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The Clarinet of the XXI Century

Michael Richards

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CHAPTER 2 - Single Sounds

Alternate Fingerings

Different timbres of the same pitch on the clarinet are most conveniently achieved
through alternate fingerings; embouchure manipulation alone will not work, since it will
also affect pitch. However, altering timbre is not the only purpose of alternate
fingerings. The artistic clarinetist of the late twentieth century employs different
fingerings from standard fingerings in certain musical contexts, throughout the standard
orchestral, chamber music, and solo repertoire. 6 These contexts may require a slightly
higher or lower pitch for reasons of intonation, a technically simpler fingering for a
smoother legato, a less resistant fingering for an easier entrance at a soft dynamic level,
or a more desirable tone color for better blend or portrayal of a particular musical
character. For example, if one employs the standard G-flat fingering in the following
passage (Example #3) found in the first movement of the Sonata by Francis Poulenc,
the result will be a low G-flat. The suggested alternate, which is generally a high
fingering, will be better in tune at this loud dynamic level (also brighter and
thicker/stronger).

Example #3 (click on music to hear mp3)

The production of a smoother legato in the first movement of the F Minor Sonata , Op.
120 No. 1 by Johannes Brahms is facilitated with the alternate E-flat diagramed in
Example #4. Contrary finger motion is completely avoided, as is the slide that would be
required with the use of the standard E-flat. 7

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Example #4 (click on music to hear mp3)

A smoother legato may be attained by the utilization of an alternate F-sharp in the
following example ( Concerto - Aaron Copland) for a different reason; an acoustical
reason. The A and F-sharp are both partials from the same fundamental (D3).

Example #5 (click on music to hear mp3)

An alternate fingering for D is essential to assist the clarinetist in the production of a
soft entrance in the second movement of the Brahms Trio , Op. 114 (Example #6).

However. 4 Example #6 (click on music to hear mp3) In the third movement of the Clarinet Concerto by John Corigliano. . one must understand the acoustics of the instrument. the alternate fingering indicated below for altissimo B-flat allows the player to not only match the timbre of the distant off-stage clarinetists. Example #7 (click on music to hear mp3) An excellent study of alternate fingerings in the traditional literature has been written by Thomas Ridenour. All pitches on the clarinet do not lend themselves to alternate fingering possibilities. and to offer a chart of altissimo register fingerings that. pitches below B3 and pitches between B4 and G5 have few or no alternate fingerings (Example #8). the following pages will focus on examples for the usage of alternate fingerings in new music. the expansion of timbral resources and sensitivities and of usable pitch nuances has become a primary compositional concern. the pitches which utilize the longest length of tube have the smallest number of options. 8 Rather than duplicate his research. in order to indicate (as a composer) and perform (as a clarinetist) alternate fingerings. while not exhaustive. does include a variety of technically simple fingerings for pitches of a wide variety of timbres. but also is easier to play in tune and to play softly. In music of the last twenty-five years. In general.

The top half of the chalumeau register and throat register (B3 to A4) offers a variety of "covered" sounding (few strong partials) alternate fingerings. Most of these are cross- fingerings (fingerings that employ open vents. Joji Yuasa and Isao Matsushita exploit these special fingerings in rapid alternations with conventional fingerings of the same pitches (also alternating dynamics: FF to pp) to simulate the sound of rapidly tongued articulations (Example #9).Joji Yuasa (click on measure to hear mp3) . higher on the instrument body than the lowest tone holes that are closed by fingers or keys) which can only be produced at a very soft dynamic level with a minimum of upper partials present. since they can serve as partials to a number of different fundamentals. 5 Example #8 Pitches in the altissimo register have the most alternatives. Example #9 Clarinet Solitude . This technique is also conventional for the shakuhachi (on which the performer of traditional solo honkyoku never articulates with the tongue) .a Japanese bamboo flute.

etc. 6 Alternate Fingerings (continued) A chart of other fingerings (B3 .G5) suitable for rapid alternation with the regular fingering of the same pitch.) 9 . follows (Table #1)." Table #1 (click on measure to hear mp3) . Those pitches which may exhibit noticeable tuning discrepancies have been labeled (s. low = slightly low. The intonation of these pitches is extremely close to the regular fingering. only minor adjustments of the type made in normal tuning while playing may be necessary. pitches that are a bit more resistant than regular fingerings are designated "resist. Those which can not be alternated at a rapid speed have been labeled nf (not fast).

all multiphonics that are possible to begin with the bottom note only. will work (Table #2). The reader is referred to Chapter III for other similar sounding alternate fingerings. 7 Alternate fingerings of contrasting timbre and dynamic capabilities may also be extracted from diads (multiple sounds consisting of two pitches). The lowest pitches from these fingerings are especially dull sounding and only playable at ppp-pp dynamic levels. Table #2 (click on measure to hear mp3) .

Example #33 (click on music to hear mp3) . A set of alternate fingerings do exist. so care should be taken if they are to be approached by leap. however. These fingerings are likely to be somewhat unfamiliar to many clarinetists (since they utilize the rarely employed upper trill keys which are played by the side of the stretched first finger of the right hand).B4) of the clarinet has also. Alternate fingerings for the lower clarion register do exist. but the movement of so many fingers from one pitch to the next has also limited the possibilities for a smooth legato. The timbre of these pitches becomes brighter and thinner as they become higher (Example #33). and often can be employed quite successfully to extend the throat register (Example #10). These alternates may be difficult to produce in an isolated context softer than mf.10 Not only has timbral homogeneity been difficult to achieve. historically. 8 The lower register "break" (B-flat4 . Example #25 (click on music to hear mp3) Legato movement over the "break" between the clarion and altissimo registers is somewhat easier to negotiate than the lower break. that actually function by overblowing the alternate fingerings just described for the lower clarion register. and must be attacked in a fairly strong manner to insure stability (especially the highest three pitches). been a cause of problems for the performer.

the F-sharp key. in addition to the register key. selecting vents. Fifth partials (C-sharp5 . and making final alterations by opening and/or closing various tone holes. Third partials (clarion register) are produced by depressing the register key (thus opening the register hole). Paul Drushler has very clearly described the acoustical link between basic fingerings and registers of the clarinet (Example #34a). In addition. It is clear that the desirable method for developing fingerings consists of starting with a fundamental. This permits the LH1 tone-hole to act as a vent. 9 An abundance of alternate fingerings exist for pitches in the altissimo register. are generally produced by depressing the G-sharp key in addition to the others mentioned (in the chart of altissimo fingerings presented in this chapter. According to Drushler." 11 Example #34a (click on music to hear mp3) . the highest pitches often stem from "out of tune" partials of unrelated fundamentals. The general outline of this formula is followed in the following example (Example #34b). Seventh partials.A- sharp6) are produced by lifting the first finger of the left hand. It is important to note that many fifth partials also require the G-sharp key. timbre and stability for specific altissimo notes can be discovered by experimenting with modifications of basic fingerings. and that other vents (A key) are utilized for pitches derived from the highest partials. and higher. as well as other vents. seems to be equally represented). "variations in pitch.

Drake Mabry has written for a "composite fingering" in the third movement of Street Cries for solo clarinet (Example #35b). This particular fingering not only permits swift leaps in register without much trouble. 10 #34b (click on music to hear mp3) The limited finger movement required between the five pitches in Example #35a can be utilized by composers in rapid musical passages. but also provides a dramatic contrast of timbres. Example #35a (click on music to hear mp3) .

12 These categories deserve mention. long fingerings require overblowing of lower pitches. the first finger of the left-hand remains on the tone-hole. One classification that is widely employed by professional clarinetists is what Gulick calls "long fingerings. darker timbres that are generally more secure at loud dynamic levels (Example #36)." In long fingerings. as well as others. As a result. 11 #35b (click on music to hear mp3) Some other possible composite fingerings are included below (Table #4). . The longer tube length that is in play produces thicker. in order to understand timbre and resistance characteristics of altissimo fingerings. Table #4 (click on music to hear mp3) The American clarinetist Henry Gulick writes of classifications for altissimo register pitches. a vent exists further down the clarinet body.

the tuning will be slightly different for each individual. or s. such as half-holes or depression of pad keys.resist.articulation .thin IV . pitches from the microtone charts may work as alternate fingerings. one runs the risk of timbre distortion as one becomes further and further from the pitch of the original fingering. however.difficult to begin immediately. Slight deviations in pitch may exist.partial of fundamental that fingering is based on / fundamental pitch (ie. These adjustments are no more extreme than those that one would make to play in tune with other performers. = slightly). 12 Example #36 (click on music to hear mp3) Chart of Alternate Altissimo Fingerings The following chart (Table #5) of alternate fingerings contains only a few of the many choices for altissimo register pitches.bright . 5th/C4) [C4mod = modification of C4 fundamental] II . The annotations under each fingering are arranged according to the following format: I . thick . they merely require a sensitive "auditory image. An aspect such as how far a particular pad comes away from a particular tone-hole can be very significant." Since different players play different equipment.ppp to fff (only indicated if limitations exist) . = resistant .partial . = slightly resistant hard attack = must begin abruptly V .dark (sl. but these are easily corrected by adjustments of embouchure and air pressure. sl.resist. however.tendency towards high or low III. In the same manner.intonation . No unusual techniques are called for.timbre .dynamics .

= isolated context only n.preparation . 13 VI . according to vent used): r = thumb hole + register key vents t = overblown throat tones A = A key vent Ab = Ab key vent .a complex fingering . = smooth connection from another pitch isl.player must have time to prepare it -legato connection to it may not be possible smth.strengths .isl.= legato from clarion register VIII.when sustained or approached/left by legato above the staves (fingering categories.stability .= do not isolate VII.tr = use as a trill fingering ps = use in diatonic scale passage leg.

16 The modern revival was also not just a result of scientific interest in the nature of sound (Alois Haba. the distance between any two neighboring piano keys. 14 Table #5 New Pitch Resources - Microtones "all pitches that lie between the semi-tone of the twelve-tone. A more inclusive category is xenharmonic music. which usually implies musical intervals smaller than a semitone.. and Christopher Simpson wrote about microtonal music in the Compendium of Practical Musick (1667). among other microtonal .small tones. which extends to any tuning system that departs from the twelve note per octave equal-tempered scale." 13 ". ornamentation or polyphonic development through trills. or the use of percussive effects found in microtonal trills are certainly potential areas that could be pertinent to the development of musical material. transitions to multiphonics as a means of musical cell development. Timbre contrasts. Microtones are not a twentieth century invention." 14 Musical application of microtones for clarinet has only just begun to be explored by composers. It is hoped that the information presented here may spark the imaginations of composers and performers towards qualities of microtones other than pitch. equal-tempered tuning system. they were discussed as early as the eleventh century by theorists. Vincentino described a quarter-tone harpsichord in the sixteenth century.15 N..

18 Another approach was taken by Fritz Schuller in 1937. Akira Nishimura. More recently. Julian Carrillo ( Mexico ) began experiments from 1895 that led to an equal-tempered 96-note scale (16th tones). Musicians today. Works by Russian composers such as Edison Denisov. and Haba helped to publicize the theories and the music. are far from unanimous in their support of the above approach.17 Microtonal production on wind instruments such as the clarinet was first exploited and notated by European composers in the early twentieth century. we have to build special instruments". developed in 1924. A quarter-tone clarinet. was utilized in his Suite Op. as well as closer relationships to their instruments which allow them to work with the composer to achieve a higher level of musical expression. At first. Stein. 24 of 1925 (clarinet. the work of Harry Partch and the music journal Interval have stimulated new interest in microtonal music. Japanese composers such as Joji Yuasa. developed a quarter-tone clarinet around 1911 that consisted of the addition of numerous tone holes and keys to the standard design. took an intensive course in acoustics at the University in Berlin). in his "New Aesthetic of Music" (1906) advocated a system based on third- tones. Carrillo. is balanced with easier technical control by the player on his familiar conventional instrument. During the 1920's several publications by Ivan Wyschengradsky. Richard H. clarinets of modified design were developed to produce these pitches. if we want to achieve any degree of precision. 55 of 1943 (solo quarter-tone clarinet). Increased interest in folk music and a move against the richness and decadence of the late romantics helped to create a receptive attitude. Richard Boulanger. Microtonal writing for clarinet in the last twenty-five years has increased markedly. all of these instruments failed to gain acceptance.21 Clarinetists may not be able to produce microtones to the exact acoustical cent. Toru Takemitsu. a composer and clarinetist. Ezra Sims. for example. and American composers who include Robert Erickson. Following the example of the pioneers of microtonality. in the realm of timbre. who created an instrument that employed two different tubes tuned a quarter of a tone apart.20 These composers all employ the standard B-flat clarinet to produce microtones. The composer James Wood presents a common opposing view. Italian composers such as Carlo Landini and Giacinto Scelsi. and Masataka Matsuo. Busoni. Harold Seletsky. the composer has the advantage of performers with developed and more flexible techniques (a level of virtuosity that has taken many years to reach). Isao Matsushita. John Eaton. The Czech composer Alois Haba was also intrigued by the construction of quarter-tone instruments. however. quarter-tone piano) and Suite Op. Clarinet microtones present fascinating musical material outside of their pitch characteristics. What may be lost with regard to precise intonation and matched timbres. probably because of one principal problem: clarinetists were reluctant to accept such drastic design changes. In addition.19 However. but the information in this chapter does provide accuracy in relative pitch distances. and Drake Mabry are a few examples. Their compositional utilization need not be limited to an extension of twelve-tone chromaticism. "It is precisely these conventional instruments which in practical terms are incapable of consistently accurate realization of micro-intervals because of the subjectivity involved. 22 . 15 composers.

