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10.

1177/0739456X04272763
Reviews REVIEW
䉴 Reviews

Environmental Land Use Planning and Management, by John flow and quality, groundwater protection, vegetation and wet-
Randolph. Washington, DC: Island Press. 2004. 664 pages. land evaluation, land capability, carrying capacity, and
$55.00 (cloth). environmental impact assessment. The first part could be used
DOI: 10.1177/0739456X04272763 in a course on the foundations of environmental planning,
and the second would be an excellent text for a methods
Reviewed by Bill Fleming course, as well as a compendium of applications for the
Associate Professor practitioner.
Community and Regional Planning Program It is heartening to find so many useful methods for monitor-
School of Architecture and Planning ing ecosystem and watershed health in one book and with suffi-
University of New Mexico cient detail to make them applicable in the field. For example,
methods for quickly and inexpensively evaluating riparian
This is the book that environmental and water planners health are included, as well as useful applications of the univer-
have been waiting for since the 1969 publication of McHarg’s sal soil-loss equation as a measure of erosion potential. The
Design With Nature, followed in 1978 by Dunne and Leopold’s concept of a water balance and its applicability to monitoring
Water in Environmental Planning. Randolph has produced a nonpoint pollution sources is elegantly explained, with an
comprehensive text for the modern environmental planner, application to lake eutrophication. There are clear examples
basing his approach on sound science to evaluate human-envi- illustrating relationships between urbanization and impervi-
ronment interactions and realities of the political boundaries ous surfaces, with runoff curve numbers showing how flood
of planning. A great debt is owed to Aldo Leopold and Ian peaks and nonpoint sources of contamination are magnified
McHarg, and the author acknowledges them for their achieve- in urban settings. Randolph cites many examples of watershed
ments in environmental ethics and land suitability analysis. restoration techniques from the Center for Watershed Protec-
By juxtaposing ecosystem and watershed management, tion and Tom Schueler’s work with the Metropolitan
Randolph integrates biological and physical approaches to Washington Council of Governments.
environmental planning. In this book, he demonstrates a Randolph’s approach to integrating science and politics is
holistic treatment of science and politics by taking a long-term exemplified by his treatment of vegetation buffers that are ad-
perspective, he focuses on ecological integrity, and he uses jacent to stream channels. One chapter poses the query, “What
monitoring and adaptive management for implementation is the value of property impacted by a 50-foot buffer . . . in a
strategies. The watershed approach recognizes that protecting rural residential zone?” (p. 302). An example explains how this
a water body requires conservation of its drainage basin. The requires map overlays of streams, parcel values, zoning dis-
Environmental Protection Agency now advocates a watershed tricts, ownership boundaries, and buffer widths. Another
protection approach, which is coupled with collaborative plan- chapter explains the rationale for establishing buffer-zone
ning that involves an estimated 3,500 watershed stewardship widths and provides documentation from technical articles. A
groups. Examples from Virginia, where laws allow watershed third chapter includes buffer zones in a protocol for assessing
improvement districts to tax its members for restoration the riparian condition of streams. A method that the Isaak
projects, illustrate useful institutional models. Walton League developed to evaluate stream health by the sen-
The book is organized into two parts: Environmental Land sitivity to pollution of various categories of aquatic insects is a
Use Planning and Environmental Land Use Principles and useful appendix.
Planning Analysis. In general, the division could be described Collaborative environmental management is a major
as theory and methods, although several technical applica- theme and public participation in decision making is ex-
tions are included in the first section. Part 1 discusses concepts plained clearly, with examples from forestry and water quality–
of environmental planning, collaborative approaches to pub- monitoring projects. Randolph compares and evaluates
lic participation, tools for open space and ecological protec- strengths and weaknesses of an array of stakeholder participa-
tion, and community and regional approaches to smart
growth, green design, government land use regulation, natu-
ral hazard mitigation, and watershed management. Part 2
applies these concepts through geographic information sys-
Journal of Planning Education and Research 24:452-465
tems, soil erosion and slope analysis, assessment of stormwater © 2005 Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning

