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ABSTRACT / SUMMARY INTRODUCTION AIMS / OBJECTIVE THEORY APPARATUS PROCEDURE RESULTS CALCULATION DISCUSSION CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION REFERENCES APPENDICES

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wastewater and sewage systems. They consist of a sharp edged plate with a rectangular. or vein. energy and momentum and. The top of weir wall over which the liquid flows is known as the sill or crest. A weir is generally an overflow structure. these laws can be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass. A weir or notch is generally used for measuring the flow of liquids.ABSTRACT / SUMMARY From the experiment that have been done. Other than that we are going to determined the best discharged coefficient between both notches.Broad-crested weirs can be observed in dam spillways where the broad edge is beneath the water surface across the entire stream. in each application. sheet. The stream of liquid coming out the weir is known as a nappe. dynamics and thermodynamics. The terms air and weirs are used synonymously in general. INTRODUCTION Fluids mechanics has develop as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statistics. Rectangular weirs and triangular or v-notch weirs are often used in water supply. we are using the rectangular weirs and triangular weirs. The flow pattern of water from both notches are being observed. Flow measurement installations with broad-crested weirs will meet accuracy requirements only if they are calibrated. A weir is an opening in the sidewall of a tank at top. The discharged coefficient are going to be determined from the volumetric flowrate calculated from the time taken and the volume collected. triangular or v-notch profile for the water flow. we are going to determine the characteristics of a rectangular notch and triangular ( vee ) notch. There is no difference between a notch and weir except that the former is a small structure and has sharp edges. [3] 2 . to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. with a broad crest. [1] In this experiment. The head under which the weir is discharging is measured from the crest to the free surface. built across an open channel.

with a long crest compared to the flow thickness (Chanson 1999. Some of them are : i) Broad-crested weir A broad-crested weir is a flat-crested structure. Henderson 1966. [2] iii) Combination weir The sharp crested weirs can be considered into three groups according to the geometry of weir: a) the rectangular weir. For accurate flow measurement over a wider range of flow rates. the streamlines become parallel to the crest invert and the pressure distribution above the crest is hydrostatic. A weir which causes a large change of water level behind it. Sharp crested weirs are typically 1/4" or thinner metal plates. [2] ii) Sharp crested weir (fayoum weir) A sharp-crested weir allows the water to fall cleanly away from the weir. b) the V or triangular notch and c) special notches.2004. V-notch and Cipolletti weirs. Sturm 2001). It may be a simple metal plate with a V-notch cut into it.There are different types of weir. such as trapezoidal. The hydraulic characteristics of broad-crested weirs were studied during the 19th and 20th centuries. [2] 3 . Sharp crested weirs come in many different shapes such as rectangular. or it may be a concrete and steel structure across the bed of a river. circular or parabolic weirs. Practical experience showed that the weir overflow is affected by the upstream flow conditions and the weir geometry. will give an accurate indication of the flow rate. This is typically used in pipes ranging from 4" to 15" in diameter. a combination weir combines a V-notch weir with a rectangular weir. When the crest is ³broad´. compared to the error inherent in the depth measurement method.

R t l N t . 4 . In practice the flow through the notch will not be parallel and therefore will not be normalto the plane of the weir. in particular the width of the nappe is reduced by the contractions at each end. Assuming that the flow is everywhere normal to the plane of the weir and that the free surface remains hori ontal up to the plane of the weir. The free surface is not hori ontal and viscosity and surface tension will have an effect. [4] l r notch in a thin square edged weir plate installed in a weir channel as shown Figure 2 Rectangular Notch Consider the flow in an element of height H at a depth h below the surface.A MS/ i ii BJE TIVE t t i i t t l t i ti i t l i i t t t ti t l t THE i A rect in figure 2. There will be a considerable change in the shape of the nappe as it passes through the notch with curvature of the stream lines in both vert cal and hori ontal planes as i indicated in Figure 3.

