Reunification – Ossis, Wessis

2. Statistics – Former East German = 25% of population, 33% of territory, 7.5% of

3. Refugees in former West Germany – 2.5 million refugees
B. Germany’s Economy – Angela Merkl, CDU, 2005, Eurozone Crisis.

Day 15 – Italy

I. Introduction – Reigning Paradigm: Battling instability and corruption

II. Italy: After Rome and Ruin, Respectability

A. Tortuous Road to Nationhood

1. Collapse of the Western Roman Empire, 476 AD

2. Italy during the Middle Ages and Early Modern Era – Niccolo Machiavelli, The
Prince; Machiavellian

B. Italy, At Last, 1859-1870 – Camillo Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, King

Victor Emmanuel II

1. The broad spectrum of Italian politics

a. Commercial-industrial-agricultural interests (bourgeoisie) – classical


b. Workers and trade unionists – Socialism/Marxism

c. Roman Catholics – classical conservatism

2. Italy before World War I

C. Staring into the Abyss: The Fascist Era – Benito Mussolini, Fascist Party, Black Shirts, 1922

III. Italy’s Fractious Democracy – First Italian Republic, 1948-1992; Second Italian Republic, 1992-

A. 1948 Constitution: Too Much of a Good Thing?

1. Chamber of Deputies (630 seats)

2. Senate (315 seats)

3. The use of party lists and proportional representation

B. Economic Success, Political Morass – coalition governments; Christian Democrats

1. The decline of the Communist Party in Italy

2. Italian National Debt

C. The Road to Reform


1. A Plethora of Parties

2. Unstable Governments

3. Changes in the 1980s

C. Two Cheers (and Votes) for Change, 1991, 1993 - Second Italian Republic

1. Referendums of 1991 and 1993 – Mixed Member Proportional System; first-past-the-

post voting
2. Tangentopoli (“Bribesville”) and Operation Clean Hands, 1992

IV. Italy: Reform or Relapse

A. Italy’s Postwar Economic Renaissance

B. Rich Italy, Poor Italy: the North-South divide – Lega Nord

C. Silvio Berlusconi’s Debut: The 1994 Election

1. Forza Italia (Go Italy)

2. Freedom Pole

D. Berlusconi’s Second Coming, 2001 – Prime Minister, 1994-1995, 2001-2006, 2008-2011;

People of Freedom Party, 2007

E. Higher-Profile Foreign Policy – security consumer; security producer

F. Berlusconi’s Resignation, 2011 – Eurozone Crisis


Day 16 – Spain

I. Introduction – Pyrenees Mountains

II. Spain: Empire or Nation?

A. Nation of Regions – Castile, Catalonia, Galicia, Basque Region

B. Turning Point

1. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, 1469

2. Conquest of Granada and Age of Exploration, 1492

3. Spanish Empire and Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588

4. Spain, 1588 to 1898 – Napoleon’s Invasion of Spain, 1808; Spanish American War,
C. Spanish Civil War

1. The Second Spanish Republic, 1931

2. Republicans

3. Nationalists – General Francisco Franco

4. Hostilities: 1936-1939

5. Rule of Francisco Franco, 1939-1975

III. Spain’s Rejuvenated Polity

A. Belated Economic Miracle

1. King Alfonso XIII, 1931-1941

2. King Juan Carlos I, 1975 to Present

3. Law on Political Reforms, 1976 – Spanish Constitution, 1978

B. A People’s King: The Failed Coup of 1981

C. A Parliamentary Democracy fit for Europe – constitutional monarchy

1. Cortes Generales

1. Chamber of Deputies (350 seats)

b. Senate (266 seats)


2. Prime Minister (or Presidente)

3. Political Parties – Popular Party (PP, center-right); Spanish Socialists Workers’ Party
(PSOE, center-left)

IV. Spain: A Nation of Regions or a Region of Nations?

Newer democracy, like United Kingdom’s government.

A. Spain’s Reentry into the Europe and West – NATO (1982), European Common Market
Spain wasn’t allowed into NATO before because Franco was a Fascist dictator.
Joining European Common Market in 1986 made them economically part of Europe.

