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Contents

1 The Need for Energy Efficiency 1


1.1 Global Energy scenario 1
1.2 Climate change and environmental concerns 3
1.3 Global responses 6
1.4 Kyoto protocol 8
1.5 Summary 13

2 The Basics of Energy 15


2.1 Energy forms and conversions 15
2.2 Basics of electricity 18
2.3 Basics of thermal energy 23
2.4 Energy sources and energy sinks 25
2.5 Summary 28

3 Energy Management Systems 31


3.1 Introduction 32
3.2 Implementing energy management in organizations 32
3.3 Energy plan 37
3.4 Tracking and controlling systems 39
3.5 Energy audits and principles 44
3.6 Basic financials 47
3.7 Summary 50

4 Fuels and Consumption 53


4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Fuels 54
4.3 Liquid fuels 55
4.4 Solid fuels 56
4.5 Gaseous fuels 57
4.6 Combustion 57
4.7 Combustion of gas 60
4.8 Summary 60

5 Renewable Sources of Energy 63


5.1 Introduction 63
5.2 Solar energy 64
5.3 Wind power 73
5.4 Geothermal energy 78
5.5 Hydropower 83
5.6 Fuel cells 90
5.7 Nuclear power 95
5.8 Energy from biomass 99
5.9 Summary 104

6 Energy Efficient Practices in Thermal Energy Activities 107


6.1 Introduction 108
6.2 Boiler systems 108
6.3 Boiler efficiency 114
6.4 Important boiler accessories 114
6.5 Boiler blowdown 116
6.6 Steam distribution system 118
6.7 Energy efficient practices for boilers and steam systems -
combustion efficiency 121
6.8 Practical examples 125
6.9 Furnaces 127
6.10 DG sets 141
6.11 Heat recovery systems 141
6.12 Cogeneration for better efficiency 145
6.13 Summary 149

7 Energy Efficient Practices in Electricity Use 151


7.1 Motor systems 151
7.2 Variable speed drives 159
7.3 Methods of speed control 161
7.4 Efficient operation of fans/blower 171
7.5 Efficient operation of pumps 174
7.6 Compressed air systems 180
7.7 Lighting systems 188
7.8 Summary 196

8 Energy Efficiency in Climate Control Applications 199


8.1 Introduction 199
8.2 Heating systems 200
8.3 Heat load calculation 202
8.4 Cooling systems 204
8.5 Ventilation systems 214
8.6 Building management systems 217
8.7 Evaluating efficiency using the Australian Building
Greenhouse Rating scheme 225
8.8 Measures for improving building efficiency 226
8.9 Summary 226

9 Audit Areas and Essential Instruments/Software Tools 229


9.1 Boilers 230
9.2 Furnaces 234
9.3 Motors 237
9.4 Fans and blowers 240
9.5 Pumps 242
9.6 Compressors 243
9.7 HVAC systems 246
9.8 Lighting systems 251
9.9 Instrumentation for energy audits 255
9.10 Software tools for energy audit 266
9.11 Summary 267

10 Financials and Costings 269


10.1 Introduction 269
10.2 Investment proposal 270
10.3 Methods for ranking investment proposals 271
10.4 Summary 282

Appendix A 283

Appendix B 301

Appendix C 317

Appendix D 319

Example of an Audit Report 335