The Clarinet of the XXI Century

Michael Richards

2

CHAPTER 2 - Single Sounds
Alternate Fingerings
Different timbres of the same pitch on the clarinet are most conveniently achieved through alternate fingerings; embouchure manipulation alone will not work, since it will also affect pitch. However, altering timbre is not the only purpose of alternate fingerings. The artistic clarinetist of the late twentieth century employs different fingerings from standard fingerings in certain musical contexts, throughout the standard orchestral, chamber music, and solo repertoire. 6 These contexts may require a slightly higher or lower pitch for reasons of intonation, a technically simpler fingering for a smoother legato, a less resistant fingering for an easier entrance at a soft dynamic level, or a more desirable tone color for better blend or portrayal of a particular musical character. For example, if one employs the standard G-flat fingering in the following passage (Example #3) found in the first movement of the Sonata by Francis Poulenc, the result will be a low G-flat. The suggested alternate, which is generally a high fingering, will be better in tune at this loud dynamic level (also brighter and thicker/stronger).

Example #3 (click on music to hear mp3)

The production of a smoother legato in the first movement of the F Minor Sonata , Op. 120 No. 1 by Johannes Brahms is facilitated with the alternate E-flat diagramed in Example #4. Contrary finger motion is completely avoided, as is the slide that would be required with the use of the standard E-flat. 7

3 Example #4 (click on music to hear mp3)

A smoother legato may be attained by the utilization of an alternate F-sharp in the following example ( Concerto - Aaron Copland) for a different reason; an acoustical reason. The A and F-sharp are both partials from the same fundamental (D3).

Example #5 (click on music to hear mp3)

An alternate fingering for D is essential to assist the clarinetist in the production of a soft entrance in the second movement of the Brahms Trio , Op. 114 (Example #6).

All pitches on the clarinet do not lend themselves to alternate fingering possibilities. However. the pitches which utilize the longest length of tube have the smallest number of options. one must understand the acoustics of the instrument. In general.4 Example #6 (click on music to hear mp3) In the third movement of the Clarinet Concerto by John Corigliano. the following pages will focus on examples for the usage of alternate fingerings in new music. . the alternate fingering indicated below for altissimo B-flat allows the player to not only match the timbre of the distant off-stage clarinetists. Example #7 (click on music to hear mp3) An excellent study of alternate fingerings in the traditional literature has been written by Thomas Ridenour. 8 Rather than duplicate his research. but also is easier to play in tune and to play softly. does include a variety of technically simple fingerings for pitches of a wide variety of timbres. while not exhaustive. In music of the last twenty-five years. the expansion of timbral resources and sensitivities and of usable pitch nuances has become a primary compositional concern. and to offer a chart of altissimo register fingerings that. in order to indicate (as a composer) and perform (as a clarinetist) alternate fingerings. pitches below B3 and pitches between B4 and G5 have few or no alternate fingerings (Example #8).

Joji Yuasa (click on measure to hear mp3) . since they can serve as partials to a number of different fundamentals.5 Example #8 Pitches in the altissimo register have the most alternatives.a Japanese bamboo flute. This technique is also conventional for the shakuhachi (on which the performer of traditional solo honkyoku never articulates with the tongue) . Most of these are crossfingerings (fingerings that employ open vents. higher on the instrument body than the lowest tone holes that are closed by fingers or keys) which can only be produced at a very soft dynamic level with a minimum of upper partials present. Joji Yuasa and Isao Matsushita exploit these special fingerings in rapid alternations with conventional fingerings of the same pitches (also alternating dynamics: FF to pp) to simulate the sound of rapidly tongued articulations (Example #9). Example #9 Clarinet Solitude . The top half of the chalumeau register and throat register (B3 to A4) offers a variety of "covered" sounding (few strong partials) alternate fingerings.

6 Alternate Fingerings (continued) A chart of other fingerings (B3 .G5) suitable for rapid alternation with the regular fingering of the same pitch. Those pitches which may exhibit noticeable tuning discrepancies have been labeled (s. only minor adjustments of the type made in normal tuning while playing may be necessary. follows (Table #1). etc. Those which can not be alternated at a rapid speed have been labeled nf (not fast).) 9 . The intonation of these pitches is extremely close to the regular fingering. pitches that are a bit more resistant than regular fingerings are designated "resist." Table #1 (click on measure to hear mp3) . low = slightly low.

7 Alternate fingerings of contrasting timbre and dynamic capabilities may also be extracted from diads (multiple sounds consisting of two pitches). The lowest pitches from these fingerings are especially dull sounding and only playable at ppp-pp dynamic levels. Table #2 (click on measure to hear mp3) . The reader is referred to Chapter III for other similar sounding alternate fingerings. will work (Table #2). all multiphonics that are possible to begin with the bottom note only.

These fingerings are likely to be somewhat unfamiliar to many clarinetists (since they utilize the rarely employed upper trill keys which are played by the side of the stretched first finger of the right hand). however. and often can be employed quite successfully to extend the throat register (Example #10). but the movement of so many fingers from one pitch to the next has also limited the possibilities for a smooth legato. The timbre of these pitches becomes brighter and thinner as they become higher (Example #33). A set of alternate fingerings do exist. Alternate fingerings for the lower clarion register do exist.10 Not only has timbral homogeneity been difficult to achieve. These alternates may be difficult to produce in an isolated context softer than mf. been a cause of problems for the performer. and must be attacked in a fairly strong manner to insure stability (especially the highest three pitches). Example #25 (click on music to hear mp3) Legato movement over the "break" between the clarion and altissimo registers is somewhat easier to negotiate than the lower break. historically.8 The lower register "break" (B-flat4 .B4) of the clarinet has also. Example #33 (click on music to hear mp3) . that actually function by overblowing the alternate fingerings just described for the lower clarion register. so care should be taken if they are to be approached by leap.

According to Drushler. and making final alterations by opening and/or closing various tone holes. The general outline of this formula is followed in the following example (Example #34b). selecting vents. in addition to the register key. Paul Drushler has very clearly described the acoustical link between basic fingerings and registers of the clarinet (Example #34a). as well as other vents. It is important to note that many fifth partials also require the G-sharp key. and higher." 11 Example #34a (click on music to hear mp3) .9 An abundance of alternate fingerings exist for pitches in the altissimo register. are generally produced by depressing the G-sharp key in addition to the others mentioned (in the chart of altissimo fingerings presented in this chapter. This permits the LH1 tone-hole to act as a vent. Seventh partials. the highest pitches often stem from "out of tune" partials of unrelated fundamentals. the F-sharp key. Fifth partials (C-sharp5 . seems to be equally represented). timbre and stability for specific altissimo notes can be discovered by experimenting with modifications of basic fingerings. In addition. Third partials (clarion register) are produced by depressing the register key (thus opening the register hole). and that other vents (A key) are utilized for pitches derived from the highest partials.Asharp6) are produced by lifting the first finger of the left hand. "variations in pitch. It is clear that the desirable method for developing fingerings consists of starting with a fundamental.

Example #35a (click on music to hear mp3) . Drake Mabry has written for a "composite fingering" in the third movement of Street Cries for solo clarinet (Example #35b). but also provides a dramatic contrast of timbres.10 #34b (click on music to hear mp3) The limited finger movement required between the five pitches in Example #35a can be utilized by composers in rapid musical passages. This particular fingering not only permits swift leaps in register without much trouble.

a vent exists further down the clarinet body. One classification that is widely employed by professional clarinetists is what Gulick calls "long fingerings. long fingerings require overblowing of lower pitches. darker timbres that are generally more secure at loud dynamic levels (Example #36). Table #4 (click on music to hear mp3) The American clarinetist Henry Gulick writes of classifications for altissimo register pitches. The longer tube length that is in play produces thicker. . in order to understand timbre and resistance characteristics of altissimo fingerings.12 These categories deserve mention. the first finger of the left-hand remains on the tone-hole. As a result.11 #35b (click on music to hear mp3) Some other possible composite fingerings are included below (Table #4)." In long fingerings. as well as others.

pitches from the microtone charts may work as alternate fingerings. or s.dark (sl. An aspect such as how far a particular pad comes away from a particular tone-hole can be very significant. = slightly resistant hard attack = must begin abruptly V . one runs the risk of timbre distortion as one becomes further and further from the pitch of the original fingering. 5th/C4) [C4mod = modification of C4 fundamental] II . = slightly).resist.intonation . Slight deviations in pitch may exist. however.partial of fundamental that fingering is based on / fundamental pitch (ie.12 Example #36 (click on music to hear mp3) Chart of Alternate Altissimo Fingerings The following chart (Table #5) of alternate fingerings contains only a few of the many choices for altissimo register pitches.bright . sl. the tuning will be slightly different for each individual. = resistant . The annotations under each fingering are arranged according to the following format: I . thick . however.resist.timbre . In the same manner.partial . they merely require a sensitive "auditory image.thin IV . but these are easily corrected by adjustments of embouchure and air pressure.tendency towards high or low III.difficult to begin immediately.articulation ." Since different players play different equipment. such as half-holes or depression of pad keys.ppp to fff (only indicated if limitations exist) .dynamics . No unusual techniques are called for. These adjustments are no more extreme than those that one would make to play in tune with other performers.

tr = use as a trill fingering ps = use in diatonic scale passage leg.preparation .player must have time to prepare it -legato connection to it may not be possible smth.a complex fingering .when sustained or approached/left by legato above the staves (fingering categories.isl. = smooth connection from another pitch isl.= legato from clarion register VIII. according to vent used): r = thumb hole + register key vents t = overblown throat tones A = A key vent Ab = Ab key vent .13 VI . = isolated context only n.strengths .stability .= do not isolate VII.

15 N.. the distance between any two neighboring piano keys. which extends to any tuning system that departs from the twelve note per octave equal-tempered scale. It is hoped that the information presented here may spark the imaginations of composers and performers towards qualities of microtones other than pitch. Microtones are not a twentieth century invention.16 The modern revival was also not just a result of scientific interest in the nature of sound (Alois Haba. ornamentation or polyphonic development through trills." 13 ". they were discussed as early as the eleventh century by theorists. A more inclusive category is xenharmonic music. which usually implies musical intervals smaller than a semitone. or the use of percussive effects found in microtonal trills are certainly potential areas that could be pertinent to the development of musical material.small tones. equal-tempered tuning system. and Christopher Simpson wrote about microtonal music in the Compendium of Practical Musick (1667).14 Table #5 New Pitch Resources Microtones "all pitches that lie between the semi-tone of the twelve-tone. among other microtonal ." 14 Musical application of microtones for clarinet has only just begun to be explored by composers. Vincentino described a quarter-tone harpsichord in the sixteenth century. transitions to multiphonics as a means of musical cell development.. Timbre contrasts.

During the 1920's several publications by Ivan Wyschengradsky. and American composers who include Robert Erickson. as well as closer relationships to their instruments which allow them to work with the composer to achieve a higher level of musical expression. Carrillo. In addition. a composer and clarinetist. developed in 1924. Harold Seletsky. is balanced with easier technical control by the player on his familiar conventional instrument. was utilized in his Suite Op. 55 of 1943 (solo quarter-tone clarinet). The composer James Wood presents a common opposing view. Their compositional utilization need not be limited to an extension of twelve-tone chromaticism. Busoni.15 composers. Following the example of the pioneers of microtonality.20 These composers all employ the standard B-flat clarinet to produce microtones. developed a quarter-tone clarinet around 1911 that consisted of the addition of numerous tone holes and keys to the standard design. and Masataka Matsuo. Julian Carrillo ( Mexico ) began experiments from 1895 that led to an equal-tempered 96-note scale (16th tones). Akira Nishimura. all of these instruments failed to gain acceptance. A quarter-tone clarinet. Richard H. the composer has the advantage of performers with developed and more flexible techniques (a level of virtuosity that has taken many years to reach). the work of Harry Partch and the music journal Interval have stimulated new interest in microtonal music. Clarinet microtones present fascinating musical material outside of their pitch characteristics. 24 of 1925 (clarinet. John Eaton. for example. "It is precisely these conventional instruments which in practical terms are incapable of consistently accurate realization of micro-intervals because of the subjectivity involved.21 Clarinetists may not be able to produce microtones to the exact acoustical cent. Works by Russian composers such as Edison Denisov. and Drake Mabry are a few examples. clarinets of modified design were developed to produce these pitches. we have to build special instruments". who created an instrument that employed two different tubes tuned a quarter of a tone apart.18 Another approach was taken by Fritz Schuller in 1937. Increased interest in folk music and a move against the richness and decadence of the late romantics helped to create a receptive attitude. What may be lost with regard to precise intonation and matched timbres. but the information in this chapter does provide accuracy in relative pitch distances. Toru Takemitsu. took an intensive course in acoustics at the University in Berlin). At first. Italian composers such as Carlo Landini and Giacinto Scelsi. if we want to achieve any degree of precision. however. More recently. Isao Matsushita. Japanese composers such as Joji Yuasa. Stein. Richard Boulanger. Microtonal writing for clarinet in the last twenty-five years has increased markedly. in his "New Aesthetic of Music" (1906) advocated a system based on thirdtones.17 Microtonal production on wind instruments such as the clarinet was first exploited and notated by European composers in the early twentieth century. 22 .19 However. Ezra Sims. The Czech composer Alois Haba was also intrigued by the construction of quarter-tone instruments. Musicians today. are far from unanimous in their support of the above approach. probably because of one principal problem: clarinetists were reluctant to accept such drastic design changes. in the realm of timbre. quarter-tone piano) and Suite Op. and Haba helped to publicize the theories and the music.

