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Chapter 2

Fluid Statics

CLO2: Describe the concept of fluid statics in pressure

measurement and buoyancy force determination

m.moniruzzaman@petronas.com.my

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Outline

• Definition of fluid statics

• Hydrostatic Equilibrium

• Barometric equation

• Pressure measurement: Principle and

devices

• Buoyancy

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Learning Outcome

• At the end of this chapter, you should

be able to:

– Define the term “fluid statics”

– Calculate pressure using manometers

– Determine buoyancy force

– Apply the fluid statics principle to the

chemical engineering unit operations.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the science of

fluids dealing with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-

body motion*

No shear stresses involved

The only forces develop on the surfaces of the particles will

be due to pressure.

1. Manometers

2. Continuous gravity decanter

3. Centrifugal decanter

4. Determination buoyancy force

5. others

(*Rigid body motion - fluid that is moving in such a manner that there is no

relative motion between adjacent particles)

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Fluid Statics

• Example:

– Water in a tank.

– Water in a lake (Water actually move very slowly in the

lake. However the movement of water relative to each other

is nearly zero that water is seen as “static”)

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Pressure

It can be defined as a normal force exerted by a

fluid per unit area. It has the unit of Newtons per

square meter (N/m2) which is called a pascal (Pa)

• Absolute pressure (Pabs): actual pressure at given

position

• Gage pressure (Pgage): Pabs - Patm

• Vacuum pressure (Pvac): Patm-Pabs

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Absolute, Gage and Vacuum pressures

Pgage

Pabs

Pvac

Patm

Patm

Pabs

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Atmospheric Pressure

(Tosontsengel, Mongolia, 19 December 2001)

• Lowest recorded non-tornadic Patm 87.0

kPa (Western Pacific during Typhoon Tip, 12 October

1979)

In Fluid Mechanics:

•Patm = 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.7 psi

•Some devices uses 100 kPa (or 1 bar) as

atmospheric pressure.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Class Example 1

kPa at location where the local atmospheric

pressure is 92 kPa. Determine Pabs.

atmospheric pressure, determine Pgage.

What does it means? And, determine Pabs.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

a) Pgauge = 24 kPa, Patm = 92 kPa

Pabs = 24 + 92 = 116 kPa

= 20-14.7

= 5.3 psi

c) Pgage = – 60 kPa

It means vacuum since the value is negative.

(The same if mention as Pvac = 60 kPa)

Pabs = Pgauge+Patm

= 101.3 – 60 = 41.3 kPa

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

equally in all directions and is referred to as

the static pressure.

P1

P3 P4

P2 An element of fluid

Fluid

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest

• Fluid pressure at a point is the same in all directions (Pascal’s Law)

• In a fluid at rest the pressure intensities in a horizontal plane are equal

of motion sum of the forces on any part of the fluid in any direction is zero

The sum of forces (positive upward):

We can write,

x

W y

Pz=0

Fig. Surface and body forces acting

on small fluid element.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

find

z = ─ ρg

z = z

If we now let z approach zero, then

P dP z=0

limit = = ─ ρg = ─ γ

z 0 z dz

x

W y

This is the basic equation of fluid statics,

Pz=0

called the Barometric equation

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

What is incompressible fluids??

change the volume (e.g., density) of the fluid due to external

pressure. Incompressible fluids are a hypothetical type of fluids,

which are introduced for the convenience of calculations. The

compressibility of an incompressible fluid is always zero

Example: water

Incompressible Fluids ?

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Assumption: g is constant

We can write barometric equation can be directly integrated

2 2

dP dz P1 = Patm

1

1 1 z1 z

2

dz h

y

to yield 1

P2 P1 z 2 z1 z2 2 P2 x

or P2 P1 ( z1 z 2 )

or P2 P1 h Fig. Notation for pressure variation in a

fluid at rest with a free surface

distance from the free surface

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Ps

z=h

Ps h

P

dP dz

0

Ps P h

P Ps h z=0 P

• Normally take Ps = 0 (Pgage definition)

• P = h = Pgage

• P decrease as one go upward.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

fluid at rest.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Class Example 2

glycerin under pressure shown

(glycerin = 12.34 N/m3)

Solution:

Assumption: glycerin is an incompressible fluid

Pbottom = Ps + h

50 kPa

= 50 + (12.34)(2)

= 74.68 kPa

2m

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Class Example 3

Determine the pressure at the bottom of an open tank containing

water at atmospheric pressure.