variable and wavy and watery. . shall I play it low. shall I play it high. this is not always true in all instrumental combinations.. an area that is perhaps best left to electronic music or theoretical texts. about his performances of Johnstons 's One Man . yes. It is true that the contemporary clarinet was not designed to play microtones. It just doesn't have much to do with the theories that we talked about. However. from this statement. I'm playing A. it just isn't there. who employs just intonation. Cross fingerings employ open vents. that Mr. but what am I doing here. what's going on musically and I think of these pitches as sort of dynamic entities in motion all the time. as a friend recently proposed. Wood's interests lie primarily in the precision of pitch. The composer Robert Erickson comments on problems of this approach: "I think of pitch as much more infinite. He has pointed out that the acquired skill that allows "live" performers to adjust their intonation automatically in ensembles actually leads the tuning closer to just intonation than to equal temperament.. many microtones require the use of cross fingerings. left to its own resources. higher on the instrument body than the lowest tone holes that are closed by fingers or keys. and do things to make sound. who am I playing A with. we have a system for 12-tones doesn't mean that every interval plays the same way. The difficulty is that we can have all these beautiful theories and all this beautiful mathematics but when we come down to trying to make instruments and sound them." 23 This opinion is echoed by composer David Dunn.." 24 Somewhat similar problems present themselves in the music of Ben Johnston. To not consider deeply the terminology used to describe it is to also not consider deeply what is heard. and especially not for a solo instrument.25 This evidence adds further weight to the position that electronic instruments present a more accurate medium. through a closer examination of what a "microtone" is: "What might a microtone actually be? What characteristics might it exhibit? And in what sense is it an extension of anything when its contextual terminology must of necessity reference it to the system of temperament which it strives so desperately to disassociate itself from? Who or what has defined a universally accepted definition of tone from which our friend `micro' might be derived? And even if such a definition truly exists then upon what authority need I accept it? If small numbered harmonic ratios are truly what the ear would most prefer. Stuart Dempster has noted.. for example. to have a macro-tuning system which. We have only a glimpse of the possible descriptions. a tendency to gravitate towards equal temperament after several performances.Just because we write. if precise pitch is desired in microtonal music. then in what sense could it be said that a string quartet playing traditional literature in tune is not playing in just intonation? Or in what sense could home-made instruments which strive to avoid structural rigidity ever be in just intonation when intonational drift begins to occur within minutes of initial tuning? If it is truly possible to have a microtone then perhaps it is also possible. who stresses the importance of "real" sound over theory. Ultimately my point is that the ear is what is essential in that all musical systems remain descriptions of what the ear hears. Because of the limited number of keys on the standard clarinet. 16 It appears. let alone the possible hearings. might consist numerically of less than one tone per octave. These help to produce vast contrasts of color between different microtones (Example #44)..

many of them involve unconventional or unfamiliar finger patterns. however. or that involve non- conventional finger patterns. learning these fingerings is similar to learning a new. Nevertheless.28 Ronald Caravan displays a quarter-tone scale (the upper range reaches only to F5) and does discuss timbre in the context of alternate fingerings. refine.this excludes all clarinetists who do not use this Italian-system instrument. It is especially curious to note that the process of learning a new system can help the clarinetist to review. Caravan and Bartolozzi offer fine introductions. with little or no attention focused on practicalities of performance.27 Phillip Rehfeldt's charts include some awkward microtones that are technically impossible in most contexts (except for isolated entrances of short duration. they are merely grouped as alternate fingerings for quarter or eighth- tone intervals. all of these documents merely touch the surface with regard to both microtones and descriptive information. these microtones are not adequately compared according to pitch. no mention of quarter-tone or microtone trills.for example). Much of Bruno Bartolozzi's work is only applicable for a clarinetist who uses a Full-Boehm system instrument (with a low E-flat key)) -. The problems of learning a new system can be overcome through imagination and musical understanding. Studies by Rehfeldt. no mention of microtone timbre or specific considerations of technical practicality. performers must find ways to produce the desired musical consequence. etc. but do not present important details. there has been virtually no suggestion of "safe" uses of these extended techniques in musical contexts (which ones are most reliable?). In general.). little or no mention of timbre. the fact that composers have written microtones for the standard clarinet since at least 1911 can not be ignored. at pianissimo . related instrument. Although some of this research has served as a valuable introduction to various sonic potentials of the clarinet. and perhaps understand more deeply the basic concepts of clarinet playing needed to successfully realize the standard repertoire. In addition.26 Previous Research Results of previous research have generally consisted of very limited catalogs of limited information (no smaller pitch intervals than quarter or eighth tones. . 17 Example #44 For the performer. these problems are not sufficiently described for composers (or clarinetists).

This is one reason why the author has not attempted a precise frequency analysis of microtonal pitches. especially if approached quickly by leap. Personal experiment takes precedence over strict adherence to stated principles. 18 Guidelines for Use The clarinetist may produce microtonal pitches in one of two ways: through special fingerings. or through changes in embouchure. it contains relatively few problems for the clarinetist. This is the same consideration that inhibits quarter-tone production below chalumeau A. the composer should enlist the assistance of a clarinetist if he wishes to employ clarinet microtones in his work. for example. Timbre distinctions of bright and dark are relative to the equipment and overall individual physical characteristics of each player. and do not use the mouthpiece that comes with the instrument. Some problems of universal application by clarinetists who use standard Boehm-System instruments occur because of individual preferences for different mouthpieces and reed styles. In addition. for example. The information presented here is not exhaustive by any means. it is not always possible to find eight microtones within each whole step that are equidistant. Naturally. However. fingerings may need to be adjusted slightly to avoid awkward technical problems. information has been gathered based on the measurement by the naked ear of relative distances between pitches.32 From B-flat 4 to C4 there are technical problems because of awkward finger placement requirements. These technical limitations. somewhat weak conjunct sections of the quarter- tone scale are found across the "break" from the throat register to the clarion register (B- flat 4 to D-sharp 4). Cross fingerings can not be utilized. . Instead. as well as awkward fingerings make them treacherous. In general. observations. or fingerings. The altered air and embouchure pressure necessary to produce these pitches (often on different partials). as well as problems encountered in actual practice by the performer who must hear microtonal intervals "in tune. Limitations also exist in the creation of equidistant microtonal scales. Quarter-Tones The following quarter-tone scale extends from A3 to D6. the most universally accurate with regard to pitch. since virtually the entire length of the instrument is employed." outline the difficulties found in the production of theoretically perfect microtonal scales with "equal-tempered ears" on standard equipment adjusted for equal temperament. A further complication is noted by the fact that all instruments may not be tuned at exactly A = 440 Hz. From C4 to D-sharp 4 there are no practical fingerings for quarter-tones. Microtones are portrayed in the following charts in a proportional fashion with regard to distance from adjacent pitches. since it is by far the most dependable in performance. most advanced clarinetists have their instruments "customized" to improve intonation. Also. and the closest in technical demands to customary performance practice. Disjunct microtonal motion. Another section of the quarter- tone scale that is weak consists of pitches above B6. should be carefully checked for potential problems by a performing clarinetist. This study has explored the first option only.

19 TABLE #6 .Quarter Tone Scale .

click here] Drake Mabry. This process will lead to an improved level of quarter-tone intonation. [below are some musical examples of quarter tones . . 20 The clarinetist should practice tuning these quarter-tones by first playing the half-step. One application takes the form of a repetition or echo device (Example #53). another American composer. and subsequently adding the quarter-tone.for others. adopts the use of quarter-tones for several musical purposes in his Street Cries (1983) for solo clarinet.

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Example #53

measures 6-7, mvt. I

measures 36-7, mvt. I

These repetitions are not only a quarter-tone removed, but also display a strikingly
different timbre. Measure 7 is not only much softer than measure 6, but has a thinner
sound. Measure 37 sounds thicker and darker than measure 36. This echo technique is
also employed in the second movement (Example #54).

Example #54

measures 23-4, mvt. II

In this example, the repetition sounds much darker because of its quarter-tones, lower
dynamic level, and shift to the lower register.

Mabry employs another timbre manipulation in a completely different context in the
first movement. The very dark quality of the quarter-tones in measures 8 and 9 adds
another dimension to the conflicting patterns of pitch and articulation (Example #55).

22

Example #55

measures 8-9, mvt. I

One more example of timbre contrast in the first movement occurs in measure 38,
where the D-flat should be fingered in the following manner to preserve the bright
quality of the line (Example #56).

Example #56

This helps to vividly contrast the thick timbres of measure 37.

A final illustration in Mabry's Street Cries of timbre contrast through quarter-tones is
drawn from the third movement. A "composite fingering" is used to produce four
different pitches with very minimal technical changes. This fingering helps to produce
substantial timbre differences as well as dynamic differences among the four pitches
(Example #57).

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Example #57

Akira Nishimura wrote Madoromi III in 2003, commissioned by and dedicated to the
Tanosaki-Richards Duo. The work makes extensive use of quarter-tones and microtones
which support the program of the music.

Translated to English, madoromi means ‘under the spell of sleep….a strong desire (or
lack of resistance) to sleep…drift into sleep with strong power.' The type of sleep, itself
is shallow, but the dreams that one experiences are often more realistic than reality. I
wanted to write music that floats between the surface wave of this inner world.

In the passage below, Nishimura writes quarter-tones for the clarinet that combine with
acoustical beats from the piano pedaling and clusters to create music that fades in and
out of focus. This focus is further affected by the extreme color contrasts (dark and
muffled) of the clarinet G quarter-tone sharp and F quarter-tone-sharp, and the alternate
fingerings for D and D-sharp, with the conventional pitches of its line. The clarinet's
easy microtonal segment on G also enhances the acoustic beats from its interaction with
the sustained piano chords.

. They are available in three different classifications: 1) trills between adjacent quarter-tones and standard half-steps. 24 Example #67 Quarter-Tone Trills and Tremolos Numerous trills and tremolos that utilize quarter-tones are practical. and 3) trills between two quarter-tone fingerings. 2) tremolos between non-adjacent quarter-tones and standard half-steps. Several examples from each area are outlined below.

The tension of an ascending quarter-tone line in the third movement is effectively heightened with quarter-tone trills (Example #74). 25 Drake Mabry successfully employs quarter-tone trills in his Street Cries for solo clarinet. .

III A different set of quarter-tone trills is utilized later in the same movement (Example #75). Horizontal . accurate microtonal segments of intervals smaller than thirty-second tones are often possible and quite easy to produce. and sixteenth tones. mvt. in order to permit convenient comparisons. quarter. One-Octave Microtonal Scales. both horizontally and vertically. twelfth. eighth. mvt. It's full range of microtonal possibilities has been largely undocumented. Non-Equidistant Microtones Microtones The clarinet has long been capable of producing microtones smaller than quarter-tones. Example #75 measures 46-7. sixth. Disjunct Microtonal Segments. III Equidistant Microtones. Equidistant Microtones Equidistant microtones are represented in Table #10. 26 Example #74 measures 29-31. In fact. but has rarely been asked to do so. These microtones are arranged proportionally on the page.

since equidistant pitches are not always available.Equidistant Quarter. TABLE #10 . Eighth. Twelfth & Sixteenth Tones . Sixth. 27 brackets ( [ ] ) mark the length of uninterrupted scale segments.

Disjunct Microtonal Segments One-Octave Microtonal Scales Scales can be formed from microtones that present fascinating pitch or timbre relationships when written for clarinet. . All are fairly easy for the clarinetist to master. TABLE #11 . Several examples follow which have been arbitrarily chosen because of their bright or dark timbre qualities or symmetrical pitch patterns. several disjunct segments of eighth and quarter-tones are particularly easy to negotiate. Example #92 presents a ten-note scale in the chalumeau register that exploits dark timbres. 28 In addition to the illustrated conjunct segments that are technically easy to produce in a legato fashion.

29 Example #92 An equidistant scale of sixteen 3/8 tones is represented in Example #93. . Example 95 is arranged in an eighth-quarter pattern. Example 94 is arranged in an eighth-quarter-quarter-eighth pattern. based on condensed interval patterns of the octatonic scale (alternating whole and half steps). are shown in Examples 94 and 95. Example #93 Thirty-two note scales.

30 Example #94 Example #95 .

conjunct microtones for clarinet according to pitch from G-sharp 2 to B quarter-tone sharp 6. TABLE #12 . The relative space between fingerings corresponds to actual pitch distance.Microtonal Scale . 31 Microtonal Scale (not equidistant) The following table presents practical. and each system (line) represents one quarter-tone.

32 Disjunct Microtones - Several easy segments of disjunct microtonal motion have been arbitrarily set down in the following table.Disjunct Microtonal Motion . These involve chromatic and diatonic finger patterns of the right hand. TABLE #14 .

from low to high. They have been organized here according to the frequency of the basic pitch that the trill originates from. and. "Pitch pop" relates to a precise pitch that is generated when the trill is performed softly with very hard finger movement. a collection of trills termed "atypical" has been gathered to demonstrate some unique sounds that can be easily produced as part of certain microtonal trills. apparent low frequencies that comprise part of a multiphonic sonority. a microtonal trill (see Chapter IV for further examples). usually at a very soft dynamic level. The lower notes in parentheses. A short description follows each trill fingering in order to elaborate on its characteristics and possible variations. The pitches or arrows above the staff in parentheses represent the pitch frequency that is produced when the trill key or finger is engaged. and as either louder or softer than. These sounds include pitched key clicks or finger slaps that can be heard simultaneously with. . 33 Atypical Trills Finally. microtonal trills that consist of pitches with extremely contrasted timbres. are evident as part of a multiphonic when the trill is performed very softly. described as pp-p.