B. Regions of Spain and Franco

Franco suppressed any separatist movements. Since 1980’s, Spain’s regions have become much more
vocal about separation.

C. Spain’s Regions

1. The Basque Region – Basque Country (three provinces) and Navarre; ETA,
Batasuna; Basque National Party (PNV)
Speak language that goes back to Stone Age. One of wealthiest regions in Spain. ETA was army that
fought for Basque’s independence. PNV is mainstream Basque separatist party. Central government in
Madrid will not allow any independence votes to go forward.

2. Catalonia - Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, 2006; Spanish Constitutional Court,

Catalonia is as close to French or Italian as it is Spanish. Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia is inter-
governmental compact satisfied Catalonian desire for autonomy. Spanish Constitutional Court ruled it
unconstitutional; current independence movement is spurred by it. Catalonia passed independence
vote, vote was deemed illegal by Madrid government, went unrecognized by European governments.

3. Intergovernmental Compacts
17 regions in Spain, each has an intergovernmental compact. Madrid government sends orders to local
governments, but depending upon a region’s intergovernmental compact they might be exempt.

Day 18 – Russia and Eastern Europe

I. Introduction – Eastern Orthodox, Cyrillic, Communist and Iron Curtain

II. Slavic Europe

A. Slavic peoples and non-Slavic minorities in East Europe

1. Slavic peoples – Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Croats, Serbs, Czechs, Slovakians,

Slovenians, Bulgars

2. Non-Slavic peoples - Here are just a few, Finns, Baltic (Lithuanians, Estonians,
Latvians), Rumanians, Hungarians, Albanians

3. Russification

B. Russia and Ukraine

C. Empire or Power Vacuum?

1. Kievan Rus, 860 – 1237 AD

1. Mongol Domination, 1237-1480

2. Rise of Muscovy and Imperial Russia, 1462-1917 - Ivan III; Romanov Dynasty,
3. The Invasion of Russia by Napoleon, 1812

4. German Invasion, 1941-1944

III. Imprint of History

A. Decline of the Romanov Dynasty

1. Intellectual Isolation of Russia – Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution, Industrial

Revolution; Peter the Great

2. Freeing of the Serfs, 1861

3. Failure during the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905

B. Age of Anarchism: Prelude to Revolution – nihilists (destruction for its own sake);
anarchism (abolition of all government)

IV. Origins of Soviet Totalitarianism

A. Lenin and the Bolsheviks


1. Marxism-Leninism

2. Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

B. The October Revolution, 1917

1. War Communism – “commanding heights”

2. New Economic Policy

C. Stalin Era – Stalinism, cult of personality

D. The Great Terror – Great Purge, kulaks; Leon Trotsky; “socialism in one country”

E. Forced Collectivization and the Gulag Archipelago

1. Forced Collectivization - 10 million people died

1928 = 34 million horses, 68 million cows, 147 million sheep and goats
1934 = 16.6 million horses, 38 million cows, 50 million sheep and goats

2. Central Planning – Five-Year Plans

F. Soviet Phoenix: Soviet Union during World War II – U.S. deaths in World War II = ca.
400,000, Soviet deaths in World War II = 25 million

Day 19 – The Cold War

I. Introduction – Big Three: Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt

II. The Early Cold War

A. The Red Zone – containment

B. Stalin’s Heirs

1. Nikita Khrushchev, 1953-1964 – Secret Speech, 1956; de-Stalinization

2. Leonid Brezhnev, 1964-1982

C. Toward the Prague Spring – Hungarian Uprising, 1956

1. Showdowns over Berlin, 1947-1948, 1958, 1961

2. Prague Spring, 1968, and the Brezhnev Doctrine – Alexander Dubcek

D. Detente and Decline – neo-Stalinist

E. Soviet Ideology and Political Culture: The Virtues of Stalinism

F. East Europe before 1945 – German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire,
Ottoman Empire

1. East Europe after World War I

2. East Europe after World War II

III. East Europe: From Stalinism to Pluralism, 1945-1989

A. Stalin’s “Outer Empire” in East Europe

Stalin conquered much of eastern Europe after liberating it from Nazis.

1. Communist party dictatorship

No other political parties were allowed except the Communist party. Communist party made all real
decisions, government had no power; carried out the will of the Communist party.