Ps = Patm

Solution:

Assumption: 10 m

water is an incompressible fluid

Pbottom = Ps + gh

= Ps + (1000)(9.81)(10)

pressure (gage pressure),It follows that Ps = 0, therefore,

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Compressible Fluid

Density change with pressure

Example; Ideal/perfect gases

P = absulate pressure (kPa)

P PM

M = molar mass (kg/kmol)

Ru = Universal gas constant (J/mol K)

RT R u T R = Gas constant (kJ/kg K)

T = absolute temperature (K)

dP PM

g …………….(1)

dz R uT

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

and integrated as follows:

2 dP gM 2

1 P

R uT 1

dz

P2 gM w

ln ( z 2 z1 )

P1 R uT

gM w

P2 P1 exp z 2 z1

R uT

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Pressure Measurement

• Objective:

•Understand the principles of

manometer

•Learn how to calculate pressure using

manometer

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

In measuring pressure:

A B

• Pressure • Pressure

increases as decreases as

one go one go

downward upward

• In calculation, • In calculation,

has to “plus” has to “minus”

the pressure the pressure

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Measurement of Pressure

Barometer : (Mercury Barometer)

A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure

– a tube more than 30 inch (760 mm)

long

– inserted in an open container of

mercury

– a closed and evacuated end pointing

upward

P1

– open end in the mercury pool

– mercury extending from the container

up into the tube.

– It contains mercury vapor at its

saturated vapor pressure

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Pvapor

Measurement of atmospheric pressure

A

Patm= γHgh + P vapor

Patm

Since pressure exerted by mercury

vapor is very small, therefore, B

Mercury

Patm= γHgh

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

columns to measure pressure

involves the use of liquid columns in vertical or

inclined tubes.

Piezometer tube

U-tube manometer

Inverted U-tube manometer

Inclined tube manometer

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Piezometer Tube Manometer

The simplest manometer is a tube, open at the top, which is attached to

the top of a vessel containing liquid at a pressure (higher than

atmospheric) to be measured.

Patm

As the tube is open to the atmosphere the pressure measured

is relative to atmospheric so is gauge pressure

h1

Pressure at A = pressure due to column of liquid above A A

0 h2

PA = Patm + ρgh1 = ρgh1

B

liquid above B

PB = Patm + ρgh2 = 0 + ρgh2 Liquid

This method can only be used for liquids (i.e., not for gases) and only when the

liquid height is convenient to measure. It must not be too small or too large

and pressure changes must be detectable

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

The “U”-Tube Manometer

Using a “U”-Tube enables the pressure of both liquids and gases to be measured

with the same instrument. The “U” is connected as in the figure below and filled

with a fluid called the manometric fluid. The fluid whose pressure is being mea-

sured should have a mass density less than that of the manometric fluid and the

two fluids should not be able to mix readily - that is, they must be immiscible.

Fluid density, ρ

D

h2

A

h1

B

C

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

so, PB= PC ……….(1)

For the left hand arm,

Pressure at B = pressure at A + pressure due to height h1 of measured fluid

PB= PA + ρgh1

Pressure at C = pressure at D + pressure due to height h of manometric fluid

PC= Patm + ρmangh2

= ρmangh2 ( Since we are measuring gage pressure, Patm = 0 )

If the fluid being measured is a gas, the density will probably be very low in

comparison to the density of the manometric fluid i.e., ρ man>> ρ. In this case the

term ρgh1can be neglected, and the gauge pressure give by

PA =ρmangh2

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Measurement of Pressure Difference Using a “U”-Tube Manometer

If the “U”-tube manometer is connected to a pressurized vessel at two

points the pressure difference between these two points can be measured.

B

If the manometer is arranged as in the figure, then we say

Pressure at C = Pressure at D

Fluid density, ρ

PC = PD ………(1)

hb

E

PC= PA +ρgha ……. (2)

h

PD= PB +ρg(hb –h) + ρmangh ……(3) A

ha

C D

Combining equation 1, 2 & 3,

PA +ρgha = PB +ρg(hb –h) + ρmangh Manometric fluid density, ρman

or, PA-PB = ρg(hb – ha) + (ρman – ρ) gh

if the fluid whose pressure difference is being measured is a gas and ρ man>> ρ,

then the terms involving ρ can be neglected, so

PA-PB = ρman gh

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

measure P

Flow ρ

1 2

h

Prove that pressure difference

P1-P2= P = g h (ρman - ρ)

Manometer liquid,

(ρman)

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

h

Flow

At the upper part of the pipe,it does not require another manometer

liquid to measure P

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Inclined-tube manometer

Fluid C

Liquid B 2

1 h3

b e

h1

a

h2 d

c L

Fluid A

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Selection of Manometer

Care must be taken when attaching the manometer to vessel, no

burrs must be present around this joint. Burrs would alter the flow

causing local pressure variations to affect the measurement.

Advantages and disadvanges of Manometer

Advantages

• small pressure differences can be measured

• They are very simple

• No calibration is required; the pressure difference can be calculated from

first principles.

Disadvantages

• Not for measuring larger pressure differences

• Some liquids are unsuitable for use. Surface tension can also cause errors

due to capillary rise; this can be avoided if the diameters of the tubes are

sufficiently large - preferably not less than 15 mm diameter

• Slow response; unsuitable for measuring fluctuating pressures.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Class example 1

A simple U-tube manometer is installed across an orifice meter. The manometer

is filled with mercury (specific gravity 13.6), and the liquid above the mercury is

carbon tetrachloride (specific gravity 1.6). The manometer reads 200 mm. What is

the pressure difference over the manometer?