34 TABLE #17 .Atypical Trills .

"14 Nevertheless. pitches which are not logically explained as the odd-partials of a given fundamental. When a multiple sonority is produced. which consist of one pitch produced from a single fundamental.it appears that it possesses a greater latitude of variation than the margin for error would impose even in computations on as elementary a level as those made here. with regard to our interpretation of numerical figures to draw conclusions about the acoustical characteristics of the clarinet. however. the more accurate acoustical explanation of clarinet multiphonics is much more complex and not universally agreed upon.13 He cautions us. our problem here is to discover how they explain the phenomenon of multiple sounds." Again. Ronald Caravan has suggested some interesting theories in his 1974 dissertation. "The human variable. or partials from another fundamental. results from spectrum analyses that he conducted fuel speculation that more than one fundamental and set of overtones are present in each multiple sound.Multiple Sounds Some acoustical principles of clarinet multiple sounds The general acoustic principles of the clarinet have been previously discussed.11 It is obvious that multiple sounds are based on partials of a fundamental pitch.. In reality. since it invites comparison to string harmonics." pertaining to partials produced according to the standard overtone series from a fundamental pitch. they are not always related as odd partials of one likely fundamental. but why are there such drastic timbre differences between multiple sounds and between individual pitches of one multiple sound? There must be more to an explanation of the acoustics of multiphonics. Where do these unrelated partials come from. may actually be out-of-tune. Early acoustical descriptions of woodwind multiphonics often refer to them as "harmonics.. a comparison with string double or triple stops is not appropriate. 35 CHAPTER 3 . since each multiple sound has a different texture as well as a different timbre and intensity for each of its tones. then? The answer may be related in some way to the even partials that exist in particular clarinet spectra mentioned by Backus and others. However. Unfortunately.12 These findings are important when one considers the derivation of pitches in clarinet multiple sounds. which must be present to produce the sounds is great. Another misnomer is the labeling of multiphonics as "chords. even-partials. . It is clear that multiple sounds are based on partials of at least one fundamental. many terms used to describe multiple sounds are misleading and oversimplified. it appears that there are actually two tube lengths at work simultaneously (Example #1).. This is a dangerous usage.

these control the length of the longer tube (L2). left hand) behaves as the terminating hole of the shorter tube (Caravan calls this L1). Example #2 The upper pitches. the terminating hole of tube L1 (open hole in the left hand fingering) also functions as a register opening or vent for L2. it appears that the open hole (second finger. It is significant that the left hand fingering remains the same. however. and cause the higher pitch. which shows a sequence of multiphonics with a lowest pitch that changes very little from one to the next (Example #2). and to a lesser extent the lower pitch. The right hand fingers gradually are lifted (in a chromatic or microtonal ascending motion). gradually progress upwards. but is slightly lower because of the additional fingers on the right hand placed over holes. This is similar to a E3 fingering. of the multiphonic to gradually ascend. 36 Example #1 This seems to be supported by the following example." THE REGISTER-TERMINATOR HOLE PERFORMS TWO SIMULTANEOUS FUNCTIONS: IT TERMINATES THE SHORTER TUBE AND ACTS AS A REGISTER OPENING OR VENT FOR THE LONGER TUBE. Thus. Caravan has labeled this hole the "register-terminator hole. .

37

Obviously, since all fingerings on the clarinet with these characteristics do not produce
multiple sounds with the same ease, there must be particular limitations to the register-
terminator hole. Caravan believes, through a series of informal tests, that the size of the
diameter of the register-terminator hole is crucial to the ease of multiphonic production.
Decreasing the size of a successful register-terminator hole lessens the ease with which
the hole can be made to act as the end of a length of pipe (L1); increasing the size of a
successful register-terminator hole increases the ease with which this hole can act as the
terminator of a length of tube, but decreases its ability to act as a register hole for the
longer tube (L2). In other words, the smaller the opening of the register-terminator hole,
the greater the tendency to act exclusively as a register hole, and the larger the opening,
the greater the tendency to act exclusively as the effective termination of a tube length.
This theory can be used to explain why multiphonics that use the conventional register
key, which has a small opening, as their register-terminator hole are more difficult to
produce.

Caravan has also hypothesized that the ratio between the length of tube 1 and tube 2
must also be more than 50% and less than 80% for a multiple sound to work well.
However, he admits that the size of the register-terminator hole most likely effects the
relative success of these ratios. The number of variables are, indeed, numerous.

With these theories in mind, the pitches of a multiple sound in Example #2 can be
explained as follows:

The lowest pitch of a) is derived from tube length L1 (c). This pitch (a sharp D3) is
lower than E3 because of the added fingers of the left and right hand below the register-
terminator tone hole (2nd finger of the left hand). The G4 and C-sharp5 found in
multiphonic a) are produced from tube length L2 (b). This tube length would normally
produce the 3rd (E4) and 5th (C-sharp5) partials above its fundamental (A3). The
middle pitch of multiphonic a) is a minor third higher than the normal third partial (G4
instead of E4) because of the excessive size of the terminator hole.

It has often been noted that the same multiphonic fingering will not produce the same
pitches for different players, or even for the same player from one day to the next. It is
true that on equipment of the same system (Boehm, for example), the precise pitch
content may not be consistent; however, these are very minor variations, at least in the
multiple sounds presented in this study. These inconsistencies can result from any of a

38

variety of reasons; an unbalanced reed, an insufficiently warmed-up instrument, specific
mouthpiece characteristics, or customized clarinets, are four frequent causes. More
likely, however, are deficiencies found in the construction of all clarinets and/or
properties of the acoustical phenomena involved. As Paul Drushler points out, the
clarinet is very much out of tune in its upper register (based on upper partials).15 As a
result, fingerings must be altered to play single pitches. However, fingerings can not be
changed for each pitch of a multiple sound; they, therefore tend to be out of equal-
tempered tuning, very often creating acoustical beats (amplitude modulation or
interference tones) which can change markedly according to the adjustment of the reed
and mechanics of the instrument. In addition, the combination of sonorities in a multiple
sound may often produce difference or summation tones.16 Difference tones may only
be audible if the pitches of the multiple sound are in tune and at an adequate volume.
All of these acoustical phenomena may alter principle pitches, add new pitches, or
appear to the ear to do either (often they change or fade in and out during the period of
sustain of the multiple sound).17 Spectrum analyses by Caravan indicate that the
strengths and tunings of partials which comprise multiple sounds do not remain in a
very stable relationship among one another while the sound is produced, even though
the composite sound may appear to remain constant to the listener.18 One more variable
that comes into play is the fact that pitches in a multiple sound may alter because of the
adjustments required of the player to produce the split sonority; this will generally lower
pitches (Example #2 is a good illustration).

Caravan presents some other valuable, although more general, insights as to why certain
multiphonic fingerings seem to work better than others. "Important to note is that the
smaller the degree of departure from normal playing practices a multiphonic fingering
requires, the more manageable it is."19 This is logical, since the instrument has been
built to deal with problems of standard performance practice. Multiphonics built from
new, but technically feasible, fingerings are closer to standard performance practice
than multiphonics produced from conventional fingerings through varying the oral
cavity, breath pressure, and/or embouchure. Extreme flexibility of embouchure and
breath, as well as flexible mouthpiece and reed set-ups, have long been characteristics
of jazz players. Thus, it is not surprising that many of William O. Smith's multiphonics
are produced by this manner. The author supports Caravan's statement about the
unpredictability of this type of multiple sound. "The problem with multiphonics
produced in this way is that in most cases they require such significant adjustments on
the part of the performer that they tend to be very difficult to play, tend to be quite
unstable and limited in dynamic range, and may not be attainable by every
performer."20 Composers should be cautious when writing such sonorities.

Chart of Multiple Sounds for Clarinet

The following chart has been compiled from hundreds of musical compositions, and
experiments; it has been checked by numerous players for accuracy. I have striven to
organize the material according to acoustic principles of the clarinet and basic principles
of clarinet technique. All of the multiple sounds presented are playable on any
traditional professional mouthpiece/reed set-up. They demand only slight deviations
from normal finger expectations and embouchure.

Many previous studies have organized multiple sounds according to verbal descriptions
of categories of production and/or sound, regardless of acoustical relationships. This

39

study employs acoustical relationships as the first order of organization, and briefly
describes characteristics of each multiple sound (see explanation of notation, below). Of
course, it is impossible to discuss every conceivable context for a particular multiple
sound. BE SURE TO CONSULT A CLARINETIST ABOUT FEASIBLE CONTEXTS
FOR PARTICULAR MULTIPLE SOUNDS.

Multiple sounds have been placed in groups (labeled by letter, beginning with those
with the lowest fundamental); a common denominator within each group is an identical
register/terminator hole. In other words, the left hand fingering remains constant within
a group. The multiple sounds are ordered according to the right hand fingerings which
ascend in chromatic or microtonal intervals. Care has been taken to insure that these
groups are playable as sequences; this means limited (minimum) finger movement, and
a lack of contrary motion, wherever possible. The fastest possible tempo of legato
connections of multiphonics within a group has been notated between the staves:

very fast

fast

moderately fast

moderate

not possible

A broken vertical line ( ) between multiple sounds in a group indicates that a legato
connection is not possible, even though the adjacent sounds utilize the same series of
partials. A double bracket ( [ ] ) between sounds in a group indicates that a legato
connection is not possible, because the series of partials changes.

Groups of multiple sounds with the same letter label (ie. A, A1, A2 etc.) utilize slightly
different, but related left hand fingerings (different vents). For example, left-hand
fingerings in Group A1 differ from Group A only through the addition of the register
key. Left-hand fingerings in Group A2 differ from Group A only through the addition of
the A-key, etc. The close technical relation of these groups makes numerous trills and
tremolos possible between them (discussed later). Left-hand fingerings for A represent
the lowest bottom pitches - left-hand fingerings for Z, the highest bottom pitches.

It is important to note that each multiple sound listed is available in isolation; it need not
be connected to another. Various characteristics of each multiple sound have been
described beneath each example in the chart. The format of this chart, top line to bottom
line, is:

I - a number (1-462) - this number represents the position of this multiple sound in
relation to the others in the chart, according to its lowest (and highest) pitch. The
multiphonic with the lowest low pitch is #1; the multiphonic with the highest low pitch
is #462.

II - dynamic range possible - pp to FF

stability: how stable? a = very stable is the sustain b = moderately stable c = unstable IV . 40 III .some general characteristics deserve mention here: 1) All diads will contain a significant amount of air when played softly. the production and content of these partials are not controllable or reliable. resistant 4 = all sounds appear within 3 seconds. easily 3 = all sounds appear within 2 seconds.response: the time required to begin all sounds of the multiple sound? 1 = all sounds begin simultaneously.timbre and texture .lack of partials dark . However.few higher partials dlbt.dull lowest pitch wide . or dl.pitch is weak. more resistant 5 = all sounds appear within 4-5 seconds.predominant lower partials thin . • All multiple sounds that use keys 3 and/or 4 as register vents will have thin timbres. very resistant V . • Most of the multiple sounds that do not contain undertones are capable of generating higher partials than indicated in the chart when played very loudly. timbre descriptions are divided into 2 categories: a) those which describe individual pitches of a multiple sound b) those which describe the overall texture of a multiple sound dull . lack of partials . easily 2 = all sounds appear within 1 second.b .

(bright) many higher partials brtp . t.t . acoustical beats elc! .tp . thin timbres.some noise in the sound air .(muddy) unclear pitches _______________________ ns .noise in the sound s. 41 _______________________ ft .strong highest pitch _______________________ sbtn .(thick) many pitches thk! .changing amplitudes of pitches (similar to electronic.air sounds apparent in sonority _______________________ bal .acoustical beats caused by out of tune intervals slbt or sbt .(slow acoustical beats) thk .(fat) many partials (low & high) brt or edge .bright highest pitch eltp .electronic "edgy" highest pitch thtp..(acoustical beats) .otherwise) bts .ns .(electronic) 3 or more pitches.h.(balance) all pitches of equal intensity .(raucous electronic) .thin highest pitch wktp .very thick mud .subtone ========================= elc .weak highest pitch s. or th.

d.lw .moderately difficult d.tighter embouchure.difficult .three voices mvc .two pitches (an undertone .(transparent) lite .(light) thin timbres gent .predominant major 3rd (10th) or triad M3! . less air pressure tite .lowest pitch is weaker than the highest) Mtr! . .(hollow) .arpeggiation .capability to begin multiple sound with top or bottom pitch alone.dull timbres rest . gradually adding other pitches: top .high and low pitch (no middle frequencies) tran .looser embouchure.(gentle) dull timbres soft .(hints for easier production) ls! .resistant _______________________ diad . .difficult to produce lowest pitch !tp .major 3rd VI .many voices holl .easy to begin with top pitch bot . more air pressure d. 42 3vc .easy to begin with bottom pitch m.technique .aim for highest pitch VII .

The filled-in note heads indicate secondary pitches. It is important that the fingering for a multiple sound be indicated at . 43 Chart of Multiphonics The notation system used in this chart for multiple sounds on the staff is one which the author hopes will become standardized. All pitches (or as many as possible) in the multiple sound should be written on the staff. which may or may not be present according to the dynamic level of the multiple sound.

moderately fast. much noise) strong acoustic beats in sonority? (not apparent. searchable database of multiphonic fingerings (http:// ) for clarinetists and composers.fastest possible tempo (moderate. 3. mf. very fast) Diads Another category of multiple sounds that has received innovative treatment in several works is diads. The website for The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century has an interactive. bright) The website also has a database for sequences of multiphonics. some noise. resistant. mf. These procedures will greatly assist the clarinetist in learning the music. many) color extremes (none. and tend to have very dull. These sonorities are generally only possible at very soft dynamic levels. very resistant) possible to begin from lowest pitch alone? possible to begin from highest pitch alone? noise in sound? (no noise. more resistant. f. more than 3) softest dynamic possible (pp. f. directly under the sonority. moderately stable. fast. The interval between top and bottom pitches is . some. ff) stability (very stable. unstable) resistance (easy. mp. One may choose multiphonics based on any or all of the variables below: lowest pitch highest pitch number of pitches (2. 44 every occurrence in the music. pale timbres. ff) loudest dynamic possible (pp. mp. p. The searchable variables include: sequence with stationary lowest pitch? Which pitch? sequence with stationary highest pitch Which pitch? easy technical sequences . p. somewhat resistant. dull.

with top pitches commonly between G-sharp4 and C5. Example #23 Drake Mabry. a concerto for clarinet and strings. Many of them are undertones. employs diads that gradually and softly fade in from their lowest pitch. Isolated diads are adopted in Matsuo's Hirai III (1987). by simply releasing the register key. 45 generally either a major or minor tenth. . in his work Street Cries for Solo Clarinet (1983). Example #13 Other conventional fingerings in the clarion and altissimo registers of the clarinet are available for producing marvelous dynamic and timbre contrasts with the throat register. They are blended in a marvelous texture of string harmonics (Example #13).

research. 46 Example #24 Multiphonic Sequences A number of multiphonic sequences are quite easy to produce in legato articulation. In most cases. the multiphonics in the sequence may be played in any order (indicated here). • Moderate tempo.edu/~emrich/multiphonic sequences.html ). any order (click on music for mp3) . Thirteen examples are given below (with indications of fastest possible tempo) – 48 more are available on The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century website ( http://www. umbc.