2. Highly centralized, hierarchical government

Government parties had no real power.

3. Soviet-style command economies

Limited private enterprise. Centrally planned economy by government. Businesses owned by state.

4. Foreign policy based upon fraternal relations with other communist states
All eastern European communist parties were tied together via Warsaw Pact.

B. East Europe during the Cold War

6-12% of population in European countries were members of Communist parties. Invite only, stable
and not use to change.

C. Revolutions of 1989 – Mikhail Gorbachev renunciation of Brezhnev Doctrine

Brezhnev Doctrine says that any Communist countries at risk of losing government must be saved by
other Communist countries. Soviet Union was not going to win Afghanistan, so they pulled out in
1989. Renouncement of Brezhnev Doctrine lead to collapse of Communism.

1. Hungary and Poland: Peaceful Transitions, Summer 1989

Communist parties willingly gave up power.

2. Erich Honecker and the Fall of the Berlin Wall, November 10, 1989
Honecker wanted to maintain power; willing to use violence. Communist party of East Germany
removed Honecker and removed Berlin Wall to try and show that they can maintain Communist party
without force.
3. Nicolae Ceausescu and Romania, December 25, 1989
Ceaucescu used a secret police force to put down demonstrations. Then army changed sides. Were

4. Czechoslovakia and the Velvet Revolution, 1992

Czech Republic and Slovakia split up in 1992 – Velvet Revolution. Peaceful transition to democracy
and split up of countries.

IV. East Europe: Heading West

A. The Baggage Problem

1. Collapse of the Soviet Union, 1991

2. Collapse of Yugoslavia, 1991-1992 – Josip Broz Tito; Bosnia-Herzegovina Bosnian

Civil War, 1992-1995

B. Preparing for Takeoff

1. Winnowing Effect

2. Creating Competitive Markets - emerging markets


Day 20 – Poland

I. Introduction

II. Poland’s History

A. Poland: Flat Land, Fluid Borders

1. Partitions of Poland, 1772-1795

2. Rebirth of Poland after World War I and the Subsequent Nazi-Soviet Division, 1939

3. Post-World War II Territorial Changes

4. Poznan Riots, June 1956 – Wladyslaw Gomulka

B. Poland’s Cultural Identity

III. Poland: Free At Last

A. Reforms of December 1989 – Lech Walesa

B. Poland’s Dual Executive

1. Sejm (460 deputies) and Senate (100 deputies)

2. Proportional Representation in the Sejm - 5% rule

3. Decline of Solidarity after 2001 – Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS), Civic Platform
4. President vs. Prime Minister

IV. Poland: Shock Treatment

A. Poland’s mixed economy: before and after 1989

1. Shock therapy, 1993 onward – Balcerowicz Plan, 1989

2. Polish economy, 1993-2003

B. Poland’s persistent problems

1. Persistent unemployment - 20% in 2003, 10% in 2010

2. Weak job creation

3. Voter apathy and corruption


4. Polish debt and social welfare programs

C. Poland looks to the West – NATO, 1999; European Union, 2004

D. Polish thieves look to the West – car theft


Day 21 – Ukraine

I. Introduction

II. Ukraine: In Russia’s Shadow

A. Kievan Rus state, 911-1240 – Kiev

B. Foreign and particularly Russian domination (1600s-1991) - Mongol Yoke

C. Eastern Orthodoxy and the Ukrainian Catholic Church (aka Greek Catholic)

D. Ukraine and the Soviet Union, 1918-1922

E. Ukrainian nationalism

III. Ukraine: The Long Winter

A. Ukraine: A Dual Executive

1. Supreme Rada (450 seats) - unicameral legislature

2. President and prime minister

B. Orange Revolution, 2004-2005 – oligarchs

Oligarchs are powerful political figures who created their own political parties. Were high placed in
Communist party and government so they were in great position to be crony capitalists.

1. 2004 presidential election – Viktor Yanukovych, Viktor Yushchenko

Yanukovych: pro-Russian, eastern Ukrainian. Yuschenko: pro-EU, western Ukrainian. Yanukovych
tried to assassinate Yuschenko with poison, ultimately won election by bussing people to vote multiple
times for him.