about his performances of Johnstons 's One Man . if precise pitch is desired in microtonal music.25 This evidence adds further weight to the position that electronic instruments present a more accurate medium.. The difficulty is that we can have all these beautiful theories and all this beautiful mathematics but when we come down to trying to make instruments and sound them. To not consider deeply the terminology used to describe it is to also not consider deeply what is heard. shall I play it low. I'm playing A. He has pointed out that the acquired skill that allows "live" performers to adjust their intonation automatically in ensembles actually leads the tuning closer to just intonation than to equal temperament. yes. it just isn't there. might consist numerically of less than one tone per octave. who am I playing A with. then in what sense could it be said that a string quartet playing traditional literature in tune is not playing in just intonation? Or in what sense could home-made instruments which strive to avoid structural rigidity ever be in just intonation when intonational drift begins to occur within minutes of initial tuning? If it is truly possible to have a microtone then perhaps it is also possible. These help to produce vast contrasts of color between different microtones (Example #44). left to its own resources.. variable and wavy and watery. what's going on musically and I think of these pitches as sort of dynamic entities in motion all the time. a tendency to gravitate towards equal temperament after several performances. It is true that the contemporary clarinet was not designed to play microtones. The composer Robert Erickson comments on problems of this approach: "I think of pitch as much more infinite. Ultimately my point is that the ear is what is essential in that all musical systems remain descriptions of what the ear hears. an area that is perhaps best left to electronic music or theoretical texts. but what am I doing here. However. higher on the instrument body than the lowest tone holes that are closed by fingers or keys.Just because we write. and do things to make sound. to have a macro-tuning system which. through a closer examination of what a "microtone" is: "What might a microtone actually be? What characteristics might it exhibit? And in what sense is it an extension of anything when its contextual terminology must of necessity reference it to the system of temperament which it strives so desperately to disassociate itself from? Who or what has defined a universally accepted definition of tone from which our friend `micro' might be derived? And even if such a definition truly exists then upon what authority need I accept it? If small numbered harmonic ratios are truly what the ear would most prefer. Cross fingerings employ open vents. Wood's interests lie primarily in the precision of pitch. let alone the possible hearings. ." 23 This opinion is echoed by composer David Dunn. as a friend recently proposed. we have a system for 12-tones doesn't mean that every interval plays the same way. and especially not for a solo instrument.. this is not always true in all instrumental combinations. We have only a glimpse of the possible descriptions." 24 Somewhat similar problems present themselves in the music of Ben Johnston. many microtones require the use of cross fingerings. Because of the limited number of keys on the standard clarinet. Stuart Dempster has noted. for example.. It just doesn't have much to do with the theories that we talked about. from this statement. that Mr.16 It appears.. who employs just intonation. shall I play it high. who stresses the importance of "real" sound over theory.

26 Previous Research Results of previous research have generally consisted of very limited catalogs of limited information (no smaller pitch intervals than quarter or eighth tones. related instrument.this excludes all clarinetists who do not use this Italian-system instrument.). In addition. etc. no mention of quarter-tone or microtone trills. Caravan and Bartolozzi offer fine introductions. there has been virtually no suggestion of "safe" uses of these extended techniques in musical contexts (which ones are most reliable?). In general. Although some of this research has served as a valuable introduction to various sonic potentials of the clarinet. all of these documents merely touch the surface with regard to both microtones and descriptive information. . these problems are not sufficiently described for composers (or clarinetists). but do not present important details. many of them involve unconventional or unfamiliar finger patterns. learning these fingerings is similar to learning a new. they are merely grouped as alternate fingerings for quarter or eighthtone intervals.17 Example #44 For the performer. The problems of learning a new system can be overcome through imagination and musical understanding. It is especially curious to note that the process of learning a new system can help the clarinetist to review.for example). or that involve nonconventional finger patterns. with little or no attention focused on practicalities of performance. and perhaps understand more deeply the basic concepts of clarinet playing needed to successfully realize the standard repertoire. no mention of microtone timbre or specific considerations of technical practicality. the fact that composers have written microtones for the standard clarinet since at least 1911 can not be ignored. at pianissimo . these microtones are not adequately compared according to pitch. Much of Bruno Bartolozzi's work is only applicable for a clarinetist who uses a Full-Boehm system instrument (with a low E-flat key)) -.27 Phillip Rehfeldt's charts include some awkward microtones that are technically impossible in most contexts (except for isolated entrances of short duration. Nevertheless. performers must find ways to produce the desired musical consequence.28 Ronald Caravan displays a quarter-tone scale (the upper range reaches only to F5) and does discuss timbre in the context of alternate fingerings. Studies by Rehfeldt. however. little or no mention of timbre. refine.

Cross fingerings can not be utilized. should be carefully checked for potential problems by a performing clarinetist. since it is by far the most dependable in performance. most advanced clarinetists have their instruments "customized" to improve intonation. Instead. Limitations also exist in the creation of equidistant microtonal scales. as well as awkward fingerings make them treacherous. A further complication is noted by the fact that all instruments may not be tuned at exactly A = 440 Hz. In addition. Timbre distinctions of bright and dark are relative to the equipment and overall individual physical characteristics of each player. the composer should enlist the assistance of a clarinetist if he wishes to employ clarinet microtones in his work. fingerings may need to be adjusted slightly to avoid awkward technical problems. it contains relatively few problems for the clarinetist. the most universally accurate with regard to pitch. since virtually the entire length of the instrument is employed. The altered air and embouchure pressure necessary to produce these pitches (often on different partials). somewhat weak conjunct sections of the quartertone scale are found across the "break" from the throat register to the clarion register (Bflat 4 to D-sharp 4). This study has explored the first option only. especially if approached quickly by leap.18 Guidelines for Use The clarinetist may produce microtonal pitches in one of two ways: through special fingerings. Also. for example. Quarter-Tones The following quarter-tone scale extends from A3 to D6." outline the difficulties found in the production of theoretically perfect microtonal scales with "equal-tempered ears" on standard equipment adjusted for equal temperament. Personal experiment takes precedence over strict adherence to stated principles. or through changes in embouchure. Naturally. observations. and the closest in technical demands to customary performance practice. Disjunct microtonal motion. for example.32 From B-flat 4 to C4 there are technical problems because of awkward finger placement requirements. Some problems of universal application by clarinetists who use standard Boehm-System instruments occur because of individual preferences for different mouthpieces and reed styles. as well as problems encountered in actual practice by the performer who must hear microtonal intervals "in tune. This is the same consideration that inhibits quarter-tone production below chalumeau A. Microtones are portrayed in the following charts in a proportional fashion with regard to distance from adjacent pitches. it is not always possible to find eight microtones within each whole step that are equidistant. . These technical limitations. From C4 to D-sharp 4 there are no practical fingerings for quarter-tones. and do not use the mouthpiece that comes with the instrument. Another section of the quartertone scale that is weak consists of pitches above B6. However. information has been gathered based on the measurement by the naked ear of relative distances between pitches. This is one reason why the author has not attempted a precise frequency analysis of microtonal pitches. In general. or fingerings. The information presented here is not exhaustive by any means.

19 TABLE #6 .Quarter Tone Scale .

and subsequently adding the quarter-tone. [below are some musical examples of quarter tones . adopts the use of quarter-tones for several musical purposes in his Street Cries (1983) for solo clarinet. click here] Drake Mabry.20 The clarinetist should practice tuning these quarter-tones by first playing the half-step. This process will lead to an improved level of quarter-tone intonation. One application takes the form of a repetition or echo device (Example #53). another American composer.for others. .

21 Example #53

measures 6-7, mvt. I

measures 36-7, mvt. I

These repetitions are not only a quarter-tone removed, but also display a strikingly different timbre. Measure 7 is not only much softer than measure 6, but has a thinner sound. Measure 37 sounds thicker and darker than measure 36. This echo technique is also employed in the second movement (Example #54).

Example #54

measures 23-4, mvt. II

In this example, the repetition sounds much darker because of its quarter-tones, lower dynamic level, and shift to the lower register. Mabry employs another timbre manipulation in a completely different context in the first movement. The very dark quality of the quarter-tones in measures 8 and 9 adds another dimension to the conflicting patterns of pitch and articulation (Example #55).

22 Example #55

measures 8-9, mvt. I

One more example of timbre contrast in the first movement occurs in measure 38, where the D-flat should be fingered in the following manner to preserve the bright quality of the line (Example #56).

Example #56

This helps to vividly contrast the thick timbres of measure 37. A final illustration in Mabry's Street Cries of timbre contrast through quarter-tones is drawn from the third movement. A "composite fingering" is used to produce four different pitches with very minimal technical changes. This fingering helps to produce substantial timbre differences as well as dynamic differences among the four pitches (Example #57).

23 Example #57

Akira Nishimura wrote Madoromi III in 2003, commissioned by and dedicated to the Tanosaki-Richards Duo. The work makes extensive use of quarter-tones and microtones which support the program of the music. Translated to English, madoromi means ‘under the spell of sleep….a strong desire (or lack of resistance) to sleep…drift into sleep with strong power.' The type of sleep, itself is shallow, but the dreams that one experiences are often more realistic than reality. I wanted to write music that floats between the surface wave of this inner world. In the passage below, Nishimura writes quarter-tones for the clarinet that combine with acoustical beats from the piano pedaling and clusters to create music that fades in and out of focus. This focus is further affected by the extreme color contrasts (dark and muffled) of the clarinet G quarter-tone sharp and F quarter-tone-sharp, and the alternate fingerings for D and D-sharp, with the conventional pitches of its line. The clarinet's easy microtonal segment on G also enhances the acoustic beats from its interaction with the sustained piano chords.

They are available in three different classifications: 1) trills between adjacent quarter-tones and standard half-steps. Several examples from each area are outlined below. 2) tremolos between non-adjacent quarter-tones and standard half-steps.24 Example #67 Quarter-Tone Trills and Tremolos Numerous trills and tremolos that utilize quarter-tones are practical. . and 3) trills between two quarter-tone fingerings.

25 Drake Mabry successfully employs quarter-tone trills in his Street Cries for solo clarinet. . The tension of an ascending quarter-tone line in the third movement is effectively heightened with quarter-tone trills (Example #74).

mvt. III Equidistant Microtones. One-Octave Microtonal Scales. but has rarely been asked to do so. Equidistant Microtones Equidistant microtones are represented in Table #10. In fact. quarter. III A different set of quarter-tone trills is utilized later in the same movement (Example #75). twelfth. Example #75 measures 46-7. mvt. Non-Equidistant Microtones Microtones The clarinet has long been capable of producing microtones smaller than quarter-tones. Disjunct Microtonal Segments. It's full range of microtonal possibilities has been largely undocumented. Horizontal . and sixteenth tones. accurate microtonal segments of intervals smaller than thirty-second tones are often possible and quite easy to produce. sixth. both horizontally and vertically. in order to permit convenient comparisons. These microtones are arranged proportionally on the page.26 Example #74 measures 29-31. eighth.

Equidistant Quarter.27 brackets ( [ ] ) mark the length of uninterrupted scale segments. Eighth. since equidistant pitches are not always available. Sixth. Twelfth & Sixteenth Tones . TABLE #10 .

Disjunct Microtonal Segments One-Octave Microtonal Scales Scales can be formed from microtones that present fascinating pitch or timbre relationships when written for clarinet. TABLE #11 . several disjunct segments of eighth and quarter-tones are particularly easy to negotiate.28 In addition to the illustrated conjunct segments that are technically easy to produce in a legato fashion. All are fairly easy for the clarinetist to master. Example #92 presents a ten-note scale in the chalumeau register that exploits dark timbres. . Several examples follow which have been arbitrarily chosen because of their bright or dark timbre qualities or symmetrical pitch patterns.

29 Example #92 An equidistant scale of sixteen 3/8 tones is represented in Example #93. Example #93 Thirty-two note scales. Example 95 is arranged in an eighth-quarter pattern. . based on condensed interval patterns of the octatonic scale (alternating whole and half steps). are shown in Examples 94 and 95. Example 94 is arranged in an eighth-quarter-quarter-eighth pattern.

30 Example #94 Example #95 .

and each system (line) represents one quarter-tone.Microtonal Scale . The relative space between fingerings corresponds to actual pitch distance. conjunct microtones for clarinet according to pitch from G-sharp 2 to B quarter-tone sharp 6. TABLE #12 .31 Microtonal Scale (not equidistant) The following table presents practical.

TABLE #14 .Disjunct Microtonal Motion . These involve chromatic and diatonic finger patterns of the right hand.32 Disjunct Microtones Several easy segments of disjunct microtonal motion have been arbitrarily set down in the following table.

apparent low frequencies that comprise part of a multiphonic sonority.33 Atypical Trills Finally. described as pp-p. and. A short description follows each trill fingering in order to elaborate on its characteristics and possible variations. a collection of trills termed "atypical" has been gathered to demonstrate some unique sounds that can be easily produced as part of certain microtonal trills. The pitches or arrows above the staff in parentheses represent the pitch frequency that is produced when the trill key or finger is engaged. usually at a very soft dynamic level. and as either louder or softer than. a microtonal trill (see Chapter IV for further examples). "Pitch pop" relates to a precise pitch that is generated when the trill is performed softly with very hard finger movement. These sounds include pitched key clicks or finger slaps that can be heard simultaneously with. . are evident as part of a multiphonic when the trill is performed very softly. from low to high. They have been organized here according to the frequency of the basic pitch that the trill originates from. microtonal trills that consist of pitches with extremely contrasted timbres. The lower notes in parentheses.