The top pitches relate to the melodic cell from which the work is generated (Example #41). an American composer from Boston. also writes an effective sequence of multiple sounds in Construction #1 for Clarinet and Electronics. Example #41 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All Rights Reserved Used by permission from the composer . 47 2) any order [A3] (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger.

48 Yuasa creates appropriate musical moods through the use of sound characteristics of the following multiphonics within a phrase: the gentle qualities of #50a serve as a relaxed phrase ending. Example #51 (click on music for mp3) . Example #50 (click on music for mp3) Yuasa also makes very effective use of thick. the variety of dynamic capabilities of #50b permit its use as part of the fpp thematic germ throughout the work (Example #50). distorted multiphonics at the climax of the work.

and how these differences can be projected and transformed through the computer's particular idiom. flute. Flash Metal (2003) for clarinet. how it differs from the clarinet. The piece is in three large sections: an extended flute solo which evolves into a duet with the computer. how the two can combine and intersect. Michael Richards and Lisa Cella). The nature of the flute's acoustic character.S. sole U. The composer writes: The noticeable differences between interesting objects offer engagement with the particularities of the objects themselves and also the less obvious offerings provided by the implied relationships between the objects. and interactive computer (written for E. 49 Joji Yuasa CLARINET SOLITUDE Copyright 1983 by Schott Japan All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation. by Masataka Matsuo. The clarinet solo is based on alternation of spectral focus and diffusion. and a clarinet solo which forms its own context through computer transformation of the live performance. Example #53 (click on music for mp3) Bill Kleinsasser utilizes balanced multiphonics in numerous contexts in Smooth Wood. This work offers a three-fold expression of this idea playing out on many levels with the interplay and juxtaposition of musical differences forming the compositional basis of the work. a duet with flute and clarinet that is augmented by computer transformation. are examples of how objects and relationships . balanced soft multiphonics are interrupted by loud repeated notes in the piano. The duet combines the flute and clarinet alternations with its own metaphor of entwining and fusion. and Canadian agent for Schott Japan In Distraction for clarinet and piano.

diffusing. Example #57 (click on music for mp3) Multiphonic Trills and Tremolos The subject of multiphonic trills and tremolos will be briefly broached here. 50 permeate this music. except where brackets or dotted lines intercede. Trills between adjacent multiple sounds in the chart presented (different right-hand fingerings) in this chapter are possible.25 Farmer's book includes detailed diagrams of each individual trill. filtering. and reflecting what the acoustic instruments play. The example below occurs at the beginning of the middle section of the music – the clarinet and flute multiphonics intersect closely. sharing many of the same pitches. echoing. The computer music. aware architecture – variably resonating. In addition. developed by the composer using Max/MSP software. In this way the computer can be considered analogous to fluid. but a number of acoustic beats result from the blend. the reader is referred to the book by Gerald Farmer as an excellent source of half-tone or larger trills and tremolos. they are possible between multiple sounds with the same right-hand fingering but different left-hand fingering between the following groups: A2 and A3 B and B1 B and B3 E and E1 H2 and H I1 and I . is the result of real-time processing of music played by the flute and clarinet during the performance.

Example #72 (click on music to hear mp3) Another example of diad trills can be found in Yuasa's Clarinet Solitude . Example #73 (click on music for mp3) Joji Yuasa CLARINET SOLITUDE Copyright 1983 by Schott Japan . The phrase eventually builds to a fortissimo climax. 51 K and K1 K2 and K Carlo Landini uses one particular trill in Konzertstuck which is periodically interrupted by melodic fragments. these particular diads are effective loud as well as soft. These are only possible at very soft levels and are especially effective with "hard fingers" that emphasize the pitch pops of the tone holes being trilled.

sole U. The trills with open left hand thumb hole in this example are easier to control than any in the Smith example. Phan also writes a sequence of multiphonic trills ( My Language for clarinet and piano) where the register key is trilled. and Canadian agent for Schott Japan P. Example #77 (click on music for mp3) Example #77a A spectrogram of the phrase above clearly demonstrates the increased tension of these multiphonics. This rising line has been appended recently by Phan to include more multiphonics (Example #77a). 52 All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation. #77) contain most of their energy in the fundamentals. since the left thumb does not have to simultaneously cover the tone hole and trill the register key.Q. .S. The first trills (ex.

#77a) of the phrase contain very thick pitch bands. and the final trills (ex. Gradually. 53 with some 3 rd partial presence. 2 nd and 4 th partials are added. #1 #2 .

54 #3 #4 There are other multiphonics that can be enhanced through a register key trill (Example #78). .

the sound increases in complexity. Tracks 91-99) A spectrogram for the eighth example above shows a tremolo that contains 3rd and 5th partials (gradually enter). . As these voices and partials enter. along with a sustained pitch with a strong 2nd partial. 55 Example #78 (CD3-Examples.

. the player hums above and below the established sung/played unison. although checking with a specific performer is advisable. the following register for singing (notated at sounding pitch) is usually safe. These particular sounds are very difficult to play FF. it is difficult to achieve a balance in volume between the two. For the male voice. Eve de Castro Robinson also employs vocal portamento in her Undercurrents for solo clarinet. on the phoneme "ah" or "oo" is most effective and controllable. creating acoustic beating. vocal production becomes much more difficult. the clarinet is usually louder. Example #85 As one sings higher in this range. or humming. but the hard finger/key sounds of the trill fingerings can help to create the necessary tension. Singing. 56 Bill Kleinsasser writes two multiple timbre trills (diads) in Smooth Wood. Track 79) Multiphonics with Voice A final division of multiple sounds to be described here involves a simultaneous use of the voice with the production of a clarinet tone. Example #83 (CD3-Music. In the example below. Flash Metal . In general.

Example #92 (click music for mp3) . Example #91 (click music for mp3) Seiji Yokokawa asks the clarinetist to sing a three note phrase with portamenti while playing a sustained E2 (Un miroir casse ). 57 Example #90 (click music for mp3) This idea returns at the end of the work. where the phrase ends with an ascending shriek in the voice.

58 Later in the work. the interested clarinetist should design and practice his own. these have not been placed in a graded order of difficulty that will accustom one to the sensation or improve one's auditory image. the basic principle of imitating with the voice what one plays seems to be a sensible starting point. Example #93 (click on music for mp3) Gerald Farmer has presented exercises for the clarinetist to increase his abilities to sing and play. The following exercises should serve as merely suggestions.play a pattern above this drone .begin in unison (Example 94a) . However. the sung part is reduced to a single held pitch. Four approaches appear below: 1) sing a drone pitch .26 However.

edu/~emrich/multiphonicspectra.umbc. It is important to note that the spectrum of practically every multiphonic changes (at least subtly) during its duration – the sound is constantly transforming. 59 2) play a drone . . The duration of each multiphonic is between 2 and 7 seconds.research.e.sing the same pattern that was played in #1 (Example 94b) 3) sing and play in parallel 3rds (Example 94c) Spectrograms Spectrograms of a number of multiphonics follow (many more are available on The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century website – http://www.html). mf is the middle dynamic level). These diagrams represent the indicated multiphonic played at its middle dynamic level (i. if p-ff is possible.

phys. Directly below is a note to frequency converter (taken from the website of the Physics Department of The University of New South Wales. and darkness/lightness indicates the relative amplitude (strength) of components of the sound. 60 In the spectrograms.html). that gives a context for the spectrograms.au/~jw/notes. height indicates frequency (hz. Australia – http://www.). Sydney.edu. NON-TRANSPOSED (written B4 for clarinet = A 440). or pitch of the fundamental(s) and partials. . length (horizontal) indicates duration.unsw.

. 2nd of E. partials through 5000 hz. 61 22) E-99 : D ¾ 3 = 294 B5 = 880 E5 = 1175 5th of D ¾.

62 23) E1-184 : F ¼ 3 = 311 F#4 = 659 C#5 = 988 2nd partial of C#. some 3rd and 4th partials .

strong frequency band 1000-2000. 63 24) E1-226 : F#3 = 330 F5 = 1245 2nd and strong 3rd partial of F#. 25) E1-398 : G#3 = 370 D ¾ 5 = 1109 5th partial of G#. 2nd partial of D# .000 hz. up to 20.

we will move on to discuss the much more difficult portamento. He presents an example."the connection of two tones by a smooth slide which passes through all of the possible pitches or frequencies between the two tones without interruption. of course. throat opening. A variety of explanations and methods have been suggested for portamento.3 This lower pitch must be maintained in parallel motion by the embouchure as the fingered pitches begin to move upwards or downwards. sliding glissando. The music of Eonta effectively combines steady pitches with slow portamenti. oral cavity shape."2 The continuous movement of a trombone slide. oral cavity shape. or with an abrupt change in fingering just as the portamento begins. even though they have been clearly defined in earlier texts on new clarinet techniques. in a somewhat confusing way. for example). constantly changing rate of acoustical beating. 64 CHAPTER 4 . which greatly assist in clearly defining pitches.Other Resources Sounds of Definite Pitch - Glissando/Portamento These terms are still often used interchangeably. Garborino discusses. that involves a portamento from C4 to C5 (Example #1)." This technique is possible without a great deal of difficulty throughout the range of the clarinet (it is. and throat opening to produce a lower pitch from the fingering employed. Neither method seems to be dependable in practice. and fingers. what he labels as an "acciaccatura-portamento. The sound has entered the avant-garde repertoire most surely as a result of influences from jazz vocalists and clarinetists (including its widely known use in Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue . At any rate. creating a marvelous. to illustrate his point. Caravan has given us a proper definition . Phillip Rehfeldt recommends adjustments in lip pressure. air pressure. Ronald Caravan states that portamento is produced primarily by manipulating the shape of the oral cavity by means of tongue position changes.1 Part of the problem may result from the use of these terms by performers of instruments (string.5 Embouchure adjustment and tone hole uncovering are not as important. brass) on which the glissando is executed in a different fashion."4 This is realized with the lips by either relaxing or squeezing the embouchure at the moment that the portamento begins.1924). we will define the glissando as "a rapid chromatic scale between two notes . . tongue position. Xenakis (in Eonta ) and Haubenstock-Ramati were among the first to extensively employ portamento in post-1945 music.it is desirable to slightly blur these notes (by speed) so that they are not distinct. for example. these instruments do not have keys (or as many keys). Portamento can be described as a continuously smooth. evenly- spaced in time. or a string player's finger slid along a single string yields similar effects. in addition to influences from the common practice of "circumlocution" (pitch sliding and bending) found in many non-western traditional musics (Japanese and West African. more difficult if required over one of the two "breaks" of the instrument). Since it is rather easily produced. All involve lip pressure. although in different hierarchical positions of importance. pitches.

mastering the required technique (tongue and throat position control) for this skill is applicable to all other (including ascending) portamenti. a series of downward tone bends can be linked to form a longer portamento. Eventually. these should be practiced first. what the dynamic level is. however. What he fails to mention. in Time. is how much time this portamento is to take from beginning to end. it is a capability that can be extended with practice. These factors all determine the role of embouchure and fingers. . Since downward tone bends are the most difficult. or what its shape in time should be (Example #2). 65 Example #1 Caravan contends that all fingers of the right hand may be lifted simultaneously and all fingers of the left hand may be lifted simultaneously without affecting the portamento. The following table delineates the possible safe range of downward pitch bends 6 This skill very much depends on the player and the flexibility of his equipment!! However. of Portamenti Caravan does offer some good suggestions for learning portamento production. Example #2 Possible Shapes.

and one from C5 to C6 (altissimo register) .through a switch to an alternate fingering on the two pitches that are in common between registers (B4 and C5) (Example #3). one from B4 to C5 (clarion register). the resultant "bump" heard during this switch. Example #3 The first of these portamenti is accomplished by adjustments in tongue and throat positions. the next logical step is to practice ascending bends. Charles West has developed a methodology for the production of a continuous ascending portamento from G2 to C6(!).one from G2 to B4 (chalumeau and throat registers). The throat A key. it is important that the left thumb never completely leave the thumb ring. and side key 3 (b-flat) are gradually added to bring the pitch up to B4. The side fingering for B4 is then switched to the long B4 fingering (Example #4). but in the other two as well. followed by series of ascending bends. 66 Table #1 After one has practiced series of downward tone bends. West . or disguise as much as possible. in addition to a sliding of the fingers from the tone holes (G2 to G3). This needs to be practiced to avoid. register key. not only in this portamento.7 This is possible by connecting three separate portamenti .

and side trill keys 3 and 4 (remember to keep the thumb ring down). It is learned most quickly by working on one of the three sections at a time. being careful to practice linking one section to the first note of the next section. . The link to the altissimo register is accomplished by lightly touching the long C-quarter-tone-sharp 5 fingering (which is actually bent down by the relaxed throat and embouchure to C natural) (Example #5). 67 presents a valuable hint when he suggests that the long B4 be played with the A key depressed so that it may more closely match the timbre of the side B4 fingering. West also offers some worthy ideas with regard to practicing this portamento. Example #4 The second portamento is accomplished in a similar fashion to the first. A key. B4 to C5 involves essentially the same fingerings as G2 to F3. Example #5 Fingerings for C-quarter-tone-sharp 5 to G-sharp 5 are accomplished by merely imitating those for chalumeau G-sharp to throat F. register key. The final major third (G-sharp 5 - C6) is achieved by adding the A-flat key.

and chalumeau registers. an alternate fingering for G5 (shown below in Example #24a) will allow the player to more effectively control a pp dynamic. because it is written with a cresc. 68 The long portamento that Phan writes in the introduction of My Language for clarinet and piano is not difficult to play. and key vibrato. even though it is at a slow tempo. Akira Nishimura asks the clarinetist for numerous portamenti in the altissimo. In the example below. Example #12 (click on music for mp3) Isao Matsushita writes a number of short clarion register portamenti in Kochi II for solo clarinet. flutter-tongue. Example #16 (click on music for mp3) In Madoromi III . to FFF and is strongly supported by the piano. . Other timbre transformations in this early section of the music include vibrato. clarion.