452
Reviews 䉳 453

tion techniques, from focus groups to electronic networks. He 䉴 References


suggests the growing role of land trusts, conservation ease-
ments, and transfer of development rights as tools for manag- Dunne, T. and L. Leopold. 1978. Water in environmental planning.
San Francisco: Freeman.
ing sprawl and instituting smart growth programs. He explains
McHarg, I. 1969. Design with nature. Garden City, NY: American
principles of sustainable design in the Charter for New Urban- Museum of Natural History.
ism (Ahwahnee Principles), and provides examples of urban
revitalization, conservation design for subdivisions, brown-
field redevelopment, and green building programs. Although The Birth of City Planning in the United States 1840–1917, by
the zoning section is not detailed, Randolph describes map Jon A. Peterson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
overlay techniques as “perhaps the most useful innovation in Press. 2003. 431 pages, 117 illus. $59.95 (hardback).
zoning for environmental protection” (p. 154). DOI: 10.1177/0739456X05276133
Although the last chapter on integration methods for land
analysis briefly mentions economics (along with environment Reviewed by Eugenie L. Birch
and community) as a necessary part of a rapid assessment, Professor and Chair
there is little discussion of the role of economic analysis. Exam- Department of City and Regional Planning
ples of cost-benefit analysis in watershed management projects University of Pennsylvania
could be used to show how erosion control and land use plan- Co-Director
ning to reduce reservoir sedimentation is often cost effective. Penn Institute for Urban Research
An emphasis on examples from the eastern United States does
not limit the usefulness of this book elsewhere in the nation, Planning historians here and abroad have been waiting for
but the inclusion of a discussion of rangeland monitoring and Jon A. Peterson’s book for almost three decades, and it was
restoration would have been helpful. Randolph presents tech- worth the wait! Peterson, a professor in the Department of His-
niques for stream and riparian management adequately, but tory at Queens College, City University of New York, has pro-
he does not mention innovative methods for restoring mean- duced a masterpiece, impeccable in its research and brilliant
ders and stream sinuosity, as originally developed by Luna in its interpretation that explains the rise of the city planning
Leopold (Dunn and Leopold, 1978). profession in the United States while placing it in its context of
Environmental planners have needed a synthesis of techni- nineteenth-century American urbanism.
cal applications and collaborative approaches that involves The Birth of City Planning in the United States 1840–1917 is an
stakeholder participation at all stages of the planning process. important book, certainly one of the most significant works in
A particular strength of this text is its emphasis on ecosystem city planning produced in a generation. It ranks with Lewis
and watershed management as a unifying geographical theme. Hopkins’ Urban Development: The Logic of Making Plans (2001a)
Making small watersheds a convenient and hydrologically and Alexander Garvin’s The American City: What Works and What
sound unit for analysis is gaining increasing acceptance with Doesn’t (2002), in providing new insights into planning, in this
the formation of hundreds of locally based watershed asso- case the field’s history. It is, at once, an authoritative reference
ciations. Although Randolph only briefly discusses this, moni- for planning history and a basic resource for planning theory.
toring watershed health is now accomplished by more than Guiding Peterson in his distillation of the key features of
400,000 local, nonprofessional stakeholders in more than 700 modern city planning is his concurrence with Frederick Law
programs. Olmsted Jr.’s observation that planning was (and is) like a
Starting with the valid premise that “human generations of “river . . . composed of a number of streams of varied origin
the past four decades have recognized that their relationship and character still running side by side without quite losing
with nature is not sustainable,” (p. xxxiii). Randolph applies their identity” (p. 12). And in fourteen information-packed
McHarg’s ideas and relates them to specific problems, with an and well-written chapters, Peterson reaches back into history
emphasis on land and water. Human ecology and the contribu- to trace each one. (He employs a fifteenth chapter as an epi-
tions of landscape planner Frederick Steiner are underlying logue, outlining the course of planning to the present time.)
themes. Not only is the book useful for undergraduate and He relates the contributions of the sanitary reform, landscape
graduate courses, but it can also serve practitioners who are urbanism, civic art, and city beautiful movements. He outlines
working to implement the principles of working with nature to the professional careers of the field’s progenitors: Frederick
strengthen the critical link between planning and an ethical Law Olmsted, Daniel Burnham, Charles Mulford Robinson,
regard for the land. Benjamin Marsh, and others. He delineates the great precur-