34 TABLE #17 .Atypical Trills .

Another misnomer is the labeling of multiphonics as "chords." Again. This is a dangerous usage. Early acoustical descriptions of woodwind multiphonics often refer to them as "harmonics. Where do these unrelated partials come from. but why are there such drastic timbre differences between multiple sounds and between individual pitches of one multiple sound? There must be more to an explanation of the acoustics of multiphonics... however.Multiple Sounds Some acoustical principles of clarinet multiple sounds The general acoustic principles of the clarinet have been previously discussed. it appears that there are actually two tube lengths at work simultaneously (Example #1)." pertaining to partials produced according to the standard overtone series from a fundamental pitch. then? The answer may be related in some way to the even partials that exist in particular clarinet spectra mentioned by Backus and others.11 It is obvious that multiple sounds are based on partials of a fundamental pitch. since each multiple sound has a different texture as well as a different timbre and intensity for each of its tones. a comparison with string double or triple stops is not appropriate. may actually be out-of-tune. results from spectrum analyses that he conducted fuel speculation that more than one fundamental and set of overtones are present in each multiple sound. they are not always related as odd partials of one likely fundamental.35 CHAPTER 3 . In reality. the more accurate acoustical explanation of clarinet multiphonics is much more complex and not universally agreed upon. . "The human variable. which must be present to produce the sounds is great. many terms used to describe multiple sounds are misleading and oversimplified. or partials from another fundamental. However. Unfortunately. When a multiple sonority is produced. even-partials. our problem here is to discover how they explain the phenomenon of multiple sounds. Ronald Caravan has suggested some interesting theories in his 1974 dissertation."14 Nevertheless.it appears that it possesses a greater latitude of variation than the margin for error would impose even in computations on as elementary a level as those made here.13 He cautions us.. which consist of one pitch produced from a single fundamental.12 These findings are important when one considers the derivation of pitches in clarinet multiple sounds. pitches which are not logically explained as the odd-partials of a given fundamental. It is clear that multiple sounds are based on partials of at least one fundamental. with regard to our interpretation of numerical figures to draw conclusions about the acoustical characteristics of the clarinet. since it invites comparison to string harmonics.

. and cause the higher pitch.36 Example #1 This seems to be supported by the following example. but is slightly lower because of the additional fingers on the right hand placed over holes. Thus. gradually progress upwards. it appears that the open hole (second finger. Example #2 The upper pitches. of the multiphonic to gradually ascend. Caravan has labeled this hole the "register-terminator hole. left hand) behaves as the terminating hole of the shorter tube (Caravan calls this L1). and to a lesser extent the lower pitch. This is similar to a E3 fingering. The right hand fingers gradually are lifted (in a chromatic or microtonal ascending motion). which shows a sequence of multiphonics with a lowest pitch that changes very little from one to the next (Example #2). these control the length of the longer tube (L2). however. the terminating hole of tube L1 (open hole in the left hand fingering) also functions as a register opening or vent for L2." THE REGISTER-TERMINATOR HOLE PERFORMS TWO SIMULTANEOUS FUNCTIONS: IT TERMINATES THE SHORTER TUBE AND ACTS AS A REGISTER OPENING OR VENT FOR THE LONGER TUBE. It is significant that the left hand fingering remains the same.

37 Obviously, since all fingerings on the clarinet with these characteristics do not produce multiple sounds with the same ease, there must be particular limitations to the registerterminator hole. Caravan believes, through a series of informal tests, that the size of the diameter of the register-terminator hole is crucial to the ease of multiphonic production. Decreasing the size of a successful register-terminator hole lessens the ease with which the hole can be made to act as the end of a length of pipe (L1); increasing the size of a successful register-terminator hole increases the ease with which this hole can act as the terminator of a length of tube, but decreases its ability to act as a register hole for the longer tube (L2). In other words, the smaller the opening of the register-terminator hole, the greater the tendency to act exclusively as a register hole, and the larger the opening, the greater the tendency to act exclusively as the effective termination of a tube length. This theory can be used to explain why multiphonics that use the conventional register key, which has a small opening, as their register-terminator hole are more difficult to produce. Caravan has also hypothesized that the ratio between the length of tube 1 and tube 2 must also be more than 50% and less than 80% for a multiple sound to work well. However, he admits that the size of the register-terminator hole most likely effects the relative success of these ratios. The number of variables are, indeed, numerous. With these theories in mind, the pitches of a multiple sound in Example #2 can be explained as follows:

The lowest pitch of a) is derived from tube length L1 (c). This pitch (a sharp D3) is lower than E3 because of the added fingers of the left and right hand below the registerterminator tone hole (2nd finger of the left hand). The G4 and C-sharp5 found in multiphonic a) are produced from tube length L2 (b). This tube length would normally produce the 3rd (E4) and 5th (C-sharp5) partials above its fundamental (A3). The middle pitch of multiphonic a) is a minor third higher than the normal third partial (G4 instead of E4) because of the excessive size of the terminator hole. It has often been noted that the same multiphonic fingering will not produce the same pitches for different players, or even for the same player from one day to the next. It is true that on equipment of the same system (Boehm, for example), the precise pitch content may not be consistent; however, these are very minor variations, at least in the multiple sounds presented in this study. These inconsistencies can result from any of a

38 variety of reasons; an unbalanced reed, an insufficiently warmed-up instrument, specific mouthpiece characteristics, or customized clarinets, are four frequent causes. More likely, however, are deficiencies found in the construction of all clarinets and/or properties of the acoustical phenomena involved. As Paul Drushler points out, the clarinet is very much out of tune in its upper register (based on upper partials).15 As a result, fingerings must be altered to play single pitches. However, fingerings can not be changed for each pitch of a multiple sound; they, therefore tend to be out of equaltempered tuning, very often creating acoustical beats (amplitude modulation or interference tones) which can change markedly according to the adjustment of the reed and mechanics of the instrument. In addition, the combination of sonorities in a multiple sound may often produce difference or summation tones.16 Difference tones may only be audible if the pitches of the multiple sound are in tune and at an adequate volume. All of these acoustical phenomena may alter principle pitches, add new pitches, or appear to the ear to do either (often they change or fade in and out during the period of sustain of the multiple sound).17 Spectrum analyses by Caravan indicate that the strengths and tunings of partials which comprise multiple sounds do not remain in a very stable relationship among one another while the sound is produced, even though the composite sound may appear to remain constant to the listener.18 One more variable that comes into play is the fact that pitches in a multiple sound may alter because of the adjustments required of the player to produce the split sonority; this will generally lower pitches (Example #2 is a good illustration). Caravan presents some other valuable, although more general, insights as to why certain multiphonic fingerings seem to work better than others. "Important to note is that the smaller the degree of departure from normal playing practices a multiphonic fingering requires, the more manageable it is."19 This is logical, since the instrument has been built to deal with problems of standard performance practice. Multiphonics built from new, but technically feasible, fingerings are closer to standard performance practice than multiphonics produced from conventional fingerings through varying the oral cavity, breath pressure, and/or embouchure. Extreme flexibility of embouchure and breath, as well as flexible mouthpiece and reed set-ups, have long been characteristics of jazz players. Thus, it is not surprising that many of William O. Smith's multiphonics are produced by this manner. The author supports Caravan's statement about the unpredictability of this type of multiple sound. "The problem with multiphonics produced in this way is that in most cases they require such significant adjustments on the part of the performer that they tend to be very difficult to play, tend to be quite unstable and limited in dynamic range, and may not be attainable by every performer."20 Composers should be cautious when writing such sonorities. Chart of Multiple Sounds for Clarinet The following chart has been compiled from hundreds of musical compositions, and experiments; it has been checked by numerous players for accuracy. I have striven to organize the material according to acoustic principles of the clarinet and basic principles of clarinet technique. All of the multiple sounds presented are playable on any traditional professional mouthpiece/reed set-up. They demand only slight deviations from normal finger expectations and embouchure. Many previous studies have organized multiple sounds according to verbal descriptions of categories of production and/or sound, regardless of acoustical relationships. This

39 study employs acoustical relationships as the first order of organization, and briefly describes characteristics of each multiple sound (see explanation of notation, below). Of course, it is impossible to discuss every conceivable context for a particular multiple sound. BE SURE TO CONSULT A CLARINETIST ABOUT FEASIBLE CONTEXTS FOR PARTICULAR MULTIPLE SOUNDS. Multiple sounds have been placed in groups (labeled by letter, beginning with those with the lowest fundamental); a common denominator within each group is an identical register/terminator hole. In other words, the left hand fingering remains constant within a group. The multiple sounds are ordered according to the right hand fingerings which ascend in chromatic or microtonal intervals. Care has been taken to insure that these groups are playable as sequences; this means limited (minimum) finger movement, and a lack of contrary motion, wherever possible. The fastest possible tempo of legato connections of multiphonics within a group has been notated between the staves: very fast fast moderately fast moderate not possible A broken vertical line ( ) between multiple sounds in a group indicates that a legato connection is not possible, even though the adjacent sounds utilize the same series of partials. A double bracket ( [ ] ) between sounds in a group indicates that a legato connection is not possible, because the series of partials changes. Groups of multiple sounds with the same letter label (ie. A, A1, A2 etc.) utilize slightly different, but related left hand fingerings (different vents). For example, left-hand fingerings in Group A1 differ from Group A only through the addition of the register key. Left-hand fingerings in Group A2 differ from Group A only through the addition of the A-key, etc. The close technical relation of these groups makes numerous trills and tremolos possible between them (discussed later). Left-hand fingerings for A represent the lowest bottom pitches - left-hand fingerings for Z, the highest bottom pitches. It is important to note that each multiple sound listed is available in isolation; it need not be connected to another. Various characteristics of each multiple sound have been described beneath each example in the chart. The format of this chart, top line to bottom line, is: I - a number (1-462) - this number represents the position of this multiple sound in relation to the others in the chart, according to its lowest (and highest) pitch. The multiphonic with the lowest low pitch is #1; the multiphonic with the highest low pitch is #462. II - dynamic range possible - pp to FF

dull lowest pitch wide . more resistant 5 = all sounds appear within 4-5 seconds. or dl.lack of partials dark . • All multiple sounds that use keys 3 and/or 4 as register vents will have thin timbres. lack of partials . However. very resistant V .stability: how stable? a = very stable is the sustain b = moderately stable c = unstable IV .some general characteristics deserve mention here: 1) All diads will contain a significant amount of air when played softly. easily 2 = all sounds appear within 1 second.predominant lower partials thin .40 III . timbre descriptions are divided into 2 categories: a) those which describe individual pitches of a multiple sound b) those which describe the overall texture of a multiple sound dull .pitch is weak. • Most of the multiple sounds that do not contain undertones are capable of generating higher partials than indicated in the chart when played very loudly. the production and content of these partials are not controllable or reliable.timbre and texture .b . easily 3 = all sounds appear within 2 seconds.few higher partials dlbt.response: the time required to begin all sounds of the multiple sound? 1 = all sounds begin simultaneously. resistant 4 = all sounds appear within 3 seconds.

weak highest pitch s.(balance) all pitches of equal intensity .tp .bright highest pitch eltp .some noise in the sound air .(fat) many partials (low & high) brt or edge .strong highest pitch _______________________ sbtn .(electronic) 3 or more pitches.(bright) many higher partials brtp . t.41 _______________________ ft . or th.t .acoustical beats caused by out of tune intervals slbt or sbt . acoustical beats elc! .changing amplitudes of pitches (similar to electronic.electronic "edgy" highest pitch thtp.(raucous electronic) .(slow acoustical beats) thk .(thick) many pitches thk! .otherwise) bts .subtone ========================= elc . thin timbres.(muddy) unclear pitches _______________________ ns .h..very thick mud .ns .air sounds apparent in sonority _______________________ bal .(acoustical beats) .noise in the sound s.thin highest pitch wktp .

three voices mvc .aim for highest pitch VII .easy to begin with bottom pitch m.two pitches (an undertone .42 3vc .arpeggiation . gradually adding other pitches: top .major 3rd VI .high and low pitch (no middle frequencies) tran .many voices holl .predominant major 3rd (10th) or triad M3! .(light) thin timbres gent . less air pressure tite .d.(hollow) .tighter embouchure.lw .resistant _______________________ diad .difficult .technique . more air pressure d.looser embouchure.lowest pitch is weaker than the highest) Mtr! . .easy to begin with top pitch bot .(hints for easier production) ls! .(gentle) dull timbres soft .difficult to produce lowest pitch !tp .moderately difficult d.dull timbres rest .capability to begin multiple sound with top or bottom pitch alone. .(transparent) lite .

It is important that the fingering for a multiple sound be indicated at . which may or may not be present according to the dynamic level of the multiple sound. All pitches (or as many as possible) in the multiple sound should be written on the staff. The filled-in note heads indicate secondary pitches.43 Chart of Multiphonics The notation system used in this chart for multiple sounds on the staff is one which the author hopes will become standardized.

3. searchable database of multiphonic fingerings (http:// ) for clarinetists and composers. resistant. moderately stable. pale timbres. The interval between top and bottom pitches is . directly under the sonority. some.44 every occurrence in the music. One may choose multiphonics based on any or all of the variables below: lowest pitch highest pitch number of pitches (2. dull. unstable) resistance (easy. p. ff) loudest dynamic possible (pp. ff) stability (very stable. These sonorities are generally only possible at very soft dynamic levels. much noise) strong acoustic beats in sonority? (not apparent. f. more resistant. more than 3) softest dynamic possible (pp. The website for The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century has an interactive. mf. These procedures will greatly assist the clarinetist in learning the music. The searchable variables include: sequence with stationary lowest pitch? Which pitch? sequence with stationary highest pitch Which pitch? easy technical sequences . many) color extremes (none. fast. bright) The website also has a database for sequences of multiphonics. mf. very fast) Diads Another category of multiple sounds that has received innovative treatment in several works is diads.fastest possible tempo (moderate. some noise. very resistant) possible to begin from lowest pitch alone? possible to begin from highest pitch alone? noise in sound? (no noise. mp. somewhat resistant. mp. p. f. and tend to have very dull. moderately fast.