The fingerings indicated next to D-sharp 5 and C-sharp 5 in measures 3-4 below can be trilled to create quarter-tone trills. one should first gradually lower the first finger of the right hand. then gradually peeling off the fingers to the alternate G5 fingering indicated in the second measure. Example #24a . Finally. In order to achieve a smoother portamento from A5 to F4. 69 Example #24 (click on music for mp3) A smooth portamento can be created from D-flat 5 to G5 by carefully switching to the second fingering indicated below. The long downward portamento from this G to D-sharp 5 is executed by slowly lowering the second finger of the left hand and loosening the embouchure. then the third finger of the left hand (measure 5). the portamento from E4 to D-flat4 can be executed by first adding the F key to E4.

70 Teeth on Reed Portamento is also possible by moving the teeth lightly on the reed from about midway down to further away (towards the shoulder) from the tip. high- pitched whistling sound that can be played in the dynamic range pp-f. . squeaky sounds are used to periodically interrupt a softly held unison trill (Example #29). Non-portamento changes in pitch can be executed by either altering the pressure on the reed. Carlo Landini writes this way in Konzertstuck for solo clarinet (1980).000 hz. which can not really be infallibly controlled according to pitch. or by moving the teeth to a different position on the reed. jumps in partials are unavoidable. These sounds. some lower subtones are also present. with a weaker pitch band from the 3rd partial upwards to 20. However. The safest context for pitches produced by teeth on the reed is one that calls for random pitches. the portamento will not always be smooth. Example #29 (click on music for mp3) This phrase is best played by randomly moving the fingers of the left hand to change the pitches. Similar to muted pitches. where explosive high. tend to range from D- sharp 6 upwards (depending on qualities of the reed). A spectrogram of these sounds shows a strong fundamental and 2nd partial. The result will be a thin. much like portamento harmonics on the contrabass (sounds that are reminiscent of seagulls).

Indications of duration may be notated proportionally by a horizontal line (Example #31). this time as an isolated portamento scream. Some of these objects will only vibrate when set in motion by particular pitches of the clarinet. This area has not been explored in depth by clarinetists or composers. is written by Helmut Lachenmann in Dal Niente (Interieur III) for solo clarinet (Example #30). 71 Another use of teeth on the reed. It is accomplished by playing the clarinet "into" the strings (with the bell at a distance of . the following examples merely touch the surface of options. Example #30 (CD4-Music. others will vibrate differently when generated by any of many possible clarinet sounds. Track 22) A good notational symbol for teeth on reed is . Setting the strings of the piano in vibration is one technique that has been employed by composers (one of the earliest examples occurred in Eonta by Xenakis). Example #31 Other Objects as Resonators Different and provocative sounds may be created when other objects are placed in vibration by sounds from the clarinet.

depending on the volume of the clarinet. 72 anywhere from 2 feet to practically resting on the strings) while the sustain pedal of the piano is depressed (Yamaha currently sells a wedge to hold the pedal in place!). The result is a gradual increase in complexity of texture. . the clarinetist activates a timpanum that contains an inverted cymbal on its head. by playing a low E (full tube length) which crescendos to a short flutter-tongued E. The quarter tones and pitch bends in the clarinet part of Nishimura's Aquatic Aura also produce sympathetic vibrations from the piano that are generated as soon as the sustain pedal is depressed . but some of their partials as well. Example #38 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger also explores the resonance of the timpani in Construction #1 - Clarinet (1980). number of notes played. Several different combinations of clarinet sounds and timpani that include vibrating objects resting on their heads. This allows not only the fundamental pitches played to vibrate sympathetically. The clarinetist depresses the timpanum pedal at the end of this sound to lengthen and raise the pitch (Example #40). In one phrase. and length of time that the pedal is held. are employed.

while the pedal is quickly depressed and released several times (Example #41). 73 Example #40 (click on music for mp3) This same timpanum is also later activated by a phoneme that is shouted through the clarinet. .

74 Example #41 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer One more object as resonator will be mentioned. and air sounds. The timbre qualities of these sounds change depending on the length of tube involved. Example #45 (click on music for mp3) . In Kochi II for solo clarinet. and that is the clarinet body itself which serves as an amplifier of breath/air sounds through the instrument. Isao Matsushita begins the work by alternating between conventional chalumeau pitches.

To add to this state of chaos. The difference in amplitude (or loudness) of these fluctuations is severely limited. Pitch vibrato is achieved by the clarinetist through fluctuations of jaw (or lip) pressure on the reed. Example #56 (click on music for mp3) . while Drushler claims the opposite to be true!26 It seems to the author that pitch vibrato is more intriguing for the composer. it would be best for composers to notate it when desired. because the method of production is often used to describe vibrato. Confusion exists in method books. There will be slight timbre differences in the sound. Rate of vibrato should be displayed ( six to eight pulsations per second is a reasonable upper limit). because the reed is being pinched. rather than the type of sound. or throat. Since most clarinetists today do not employ vibrato. and among clarinetists. indicated in the following manner (Example #55). Amplitude vibrato is produced by fluctuations in air pressure past the reed. Rehfeldt says that jaw vibrato is more common than amplitude vibrato in practice. Example #55 (click on music for mp3) Depth (pitch) can also be indicated (as Paul Zonn does in Revolution ). 75 Vibrato There are two different types of vibrato: amplitude (or volume) and pitch. because it is much richer and varied in sound potential. glottis. but the perception of these will be directly related to the depth of the vibrato (how wide the pitch range is above and below the primary pitch) and the speed of the vibrato (how many cycles in time). Amplitude vibrato may come from the diaphragm. These are produced on the clarinet by a variety of methods. while pitch vibrato originates with the jaw or lip.

76 Another example of vibrato depth. is found in an etude by the author (Example #57).000 hz. and a frequency band of increasing strength and size from the 3 rd partial higher through 20. a strong 2 nd partial throughout. Other possibilities are below the first example. which is meant to expand a microtonal trill. Example #57 (click on example for mp3) A spectrogram displays the increasing strength of pulses just above the fundamental. .

Track 17) . to sound (or the opposite) (Example #60). The pulsations of air sound similar to the sound that a stylus might make when it reaches the end of a phonograph record. Example #60 (CD4-Examples. 77 Microtonal trill to vibrato (0-7 seconds) Microtonal trill to vibrato (7-14 seconds) Pitch vibrato is also possible to produce in a gradual progression from air only.

Op. flutter-tonguing by method 2 is feasible from the lowest pitch of the clarinet through C- sharp/D 5 at any dynamic range. An early use in the clarinet solo repertoire can be found in Alban Berg's Four Pieces Op. or 2) a growl produced by the throat (typically a trilled throat 'r') in a manner similar to gargling. "d-r-r-r" (or a rolled "r" on the upper palate). 78 Flutter-Tonguing Flutter-tonguing on the clarinet is achieved by one of two methods: 1) a rapid flutter of the tongue behind the reed.click here for mp3 of b Alban Berg FOUR PIECES FOR CLARINET AND PIANO. fleeting texture (Example #61b). 5 Copyright 1924 by Universal Edition Copyright Renewed All rights reserved . where the trumpets are asked to imitate bleating sheep. is difficult to achieve at soft or changing dynamic levels. but becomes increasingly more difficult. and for creating a blurred. Flutter- tonguing is used here for two different musical reasons: for intensifying a phrase (Example #61a). which can be achieved by fewer players. The first method. It is also possible to produce on higher pitches. especially at a pp dynamic level. 5 for clarinet and piano (1913). In general. The first use of flutter-tonguing can be found in Strauss' Don Quixote . The second method does not produce as dramatic of a tone modification. but is possible throughout a greater range of the instrument. Example #61 click here for mp3 of a .

S. Example #62 (click on music for mp3) • intensification • blurred. 79 Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation. afterthought Harold Seletsky ROBIN'S PIECE All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer Sounds of Indefinite Pitch - Singing through the clarinet (with mouthpiece attached) Singing through the clarinet on various vowel sounds can create interesting formants (reinforced harmonics) when one lifts the fingers of either (or both) hand from their tone . and Canadian agent for Universal Edition Harold Seletsky utilizes it for similar reasons in his work of 1978. sole U. Robin's Piece (Example #62).

80 holes. but since it is echoed shortly thereafter in the tape part. Other variations include adding a growl-like flutter or vocal portamento. aw. . the sound is quite dark here. Since F2 uses most of the clarinet body as a resonator. and oo. o. In the fourth section of Attracteurs Etranges for clarinet and computer tape. Example #66 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer This sound is even more pronounced if the player takes more mouthpiece than normal into his mouth. as fast as possible (Example #66). the player should base his sound on what is produced on the tape. It is also possible to re-articulate this sound in an interesting way by pronouncing "le" with the tongue on the roof of the mouth. The clarinetist is required to sing a drone pitch (B-flat) while fingering a perpetual F major scale from E2 to F3 and back. Richard Boulanger asks for this technique in Construction #1 for solo clarinet (1980). The sound will change drastically between the following vowel sounds: ee. He does not specify the vowel sound or timbre of this sung pitch. Jean Claude Risset writes a repeated low F for the clarinetist to sing through the clarinet (the notation indication is a box around the pitch).

from sound. Richard Boulanger asks the clarinetist to alter a gesture that is gradually becoming softer (dim. to key clicks in Construction #1 (Example #76). to air. Most of these percussive sounds are fairly soft. despite the dynamic markings. some must be amplified to be clearly heard. This is another area that has only been lightly investigated by composers or performers. indefinite or approximate pitch) are possible on the clarinet that also contain percussive elements. Example #76 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All rights reserved . 81 Example #67 (click on music for mp3) Percussive Sounds A variety of sounds (definite pitch.).

82

Used by permission from the composer

Helmut Lachenmann has developed a more complex system in Dal Niente . The
notation, described below, includes a symbol for blowing on the reed with the
instrument held a short distance from the mouth (Example #78).

Example #78

These subtle filtered color changes are exploited in numerous phrases; the music is very
expressive, despite few standard pitches! In the following example ( Dal Niente ), note
the interaction of fine changes in color between inhale/exhale, S/F consonants, short
tube (G3) to long tube (E2), and dynamics/attacks (fffp - pp - p cresc.) (Example #79)

Example #79 (click on music for mp3)

Helmut Lachenmann DAL NIENTE

Copyright 1974 by Musikverlag Hans Gerig, Koln/Cologne

83

1980 assigned to Breitkopf & Hartel, Wiesbaden

The sound of a finger striking a tone hole can also invoke a pitch. These sounds can be
best produced by one of the three fingers of the left hand, while fingering notes from C3
to E2. They can also be sounded simultaneously with a very soft conventional tone
(Table #4).

Table #4 (click on measure for mp3)

Double trills on the clarinet can be achieved by rapidly and alternately trilling the first
and second fingers of the left hand. The sound created (soft dynamic level) is one of
implied pitch, over which one hears a sound similar to a muffled tom-tom roll. These
trills are possible for fingerings from B3 to E2, from which implied pitches between D-

84

sharp3 and D3 are derived (if the register key is depressed, the implied pitches lie
between F-sharp 3 and F3). There is also a timbre conversion towards darker sounds as
one fingers lower pitches (Table #5). An etude by the author, found at the end of this
chapter, exploits several of these trills.

Table #5 (click on measure for mp3)

Akira Nishimura effectively writes a short cadenza of double trills in Madoromi III . In
the example below, these trills emerge from and return into the ringing piano chords.
This delicate texture allows the very soft subtleties of these sounds to be heard.

Example #88 (click on music for mp3)

Drake Mabry has the woodwinds (including E-flat clarinet) and brass whisper. Furthermore. In addition. in unison. Example #92 (click on music for mp3) The following consonant transients are especially effective on the clarinet as short sounds: T.Mouthpiece ) that have successfully employed speech through instruments. and take on musical qualities! The listener begins to listen to the rhythm. the unison effect and multiple timbres is mesmerizing. Words begin to sound similar to other words. Y. shape.40 In a section from The Black Wall illustrated below.General Speech ) and solo trumpet (Kenneth Gaburo .39 Part of the beauty of this technique is the production of ambiguous meanings through different shades of intelligibility of the text. lines from the poem that inspired the work. H. 85 Speaking through the Clarinet (with mouthpiece attached) Works have been written for solo trombone (Robert Erickson . and Th (touch reed). all of the phonemes below are plausible: . W. Even though the text is unintelligible. which is not the case in classic recitatives. K. and inflection of speech with a new awareness. the theater inherent in this technique reminds one of Liebowitz's comment about sprechstimme : This new way of treating the voice permits the elaboration of melodramatic scenes according to purely musical principles.