2. 2004-2005 demonstrations
Orange Revolution was response to outrage of unfair election of Yanukovych. Demonstrations were
successful and eventually Yushchenko won.

3. The East-West fault line in Ukraine

Different Ukrainian dialects, religious split; Yushchenko votes west side of fault, Yanukovych east

IV. Ukraine: Geography is Destiny, or Maybe Not

A. The East-West divide: European Union and NATO

1. Western Ukraine

2. Eastern Ukraine

3. Russia’s continued influence in Ukraine

B. Ukraine’s Economic Woes

C. Ukraine since the Orange Revolution, 2005-Present

1. 2010 Presidential Election - Viktor Yushchenko, Yulia Tymoshenko, Viktor

2. Euromaidan Revolution (Revolution of Dignity), 2014

3. Crimean Crisis and Civil War in Eastern Ukraine, 2014-2015 – War in Donbass

4. Election of Petro Poroshenko, May 2014

D. Ukraine-EU Agreement, September 16, 2014

1. Limited autonomy for pro-Russian separatists

2. The Ukraine-EU agreement


Day 22 – Czechoslovakia

I. Introduction – Austrian Empire

II. History of Czechoslovakia

A. Early History of the Czech people – Bohemia, Moravia

1. Great Moravian Empire, ca. 900s AD

2. Bohemian Kingdom, ca. 1200s – 1500s

3. Protestant Reformation in Bohemia and Moravia - Jan Hus

4. Period of Habsburg domination, 1500s – 1918 – Habsburg (Austrian) Empire

a. Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1867-1918

b. Significance of Austrian domination

B. First Slavic Democracy: Czechoslovakia after World War I, 1919-1939 – Czechs, Slovaks

C. Totalitarianism, Right and Left

1. Nazi domination, 1939 – 1945 – Sudetenland, 1938

2. Soviet domination, 1945 – 1989

III. Czech Republic: Reinventing Democracy

A. Velvet Revolution, 1989-1992 – Prague Spring, 1968; Alexander Dubcek, Vaclav Havel

1. A Cumbersome Constitution – Czech and Slovak Federal Republic; Prague (Czech

capital), Bratislava (Slovakian capital

2. One state, three governments

3. Velvet Divorce, 1992

B. One government, two heads

1. Indirectly elected president

2. Czech Parliament

a. Chamber of Deputies (200 seats) - proportional representation (party lists)

b. Senate (81 seats)


3. President and prime minister – Article 63, Article 77

IV. Czech Republic: Challenges Ahead

A. The Best of the Worst

B. Czechs without Slovakia

C. NATO Expansion: Czech Republic, 1999; Slovakia, 2004

D. European Union membership: Czech Republic, 1996; Slovakia, 1996


Day 23 – Yugoslavia

I. Introduction – Croatians, Serbians, Bosnians, Albanians; Reigning Paradigm: Simmering, bloody

nationalist rivalries

II. Yugoslavia: Federation or Tinderbox? – Balkans; Ottoman Empire, Austrian Empire, Russian

A. Yugoslavia after World War I – Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina

B. World War II and Josip Broz Tito

C. Tito’s Fragile State

1. Yugoslavia’s independent course after World War II – non-aligned

2. Building a workers’ paradise – workers’ self-management


3. Centralized federalism

III. Serbia: The Long Road Ahead

A. In Search of the Workers’ Paradise – Yugo; Albanian uprising in Kosovo, 1981

B. Yugoslavia’s last stand, 1991-1992 – Slovenia (1991), Croatia (1991), Bosnia-Herzegovina

(1992), Macedonia (1992)

C. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1992-2006

1. Montenegro’s Independence, 2006

2. Fall of Milosevic, 2000-2002 – International Criminal Tribunal for the Former

Yugoslavia, The Hague, the Netherlands

IV. Serbia (Formerly Yugoslavia: Rejecting Dictatorship

A. Into the Abyss: Slovenian and Croatian independence, 1991 – Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989 ended Communism in rest of Europe gave them the idea they could too.

1. Slovenia and the Ten Day War, 1991

Slovenia is relatively wealthy and a tourist area. Before declaring for independence, they compiled
their military assets and caught Yugoslavia off guard. Won Ten Day War.