Example #13 Other conventional fingerings in the clarion and altissimo registers of the clarinet are available for producing marvelous dynamic and timbre contrasts with the throat register. by simply releasing the register key. a concerto for clarinet and strings. Many of them are undertones. .45 generally either a major or minor tenth. They are blended in a marvelous texture of string harmonics (Example #13). Example #23 Drake Mabry. Isolated diads are adopted in Matsuo's Hirai III (1987). in his work Street Cries for Solo Clarinet (1983). employs diads that gradually and softly fade in from their lowest pitch. with top pitches commonly between G-sharp4 and C5.

• Moderate tempo.research. In most cases.46 Example #24 Multiphonic Sequences A number of multiphonic sequences are quite easy to produce in legato articulation. any order (click on music for mp3) .edu/~emrich/multiphonic sequences. Thirteen examples are given below (with indications of fastest possible tempo) – 48 more are available on The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century website ( http://www. umbc. the multiphonics in the sequence may be played in any order (indicated here).html ).

Example #41 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All Rights Reserved Used by permission from the composer . an American composer from Boston.47 2) any order [A3] (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger. also writes an effective sequence of multiple sounds in Construction #1 for Clarinet and Electronics. The top pitches relate to the melodic cell from which the work is generated (Example #41).

distorted multiphonics at the climax of the work. Example #51 (click on music for mp3) . the variety of dynamic capabilities of #50b permit its use as part of the fpp thematic germ throughout the work (Example #50). Example #50 (click on music for mp3) Yuasa also makes very effective use of thick.48 Yuasa creates appropriate musical moods through the use of sound characteristics of the following multiphonics within a phrase: the gentle qualities of #50a serve as a relaxed phrase ending.

The clarinet solo is based on alternation of spectral focus and diffusion. The nature of the flute's acoustic character.S. The piece is in three large sections: an extended flute solo which evolves into a duet with the computer. flute. and interactive computer (written for E. and a clarinet solo which forms its own context through computer transformation of the live performance. and how these differences can be projected and transformed through the computer's particular idiom. by Masataka Matsuo. Flash Metal (2003) for clarinet. are examples of how objects and relationships . This work offers a three-fold expression of this idea playing out on many levels with the interplay and juxtaposition of musical differences forming the compositional basis of the work. a duet with flute and clarinet that is augmented by computer transformation. how it differs from the clarinet. The composer writes: The noticeable differences between interesting objects offer engagement with the particularities of the objects themselves and also the less obvious offerings provided by the implied relationships between the objects. and Canadian agent for Schott Japan In Distraction for clarinet and piano.49 Joji Yuasa CLARINET SOLITUDE Copyright 1983 by Schott Japan All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation. Example #53 (click on music for mp3) Bill Kleinsasser utilizes balanced multiphonics in numerous contexts in Smooth Wood. sole U. Michael Richards and Lisa Cella). balanced soft multiphonics are interrupted by loud repeated notes in the piano. The duet combines the flute and clarinet alternations with its own metaphor of entwining and fusion. how the two can combine and intersect.

but a number of acoustic beats result from the blend. aware architecture – variably resonating. Example #57 (click on music for mp3) Multiphonic Trills and Tremolos The subject of multiphonic trills and tremolos will be briefly broached here. filtering. diffusing. is the result of real-time processing of music played by the flute and clarinet during the performance. Trills between adjacent multiple sounds in the chart presented (different right-hand fingerings) in this chapter are possible. The computer music. and reflecting what the acoustic instruments play. sharing many of the same pitches. they are possible between multiple sounds with the same right-hand fingering but different left-hand fingering between the following groups: A2 and A3 B and B1 B and B3 E and E1 H2 and H I1 and I .50 permeate this music. developed by the composer using Max/MSP software. In this way the computer can be considered analogous to fluid. except where brackets or dotted lines intercede. the reader is referred to the book by Gerald Farmer as an excellent source of half-tone or larger trills and tremolos. echoing. The example below occurs at the beginning of the middle section of the music – the clarinet and flute multiphonics intersect closely.25 Farmer's book includes detailed diagrams of each individual trill. In addition.

Example #73 (click on music for mp3) Joji Yuasa CLARINET SOLITUDE Copyright 1983 by Schott Japan . These are only possible at very soft levels and are especially effective with "hard fingers" that emphasize the pitch pops of the tone holes being trilled. Example #72 (click on music to hear mp3) Another example of diad trills can be found in Yuasa's Clarinet Solitude . these particular diads are effective loud as well as soft. The phrase eventually builds to a fortissimo climax.51 K and K1 K2 and K Carlo Landini uses one particular trill in Konzertstuck which is periodically interrupted by melodic fragments.

The trills with open left hand thumb hole in this example are easier to control than any in the Smith example. The first trills (ex. sole U.Q.52 All Rights Reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation. #77) contain most of their energy in the fundamentals. Phan also writes a sequence of multiphonic trills ( My Language for clarinet and piano) where the register key is trilled. This rising line has been appended recently by Phan to include more multiphonics (Example #77a). . since the left thumb does not have to simultaneously cover the tone hole and trill the register key. Example #77 (click on music for mp3) Example #77a A spectrogram of the phrase above clearly demonstrates the increased tension of these multiphonics.S. and Canadian agent for Schott Japan P.

and the final trills (ex.53 with some 3 rd partial presence. 2 nd and 4 th partials are added. #1 #2 . #77a) of the phrase contain very thick pitch bands. Gradually.

54 #3 #4 There are other multiphonics that can be enhanced through a register key trill (Example #78). .

55 Example #78 (CD3-Examples. the sound increases in complexity. Tracks 91-99) A spectrogram for the eighth example above shows a tremolo that contains 3rd and 5th partials (gradually enter). along with a sustained pitch with a strong 2nd partial. As these voices and partials enter. .

or humming. but the hard finger/key sounds of the trill fingerings can help to create the necessary tension. the following register for singing (notated at sounding pitch) is usually safe. Eve de Castro Robinson also employs vocal portamento in her Undercurrents for solo clarinet. In the example below. Track 79) Multiphonics with Voice A final division of multiple sounds to be described here involves a simultaneous use of the voice with the production of a clarinet tone. on the phoneme "ah" or "oo" is most effective and controllable. it is difficult to achieve a balance in volume between the two. . the clarinet is usually louder. Example #83 (CD3-Music. These particular sounds are very difficult to play FF. Example #85 As one sings higher in this range. the player hums above and below the established sung/played unison. In general. vocal production becomes much more difficult. although checking with a specific performer is advisable. Singing. creating acoustic beating. For the male voice.56 Bill Kleinsasser writes two multiple timbre trills (diads) in Smooth Wood. Flash Metal .

Example #92 (click music for mp3) . where the phrase ends with an ascending shriek in the voice. Example #91 (click music for mp3) Seiji Yokokawa asks the clarinetist to sing a three note phrase with portamenti while playing a sustained E2 (Un miroir casse ).57 Example #90 (click music for mp3) This idea returns at the end of the work.

the sung part is reduced to a single held pitch.play a pattern above this drone . However. these have not been placed in a graded order of difficulty that will accustom one to the sensation or improve one's auditory image.58 Later in the work.26 However. Example #93 (click on music for mp3) Gerald Farmer has presented exercises for the clarinetist to increase his abilities to sing and play. the interested clarinetist should design and practice his own.begin in unison (Example 94a) . Four approaches appear below: 1) sing a drone pitch . the basic principle of imitating with the voice what one plays seems to be a sensible starting point. The following exercises should serve as merely suggestions.

umbc.research. The duration of each multiphonic is between 2 and 7 seconds.sing the same pattern that was played in #1 (Example 94b) 3) sing and play in parallel 3rds (Example 94c) Spectrograms Spectrograms of a number of multiphonics follow (many more are available on The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century website – http://www. It is important to note that the spectrum of practically every multiphonic changes (at least subtly) during its duration – the sound is constantly transforming.e. . mf is the middle dynamic level).59 2) play a drone . if p-ff is possible.html). These diagrams represent the indicated multiphonic played at its middle dynamic level (i.edu/~emrich/multiphonicspectra.

Australia – http://www. length (horizontal) indicates duration. Sydney. .phys.html).60 In the spectrograms. NON-TRANSPOSED (written B4 for clarinet = A 440). and darkness/lightness indicates the relative amplitude (strength) of components of the sound.au/~jw/notes.edu.). Directly below is a note to frequency converter (taken from the website of the Physics Department of The University of New South Wales. or pitch of the fundamental(s) and partials. height indicates frequency (hz. that gives a context for the spectrograms.unsw.

partials through 5000 hz.61 22) E-99 : D ¾ 3 = 294 B5 = 880 E5 = 1175 5th of D ¾. 2nd of E. .

62 23) E1-184 : F ¼ 3 = 311 F#4 = 659 C#5 = 988 2nd partial of C#. some 3rd and 4th partials .

up to 20. strong frequency band 1000-2000.63 24) E1-226 : F#3 = 330 F5 = 1245 2nd and strong 3rd partial of F#. 2nd partial of D# . 25) E1-398 : G#3 = 370 D ¾ 5 = 1109 5th partial of G#.000 hz.

. these instruments do not have keys (or as many keys). A variety of explanations and methods have been suggested for portamento. in addition to influences from the common practice of "circumlocution" (pitch sliding and bending) found in many non-western traditional musics (Japanese and West African.5 Embouchure adjustment and tone hole uncovering are not as important. sliding glissando. pitches. The music of Eonta effectively combines steady pitches with slow portamenti.Other Resources Sounds of Definite Pitch Glissando/Portamento These terms are still often used interchangeably. and throat opening to produce a lower pitch from the fingering employed. air pressure. even though they have been clearly defined in earlier texts on new clarinet techniques. to illustrate his point. At any rate. more difficult if required over one of the two "breaks" of the instrument).3 This lower pitch must be maintained in parallel motion by the embouchure as the fingered pitches begin to move upwards or downwards. Xenakis (in Eonta ) and Haubenstock-Ramati were among the first to extensively employ portamento in post-1945 music. in a somewhat confusing way. throat opening. which greatly assist in clearly defining pitches."2 The continuous movement of a trombone slide. or a string player's finger slid along a single string yields similar effects."the connection of two tones by a smooth slide which passes through all of the possible pitches or frequencies between the two tones without interruption. Portamento can be described as a continuously smooth.64 CHAPTER 4 .1924). brass) on which the glissando is executed in a different fashion. we will define the glissando as "a rapid chromatic scale between two notes . Neither method seems to be dependable in practice.1 Part of the problem may result from the use of these terms by performers of instruments (string. what he labels as an "acciaccatura-portamento. Phillip Rehfeldt recommends adjustments in lip pressure. He presents an example. constantly changing rate of acoustical beating. of course. Caravan has given us a proper definition . although in different hierarchical positions of importance. oral cavity shape."4 This is realized with the lips by either relaxing or squeezing the embouchure at the moment that the portamento begins. for example).it is desirable to slightly blur these notes (by speed) so that they are not distinct." This technique is possible without a great deal of difficulty throughout the range of the clarinet (it is. Ronald Caravan states that portamento is produced primarily by manipulating the shape of the oral cavity by means of tongue position changes. oral cavity shape. or with an abrupt change in fingering just as the portamento begins. we will move on to discuss the much more difficult portamento. that involves a portamento from C4 to C5 (Example #1). and fingers. creating a marvelous. for example. All involve lip pressure. evenlyspaced in time. Since it is rather easily produced. tongue position. The sound has entered the avant-garde repertoire most surely as a result of influences from jazz vocalists and clarinetists (including its widely known use in Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue . Garborino discusses.

what the dynamic level is. The following table delineates the possible safe range of downward pitch bends 6 This skill very much depends on the player and the flexibility of his equipment!! However. Eventually. These factors all determine the role of embouchure and fingers. however. mastering the required technique (tongue and throat position control) for this skill is applicable to all other (including ascending) portamenti. in Time. a series of downward tone bends can be linked to form a longer portamento.65 Example #1 Caravan contends that all fingers of the right hand may be lifted simultaneously and all fingers of the left hand may be lifted simultaneously without affecting the portamento. these should be practiced first. it is a capability that can be extended with practice. . or what its shape in time should be (Example #2). Example #2 Possible Shapes. Since downward tone bends are the most difficult. What he fails to mention. is how much time this portamento is to take from beginning to end. of Portamenti Caravan does offer some good suggestions for learning portamento production.

Charles West has developed a methodology for the production of a continuous ascending portamento from G2 to C6(!). in addition to a sliding of the fingers from the tone holes (G2 to G3). the next logical step is to practice ascending bends. but in the other two as well.one from G2 to B4 (chalumeau and throat registers).7 This is possible by connecting three separate portamenti .66 Table #1 After one has practiced series of downward tone bends. West .through a switch to an alternate fingering on the two pitches that are in common between registers (B4 and C5) (Example #3). not only in this portamento. and one from C5 to C6 (altissimo register) . The side fingering for B4 is then switched to the long B4 fingering (Example #4). Example #3 The first of these portamenti is accomplished by adjustments in tongue and throat positions. and side key 3 (b-flat) are gradually added to bring the pitch up to B4. one from B4 to C5 (clarion register). it is important that the left thumb never completely leave the thumb ring. followed by series of ascending bends. the resultant "bump" heard during this switch. The throat A key. or disguise as much as possible. register key. This needs to be practiced to avoid.

and side trill keys 3 and 4 (remember to keep the thumb ring down). register key. Example #4 The second portamento is accomplished in a similar fashion to the first. being careful to practice linking one section to the first note of the next section. West also offers some worthy ideas with regard to practicing this portamento. It is learned most quickly by working on one of the three sections at a time. The link to the altissimo register is accomplished by lightly touching the long C-quarter-tone-sharp 5 fingering (which is actually bent down by the relaxed throat and embouchure to C natural) (Example #5). Example #5 Fingerings for C-quarter-tone-sharp 5 to G-sharp 5 are accomplished by merely imitating those for chalumeau G-sharp to throat F. B4 to C5 involves essentially the same fingerings as G2 to F3. A key.67 presents a valuable hint when he suggests that the long B4 be played with the A key depressed so that it may more closely match the timbre of the side B4 fingering. . The final major third (G-sharp 5 C6) is achieved by adding the A-flat key.