of the theoretical analysis due to these curvature effects. Cd is not a true constant tending towards a constant only for large heads and a low velocity of approach in the weir channel.Fi 3 Shape of a Nappe Qt = Cd 2/3 b ¥ (2g) H3/2 Where Qt = volume flow rate ( m/s ) H = height above notch base (m) b = width of rectangular notch ( 0. 5 . 2b¥(2g) H3//2 However. which has to be determined by experiment The discharge from a rectangular notch will be considerably less. approximately 60%. A coefficient of discharge Cd is therefore introduced so that Cd = 3Qt .03 m) Cd = the discharge coefficient.

which has to be determined by experiment 8 tan ( /2) ¥ (2g) H5/2 .5 and for the triangular notch to a power of 2. For a rectangular notch the rate of discharged is proportional to the liquid depth raised to power 1. Cd = 15Qt .ii Triangular ( vee ) Notch [4] Figure 4 Triangular or V Notch 8 ¨U ¸ tan© ¹ 2 g H 2 Qt ! C d 15 ª 2 º Where Qt = volume flow rate 5 Thus. [5] 6 ¡ = height above notch base B = width of rectangular notch = angle of the Vee in the triangular notch C = the discharge coefficient. A triangular notch will therefore handle a wider range of flowrates. It can be shown that the notch must have curved walls giving a large width to the bottom of the notch and a comparatively small width towards the top.5. for instance in a distillation column or reactor. The weir is frequently installed for controlling the flow within the unit itself.

5.APPARATUS 1. Vernier Height gauge (supplied with F1-13). The F1-13 Rectangular and Vee notches. The F1-10 hydraulic bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection. Spirit level 7 . 4. 6. 3. The F1-13 Stilling Baffle. 2. Stop watch.

The instrument carrier was mounted as shown in the diagram and it would be approximately located half way between the stilling baffle and the notch plate. 5. 3. Then. 13. It was projected clear of the plate. The bench control valve was opened and water was admitted to the channel. 14. The rectangular notch plate was replaced with the Vee notch plate and procedure above was repeated. Then carefully the gauge was lowered until the point was just above the notch base and the coarse adjustment screw was locked. The flow rate was ensured large enough to prevent the outflow from the notch ³clinging´ to the notch plate. 7. to produce an increase in depth of approximately 5 mm. 9. 12. the instrument carrier was positioned in the opposite way round from that shown in the diagram. The time are started when the ball valve close the tank outflow and stop until the water level reach 3 litre. In order to measure the datum height (with the height gauge) of the base of the notch. The hydraulic bench was positioned so that its surface is horizontal (necessary because flow over notch is driven by gravity). Here we must be careful not to damage the notch. The level was checked in stable condition before taking readings. The rectangular notch plate was mounted into the flow channel and the stilling baffle was positioned as shown in the diagram. 8 . using the fine adjustment. This procedure was repeated 6 times by having opened the bench valve further. the valve was opened again at the end of the measurement. 6. 8. the fine adjustment was used to lower the gauge until the point just touched its reflection in the surface and the water flow are waited till its flow are steady. After determined the volume collected. 4. 15.PROCEDURE 1. 10. 2. the gauge was adjusted until the point just touched the notch bottom and a reading would be taken. The flowrates of the water flor are calculated. To take an accurate height reading. 11. The general features of the flow were observed and recorded.

010 0.308 x 10 -4 9 .579 x 10 -4 2.025 0.RESULTS RECTANGULAR NOTCH Height.375 x 10 -5 3 Discharged coefficient.453 0.000 x 10-3 1.030 H5/2 Volume ( m ) 3 Time .020 0.020 0. Cd 2.329 1.676 0.709 0.005 0. Cd 3.559 x 10 -4 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 208 130 65 36 19 13 1.308 x 10 -5 4.071 1.768 x 10 -6 1.882 x 10 -5 1.828 x 10-3 3. Q ( m /s ) 3 Discharged coefficient.993 1.536 x 10 -4 Volume ( m ) 3 x 10 -3 3 Time .025 0.010 0.953 x 10-3 5.250 x 10-4 2.675 x 10 -5 9. H ( m ) 0.000 x 10-4 3.000 x 10-4 TRIANGULAR ( VEE ) NOTCH Height.750 x 10 -5 5.411 1. H (m) 0.442 x 10 -3 2.615 x 10 -5 8.977 0.t ( s ) 32 24 15 9 8 6 Flowrate.000 x 10 -5 2.015 0.030 3 H3/2 3.t ( s ) Flowrate.837 x 10-3 2.330 x 10-4 3.333 x 10 -5 1.627 1.086 1.196 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 3 x 10-3 1.015 0.005 0.750 x 10-4 5. Q ( m /s ) 9.229 1.602 0.