2. Croatian War of Independence, 1991-1995 – Krajina

1991-1992 ceasefire from 1992-1995. Krajina was Serbian and supported Yugoslavia. Krajina was only
indirectly supported by Yugoslavia because they were criticized for trying to hold on to any of the
Republics. To avoid sanctions, they secretly supplied militias with weapons. In 1995 Croatia unleased
an offensive on Krajina and was independent.

B. A Dirty War: Bosnia – 44% Bosnian, 30% Serbian, 17% Croatian

1. Declaration of Bosnian independence, 1992

A lot of Serbs lived in Bosnia.

2. The role of the Yugoslavian National Army and Serbian forces in Bosnia –Radovan
Sent weapons and advisors into Serbian parts of Bosnia. Karadzic encouraged ethnic cleansing of
3. Ethnic cleansing and mass rapes
Mass rapes and genocides occurred mainly by Serbs, but also by both sides.

4. Dayton Accords, 1995

Final map was agreed upon that reflected ethnic cleansing. Established a Serbian republic that was not
allowed to be a part of Serbian proper and a separate Croatian and Bosnian republic.

C. Serbia in revolt, 1996

Protests in Belgrade in 1996. Inflation got so bad, they issued new money called the super dinar.

D. Another dirty war: Kosovo, 1999 – Prince Lazar, 1389; 90% Albanian
Kosovo was where Lazar lost to the Ottoman empire. Very important culturally to Serbian people.

1. Role of the Yugoslavian National Army (YNA)

YNA reserved the right to put down the rebellion. But more ethnic cleansing and mass
rapes of Albanians.

2. NATO airstrikes
NATO jets bombed Belgrade in 1999 in response.

E. Milosevic the loser: 2000 elections

Lost 2000 elections. New government immediately turned him over for war crimes. After his death in
2006, Yugoslavia no longer existed.

F. Yugoslavia after Milosevic - European Union application, 2009



Day 25 - European Union: History

I. Introduction - European integration; 28 Member States; 500 million people

II. Becoming Europe: The EU as a catalyst

A. First things first: integration before federation – Marshall Plan, 1947

Marhall Plan gave 17 billion to build western Europe

1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949

Military alliance with western Europe
2. Council of Europe, 1949

B. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 1951 - Belgium, West Germany, France, Italy,
Luxembourg, and the Netherlands (“the Six”) - ECSC High Authority

1. French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, May 1950 – Jean Monnet; Konrad
Adenauer; “Founding Fathers”

2. Purpose of ECSC – Schuman Declaration

C. European Defense Community

D. Mother of all common markets: Rome Treaty, 1957 – European Economic Community (aka
Common Market)

1. Creation of a common customs union

2. Creation of a common market for labor, goods, and services

3. Common agricultural policy

E. Coming of Age: Beyond the Common Market – First Expansion, 1973: Great Britain,
Ireland, Denmark

F. The Treaty on European Union, 1992 (Maastrict Treaty) – “Three Pillars”

1. First Pillar: Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) – Euro; community institutions

3. Second Pillar: Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) – intergovernmental cooperation
Example is no death penalty.
3. Third Pillar: Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) - intergovernmental cooperation

5. European Parliament

G. Putting the Euro into Europe – Euroskeptics; Eurozone; European Currency Unit (ECU),
1979; Euro, 2002; Non-Eurozone countries: Britain, Denmark, Sweden

H. Failure of the European Constitution, 2004 - France, Netherlands “No” votes; Lisbon Treaty,
2007; European Council President; single legal personality
Lisbon treaty created European council president

J. Perceived “Democratic Deficit” of the European Union


Day 26 - European Union: Institutions

I. Introduction

II. The Apparatus of Integration: EU Institutions – four presidents

A. Council of Ministers (aka Council of the European Union) – legislative body, upper house
Each country sends minister responsible for the topic of each session. If topic is foreign policy, the
foreign ministers meet.

1. Presidency of the Council of Ministers

Three-person Presidency, each sit for 18 months. One President is replaced every 6
months. Presidents don’t have any power, arrange for when ministers meet.