In the example below.68 The long portamento that Phan writes in the introduction of My Language for clarinet and piano is not difficult to play. Example #16 (click on music for mp3) In Madoromi III . flutter-tongue. clarion. even though it is at a slow tempo. to FFF and is strongly supported by the piano. and key vibrato. and chalumeau registers. . because it is written with a cresc. Other timbre transformations in this early section of the music include vibrato. Akira Nishimura asks the clarinetist for numerous portamenti in the altissimo. an alternate fingering for G5 (shown below in Example #24a) will allow the player to more effectively control a pp dynamic. Example #12 (click on music for mp3) Isao Matsushita writes a number of short clarion register portamenti in Kochi II for solo clarinet.

the portamento from E4 to D-flat4 can be executed by first adding the F key to E4. Finally. The long downward portamento from this G to D-sharp 5 is executed by slowly lowering the second finger of the left hand and loosening the embouchure. In order to achieve a smoother portamento from A5 to F4. one should first gradually lower the first finger of the right hand. The fingerings indicated next to D-sharp 5 and C-sharp 5 in measures 3-4 below can be trilled to create quarter-tone trills. then gradually peeling off the fingers to the alternate G5 fingering indicated in the second measure. Example #24a .69 Example #24 (click on music for mp3) A smooth portamento can be created from D-flat 5 to G5 by carefully switching to the second fingering indicated below. then the third finger of the left hand (measure 5).

where explosive high. Carlo Landini writes this way in Konzertstuck for solo clarinet (1980). jumps in partials are unavoidable. the portamento will not always be smooth.70 Teeth on Reed Portamento is also possible by moving the teeth lightly on the reed from about midway down to further away (towards the shoulder) from the tip. highpitched whistling sound that can be played in the dynamic range pp-f. However. Non-portamento changes in pitch can be executed by either altering the pressure on the reed. Similar to muted pitches. tend to range from Dsharp 6 upwards (depending on qualities of the reed). which can not really be infallibly controlled according to pitch. These sounds. The safest context for pitches produced by teeth on the reed is one that calls for random pitches. The result will be a thin. much like portamento harmonics on the contrabass (sounds that are reminiscent of seagulls). with a weaker pitch band from the 3rd partial upwards to 20. A spectrogram of these sounds shows a strong fundamental and 2nd partial.000 hz. squeaky sounds are used to periodically interrupt a softly held unison trill (Example #29). . or by moving the teeth to a different position on the reed. some lower subtones are also present. Example #29 (click on music for mp3) This phrase is best played by randomly moving the fingers of the left hand to change the pitches.

Example #31 Other Objects as Resonators Different and provocative sounds may be created when other objects are placed in vibration by sounds from the clarinet. Some of these objects will only vibrate when set in motion by particular pitches of the clarinet. Indications of duration may be notated proportionally by a horizontal line (Example #31). Example #30 (CD4-Music. This area has not been explored in depth by clarinetists or composers. this time as an isolated portamento scream. Setting the strings of the piano in vibration is one technique that has been employed by composers (one of the earliest examples occurred in Eonta by Xenakis).71 Another use of teeth on the reed. others will vibrate differently when generated by any of many possible clarinet sounds. Track 22) A good notational symbol for teeth on reed is . It is accomplished by playing the clarinet "into" the strings (with the bell at a distance of . the following examples merely touch the surface of options. is written by Helmut Lachenmann in Dal Niente (Interieur III) for solo clarinet (Example #30).

and length of time that the pedal is held. The result is a gradual increase in complexity of texture. Several different combinations of clarinet sounds and timpani that include vibrating objects resting on their heads. Example #38 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger also explores the resonance of the timpani in Construction #1 Clarinet (1980). are employed.72 anywhere from 2 feet to practically resting on the strings) while the sustain pedal of the piano is depressed (Yamaha currently sells a wedge to hold the pedal in place!). number of notes played. This allows not only the fundamental pitches played to vibrate sympathetically. In one phrase. the clarinetist activates a timpanum that contains an inverted cymbal on its head. The quarter tones and pitch bends in the clarinet part of Nishimura's Aquatic Aura also produce sympathetic vibrations from the piano that are generated as soon as the sustain pedal is depressed . depending on the volume of the clarinet. The clarinetist depresses the timpanum pedal at the end of this sound to lengthen and raise the pitch (Example #40). by playing a low E (full tube length) which crescendos to a short flutter-tongued E. but some of their partials as well. .

73 Example #40 (click on music for mp3) This same timpanum is also later activated by a phoneme that is shouted through the clarinet. while the pedal is quickly depressed and released several times (Example #41). .

Isao Matsushita begins the work by alternating between conventional chalumeau pitches. The timbre qualities of these sounds change depending on the length of tube involved. and air sounds. In Kochi II for solo clarinet.74 Example #41 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer One more object as resonator will be mentioned. and that is the clarinet body itself which serves as an amplifier of breath/air sounds through the instrument. Example #45 (click on music for mp3) .

The difference in amplitude (or loudness) of these fluctuations is severely limited. Pitch vibrato is achieved by the clarinetist through fluctuations of jaw (or lip) pressure on the reed. These are produced on the clarinet by a variety of methods. There will be slight timbre differences in the sound. and among clarinetists. Confusion exists in method books. because the reed is being pinched. rather than the type of sound. because it is much richer and varied in sound potential. but the perception of these will be directly related to the depth of the vibrato (how wide the pitch range is above and below the primary pitch) and the speed of the vibrato (how many cycles in time). glottis. Example #55 (click on music for mp3) Depth (pitch) can also be indicated (as Paul Zonn does in Revolution ). while pitch vibrato originates with the jaw or lip. it would be best for composers to notate it when desired. Rate of vibrato should be displayed ( six to eight pulsations per second is a reasonable upper limit). Rehfeldt says that jaw vibrato is more common than amplitude vibrato in practice.75 Vibrato There are two different types of vibrato: amplitude (or volume) and pitch. To add to this state of chaos. Example #56 (click on music for mp3) . indicated in the following manner (Example #55). Since most clarinetists today do not employ vibrato. Amplitude vibrato is produced by fluctuations in air pressure past the reed. Amplitude vibrato may come from the diaphragm. or throat. because the method of production is often used to describe vibrato. while Drushler claims the opposite to be true!26 It seems to the author that pitch vibrato is more intriguing for the composer.

Example #57 (click on example for mp3) A spectrogram displays the increasing strength of pulses just above the fundamental. is found in an etude by the author (Example #57). Other possibilities are below the first example. which is meant to expand a microtonal trill. and a frequency band of increasing strength and size from the 3 rd partial higher through 20. a strong 2 nd partial throughout.76 Another example of vibrato depth. .000 hz.

to sound (or the opposite) (Example #60). The pulsations of air sound similar to the sound that a stylus might make when it reaches the end of a phonograph record.77 Microtonal trill to vibrato (0-7 seconds) Microtonal trill to vibrato (7-14 seconds) Pitch vibrato is also possible to produce in a gradual progression from air only. Example #60 (CD4-Examples. Track 17) .

The second method does not produce as dramatic of a tone modification.78 Flutter-Tonguing Flutter-tonguing on the clarinet is achieved by one of two methods: 1) a rapid flutter of the tongue behind the reed. Op. flutter-tonguing by method 2 is feasible from the lowest pitch of the clarinet through Csharp/D 5 at any dynamic range. An early use in the clarinet solo repertoire can be found in Alban Berg's Four Pieces Op. especially at a pp dynamic level. which can be achieved by fewer players. It is also possible to produce on higher pitches. is difficult to achieve at soft or changing dynamic levels. In general. but is possible throughout a greater range of the instrument. The first use of flutter-tonguing can be found in Strauss' Don Quixote . but becomes increasingly more difficult. and for creating a blurred. 5 for clarinet and piano (1913). where the trumpets are asked to imitate bleating sheep. Example #61 click here for mp3 of a .click here for mp3 of b Alban Berg FOUR PIECES FOR CLARINET AND PIANO. 5 Copyright 1924 by Universal Edition Copyright Renewed All rights reserved . "d-r-r-r" (or a rolled "r" on the upper palate). Fluttertonguing is used here for two different musical reasons: for intensifying a phrase (Example #61a). The first method. fleeting texture (Example #61b). or 2) a growl produced by the throat (typically a trilled throat 'r') in a manner similar to gargling.

and Canadian agent for Universal Edition Harold Seletsky utilizes it for similar reasons in his work of 1978.79 Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation.S. sole U. afterthought Harold Seletsky ROBIN'S PIECE All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer Sounds of Indefinite Pitch Singing through the clarinet (with mouthpiece attached) Singing through the clarinet on various vowel sounds can create interesting formants (reinforced harmonics) when one lifts the fingers of either (or both) hand from their tone . Example #62 (click on music for mp3) • intensification • blurred. Robin's Piece (Example #62).

He does not specify the vowel sound or timbre of this sung pitch. aw. Richard Boulanger asks for this technique in Construction #1 for solo clarinet (1980). and oo. Other variations include adding a growl-like flutter or vocal portamento.80 holes. but since it is echoed shortly thereafter in the tape part. the sound is quite dark here. Since F2 uses most of the clarinet body as a resonator. It is also possible to re-articulate this sound in an interesting way by pronouncing "le" with the tongue on the roof of the mouth. Jean Claude Risset writes a repeated low F for the clarinetist to sing through the clarinet (the notation indication is a box around the pitch). The sound will change drastically between the following vowel sounds: ee. In the fourth section of Attracteurs Etranges for clarinet and computer tape. The clarinetist is required to sing a drone pitch (B-flat) while fingering a perpetual F major scale from E2 to F3 and back. as fast as possible (Example #66). the player should base his sound on what is produced on the tape. . Example #66 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer This sound is even more pronounced if the player takes more mouthpiece than normal into his mouth. o.

Most of these percussive sounds are fairly soft. despite the dynamic markings.81 Example #67 (click on music for mp3) Percussive Sounds A variety of sounds (definite pitch. This is another area that has only been lightly investigated by composers or performers. from sound. to air. Example #76 (click on music for mp3) Richard Boulanger CONSTRUCTION #1 All rights reserved . some must be amplified to be clearly heard.). Richard Boulanger asks the clarinetist to alter a gesture that is gradually becoming softer (dim. indefinite or approximate pitch) are possible on the clarinet that also contain percussive elements. to key clicks in Construction #1 (Example #76).

82
Used by permission from the composer

Helmut Lachenmann has developed a more complex system in Dal Niente . The notation, described below, includes a symbol for blowing on the reed with the instrument held a short distance from the mouth (Example #78).

Example #78

These subtle filtered color changes are exploited in numerous phrases; the music is very expressive, despite few standard pitches! In the following example ( Dal Niente ), note the interaction of fine changes in color between inhale/exhale, S/F consonants, short tube (G3) to long tube (E2), and dynamics/attacks (fffp - pp - p cresc.) (Example #79) Example #79 (click on music for mp3)

Helmut Lachenmann DAL NIENTE Copyright 1974 by Musikverlag Hans Gerig, Koln/Cologne

83
1980 assigned to Breitkopf & Hartel, Wiesbaden

The sound of a finger striking a tone hole can also invoke a pitch. These sounds can be best produced by one of the three fingers of the left hand, while fingering notes from C3 to E2. They can also be sounded simultaneously with a very soft conventional tone (Table #4). Table #4 (click on measure for mp3)

Double trills on the clarinet can be achieved by rapidly and alternately trilling the first and second fingers of the left hand. The sound created (soft dynamic level) is one of implied pitch, over which one hears a sound similar to a muffled tom-tom roll. These trills are possible for fingerings from B3 to E2, from which implied pitches between D-

84 sharp3 and D3 are derived (if the register key is depressed, the implied pitches lie between F-sharp 3 and F3). There is also a timbre conversion towards darker sounds as one fingers lower pitches (Table #5). An etude by the author, found at the end of this chapter, exploits several of these trills.

Table #5 (click on measure for mp3)

Akira Nishimura effectively writes a short cadenza of double trills in Madoromi III . In the example below, these trills emerge from and return into the ringing piano chords. This delicate texture allows the very soft subtleties of these sounds to be heard. Example #88 (click on music for mp3)

the theater inherent in this technique reminds one of Liebowitz's comment about sprechstimme : This new way of treating the voice permits the elaboration of melodramatic scenes according to purely musical principles. in unison.39 Part of the beauty of this technique is the production of ambiguous meanings through different shades of intelligibility of the text. Furthermore. Drake Mabry has the woodwinds (including E-flat clarinet) and brass whisper.General Speech ) and solo trumpet (Kenneth Gaburo . W. In addition. Example #92 (click on music for mp3) The following consonant transients are especially effective on the clarinet as short sounds: T. K.Mouthpiece ) that have successfully employed speech through instruments.40 In a section from The Black Wall illustrated below. which is not the case in classic recitatives. and Th (touch reed). Words begin to sound similar to other words. lines from the poem that inspired the work. and take on musical qualities! The listener begins to listen to the rhythm. all of the phonemes below are plausible: .85 Speaking through the Clarinet (with mouthpiece attached) Works have been written for solo trombone (Robert Erickson . and inflection of speech with a new awareness. H. Even though the text is unintelligible. the unison effect and multiple timbres is mesmerizing. Y. shape.