86 Table #8 (click here for mp3) a as in act front vowel ng as in bring voiced nasal a as in ago o as in odd ah as in father back vowel o as in official ahr as in arm oh as in oat back vowel air as in dare ohr as in board aw as in walk oi as in join ay as in age front vowel oo as in soon back vowel d as in dog voiced plosive oor as in poor e as in bed voiced plosive or as in horse e as in taken front vowel ow as in now ee as in see front vowel r as in red voiced semivowel eer as in beer .

Table #9 (not possible) b as in boy (voiced plosive) f as in fat (unvoiced fricative) . 87 s as in sit unvoiced fricative g as in get voiced plosive t as in top unvoiced plosive h as in hat th as in thin unvoiced fricative hw as in wheat unvoiced glide th as in this voiced fricative i as in give front vowel u as in cut mid vowel i as in pencil u as in circus i as in fire ur as in burn j as in jam voiced comb. plosive-fricative uu as in book back vowel k as in king y as in yes voiced glide l as in leg voiced semivowel n as in no voiced nasal The few examples below do not work well. primarily because of the invasion by the reed of the oral cavity.

88 p as in pin (unvoiced plosive) v as in van (voiced fricative) z as in zebra (voiced fricative) m as in me (voiced nasal) sh as in rush (unvoiced fricative) w as in will (voiced glide) zh as in vision (voiced fricative) The Japanese composer Isao Matsushita effectively writes whispered phonemes in his work Kochi for three A clarinets. The players pronounce a variety of toneless ko's and chi's as the work comes to a close "in which sound disappears into the wind. Track 57) Isao Matsushita KOCHI All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer ." (Example #93) Example #93 (CD4-Music.

well before the middle of the twentieth century. through his music."4 Rather than exploit the inherent qualities of the instrument. often through collaboration. It naturally possesses five registers of very different color. who consulted the instrument builder on ideas for mechanical improvements that would simplify the effort necessary to achieve the desired musical result. most obvious in comparisons with other woodwind instruments. and airy tenor voice that becomes brighter as one approaches its highest pitches. Thus. The usage of alternate fingerings in performance practice throughout the history of the clarinet/bass clarinet. the clarinet/bass clarinet has evolved by exclusively empirical methods rather than by progressive theories. The throat register tends to be thin (airy. players and instruments have been forced to adjust to the times. during the twentieth century. demonstrates the existence of the concept of extended techniques. The most obvious proof of this statement is found in the fact that clarinetists/bass clarinetists have traditionally developed new or "alternate" fingerings to facilitate more reliable and musical results (suggested.2 In fact. is another reason that has led both instrument-builders and clarinetists/bass clarinetists towards this single objective: what Bartolozzi has fittingly described as "the emission of single sounds of maximum timbric homogeneity throughout the range of the instrument. 89 CHAPTER 6 . However. composers. The lowest three notes are very dark and resonant. much technique has become rigidly standardized. the innovative composer. The lowest register (chalumeau) tends to be dark with a big tone. but most especially since the early twentieth century when most clarinetists/bass clarinetists were playing instruments that had a greater number of easily manageable keys and thus more alternatives to choose from. conductors etc. For example.3 Unfortunately. clarinetists/bass clarinetists and instrument makers have precipitated. no design of the clarinet/bass clarinet has ever solved all of the awkward technical problems for the player. and sometimes demanded by composers. extensions of conventional techniques. The desire of homogeneity of timbre in performance practice is especially baffling when one considers the unique characteristics of the bass clarinet. This. Throughout history. less projection) with potential for significant adjustments of timbre by the performer. instrument design changes since the earliest clarinet was developed. the clarinetist/bass clarinetist has been most often satisfied with refining the technique necessary for the performance of music from past musical epochs. and becomes diffuse as volume is increased. or risk becoming obsolete. and of much greater contrast than any other wind instrument. thick. extended techniques are exactly what the term implies. challenged the clarinetist.) in performance. The altissimo register . in addition to the musical requirements of past epochs.Bass Clarinet Single Sounds It is an unfortunate myth which claims that extended techniques are only "effects" that are in no way related to traditional instrumental techniques. This has occurred despite the general emphasis by clarinetists/bass clarinetists in performance practice today on homogeneity of sound between adjacent pitches and registers. while the clarion register is a resistant.

as are partials above the fifth.D . and fifth partials are clearly apparent. third.C#---------------. 90 is bright and becomes thinner and more intense as one ascends towards the highest pitch extremes of the instrument (Example #1). First. The lowest three pitches are rich in partials with a strong frequency band from 300-2000 hz. Example #1 (click on register for mp3) Spectrograms of these six registers reinforce the observations above. C-----------------.

higher partials become weaker.B---------.G# A---------.D----------.E----------------.G-------.C#---------.A#---------. 91 As the fundamentals move through the chalumeau register.D#----------.C---------.F-------------F#------------.E . Eb------------------.

F#--------.G#----------.A# In the lower half of the clarion register. the fundamental and 3rd partials are particularly strong.A--------. .C--------. are weak. and partials above 3000 hz. Clarion register: B-------.D#-------.C#--------.F----------. E-----------.G--------.D--------. Frequency bands below 3000 hz. are more prevalent than in the throat register.F--------.F# The first three partials are strong in the upper half of the clarion register. but frequencies above 3000 hz.E--------. 92 Upper partials continue to weaken through the throat register. gain strength at the top of this register.

and partials above 3000 hz.G#-----------------------.A# The lower part of the altissimo register contains strong 1-3 partials with gradually weakening frequency bands as the fundamentals ascend.C .B--------------.G#------------.F# The strength of the first three partials continues through the middle and top of the altissimo register. gain strength. 93 G------------.C#--------. G----------.D#--------. B--------.F---------.A------------.D----------.A#------------.C--------.E---------.A------------------.

. 94 C-------------------.F# Because of the absence or weakness of clearly heard partials in this highest register.D----------------. and usually relate to the particular partial level that is involved.D# E-----------------. differences of dark and bright are not as applicable. a pitch played on the third partial of a particular harmonic series may sound thinner than the same pitch played on the fifth partial of another particular harmonic series (Example #2).C#----------------. For example. thick and thin are perhaps more accurate descriptions.F---------------------------------.

At the other extreme. 5th . the greatest contrast of timbre characteristics occurs in this register of fundamentals. which contributes to creating a brighter/thinner sound. The second D fingering has stronger 4th . the performer has a certain amount of control over timbre variables through embouchure or air pressure manipulation. increased embouchure pressure will produce stronger partials . one can see strong 1 st through 5 th partials in the first D. The effect of volume on timbre is most pronounced in the chalumeau register. since there is a lesser presence of higher harmonics in this register and at this dynamic level. In between these outer extremes. D------------------.D-----------------------. Of course. while softer volume levels produce timbre matching at a middle point between dark and bright. In fact.G Various reed styles or mouthpieces may push these qualities towards thicker or thinner extremes. the most uniform timbre can be achieved in soft passages towards the top of the bass clarinet range. 95 Example #2 (click on music for mp3) Viewing the spectrogram. it can be safely concluded that loud volume levels exaggerate the timbre characteristic of a certain pitch.Bb--------------------------. when it is produced at a high volume level. and higher partials.

Fingering suggestions for E6-G6 follow the musical example below. there are even moment to moment changes in the balance of harmonics in every single humanly produced sustained tone. and that weave among the other instruments in the trio. . From all of the above information. The phrase below illustrates a sequence of perfect fifths that culminates in a written C6 – the playing resistance experienced when using the fingering suggestion below allows this note to be controlled at a moderate volume. The altissimo register of the bass clarinet is the least explored register by composers. However.5 Other aspects of the sound that effect these changes include formants. presence of inharmonic partials. In a more general sense. In magnificat 1 (variations) for alto flute. 96 while less pressure results in the weaker presence of partials. noise elements. it is clear that timbric homogeneity is an unlikely and unnatural eventuality for the bass clarinetist to achieve. Dusman writes lyrical phrases that span more than four octaves of the bass clarinet. Example #3 (click on music for mp3) Later in the same work. phase. it is known that the harmonic spectrum produced by any instrument constantly changes in performance with every pitch and dynamic nuance that is played. The timbre characteristics that have been defined for individual pitches in this study are not the outcome of extensive or unusual embouchure manipulation. bass clarinet. and marimba. In fact. and provides a number of possibilities beyond the “as loud as possible” wailings most often associated with this tessitura. Linda Dusman effectively and imaginatively utilizes the top sounds of the bass clarinet. this manipulation often distorts pitch level. and transients (attacks).

and solo repertoire. chamber music. since it will also affect pitch. a technically simpler fingering for a smoother legato. However. 97 Example #4 (click on music for mp3) Alternate Fingerings Different timbres of the same pitch on the bass clarinet are possible only through alternate fingerings. embouchure manipulation alone will not work. . or a more desirable tone color for better blend or portrayal of a particular musical character. a less resistant fingering for an easier entrance at a soft dynamic level.6 These contexts may require a slightly higher or lower pitch for reasons of intonation. throughout the traditional orchestral. altering timbre is not the only purpose of alternate fingerings. The artistic bass clarinetist of the late twentieth century employs different fingerings from standard fingerings in certain musical contexts.

)7. In general. 98 In music of the last twenty-five years. Those which can not be alternated at a rapid speed have been labeled nf (not fast). higher on the instrument body than the lowest tone holes that are closed by fingers or keys) which can only be produced at a very soft dynamic level with a minimum of upper partials present. the expansion of timbral resources and sensitivities and of usable pitch nuances has become a primary compositional concern. nf = not fast sl = slightly low sh = slightly high st = stuffy (resistant) .G5) suitable for rapid alternation with the regular fingering of the same pitch. Some of these are cross-fingerings (fingerings that employ open vents. Those pitches which may exhibit noticeable tuning discrepancies have been labeled (sl = slightly low. pitches below B3 and pitches between B4 and G5 have few or no alternate fingerings. in order to indicate (as a composer) and perform (as a bass clarinetist) alternate fingerings. etc. However. The top half of the chalumeau register (B3 to A4) offers a variety of "covered" sounding (few strong partials) alternate fingerings. Example #6 Pitches in the altissimo register have the most alternatives. All pitches on the bass clarinet do not lend themselves to alternate fingering possibilities. the pitches which utilize the longest length of tube have the fewest options. since they can serve as partials to a number of different fundamentals. follows (Table #1). A chart of fingerings (B3 . one must understand the acoustics of the instrument. only minor adjustments of the type made in normal tuning while playing may be necessary. The intonation of these pitches is extremely close to the regular fingering.

The second alternate fingering is especially muted – it contains only strong 1st and 3rd .3.7 in the spectrum of the conventional fingering.5. 99 Table #1 (click on measure for mp3) Spectrograms for the conventional fingering for D3 and two alternate fingerings show the greatest strength of partials 1.

100 partials. The second alternate fingering has a weaker 3rd partial coupled with a fairly strong 5th partial. Partials above the 3rd are practically absent in the spectrum of this alternate fingering. D3 The spectrograms below for F#3 indicate that the first alternate fingering has the richest set of partials. complemented with a more prominent 2nd partial than with the other fingerings. Paul Drushler has very clearly described the acoustical link between basic fingerings and . The third alternate fingering owes its extremely muted timbre to nearly 100% of its energy centered in the fundamental. F#3 An abundance of alternate fingerings exist for pitches in the altissimo register.

the highest pitches are often derived from "out of tune" partials of unrelated fundamentals. It is important to note that many fifth partials also require the G-sharp key. and higher. and making final alterations by opening and/or closing various tone holes. and that other vents (A key) are utilized for pitches based on the highest partials. Seventh partials. It is possible to play on the 13th and 15th harmonics of a given fundamental."8 With the bass clarinet. 101 registers of the clarinet (Example #9a). According to Drushler. Third partials (clarion register) are produced by depressing the register key (thus opening the register hole). It is clear that the desirable method for developing fingerings consists of starting with a fundamental. "variations in pitch. the position and degree of pressure placed by the embouchure on the reed allows control of a greater range of altissimo notes than on the soprano clarinet (up to G-sharp6!). This permits the LH1 tone-hole to act as a vent.A- sharp6) are produced by lifting the first finger of the left hand. timbre and stability for specific altissimo notes can be discovered by experimenting with modifications of basic fingerings. Example #9a (click on music for mp3) . selecting vents. in addition to the register key. In addition. Fifth partials (C-sharp5 . are generally produced by depressing the G-sharp key in addition to the others mentioned. At least the outline of this formula is followed in the following example (Example #9b).

B--------------F#--------------------. The fingerings based on the 11th -15th partials all contain strong 2nd partials. 3rd .C# . below. 5th . 102 #9b (click on music for mp3) Note. The first fingering contains strong 1st .A---------------.D#---------------------. how the presence and strength of upper partials fades as one moves up the fingerings of the harmonic series. and 7th + partials.

preparation . player must have time to prepare it. .articulation . In the same manner. sm = smooth connection from another pitch possible. No unusual techniques are called for. d = dark. however. one runs the risk of timbre distortion as one becomes further and further from the pitch of the original fingering. s = slightly VI . Slight deviations in pitch may exist.timbre: br = bright.com = a complex fingering.G The following chart (Table #2) of alternate fingerings contains only a few of the many choices for altissimo register pitches.e.l = low.partial of fundamental that fingering is based on/fundamental pitch (i. st = stuffy III . but these are easily corrected by adjustments of embouchure and air pressure.res = resistant. difficult to begin immediately.dynamics . legato connection to it may not be possible. however. the tuning will be slightly different for each individual. pitches from the microtone charts may work as alternate fingerings. s = slightly. The annotations under each fingering are arranged according to the following format: line # information I . 103 E--------------------. s = slightly V . An aspect such as how far a particular pad comes away from a particular tone-hole can be very significant. br! = very bright. sm! = very smooth connection from another pitch possible Blank fingering grids have been included so that the reader might add his/her own fingerings. such as half-depression of pad keys. h = high. These adjustments are no more extreme than those that one would make to play in tune with other performers.ppp to fff IV . (C4m = modification of C4 fundamental fingering) II . 5th/C4). they merely require a sensitive "auditory image." Since different players play different equipment.intonation .