2. Decision making – Qualified Majority Voting (QMV)

At least 55% of members have to vote yes, and represent 65% of European population.

3. Principal Powers - agreements on behalf of the EU; joint foreign and defense policy
for the EU; EU budget

B. European Parliament - legislative body, lower house; 766 members; population-based

proportional system; Brussels, Belgium & Strasbourg, France; European Union interests
Part of essay or short essay

1. Members of the European Parliament (MEPs)

Represent European interests, not national interests.

2. Parties in the European Parliament – Eurofederalists, Euroskeptics

Eurofederalists want a Untied States of Europe, Euroskeptics don’t. Not parties, but
ideas that cut across party lines.

3. President of the European Parliament

4. Three principal roles of the European Parliament

a. Passing European laws jointly with the Council of Ministers - legislative

body, lower house

b. Exercising democratic supervision over other EU institutions - European


c. With the Council of Ministers, approval of the EU budget

5. European Parliament legislation and the member states - acquis communautaire

Body of Law from EU.

C. European Commission - executive branch; European Union interests; 28 appointed

Commissioners; 24,000 civil servants (Eurocrats)
Part of essay or short essay

1. Selection of commissioners
Each country appoints their commissioner.

2. Power of the European Parliament over the European Commission - vote of censure
Commissioners can get dissolved by Parliament =.

3. President of the European Commission

Serves 5 year term, supervises work of commission.

4. Principal functions of the European Commission

a. Proposing legislation to Parliament and the Council

b. Managing and implementing EU policies and the budget

c. Enforcing European law (jointly with the Court of Justice)

d. Representing the EU internationally

D. The European Council – European Council President

Every 6 months the chief executives of EU countries get together and make sure EU is going in right

III. The Three Pillars of the New Europe: Other important EU institutions

A. First Pillar: European Monetary System (EMS) – Eurozone

1. European Central Bank (ECB), 1998 - Frankfurt, Germany

2. European System of Central Banks (ESCB)

B. Committee of the Regions (COR) - members of the Committee (344)


Day 27 – European Union: Expansion and Foreign Relations

I. Introduction

II. EU-US Partnership

A. Transatlantic Economic Ties - 30 percent of global merchandise trade; 40 percent of world

trade in services; $546 billion (goods only, 2010)

B. Addressing Global Challenges Together

1. Common Values – peace, freedom, and the rule of law

2. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 1973

D. Structure of Transatlantic Relations

1. EU and NATO - Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); Berlin Plus, 2003

2. Transatlantic Declaration, 1990

3. Delegation of the EU to the United States

4. Delegation of the EU to the United Nations – Lisbon Treaty

III. European Enlargement and the European Neighborhood: Europe Whole and Free

A. EU Enlargement - July 1, 2013, Croatia

B. Copenhagen Criteria
Requires countries adhere to classical liberal principles.

1. Stable institutions that can sustain democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and
respect for minorities – classical liberal political principles

2. A functioning market economy and the capacity to cope with competitive pressures –
classical liberal economic principles

3. The ability to apply the EU’s rules and policies (acquis communautaire) –
supranational body

C. On the Path to EU Membership

1. Candidate countries - Croatia, Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro, and Turkey

2. Potential candidate countries - Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, and Kosovo

D. European Free Trade Association (EFTA) - Norway, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland

E. European Neighborhood Policy (ENP), 2004 - rule of law, democracy, and respect for
human rights, market-oriented economic reforms

F. The Schengen Agreement - Schengen Area


Day 28 – The Future of Europe

I. Introduction

II. Beyond East and West: What is Europe?

A. Persistence of nationalism

B. What do Europeans have in common?

1. The Embrace of Liberty – civil society

2. Rising Expectations

3. A Cherished Diversity – economic integration not political integration; Convention

on the Future of Europe, 2003

4. A Sense of Unity – proto-state

III. Is Europe Weak?

A. Atlantic Community, 1941-Present

B. Power in the postmodern age – economic vs. military


C. Soft power vs. hard power

1. Soft power

2. Hard Power

3. Iraq, 2003

D. Europe and America: Partners or rivals? – subsidies

1. Airbus subsidies – Airbus, $18 billion


2. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 1992 – economic regionalism

E. Limits of Europe