86 Table #8 (click here for mp3) a as in act front vowel ng as in bring voiced nasal a as in ago o as in odd ah as in father back vowel o as in official ahr as in arm oh as in oat back vowel air as in dare ohr as in board aw as in walk oi as in join ay as in age front vowel oo as in soon back vowel d as in dog voiced plosive oor as in poor e as in bed voiced plosive or as in horse e as in taken front vowel ow as in now ee as in see front vowel r as in red voiced semivowel eer as in beer .

Table #9 (not possible) b as in boy (voiced plosive) f as in fat (unvoiced fricative) . plosive-fricative uu as in book back vowel k as in king y as in yes voiced glide l as in leg voiced semivowel n as in no voiced nasal The few examples below do not work well. primarily because of the invasion by the reed of the oral cavity.87 s as in sit unvoiced fricative g as in get voiced plosive t as in top unvoiced plosive h as in hat th as in thin unvoiced fricative hw as in wheat unvoiced glide th as in this voiced fricative i as in give front vowel u as in cut mid vowel i as in pencil u as in circus i as in fire ur as in burn j as in jam voiced comb.

Track 57) Isao Matsushita KOCHI All rights reserved Used by permission from the composer . The players pronounce a variety of toneless ko's and chi's as the work comes to a close "in which sound disappears into the wind.88 p as in pin (unvoiced plosive) v as in van (voiced fricative) z as in zebra (voiced fricative) m as in me (voiced nasal) sh as in rush (unvoiced fricative) w as in will (voiced glide) zh as in vision (voiced fricative) The Japanese composer Isao Matsushita effectively writes whispered phonemes in his work Kochi for three A clarinets." (Example #93) Example #93 (CD4-Music.

For example. and of much greater contrast than any other wind instrument. extended techniques are exactly what the term implies.3 Unfortunately. The throat register tends to be thin (airy. less projection) with potential for significant adjustments of timbre by the performer. The lowest register (chalumeau) tends to be dark with a big tone.89 CHAPTER 6 . while the clarion register is a resistant. demonstrates the existence of the concept of extended techniques."4 Rather than exploit the inherent qualities of the instrument. who consulted the instrument builder on ideas for mechanical improvements that would simplify the effort necessary to achieve the desired musical result.Bass Clarinet Single Sounds It is an unfortunate myth which claims that extended techniques are only "effects" that are in no way related to traditional instrumental techniques. well before the middle of the twentieth century. and sometimes demanded by composers. This has occurred despite the general emphasis by clarinetists/bass clarinetists in performance practice today on homogeneity of sound between adjacent pitches and registers. often through collaboration.) in performance. It naturally possesses five registers of very different color. thick. composers. during the twentieth century. The desire of homogeneity of timbre in performance practice is especially baffling when one considers the unique characteristics of the bass clarinet. The usage of alternate fingerings in performance practice throughout the history of the clarinet/bass clarinet. This. or risk becoming obsolete. conductors etc. in addition to the musical requirements of past epochs. the clarinetist/bass clarinetist has been most often satisfied with refining the technique necessary for the performance of music from past musical epochs. Thus. the innovative composer. and airy tenor voice that becomes brighter as one approaches its highest pitches. the clarinet/bass clarinet has evolved by exclusively empirical methods rather than by progressive theories.2 In fact. no design of the clarinet/bass clarinet has ever solved all of the awkward technical problems for the player. extensions of conventional techniques. and becomes diffuse as volume is increased. players and instruments have been forced to adjust to the times. through his music. The most obvious proof of this statement is found in the fact that clarinetists/bass clarinetists have traditionally developed new or "alternate" fingerings to facilitate more reliable and musical results (suggested. instrument design changes since the earliest clarinet was developed. However. but most especially since the early twentieth century when most clarinetists/bass clarinetists were playing instruments that had a greater number of easily manageable keys and thus more alternatives to choose from. most obvious in comparisons with other woodwind instruments. is another reason that has led both instrument-builders and clarinetists/bass clarinetists towards this single objective: what Bartolozzi has fittingly described as "the emission of single sounds of maximum timbric homogeneity throughout the range of the instrument. clarinetists/bass clarinetists and instrument makers have precipitated. The lowest three notes are very dark and resonant. Throughout history. The altissimo register . challenged the clarinetist. much technique has become rigidly standardized.

third. The lowest three pitches are rich in partials with a strong frequency band from 300-2000 hz.C#---------------. C-----------------. and fifth partials are clearly apparent. First.D . Example #1 (click on register for mp3) Spectrograms of these six registers reinforce the observations above.90 is bright and becomes thinner and more intense as one ascends towards the highest pitch extremes of the instrument (Example #1). as are partials above the fifth.

C#---------.E .G-------.E----------------. Eb------------------.D----------.C---------.A#---------.G# A---------.F-------------F#------------.91 As the fundamentals move through the chalumeau register. higher partials become weaker.D#----------.B---------.

are weak.D#-------.C--------. are more prevalent than in the throat register.F#--------.F--------.A# In the lower half of the clarion register. and partials above 3000 hz. E-----------. the fundamental and 3rd partials are particularly strong. .A--------. Frequency bands below 3000 hz.G#----------.D--------.C#--------. but frequencies above 3000 hz.F----------.G--------.E--------.92 Upper partials continue to weaken through the throat register.F# The first three partials are strong in the upper half of the clarion register. gain strength at the top of this register. Clarion register: B-------.

F---------.F# The strength of the first three partials continues through the middle and top of the altissimo register.C#--------. and partials above 3000 hz. gain strength. G----------.C .C--------.B--------------.D----------.93 G------------.G#------------.A------------.D#--------. B--------.E---------.A#------------.A# The lower part of the altissimo register contains strong 1-3 partials with gradually weakening frequency bands as the fundamentals ascend.A------------------.G#-----------------------.

differences of dark and bright are not as applicable. a pitch played on the third partial of a particular harmonic series may sound thinner than the same pitch played on the fifth partial of another particular harmonic series (Example #2). For example. thick and thin are perhaps more accurate descriptions. .D# E-----------------.C#----------------. and usually relate to the particular partial level that is involved.F# Because of the absence or weakness of clearly heard partials in this highest register.D----------------.F---------------------------------.94 C-------------------.

the most uniform timbre can be achieved in soft passages towards the top of the bass clarinet range.G Various reed styles or mouthpieces may push these qualities towards thicker or thinner extremes. increased embouchure pressure will produce stronger partials . since there is a lesser presence of higher harmonics in this register and at this dynamic level. 5th . the performer has a certain amount of control over timbre variables through embouchure or air pressure manipulation.D-----------------------. it can be safely concluded that loud volume levels exaggerate the timbre characteristic of a certain pitch. In between these outer extremes. which contributes to creating a brighter/thinner sound. At the other extreme. In fact.95 Example #2 (click on music for mp3) Viewing the spectrogram.Bb--------------------------. and higher partials. Of course. while softer volume levels produce timbre matching at a middle point between dark and bright. The effect of volume on timbre is most pronounced in the chalumeau register. one can see strong 1 st through 5 th partials in the first D. when it is produced at a high volume level. D------------------. the greatest contrast of timbre characteristics occurs in this register of fundamentals. The second D fingering has stronger 4th .

there are even moment to moment changes in the balance of harmonics in every single humanly produced sustained tone. . and marimba. In a more general sense. phase. Example #3 (click on music for mp3) Later in the same work. bass clarinet. Fingering suggestions for E6-G6 follow the musical example below. In magnificat 1 (variations) for alto flute. presence of inharmonic partials. noise elements. Linda Dusman effectively and imaginatively utilizes the top sounds of the bass clarinet. and provides a number of possibilities beyond the “as loud as possible” wailings most often associated with this tessitura. However. The phrase below illustrates a sequence of perfect fifths that culminates in a written C6 – the playing resistance experienced when using the fingering suggestion below allows this note to be controlled at a moderate volume. In fact. it is clear that timbric homogeneity is an unlikely and unnatural eventuality for the bass clarinetist to achieve. The altissimo register of the bass clarinet is the least explored register by composers.96 while less pressure results in the weaker presence of partials. From all of the above information. The timbre characteristics that have been defined for individual pitches in this study are not the outcome of extensive or unusual embouchure manipulation. Dusman writes lyrical phrases that span more than four octaves of the bass clarinet. this manipulation often distorts pitch level. and that weave among the other instruments in the trio. and transients (attacks). it is known that the harmonic spectrum produced by any instrument constantly changes in performance with every pitch and dynamic nuance that is played.5 Other aspects of the sound that effect these changes include formants.

The artistic bass clarinetist of the late twentieth century employs different fingerings from standard fingerings in certain musical contexts. and solo repertoire. a less resistant fingering for an easier entrance at a soft dynamic level. altering timbre is not the only purpose of alternate fingerings. throughout the traditional orchestral. since it will also affect pitch. embouchure manipulation alone will not work. or a more desirable tone color for better blend or portrayal of a particular musical character. chamber music.97 Example #4 (click on music for mp3) Alternate Fingerings Different timbres of the same pitch on the bass clarinet are possible only through alternate fingerings. . a technically simpler fingering for a smoother legato. However.6 These contexts may require a slightly higher or lower pitch for reasons of intonation.

Those which can not be alternated at a rapid speed have been labeled nf (not fast). the pitches which utilize the longest length of tube have the fewest options. The intonation of these pitches is extremely close to the regular fingering. only minor adjustments of the type made in normal tuning while playing may be necessary. A chart of fingerings (B3 . The top half of the chalumeau register (B3 to A4) offers a variety of "covered" sounding (few strong partials) alternate fingerings. one must understand the acoustics of the instrument. All pitches on the bass clarinet do not lend themselves to alternate fingering possibilities. follows (Table #1). In general.G5) suitable for rapid alternation with the regular fingering of the same pitch. Some of these are cross-fingerings (fingerings that employ open vents. since they can serve as partials to a number of different fundamentals. Those pitches which may exhibit noticeable tuning discrepancies have been labeled (sl = slightly low. etc. the expansion of timbral resources and sensitivities and of usable pitch nuances has become a primary compositional concern. However. nf = not fast sl = slightly low sh = slightly high st = stuffy (resistant) . Example #6 Pitches in the altissimo register have the most alternatives. higher on the instrument body than the lowest tone holes that are closed by fingers or keys) which can only be produced at a very soft dynamic level with a minimum of upper partials present. pitches below B3 and pitches between B4 and G5 have few or no alternate fingerings.98 In music of the last twenty-five years.)7. in order to indicate (as a composer) and perform (as a bass clarinetist) alternate fingerings.

5. The second alternate fingering is especially muted – it contains only strong 1st and 3rd .7 in the spectrum of the conventional fingering.3.99 Table #1 (click on measure for mp3) Spectrograms for the conventional fingering for D3 and two alternate fingerings show the greatest strength of partials 1.

100 partials. complemented with a more prominent 2nd partial than with the other fingerings. Paul Drushler has very clearly described the acoustical link between basic fingerings and . Partials above the 3rd are practically absent in the spectrum of this alternate fingering. The third alternate fingering owes its extremely muted timbre to nearly 100% of its energy centered in the fundamental. F#3 An abundance of alternate fingerings exist for pitches in the altissimo register. D3 The spectrograms below for F#3 indicate that the first alternate fingering has the richest set of partials. The second alternate fingering has a weaker 3rd partial coupled with a fairly strong 5th partial.

At least the outline of this formula is followed in the following example (Example #9b). It is important to note that many fifth partials also require the G-sharp key."8 With the bass clarinet. This permits the LH1 tone-hole to act as a vent. selecting vents. in addition to the register key.Asharp6) are produced by lifting the first finger of the left hand. are generally produced by depressing the G-sharp key in addition to the others mentioned. It is possible to play on the 13th and 15th harmonics of a given fundamental. Fifth partials (C-sharp5 . Seventh partials. the highest pitches are often derived from "out of tune" partials of unrelated fundamentals. the position and degree of pressure placed by the embouchure on the reed allows control of a greater range of altissimo notes than on the soprano clarinet (up to G-sharp6!). and that other vents (A key) are utilized for pitches based on the highest partials. "variations in pitch. Example #9a (click on music for mp3) . According to Drushler. and making final alterations by opening and/or closing various tone holes. It is clear that the desirable method for developing fingerings consists of starting with a fundamental. and higher. timbre and stability for specific altissimo notes can be discovered by experimenting with modifications of basic fingerings. In addition. Third partials (clarion register) are produced by depressing the register key (thus opening the register hole).101 registers of the clarinet (Example #9a).

A---------------. and 7th + partials.D#---------------------.102 #9b (click on music for mp3) Note. B--------------F#--------------------. The first fingering contains strong 1st . 5th . The fingerings based on the 11th -15th partials all contain strong 2nd partials. how the presence and strength of upper partials fades as one moves up the fingerings of the harmonic series.C# . 3rd . below.

the tuning will be slightly different for each individual. An aspect such as how far a particular pad comes away from a particular tone-hole can be very significant. difficult to begin immediately.preparation . 5th/C4). In the same manner. br! = very bright. sm = smooth connection from another pitch possible.articulation .l = low. s = slightly VI ." Since different players play different equipment.ppp to fff IV . player must have time to prepare it. s = slightly. pitches from the microtone charts may work as alternate fingerings.dynamics . however. but these are easily corrected by adjustments of embouchure and air pressure.intonation . .103 E--------------------.com = a complex fingering. The annotations under each fingering are arranged according to the following format: line # information I . No unusual techniques are called for. (C4m = modification of C4 fundamental fingering) II . however. Slight deviations in pitch may exist.timbre: br = bright.G The following chart (Table #2) of alternate fingerings contains only a few of the many choices for altissimo register pitches.partial of fundamental that fingering is based on/fundamental pitch (i. one runs the risk of timbre distortion as one becomes further and further from the pitch of the original fingering. legato connection to it may not be possible. These adjustments are no more extreme than those that one would make to play in tune with other performers.res = resistant.e. sm! = very smooth connection from another pitch possible Blank fingering grids have been included so that the reader might add his/her own fingerings. h = high. s = slightly V . st = stuffy III . such as half-depression of pad keys. d = dark. they merely require a sensitive "auditory image.