104 Table #2 (click on pitch for mp3) .

if it is necessary to change the given fingering because of inherent characteristics of individual instruments and bass clarinetists. Unless there are reasons of desired voice leading. as well as awkward fingerings make them treacherous. Cross fingerings can not be utilized. exact quarter-tones do not exist. Another section of the quarter-tone scale that is weak consists of pitches above F-sharp 6. a dark timbre in the lowest register is relatively different from a dark timbre in the clarion register). . but may certainly be modified to create a variety of proportions. (it should be noted that there are fewer available fingering choices for the bass clarinetist than the soprano clarinetist. is he more interested in a dark timbre than a precisely pitched quarter-tone? This will help the performer to make an educated fingering choice. The altered air and embouchure pressure necessary to produce these pitches (often on different partials). Since all fingerings may not produce an identical pitch or timbre for every performer. it is helpful if the composer can briefly describe his intentions in a preface. since virtually the entire length of the instrument is employed. adherence to either sharps or flats within a work will make visual and technical recognition easier for the performer (the quarter tone scale here is presented in sharps only). The following chart attempts to represent equally tempered quarter-tones. DAT refers to pitches that are difficult to attack strongly. especially if approached quickly by leap or attacked without preparation. In the practice and theory of a variety of Asian musics. where microtonal intervals are employed. it contains relatively few insurmountable problems for the bass clarinetist. somewhat weak conjunct sections of the quarter-tone scale are found across the "break" from the throat register to the clarion register (A-sharp 4 to D4). This is the same consideration that inhibits quarter-tone production below chalumeau A. The following quarter-tone scale extends from A3 (written pitch) to G-sharp 6 (!).thus.e. for example. It is generally good practice to specify fingerings directly under the quarter-tones that appear in the piece. Timbre indications are given if a quarter-tone differs significantly from the timbres of notes around it (i. Of course.one reason is the covering of tone holes with pads and key mechanisms that have different functions on the bass clarinet). some are marked as sh (slightly high) or sl (slightly low). 105 Quarter-Tones The quarter-tone is a logical rather than acoustic extension of the chromatic scale. From C4 to D4 there are no practical fingerings for quarter-tones. However. For example. It was not possible to find equal-tempered quarter-tones for all intervals . as opposed to merely a list at the beginning of the work. Several notations appear below some of the quarter-tones in the chart. especially below the altissimo register . it is not necessary to repeat this fingering diagram every time a particular quarter-tone occurs.

106 .

Quarter-Tone Scale (click on line for mp3) . 107 Table #3 .

108 .

The conjunct segments of quarter-tones below (m.” .30-5) are very effective at pianissimo – the expression marking in the score is “weeping. 109 Linda Dusman uses bass clarinet quarter-tones in several contexts in magnificat 1 .

this study omits those that require more than slight deviations in traditional finger and expectations and embouchure) Those multiple sounds that employ the low C-sharp and C keys played by the right hand.e. below). are only available on a bass clarinet that extends to low C (written). This study employs acoustical relationships as the first order of organization. The multiple sounds that employ the low E-flat key are available only on bass clarinets that extend to either low E-flat or low C. derived from the same left hand vent hole). They demand only slight deviations from normal finger expectations and embouchure. Of course. Many previous studies have organized multiple sounds according to verbal descriptions of categories of production and/or tone color. 110 Example #14 (click on music for mp3) Chart of Multiple Sounds for Bass Clarinet The following chart (Table #5) has been compiled from numerous musical compositions. of which there are theoretically thousands. . or the low D key played by the left hand. and briefly describes characteristics of each multiple sound (see explanation of notation. and experiments of the author. The author wishes to reinforce the following advice: BE SURE TO CONSULT A BASS CLARINETIST ABOUT FEASIBLE CONTEXTS FOR PARTICULAR MUTLIPLE SOUNDS. it has been checked for accuracy by other players. The author has striven to organize the material according to acoustic principles of the bass clarinet and basic principles of bass clarinet technique. every conceivable context for a particular multiple sound has not been discussed. regardless of acoustical relationships (i. All of the multiple sounds presented are playable on any traditional professional mouthpiece/reed set-up. (while it is true that a multiple sound may be derived from any possible fingering for a single tone.

resistant. and a lack of contrary motion. 4 = all sounds appear within 3 seconds. easily (somewhat resistant). Groups of multiple sounds with the same letter label (i.a = very stable. The close technical relation of these groups makes numerous trills and tremolos possible between them (discussed later). 111 Multiple sounds have been placed in groups (labeled by letter. c = unstable III . D. It is important to note that each multiple sound listed is available in isolation. beginning with those with the lowest fundamental). Left-hand fingerings in Group D2 differ from Group D only through the addition of side key #3. Left-hand fingerings for A represent the lowest bottom pitches .) utilize slightly different. 3 = all sounds appear within 2 seconds.timbre : description of individual pitches of the multiple sound (sometimes (all multiple sounds that use side keys 3 and/or 4 as register 2 lines) vents will have thin timbres) tp = top bt = bottom dlbt = dull lowest pitch dabt = dark lowest pitch (few higher partials) . In other words. For example. 5 = all sounds appear within 4-5 seconds. the left hand fingering remains constant within a group (in most cases). 2 = all sounds appear within 1 second.1 = all sounds begin simultaneously.response : the time required to produce all pitches of the multiple sound . it need not be connected to another. The multiple sounds are ordered according to the right hand fingerings which ascend in chromatic or microtonal intervals.stability : how stable is the sustain characteristic . left-hand fingerings in Group D1 differ from Group D only through the addition of the register key. this means limited (minimum) finger movement. easily. b = moderately stable.e. Care has been taken to insure that these groups are playable as sequences. top line to bottom line (underneath each multiple sound). but related left hand fingerings (different vents). the highest bottom pitches.left hand fingerings for Z. more resistant. a common denominator within each group is an identical register/vent hole. very resistant IV . The format of this chart.pp to FF II . D1.how resistant is it? . wherever possible.dynamic range possible . D2 etc. Various characteristics of each multiple sound have been described beneath each example in the chart. is: Line # information I .

However. acoustical beats elc! = raucous electronic. changing amplitudes of pitches (similar to electronic. the production and content of these partials are not controllable or reliable. dull V .lack of center brt = bright. unclear pitches gent = gentle. dull timbres M3! = predominant major 3rd (10th) or triad ns = noise in the sound (air) sns = some noise in the sound . many higher partials brtp = bright highest pitch thtp = thin highest pitch sub = subtone. lack of partials . thin timbres. diad = two pitches (an undertone .lowest pitch is weaker than the highest) holl = hollow. high and low pitch (equal strength) 3vc = three voices mvc = many voices bal = balance. all pitches of equal intensity elc = electronic.texture : description of the overall texture of the multiple sound (sometimes . 3 or more pitches. otherwise) be = acoustical beats.2 general characteristics deserve mention here: 2 lines) 1) all diads (multiple sounds of two pitches which are produced as undertones) will contain a significant amount of air when played softly 2) most of the multiple sounds that are not undertones are capable of generating higher partials than indicated in the chart when played very loudly. 112 fat = many partials (high and low) thin = pitch is weak. beats caused by out of tune intervals slbe = slow acoustical beats mud = muddy.

less air pressure ls! = very loose embouchure tite = tighter embouchure. 113 VI . which may or may not be present according to the dynamic level of the multiple sound. All pitches (or as many as possible) in the multiple sound should be written on the staff. It is important that the fingering for the multiple sound be indicated at every occurrence in the music. These procedures will greatly assist the clarinetist in learning the music.arpeggiation : capability to begin multiple sound with top or bottom pitch alone. The filled-in note-heads indicate secondary pitches. directly under the sonority. more air pressure The notation system used in this chart for multiple sounds on the staff is one which the author hopes will become standardized.technique : hints for easier production ls = looser embouchure. . gradually adding other pitches t = easy to begin with top pitch b = easy to begin with bottom pitch bt = easy to begin with either top or bottom pitch VII .

umbc.html ).e. if p-ff is .research.edu/~emrich/multiphonic_spectra. 114 Spectrograms Spectrograms of a number of multiphonics follow (more for bass clarinet multiphonics are available on The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century website – http://www. These diagrams represent the indicated multiphonic played at its middle dynamic level (i.

So.html).) + or – B(+ or – 0.) B = B ¼# 4 (220 hz. 2.phys. Directly below is a note to frequency converter (taken from the website of the Physics Department of The University of New South Wales. can be explained in the following way: A = G5 (698 hz. 3. 2. multiphonic spectra on all woodwind instruments obey a similar basic principle.edu. Australia – http://www.) F (258 hz.au/~jw/notes.unsw..: A = highest primary pitch B = lowest primary pitch F = frequency within a multiphonic F = A(+ or – 0.) In example 5 below. etc.. the vibration at 258 hz.. that gives a context for the spectrograms. 115 possible. etc.) = A (698) – 2B (220) = 698 – 440 = 258 ---------------------------------------------------------------- . It is important to note that the spectrum of practically every multiphonic changes (at least subtly) during its duration – the sound is constantly transforming. length (horizontal) indicates duration. According to Peter Veale and Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf in their book The Techniques of Oboe Playing . NON-TRANSPOSED (written B4 for clarinet = A 440). The duration of each multiphonic is between 2 and 7 seconds. In the spectrograms. or pitch of the fundamental(s) and partials. The frequencies present in a multiphonic spectra can be explained as a combination of the sums and differences of the two frequencies of the primary pitches of the particular multiphonic (each multiphonic contains only two primary pitches).). mf is the middle dynamic level). and darkness/lightness indicates the relative amplitude (strength) of components of the sound. 1. 1. Sydney. height indicates frequency (hz. 3.

3rd partial of D ¾ . 3rd partials of D ¾ 39) E1-3 : G ¼ 3 = 175 D ¾ 5 = 554 4th partial of G ¼. 116 38) E-19 : E ¼ 3 = 137 A ¼ 4 = 392 D ¾ 5 = 554 5th partial of E ¼ .2nd .

gradations of singing and speaking . even though they may maintain a number of similar qualities. The reader is referred to The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century for a discussion of specific techniques .e. air sounds) and specific techniques (i. These have been divided into sounds of definite pitch (glissandi/portamenti). conventional bass clarinet tones. in addition. 3rd partials of G# 41) E1-10 : B5 = 440 (?) A ¾ 5 = 880 Other Resources Many other sounds can be produced on the bass clarinet through extended techniques that defy categorization with the single or multiple sounds that have been described in the last two chapters.they are all applicable to the bass clarinet. sounds of indefinite or approximate pitch (half-pitched percussive sounds. The descriptions and musical examples on the following pages are not meant to imply that these are the only possibilities. flutter tonguing) which may be applied to sounds of one or both categories (or.).2nd . Rather. sounds from Chapters I and II.through the bass clarinet. it is hoped that these may serve as provocations to composers and bass clarinetists who may discover and create new . vocalizing . 117 40) E1-7 : G ¼ 3 = 175 D#5 = 554 (weak) G#5 = 740 . etc.

followed by series of ascending bends. expand and refine the instrumental techniques required to realize these ideas. Since downward tone bends are the most difficult. these should be practiced first. mastering the required technique (tongue and throat position control) for this skill is applicable to all other (including ascending) portamenti. 118 musical ideas. the next logical step is to practice ascending bends. Eventually. a series of downward tone bends can be linked to form a longer portamento. After one has practiced series of downward tone bends. Example #2 (click music for mp3) . The palette of potentially expressive sounds on the bass clarinet is virtually limitless. Short ascending bends are especially idiomatic in the clarion and altissimo registers of the bass clarinet where the third finger of the right hand is employed. Takayuki Rai employs some in Sparkel for bass clarinet and computer tape. and. in so doing. Sounds of Definite Pitch Glissando/Portamento Caravan does offer some good suggestions for learning portamento production.

119 Spectrograms of these small portamenti show a rich palette of partials that is weakened slightly during the middle of the portamento. Longer ascending portamenti can be initiated and/or aided by this finger – an example of an especially easy portamento follows: Example #3 (click music for mp3) .

120 The spectrogram below indicates a slightly weaker band of partials once the portamento is initiated. with some 2nd partial energy present. the presence and strength of all of the partials increases. Descending portamenti in the altissimo register are also idiomatic. At the end of each portamento. . Takayuki Rai writes the following small portamenti: Example #4 (click music for mp3) The spectra of each of these pitches above contains a strong fundamental and partials from the 3rd and above.

Bb--------------.F# . 121 Ab-------------.D G#--------------------.G-------------Gb-------------F-------------.A------------------------.

beginning with the entire upper joint covered (A). These sounds are most resonant when the mouthpiece is not in the mouth.the number . A1) denotes which fingers/keys are moved. 122 Sounds of Indefinite Pitch Half-Pitched Percussive Sounds The bass clarinet offers an incredible resource for percussive (both unpitched and half- pitched) sounds because of the size and harmonic richness of its resonating body. short.e.e. The fact that keys cover the seven finger tone holes (different from the key rings of the soprano clarinet) also helps to amplify the volume of the percussive sounds made when fingers strike the tone holes (either as single strikes or trills/tremolos). A) represent a low key moved by the right hand with all the fingers of the right hand covering the three tone holes.the number 2 represents one or more of the three fingers of the left hand . The number following the letter (i. Finally.5 represents a low key moved by the right hand without all the fingers of the right hand covering the three tone holes. The number 1 represents one or more of the three fingers of the right hand . click resonances. the letters with no numbers following them (i. and gradually progressing to none of the upper joint covered (P). They differ in color from a strong hollow resonance to very thin. The following chart classifies these sounds (in a similar fashion to the classification of multiple sounds) according to left hand fingering. .