Solution:

Pressure at X = pressure at X'

We can write,

P1 + ρCCl4g (a+h) = P2 + ρmerg h +ρCCl4g a

or, P1-P2 = ρmerg h - ρCCl4g h

=ghρwater (SG mercury- SG CCl4)

= 9.81x 0.2 x1000 (13.6-1.6)

= 23544 Pa

The pressure difference is 23544 Pa

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Class example 2

The fluid shown shaded in the manometer is ethyl iodide with a specific gravity

of 1.93. The heights are h1 = 100 cm and h2 = 20 cm.

a) What is the gage pressure in the tank?

b) What is the absolute pressure in the tank?

Tank full h1

of air

h2

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

= – (1.2)(9.81)(0.2) + (1.93)(1000)(9.81)(1.00 +

0.200)

= 22717.6 Pa

= 22.72 kPag

= (1.93)(1000)(9.81)(1.00 + 0.200)

= 22719.96 Pa

= 22.72 kPag

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

• The mercury manometer below indicates a

differential reading of 0.30 m when the pressure

in pipe A is 30-mm Hg vacuum. Determine the

pressure in pipe B if the specific gravity of the oil

and mercury is 0.91 and 13.6, respectively.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Measure of high pressures

Pressure gage

Used where only a visual indication is

needed at the site where the pressure is

being measured.

Pressure transducer

Pressure is measured at a point, and the

value is displayed at another point.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

• When pressure acts on an elastic structure, the structure will

deform.

tube straighten translated into pointer

motion on dial.

the difference between that

communicated by the system to the

external (ambient) pressure

Pgage

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Pressure transducer

• The sensed pressure is converted to electrical signal

control station

changing pressure)

– Strain gage pressure transducer

– Linear-variable differential transformer (LVDT) pressure transducer

– Piezoelectric pressure transducers

– Quartz resonator pressure transducers

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Buoyancy

Objectives:

To derive the equation of buoyant force

To analyze the case of bodies floating on a

fluid

Use the principle of static equilibrium to solve

forces involved in buoyancy problems.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

What is Buoyancy

When an object is submerged or floating in a static fluid the resultant

force exerted on it by the fluid is called buoyancy force.

depth as a result of the weight of the overlying

fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object

submerged in the fluid, experiences greater

pressure at the bottom of the column than at the

top. This difference in pressure results in a net

force that tends to accelerate an object upwards.

pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained by

Archimedes' principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would

otherwise occupy the column, i.e. the displaced fluid.

is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

• The buoyant force is caused

by the increase of pressure in

P1 a a fluid with depth.

b

• Consider a body with a

thickness, b is submerged in

a liquid of density, f.

P2

F1 = P1A acting downward

F2 = P2A acting upward

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

difference between the two

forces i.e the net upward

P1 a

force

b

FB = P2A – P1A

= f g(a+b)A – f gaA

P2

= f gbA

= f gVb

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

the weight of the fluid displaced

(Archimedes' principle)

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Archimedes’ principle is restated as:

body is equal to the weight of fluid displaced

FB = W = fgVb = fVb

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

FB = W = bgVf = bVf

FB ρ f gVbody

mbody

ρf g

ρ

body

ρf

mbody g

ρ

body

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Example

• A piece of irregularly shaped metal weighs 300.0

N in air. When the metal is completely

submerged in water, it weighs 232.5 N. find the

volume of the metal.

Solution:

FB = W = 300 – 232.5 = 67.5 N

V = 0.00688 m3

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

restated as:

weight is exactly equal to its own

buoyant force

(Weight of the fluid whose volume is equal to the volume of the

submerged portion of the floating body).

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

FB W

ρ f gVbody,sub ρavg, body gVtotal

Vbody,sub ρ avg, body

Vtotal ρf

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Example

• Determine the submerged depth of a cube of

steel 0.30 m on each side floating in mercury.

Given SGsteel = 7.8

SGHg = 13.6

steel

mercury

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Solution

• FB = W

(13.6)(1000)(9.81)(0.3 0.3 D) =

(7.8)(1000)(9.81)(0.027)

D = 0.172 m

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Example

• A solid block (SG = 0.9) floats such that 75% of its

volume is in water and 25% of its volume is in

liquid X, which is layered above the water.

Determine the density of liquid X.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Solution

• FB = W

bgVf = fgVb

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Sink or Float

An object

with an

average

specific

weight less

than that of

the fluid

tend to float

because

W < FB

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Sink or Float

An object

with an

average

specific

weight

greater than

that of the

fluid tend to

sink because

W > FB.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Sink or Float

An object

whose

average

specific

weight is

equal to that

of the fluid is

neutrally

buoyant.

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CDB 1033) May 2015

Pascal Law

How to derive Barometric equation

Definition of incompressible and compressible fluids?

Pressure depth relationships for fluids

Application of fluids statics

(a) pressure measurement using manometer

(b) Buoyancy force determination

End of Chapter 2

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