104 Table #2 (click on pitch for mp3) .

as well as awkward fingerings make them treacherous. Timbre indications are given if a quarter-tone differs significantly from the timbres of notes around it (i.e. somewhat weak conjunct sections of the quarter-tone scale are found across the "break" from the throat register to the clarion register (A-sharp 4 to D4). (it should be noted that there are fewer available fingering choices for the bass clarinetist than the soprano clarinetist. some are marked as sh (slightly high) or sl (slightly low). Several notations appear below some of the quarter-tones in the chart. Another section of the quarter-tone scale that is weak consists of pitches above F-sharp 6. In the practice and theory of a variety of Asian musics. especially if approached quickly by leap or attacked without preparation. since virtually the entire length of the instrument is employed. but may certainly be modified to create a variety of proportions. for example. adherence to either sharps or flats within a work will make visual and technical recognition easier for the performer (the quarter tone scale here is presented in sharps only). It is generally good practice to specify fingerings directly under the quarter-tones that appear in the piece. Since all fingerings may not produce an identical pitch or timbre for every performer. It was not possible to find equal-tempered quarter-tones for all intervals .105 Quarter-Tones The quarter-tone is a logical rather than acoustic extension of the chromatic scale. especially below the altissimo register . For example. as opposed to merely a list at the beginning of the work.thus. The following chart attempts to represent equally tempered quarter-tones. it is helpful if the composer can briefly describe his intentions in a preface.one reason is the covering of tone holes with pads and key mechanisms that have different functions on the bass clarinet). The altered air and embouchure pressure necessary to produce these pitches (often on different partials). if it is necessary to change the given fingering because of inherent characteristics of individual instruments and bass clarinetists. DAT refers to pitches that are difficult to attack strongly. . This is the same consideration that inhibits quarter-tone production below chalumeau A. is he more interested in a dark timbre than a precisely pitched quarter-tone? This will help the performer to make an educated fingering choice. exact quarter-tones do not exist. However. Cross fingerings can not be utilized. a dark timbre in the lowest register is relatively different from a dark timbre in the clarion register). The following quarter-tone scale extends from A3 (written pitch) to G-sharp 6 (!). it is not necessary to repeat this fingering diagram every time a particular quarter-tone occurs. it contains relatively few insurmountable problems for the bass clarinetist. Of course. From C4 to D4 there are no practical fingerings for quarter-tones. Unless there are reasons of desired voice leading. where microtonal intervals are employed.

106 .

107 Table #3 .Quarter-Tone Scale (click on line for mp3) .

108 .

30-5) are very effective at pianissimo – the expression marking in the score is “weeping. The conjunct segments of quarter-tones below (m.” .109 Linda Dusman uses bass clarinet quarter-tones in several contexts in magnificat 1 .

and experiments of the author. are only available on a bass clarinet that extends to low C (written). Of course. regardless of acoustical relationships (i. . Many previous studies have organized multiple sounds according to verbal descriptions of categories of production and/or tone color. this study omits those that require more than slight deviations in traditional finger and expectations and embouchure) Those multiple sounds that employ the low C-sharp and C keys played by the right hand. The author has striven to organize the material according to acoustic principles of the bass clarinet and basic principles of bass clarinet technique. All of the multiple sounds presented are playable on any traditional professional mouthpiece/reed set-up. and briefly describes characteristics of each multiple sound (see explanation of notation. derived from the same left hand vent hole). it has been checked for accuracy by other players. The author wishes to reinforce the following advice: BE SURE TO CONSULT A BASS CLARINETIST ABOUT FEASIBLE CONTEXTS FOR PARTICULAR MUTLIPLE SOUNDS. They demand only slight deviations from normal finger expectations and embouchure. below).110 Example #14 (click on music for mp3) Chart of Multiple Sounds for Bass Clarinet The following chart (Table #5) has been compiled from numerous musical compositions. every conceivable context for a particular multiple sound has not been discussed. The multiple sounds that employ the low E-flat key are available only on bass clarinets that extend to either low E-flat or low C. (while it is true that a multiple sound may be derived from any possible fingering for a single tone. This study employs acoustical relationships as the first order of organization. or the low D key played by the left hand. of which there are theoretically thousands.e.

but related left hand fingerings (different vents). c = unstable III .) utilize slightly different. resistant. top line to bottom line (underneath each multiple sound).111 Multiple sounds have been placed in groups (labeled by letter. The multiple sounds are ordered according to the right hand fingerings which ascend in chromatic or microtonal intervals. Various characteristics of each multiple sound have been described beneath each example in the chart.a = very stable. more resistant.stability : how stable is the sustain characteristic . Groups of multiple sounds with the same letter label (i. very resistant IV . 4 = all sounds appear within 3 seconds.e. Left-hand fingerings for A represent the lowest bottom pitches . is: Line # information I .1 = all sounds begin simultaneously. wherever possible. Care has been taken to insure that these groups are playable as sequences. For example. b = moderately stable.how resistant is it? .timbre : description of individual pitches of the multiple sound (sometimes (all multiple sounds that use side keys 3 and/or 4 as register 2 lines) vents will have thin timbres) tp = top bt = bottom dlbt = dull lowest pitch dabt = dark lowest pitch (few higher partials) . D. easily. beginning with those with the lowest fundamental). The close technical relation of these groups makes numerous trills and tremolos possible between them (discussed later).pp to FF II . D2 etc. It is important to note that each multiple sound listed is available in isolation. 3 = all sounds appear within 2 seconds. D1. this means limited (minimum) finger movement. 5 = all sounds appear within 4-5 seconds.dynamic range possible . and a lack of contrary motion.left hand fingerings for Z. In other words. the highest bottom pitches. 2 = all sounds appear within 1 second. left-hand fingerings in Group D1 differ from Group D only through the addition of the register key. The format of this chart.response : the time required to produce all pitches of the multiple sound . Left-hand fingerings in Group D2 differ from Group D only through the addition of side key #3. a common denominator within each group is an identical register/vent hole. the left hand fingering remains constant within a group (in most cases). easily (somewhat resistant). it need not be connected to another.

all pitches of equal intensity elc = electronic. diad = two pitches (an undertone . beats caused by out of tune intervals slbe = slow acoustical beats mud = muddy. changing amplitudes of pitches (similar to electronic.lack of center brt = bright. the production and content of these partials are not controllable or reliable.texture : description of the overall texture of the multiple sound (sometimes . high and low pitch (equal strength) 3vc = three voices mvc = many voices bal = balance. thin timbres. acoustical beats elc! = raucous electronic. otherwise) be = acoustical beats. dull V .lowest pitch is weaker than the highest) holl = hollow.2 general characteristics deserve mention here: 2 lines) 1) all diads (multiple sounds of two pitches which are produced as undertones) will contain a significant amount of air when played softly 2) most of the multiple sounds that are not undertones are capable of generating higher partials than indicated in the chart when played very loudly. many higher partials brtp = bright highest pitch thtp = thin highest pitch sub = subtone. unclear pitches gent = gentle. However. dull timbres M3! = predominant major 3rd (10th) or triad ns = noise in the sound (air) sns = some noise in the sound . 3 or more pitches.112 fat = many partials (high and low) thin = pitch is weak. lack of partials .

technique : hints for easier production ls = looser embouchure. All pitches (or as many as possible) in the multiple sound should be written on the staff.arpeggiation : capability to begin multiple sound with top or bottom pitch alone. less air pressure ls! = very loose embouchure tite = tighter embouchure. which may or may not be present according to the dynamic level of the multiple sound. gradually adding other pitches t = easy to begin with top pitch b = easy to begin with bottom pitch bt = easy to begin with either top or bottom pitch VII . The filled-in note-heads indicate secondary pitches. It is important that the fingering for the multiple sound be indicated at every occurrence in the music. more air pressure The notation system used in this chart for multiple sounds on the staff is one which the author hopes will become standardized. These procedures will greatly assist the clarinetist in learning the music. . directly under the sonority.113 VI .

e.html ).114 Spectrograms Spectrograms of a number of multiphonics follow (more for bass clarinet multiphonics are available on The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century website – http://www. if p-ff is .umbc.research.edu/~emrich/multiphonic_spectra. These diagrams represent the indicated multiphonic played at its middle dynamic level (i.

phys.) F (258 hz. that gives a context for the spectrograms.). length (horizontal) indicates duration. 1. Directly below is a note to frequency converter (taken from the website of the Physics Department of The University of New South Wales. 3.. According to Peter Veale and Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf in their book The Techniques of Oboe Playing . mf is the middle dynamic level).115 possible. Sydney.. the vibration at 258 hz. 2. and darkness/lightness indicates the relative amplitude (strength) of components of the sound. Australia – http://www. The frequencies present in a multiphonic spectra can be explained as a combination of the sums and differences of the two frequencies of the primary pitches of the particular multiphonic (each multiphonic contains only two primary pitches).: A = highest primary pitch B = lowest primary pitch F = frequency within a multiphonic F = A(+ or – 0..edu.html). In the spectrograms. multiphonic spectra on all woodwind instruments obey a similar basic principle.) + or – B(+ or – 0.au/~jw/notes. etc.) = A (698) – 2B (220) = 698 – 440 = 258 ---------------------------------------------------------------- . 1. NON-TRANSPOSED (written B4 for clarinet = A 440). 2.) B = B ¼# 4 (220 hz. It is important to note that the spectrum of practically every multiphonic changes (at least subtly) during its duration – the sound is constantly transforming.unsw. The duration of each multiphonic is between 2 and 7 seconds. height indicates frequency (hz. So.) In example 5 below. or pitch of the fundamental(s) and partials. can be explained in the following way: A = G5 (698 hz. 3. etc.

116 38) E-19 : E ¼ 3 = 137 A ¼ 4 = 392 D ¾ 5 = 554 5th partial of E ¼ .2nd . 3rd partials of D ¾ 39) E1-3 : G ¼ 3 = 175 D ¾ 5 = 554 4th partial of G ¼. 3rd partial of D ¾ .

through the bass clarinet. These have been divided into sounds of definite pitch (glissandi/portamenti). The reader is referred to The Clarinet of the Twenty-First Century for a discussion of specific techniques . air sounds) and specific techniques (i. it is hoped that these may serve as provocations to composers and bass clarinetists who may discover and create new .2nd . The descriptions and musical examples on the following pages are not meant to imply that these are the only possibilities. conventional bass clarinet tones. even though they may maintain a number of similar qualities.gradations of singing and speaking . vocalizing . flutter tonguing) which may be applied to sounds of one or both categories (or. sounds of indefinite or approximate pitch (half-pitched percussive sounds.e. Rather. in addition. 3rd partials of G# 41) E1-10 : B5 = 440 (?) A ¾ 5 = 880 Other Resources Many other sounds can be produced on the bass clarinet through extended techniques that defy categorization with the single or multiple sounds that have been described in the last two chapters.). etc. sounds from Chapters I and II.117 40) E1-7 : G ¼ 3 = 175 D#5 = 554 (weak) G#5 = 740 .they are all applicable to the bass clarinet.

Eventually. these should be practiced first. Sounds of Definite Pitch Glissando/Portamento Caravan does offer some good suggestions for learning portamento production. followed by series of ascending bends. Takayuki Rai employs some in Sparkel for bass clarinet and computer tape. and. expand and refine the instrumental techniques required to realize these ideas.118 musical ideas. in so doing. After one has practiced series of downward tone bends. The palette of potentially expressive sounds on the bass clarinet is virtually limitless. Example #2 (click music for mp3) . the next logical step is to practice ascending bends. mastering the required technique (tongue and throat position control) for this skill is applicable to all other (including ascending) portamenti. Since downward tone bends are the most difficult. a series of downward tone bends can be linked to form a longer portamento. Short ascending bends are especially idiomatic in the clarion and altissimo registers of the bass clarinet where the third finger of the right hand is employed.

Longer ascending portamenti can be initiated and/or aided by this finger – an example of an especially easy portamento follows: Example #3 (click music for mp3) .119 Spectrograms of these small portamenti show a rich palette of partials that is weakened slightly during the middle of the portamento.

120 The spectrogram below indicates a slightly weaker band of partials once the portamento is initiated. the presence and strength of all of the partials increases. Takayuki Rai writes the following small portamenti: Example #4 (click music for mp3) The spectra of each of these pitches above contains a strong fundamental and partials from the 3rd and above. At the end of each portamento. . with some 2nd partial energy present. Descending portamenti in the altissimo register are also idiomatic.

D G#--------------------.Bb--------------.A------------------------.121 Ab-------------.G-------------Gb-------------F-------------.F# .

A) represent a low key moved by the right hand with all the fingers of the right hand covering the three tone holes. . click resonances. the letters with no numbers following them (i.the number 2 represents one or more of the three fingers of the left hand . The number following the letter (i. They differ in color from a strong hollow resonance to very thin. and gradually progressing to none of the upper joint covered (P).122 Sounds of Indefinite Pitch Half-Pitched Percussive Sounds The bass clarinet offers an incredible resource for percussive (both unpitched and halfpitched) sounds because of the size and harmonic richness of its resonating body. The fact that keys cover the seven finger tone holes (different from the key rings of the soprano clarinet) also helps to amplify the volume of the percussive sounds made when fingers strike the tone holes (either as single strikes or trills/tremolos). A1) denotes which fingers/keys are moved. The following chart classifies these sounds (in a similar fashion to the classification of multiple sounds) according to left hand fingering. short. The number 1 represents one or more of the three fingers of the right hand .e. Finally. beginning with the entire upper joint covered (A).5 represents a low key moved by the right hand without all the fingers of the right hand covering the three tone holes. These sounds are most resonant when the mouthpiece is not in the mouth.the number .e.