123 Table #6 (CD Bcl #2 – tracks 5-33) .

124 (CD Bcl #2 – tracks 34-56) .

E-flat Clarinet Single Sounds - Altissimo Alternate Fingerings The American clarinetist Henry Gulick writes of classifications for altissimo register pitches. a vent exists further down the clarinet body. 125 CHAPTER 7 . Example #7 (click on music for mp3) Altissimo fingerings in a second classification produce pitches from overblown throat tones. The longer tube length that is in play produces thicker. darker timbres that are generally more secure at loud dynamic levels (Example #7).8 These categories deserve mention. ." In long fingerings. in order to understand timbre and resistance characteristics of altissimo fingerings. long fingerings require overblowing of lower pitches. the first finger of the left-hand remains on the tone-hole. without the left thumb covering the back tone hole (Example #8). As a result. Since such a short tube length is employed. these pitches tend to be thin and bright. as well as others. One classification that is widely employed by professional clarinetists is what Gulick calls "long fingerings.

. These fingerings tend to be a bit dark. Example #9 (click on music for mp3) By playing on certain upper partials. but thin. 126 Example #8 (click on music for mp3) A third classification includes fingerings that use both the thumb hole and register key as vents (open thumb and depressed register key) (Example #9). They are especially effective in soft legato passages that link the clarion to altissimo register. fast chromatic figures in the altissimo register can be easily produced (Table #2).

127 Table #2 (click on measure for mp3) .

5C4 = 5th partial of C4) II .intonation .pp to ff IV . s = slightly VI . d = dark v = very. however.L = low. tr = trill fingering Blank fingering grids have been included so that the reader might add his/her own fingerings. a = airy III .(i. pitches from the microtone charts may work as alternate fingerings.timbre . however. such as half-holing. one runs the risk of timbre distortion as one becomes further and further from the pitch of the original fingering. they merely require a sensitive "auditory image. etc.partial of fundamental that fingering is based on ." Since different players play different equipment.sm = smooth connection from another pitch possible.preparation . S = slightly V . . th = thin. These adjustments are no more extreme than those that one would make to play in tune with other performers.e. H = high.dynamics . Slight deviations in pitch may exist. No unusual techniques are called for. . 128 Altissimo Alternate Fingering Chart The following chart (Table #3) of alternate fingerings contains only a few of the many choices for altissimo register pitches. An aspect such as how far a particular pad comes away from a particular tone-hole can be very significant. difficult to begin immediately.res = resistant. s = slightly. the tuning will be slightly different for each individual. In the same manner. The annotations under each fingering are arranged according to the following format: line # information I . but these are easily corrected by adjustments of embouchure and air pressure.br = bright.articulation . st = stuffy.

exact quarter-tones do not exist. but may certainly be modified to create a variety of proportions. It is generally good practice to . for example. In the practice and theory of a variety of Asian musics. where microtonal intervals are employed. 129 Table #3 (click on pitch/line for mp3) Quarter-Tones The quarter-tone is a logical rather than acoustic extension of the chromatic scale. The following chart attempts to represent equally tempered quarter-tones. adherence to either sharps or flats within a work will make visual and technical recognition easier for the performer (the quarter tone scale here is presented in sharps only). Unless there are reasons of desired voice leading.

is he more interested in a dark timbre than a precisely pitched quarter-tone? This will help the performer to make an educated fingering choice. (click on line for mp3) . since virtually the entire length of the instrument is employed. some are marked as sh (slightly high) or sl (slightly low). as opposed to merely a list at the beginning of the work. It was not possible to find equal-tempered quarter-tones for all intervals . as well as awkward fingerings make them treacherous. Another section of the quarter- tone scale that is weak consists of pitches above F-sharp 6. somewhat weak conjunct sections of the quarter-tone scale are found across the "break" from the throat register to the clarion register (A-sharp 4 to D4). it contains relatively few problems for the E-flat clarinetist. Timbre indications are given if a quarter-tone differs significantly from the timbres of notes around it (i. It is not necessary to repeat this fingering diagram every time a particular quarter-tone occurs. DAT refers to pitches that are difficult to attack strongly. 130 specify fingerings directly under the quarter-tones that appear in the piece. it is helpful if the composer can briefly describe his intentions in a preface. The altered air and embouchure pressure necessary to produce these pitches (often on different partials). if it is necessary to change the given fingering because of inherent characteristics of individual instruments and E-flat clarinetists.thus. The following quarter-tone scale extends from A3 (written pitch) to G-sharp 6. Since all fingerings may not produce an identical pitch or timbre for every performer. For example. However. Cross fingerings can not be utilized. Several notations appear below some of the quarter-tones in the chart.e. This is the same consideration that inhibits quarter-tone production below chalumeau A. especially if approached quickly by leap or attacked without preparation. From C4 to D4 there are no practical fingerings for quarter-tones. a dark timbre in the lowest register is relatively different from a dark timbre in the clarion register).

131 .

sixth. since equidistant pitches are not always available. accurate microtonal segments of intervals smaller than thirty-second tones are often possible and quite easy to produce. 132 Microtones The E-flat clarinet has long been capable of producing microtones smaller than quarter- tones. It's full range of microtonal possibilities has been largely undocumented. Bar lines mark the length of uninterrupted scale segments. twelfth. In fact. eighth. Equidistant Microtones Equidistant microtones are represented in Table #7. but has rarely been asked to do so. and sixteenth tones. .

& Twelfth Tones (click on measure for mp3) . 133 TABLE #7 . Sixth.Equidistant Eighth. Sixteenth.

134 .

Example #10 presents a ten-note scale in the chalumeau register that exploits dark timbres. Several examples follow which have been arbitrarily chosen because of their bright or dark timbre qualities or symmetrical pitch patterns. . 135 One-Octave Microtonal Scales Scales can be formed from microtones that present fascinating pitch or timbre relationships when written for E-flat clarinet. All are fairly easy for the clarinetist to master.

All of the multiple sounds presented are playable on any traditional professional mouthpiece/reed set-up. The author has striven to organize the material according to acoustic principles of the E-flat clarinet and basic principles of E-flat clarinet technique. and experiments of the author. . 136 Example #10 (click on music for mp3) An equidistant scale of sixteen 3/8 tones is represented in Example #11. this study omits those that require more than slight deviations in traditional finger expectations and embouchure). Example #11 (click on music for mp3) Chart of Multiple Sounds for E-flat Clarinet The following chart (Table #12) has been compiled from numerous musical compositions. of which there are theoretically thousands. (while it is true that a multiple sound may be derived from any possible fingering for a single tone. They demand only slight deviations from normal finger expectations and embouchure. it has been checked for accuracy by other players.

below).e. Care has been taken to insure that these groups are playable as sequences. 137 Many previous studies have organized multiple sounds according to verbal descriptions of categories of production and/or tone color. It is important to note that each multiple sound listed is available in isolation. the highest bottom pitches. The author wishes to reinforce the following advice: BE SURE TO CONSULT AN E-FLAT CLARINETIST ABOUT FEASIBLE CONTEXTS FOR PARTICULAR MULTIPLE SOUNDS.left hand fingerings for Y. and a lack of contrary motion. even though the adjacent sounds utilize the same series of partials. this means limited (minimum) finger movement.dynamic range possible . Of course. The multiple sounds are ordered according to the right hand fingerings which ascend in chromatic or microtonal intervals. beginning with those with the lowest fundamental). The format of this chart. Left-hand fingerings for A represent the lowest bottom pitches . This study employs acoustical relationships as the first order of organization. A broken vertical line ( ) between multiple sounds in a group indicates that a legato connection is not possible. but related left hand fingerings (different vents). easily .how resistant is it? 1 = all sounds begin simultaneously.) utilize slightly different. c = unstable III .e. D1. Groups of multiple sounds with the same letter label (i. and briefly describes characteristics of each multiple sound (see explanation of notation.response: the time required to produce all pitches of the multiple sound . the left hand fingering remains constant within a group (in most cases).stability: how stable is the sustain characteristic . top line to bottom line (underneath each multiple sound). In other words. is: Line # information I . For example. derived from the same left hand vent hole).a = very stable. a common denominator within each group is an identical register/vent hole.pp to FF II . it need not be connected to another. D2 etc. D. left-hand fingerings in Group D1 differ from Group D only through the addition of the register key. Multiple sounds have been placed in groups (labeled by letter. Various characteristics of each multiple sound have been described beneath each example in the chart. regardless of acoustical relationships (i. every conceivable context for a particular multiple sound has not been discussed. Left-hand fingerings in Group D2 differ from Group D only through the addition of side key #3. because the series of partials changes. A double bracket ( ) between sounds in a group indicates that a legato connection is not possible. wherever possible. b = moderately stable. The close technical relation of these groups makes numerous trills and tremolos possible between them (discussed later).

dull V.lowest pitch is weaker than the highest) holl = hollow.timbre: description of individual pitches of the multiple sound (all multiple sounds that use side keys 3 and/or 4 as register vents will have thin timbres) tp = top bt = bottom dlbt = dull lowest pitch dabt = dark lowest pitch (few higher partials) fat = many partials (high and low) thin = pitch is weak.texture: description of the overall texture of the multiple sound . many higher partials brtp = bright highest pitch thtp = thin highest pitch sub = subtone.2 general characteristics deserve mention here: 1) all diads (multiple sounds of two pitches which are produced as undertones) will contain a significant amount of air when played softly 2) most of the multiple sounds that are not undertones are capable of generating higher partials than indicated in the chart when played very loudly. 138 2 = all sounds appear within 1 second. the production and content of these partials are not controllable or reliable. high and low pitch (equal strength) 3vc = three voices . VI . diad = two pitches (an undertone . However. more resistant 5 = all sounds appear within 4-5 seconds. easily (somewhat resistant) 3 = all sounds appear within 2 seconds. lack of partials . resistant 4 = all sounds appear within 3 seconds.lack of center brt = bright. very resistant IV .

which may or may not be present according to the dynamic level of the multiple sound. unclear pitches gent = gentle. thin timbres. dull timbres M3! = predominant major 3rd (10th) or triad ns = noise in the sound (air) sns = some noise in the sound VII . acoustical beats elc! = raucous electronic. The filled-in note-heads indicate secondary pitches. All pitches (or as many as possible) in the multiple sound should be written on the staff. changing amplitudes of pitches (similar to electronic. otherwise) be = acoustical beats.arpeggiation: capability to begin multiple sound with top or bottom pitch alone. . 3 or more pitches. all pitches of equal intensity elc = electronic.technique: hints for easier production ls = looser embouchure. more air pressure The notation system used in this chart for multiple sounds on the staff is one which the author hopes will become standardized. These procedures will greatly assist the clarinetist in learning the music. beats caused by out of tune intervals slbe = slow acoustical beats mud = muddy. directly under the sonority. 139 mvc = many voices bal = balance. less air pressure s! = very loose embouchure tite = tighter embouchure. gradually adding other pitches t = easy to begin with top pitch b = easy to begin with bottom pitch bt = easy to begin with either top or bottom pitch VIII . It is important that the fingering for the multiple sound be indicated at every occurrence in the music.

Trills and tremolos are also feasible among many non- . 140 Table #12 . Trills between adjacent multiple sounds in Table #12 (different right-hand fingerings.Multiple Sounds click on measure for mp3 Multiphonic Trills and Tremolos The subject of multiphonic trills and tremolos will only be briefly mentioned here. same left-hand fingering) are possible.

In addition. 141 adjacent multiple sounds (same left-hand fingering.composers are urged to check specific trill possibilities with an E-flat clarinetist. they are possible between multiple sounds with the same right-hand fingering but different left-hand fingering between the following Groups: A2 and A3 B and B1 E and E1 H and H1 I and I1 K and K1 K and K2 Diad tremolos using the top two right-hand trill keys controlled by the first finger are effective in both loud and soft contexts. Example #4 (click on 3 measure section for mp3) . different left-hand and right-hand fingerings) from Table #12 .

San Diego . it is also possible to produce an ingressive or egressive "vocal fry. It is also possible to re-articulate this sound in an interesting way by pronouncing "le" with the tongue on the roof of the mouth. Other variations include adding a growl-like flutter or vocal portamento." Deborah Kavasch. describes this phenomenon: . Further sounds that are possible to generate through the clarinet with the mouthpiece on are a barking sound ["(r)uff"] with a low E fingering. Example #10 (click on music for mp3) This sound is even more pronounced if the player takes more mouthpiece than normal into the mouth. o." (the way young children imitate a machine gun) which can be altered with a vocal portamento and/or by randomly moving the fingers of the right hand. a slow laugh from the throat with a low E fingering. Through the E-flat clarinet (with mouthpiece off). aw. a former member of the Extended Vocal Techniques Ensembles at the University of California . and oo. 142 Vocalizing through the clarinet Singing through the clarinet on various vowel sounds can create interesting formants (reinforced harmonics) when one lifts the fingers of either (or both) hand from their tone holes. or a throat tremolo (ululation) "eh-eh-eh etc. The sound will change drastically between the following vowel sounds: ee.

clicklike pulses and is often used to imitate the opening of a creaky door. airy sounds are apparent. since very soft. dynamics. These can be especially beautiful when amplified. 6 This effect is especially interesting when one moves the fingers of both hands. It can be produced both egressively (exhaling) and ingressively (inhaling). The pulse rate of vocal fry can be controlled to produce a range from very slow individual clicks to a stream of clicks so fast that it is heard as discrete pitch." as used here in relation to vocal fry. in addition to the vocal fry (Example #11). Example #11 (click on music for mp3) . 143 Vocal fry is perceived as dry. The term "pitch. and pitch. The individual may find one mode easier to control than the other in terms of such parameters as pulse rate. refers to the range of perceived pitches rather than to any implication regarding the mode of phonation.