123 Table #6 (CD Bcl #2 – tracks 5-33) .

124 (CD Bcl #2 – tracks 34-56) .

in order to understand timbre and resistance characteristics of altissimo fingerings. . long fingerings require overblowing of lower pitches. as well as others. the first finger of the left-hand remains on the tone-hole. without the left thumb covering the back tone hole (Example #8). darker timbres that are generally more secure at loud dynamic levels (Example #7). Since such a short tube length is employed.125 CHAPTER 7 ." In long fingerings. The longer tube length that is in play produces thicker. As a result. these pitches tend to be thin and bright. a vent exists further down the clarinet body. Example #7 (click on music for mp3) Altissimo fingerings in a second classification produce pitches from overblown throat tones.E-flat Clarinet Single Sounds Altissimo Alternate Fingerings The American clarinetist Henry Gulick writes of classifications for altissimo register pitches.8 These categories deserve mention. One classification that is widely employed by professional clarinetists is what Gulick calls "long fingerings.

They are especially effective in soft legato passages that link the clarion to altissimo register. . Example #9 (click on music for mp3) By playing on certain upper partials. but thin. These fingerings tend to be a bit dark.126 Example #8 (click on music for mp3) A third classification includes fingerings that use both the thumb hole and register key as vents (open thumb and depressed register key) (Example #9). fast chromatic figures in the altissimo register can be easily produced (Table #2).

127 Table #2 (click on measure for mp3) .

preparation .5C4 = 5th partial of C4) II . No unusual techniques are called for.dynamics .pp to ff IV . An aspect such as how far a particular pad comes away from a particular tone-hole can be very significant. In the same manner. S = slightly V . however. s = slightly VI . .res = resistant. The annotations under each fingering are arranged according to the following format: line # information I .articulation . difficult to begin immediately.128 Altissimo Alternate Fingering Chart The following chart (Table #3) of alternate fingerings contains only a few of the many choices for altissimo register pitches. H = high.e. tr = trill fingering Blank fingering grids have been included so that the reader might add his/her own fingerings." Since different players play different equipment. th = thin.(i. d = dark v = very.partial of fundamental that fingering is based on . These adjustments are no more extreme than those that one would make to play in tune with other performers.sm = smooth connection from another pitch possible. one runs the risk of timbre distortion as one becomes further and further from the pitch of the original fingering.timbre . but these are easily corrected by adjustments of embouchure and air pressure.L = low. etc. s = slightly.intonation . they merely require a sensitive "auditory image. st = stuffy. . such as half-holing. Slight deviations in pitch may exist. the tuning will be slightly different for each individual. pitches from the microtone charts may work as alternate fingerings.br = bright. a = airy III . however.

In the practice and theory of a variety of Asian musics. but may certainly be modified to create a variety of proportions. Unless there are reasons of desired voice leading.129 Table #3 (click on pitch/line for mp3) Quarter-Tones The quarter-tone is a logical rather than acoustic extension of the chromatic scale. for example. The following chart attempts to represent equally tempered quarter-tones. It is generally good practice to . adherence to either sharps or flats within a work will make visual and technical recognition easier for the performer (the quarter tone scale here is presented in sharps only). where microtonal intervals are employed. exact quarter-tones do not exist.

as well as awkward fingerings make them treacherous.thus. It is not necessary to repeat this fingering diagram every time a particular quarter-tone occurs. (click on line for mp3) . if it is necessary to change the given fingering because of inherent characteristics of individual instruments and E-flat clarinetists. as opposed to merely a list at the beginning of the work. Since all fingerings may not produce an identical pitch or timbre for every performer. some are marked as sh (slightly high) or sl (slightly low). a dark timbre in the lowest register is relatively different from a dark timbre in the clarion register). Another section of the quartertone scale that is weak consists of pitches above F-sharp 6. Cross fingerings can not be utilized. since virtually the entire length of the instrument is employed. For example. The altered air and embouchure pressure necessary to produce these pitches (often on different partials). Several notations appear below some of the quarter-tones in the chart. it contains relatively few problems for the E-flat clarinetist. DAT refers to pitches that are difficult to attack strongly. especially if approached quickly by leap or attacked without preparation. Timbre indications are given if a quarter-tone differs significantly from the timbres of notes around it (i.130 specify fingerings directly under the quarter-tones that appear in the piece.e. This is the same consideration that inhibits quarter-tone production below chalumeau A. From C4 to D4 there are no practical fingerings for quarter-tones. However. The following quarter-tone scale extends from A3 (written pitch) to G-sharp 6. is he more interested in a dark timbre than a precisely pitched quarter-tone? This will help the performer to make an educated fingering choice. it is helpful if the composer can briefly describe his intentions in a preface. It was not possible to find equal-tempered quarter-tones for all intervals . somewhat weak conjunct sections of the quarter-tone scale are found across the "break" from the throat register to the clarion register (A-sharp 4 to D4).

131 .

since equidistant pitches are not always available. but has rarely been asked to do so. sixth. Bar lines mark the length of uninterrupted scale segments. and sixteenth tones. Equidistant Microtones Equidistant microtones are represented in Table #7. In fact. twelfth. eighth. It's full range of microtonal possibilities has been largely undocumented. accurate microtonal segments of intervals smaller than thirty-second tones are often possible and quite easy to produce.132 Microtones The E-flat clarinet has long been capable of producing microtones smaller than quartertones. .

Sixteenth. Sixth.Equidistant Eighth.133 TABLE #7 . & Twelfth Tones (click on measure for mp3) .

134 .

All are fairly easy for the clarinetist to master. Several examples follow which have been arbitrarily chosen because of their bright or dark timbre qualities or symmetrical pitch patterns. Example #10 presents a ten-note scale in the chalumeau register that exploits dark timbres. .135 One-Octave Microtonal Scales Scales can be formed from microtones that present fascinating pitch or timbre relationships when written for E-flat clarinet.

(while it is true that a multiple sound may be derived from any possible fingering for a single tone. this study omits those that require more than slight deviations in traditional finger expectations and embouchure). and experiments of the author. it has been checked for accuracy by other players. Example #11 (click on music for mp3) Chart of Multiple Sounds for E-flat Clarinet The following chart (Table #12) has been compiled from numerous musical compositions. . All of the multiple sounds presented are playable on any traditional professional mouthpiece/reed set-up. They demand only slight deviations from normal finger expectations and embouchure. of which there are theoretically thousands.136 Example #10 (click on music for mp3) An equidistant scale of sixteen 3/8 tones is represented in Example #11. The author has striven to organize the material according to acoustic principles of the E-flat clarinet and basic principles of E-flat clarinet technique.

The close technical relation of these groups makes numerous trills and tremolos possible between them (discussed later). The format of this chart.pp to FF II .) utilize slightly different. This study employs acoustical relationships as the first order of organization.how resistant is it? 1 = all sounds begin simultaneously. Multiple sounds have been placed in groups (labeled by letter. it need not be connected to another. regardless of acoustical relationships (i.response: the time required to produce all pitches of the multiple sound . because the series of partials changes. The multiple sounds are ordered according to the right hand fingerings which ascend in chromatic or microtonal intervals. For example. and a lack of contrary motion. top line to bottom line (underneath each multiple sound).e. a common denominator within each group is an identical register/vent hole.a = very stable.137 Many previous studies have organized multiple sounds according to verbal descriptions of categories of production and/or tone color. but related left hand fingerings (different vents). every conceivable context for a particular multiple sound has not been discussed. even though the adjacent sounds utilize the same series of partials. easily . Left-hand fingerings in Group D2 differ from Group D only through the addition of side key #3. D2 etc. D. c = unstable III . A double bracket ( ) between sounds in a group indicates that a legato connection is not possible.stability: how stable is the sustain characteristic . this means limited (minimum) finger movement. Of course.e. the left hand fingering remains constant within a group (in most cases). Groups of multiple sounds with the same letter label (i. D1. the highest bottom pitches. Care has been taken to insure that these groups are playable as sequences. is: Line # information I . derived from the same left hand vent hole).dynamic range possible . Various characteristics of each multiple sound have been described beneath each example in the chart. Left-hand fingerings for A represent the lowest bottom pitches . and briefly describes characteristics of each multiple sound (see explanation of notation. A broken vertical line ( ) between multiple sounds in a group indicates that a legato connection is not possible. It is important to note that each multiple sound listed is available in isolation. In other words.left hand fingerings for Y. left-hand fingerings in Group D1 differ from Group D only through the addition of the register key. wherever possible. beginning with those with the lowest fundamental). below). b = moderately stable. The author wishes to reinforce the following advice: BE SURE TO CONSULT AN E-FLAT CLARINETIST ABOUT FEASIBLE CONTEXTS FOR PARTICULAR MULTIPLE SOUNDS.

2 general characteristics deserve mention here: 1) all diads (multiple sounds of two pitches which are produced as undertones) will contain a significant amount of air when played softly 2) most of the multiple sounds that are not undertones are capable of generating higher partials than indicated in the chart when played very loudly. dull V. very resistant IV . more resistant 5 = all sounds appear within 4-5 seconds. resistant 4 = all sounds appear within 3 seconds. high and low pitch (equal strength) 3vc = three voices .texture: description of the overall texture of the multiple sound .lowest pitch is weaker than the highest) holl = hollow. easily (somewhat resistant) 3 = all sounds appear within 2 seconds. However.138 2 = all sounds appear within 1 second. many higher partials brtp = bright highest pitch thtp = thin highest pitch sub = subtone.timbre: description of individual pitches of the multiple sound (all multiple sounds that use side keys 3 and/or 4 as register vents will have thin timbres) tp = top bt = bottom dlbt = dull lowest pitch dabt = dark lowest pitch (few higher partials) fat = many partials (high and low) thin = pitch is weak. diad = two pitches (an undertone . the production and content of these partials are not controllable or reliable. VI . lack of partials .lack of center brt = bright.

changing amplitudes of pitches (similar to electronic.arpeggiation: capability to begin multiple sound with top or bottom pitch alone. unclear pitches gent = gentle.technique: hints for easier production ls = looser embouchure. The filled-in note-heads indicate secondary pitches. more air pressure The notation system used in this chart for multiple sounds on the staff is one which the author hopes will become standardized. acoustical beats elc! = raucous electronic. . directly under the sonority. thin timbres. 3 or more pitches. otherwise) be = acoustical beats.139 mvc = many voices bal = balance. These procedures will greatly assist the clarinetist in learning the music. It is important that the fingering for the multiple sound be indicated at every occurrence in the music. less air pressure s! = very loose embouchure tite = tighter embouchure. beats caused by out of tune intervals slbe = slow acoustical beats mud = muddy. All pitches (or as many as possible) in the multiple sound should be written on the staff. gradually adding other pitches t = easy to begin with top pitch b = easy to begin with bottom pitch bt = easy to begin with either top or bottom pitch VIII . all pitches of equal intensity elc = electronic. dull timbres M3! = predominant major 3rd (10th) or triad ns = noise in the sound (air) sns = some noise in the sound VII . which may or may not be present according to the dynamic level of the multiple sound.

140 Table #12 . Trills between adjacent multiple sounds in Table #12 (different right-hand fingerings. Trills and tremolos are also feasible among many non- . same left-hand fingering) are possible.Multiple Sounds click on measure for mp3 Multiphonic Trills and Tremolos The subject of multiphonic trills and tremolos will only be briefly mentioned here.

composers are urged to check specific trill possibilities with an E-flat clarinetist. they are possible between multiple sounds with the same right-hand fingering but different left-hand fingering between the following Groups: A2 and A3 B and B1 E and E1 H and H1 I and I1 K and K1 K and K2 Diad tremolos using the top two right-hand trill keys controlled by the first finger are effective in both loud and soft contexts. Example #4 (click on 3 measure section for mp3) .141 adjacent multiple sounds (same left-hand fingering. different left-hand and right-hand fingerings) from Table #12 . In addition.

Further sounds that are possible to generate through the clarinet with the mouthpiece on are a barking sound ["(r)uff"] with a low E fingering. o. a former member of the Extended Vocal Techniques Ensembles at the University of California . describes this phenomenon: . it is also possible to produce an ingressive or egressive "vocal fry. and oo. or a throat tremolo (ululation) "eh-eh-eh etc. a slow laugh from the throat with a low E fingering. Through the E-flat clarinet (with mouthpiece off). Other variations include adding a growl-like flutter or vocal portamento.142 Vocalizing through the clarinet Singing through the clarinet on various vowel sounds can create interesting formants (reinforced harmonics) when one lifts the fingers of either (or both) hand from their tone holes." Deborah Kavasch. It is also possible to re-articulate this sound in an interesting way by pronouncing "le" with the tongue on the roof of the mouth. Example #10 (click on music for mp3) This sound is even more pronounced if the player takes more mouthpiece than normal into the mouth." (the way young children imitate a machine gun) which can be altered with a vocal portamento and/or by randomly moving the fingers of the right hand. aw. The sound will change drastically between the following vowel sounds: ee. San Diego .

Example #11 (click on music for mp3) . These can be especially beautiful when amplified." as used here in relation to vocal fry. 6 This effect is especially interesting when one moves the fingers of both hands. refers to the range of perceived pitches rather than to any implication regarding the mode of phonation. and pitch. clicklike pulses and is often used to imitate the opening of a creaky door. It can be produced both egressively (exhaling) and ingressively (inhaling). dynamics. since very soft. in addition to the vocal fry (Example #11).143 Vocal fry is perceived as dry. The term "pitch. airy sounds are apparent. The pulse rate of vocal fry can be controlled to produce a range from very slow individual clicks to a stream of clicks so fast that it is heard as discrete pitch. The individual may find one mode easier to control than the other in terms of such parameters as pulse rate.