Cd = = = 2.03 m g = 9.005 m H 3/2 = ( 0.05 )3/2 = 3.993 10 .536 x 10-6 Volumetric flowrate.SAMPLE CALCULATION RECTANGULAR NOTCH b = 0.81 m/s2 For H = 0.375 x 10-5 m3/s Discharged coefficient. Q = = = 9.

005 m H 5/2 = 1.453 11 .768 x 10-6 Volumetric flowrate. Q = = = 1.81 m/s For H = 0.TRIANGULAR ( VEE ) NOTCH = 90O g = 9.442 x 10-5 m3/s Discharged coefficient. Cd = = = 3.

we noticed that there is inconsistency in our readings because of the error that occur. The friction will effect the time taken to collected 3 litres of the water. From the results. we can see that the volumetric flow rate of both notches are increased. If we take it as overall errors. Thus it will effect the volumetric flow rate and also the discharged coefficient as the volumetric flow rate influenced the value of the Cd.Other than that. H and also its volumetric flow rate.DISCUSSION From the experiment. First. These showed that the water outflow increased as the H increased. This may be from the friction at the head of the notches during the starter of the experiment. These is supposed to happen as the water level increased. the time should be taken at least 3 times to take the average so that the error during the time taken can be minimized. most of errors occurred when step of taking the height started. For convenience. the water outflow from the notch should be increased over time. 12 . But from the discharged coefficient. The purpose of doing it is to minimize the errors. we have to be careful about the height of datum. it is recommended to take your datum height as zero. The discharged coefficient for the rectangular notch are influenced by its H and also its volumetric flow rate while the triangular notch are influenced by its . These deviations of values are contributed by the errors during handling the experiment. we are about to determine the discharged coefficient of the both rectangular and the triangular notches. Besides that. we can see that the value of the both notches are not stable.

iii) Therefore the best discharged coefficient. the procedure cannot be reverse to find the value of time collection by adjusting the height. V-notch has small range of variations for the value of Cd.b with 0. iii) Once the data were taken. This is because this notch has an angle at its bottom where about 90o.CONCLUSION i) ii) Rectangular weir has wide range variations of Cd . Cd is from the V-notch compared to rectangular notch. ii) Take care not to allow spillage to occur over the plate top adjacent to the notch. If this happened. iv) The readings of height should be taken carefully by avoiding sight error. 13 . RECOMMENDATION i) The data that was observed in the experiment that was time gain should be taken twice. This angle might effect the values of flowrate and Cd. it would effect the collection of known volume. This can avoid the very wide deviation because of only take once of each observation.03 m. This would affect the value of height datum. This is because this notch has width. The time collection should be taken much appropriately. The height datum must be constant and the observation should be done once round for the little increment of height especially for V-notch.

http://www.cussons. http://en.edu/eresource/environmental/murali/notches. 5.engineeringtoolbox.org/wiki/Weir 3.com/weirs-flow-rate-d_592.gitam.uk/SOFTWARE/Part5/PART5.HTM Richardson¶s Chemical Engineering by J M Coulson & J F Richardson with J R Backhurst and J H Harker. http://www.wikipedia. Coulson & APPENDICES 14 . http://www. Sixth Edition.htm 2.co. Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer Volume 1. Fluid Flow.html 4.REFERENCES 1.

weirs not sharp crested are commonly incorporated into hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe. trapezoidal weirs. the weir has free discharge. In contrast. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. 1) Rectangular Weir 15 . FLOW O ER WEIRS. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening. triangular weirs. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head. and parabolic weirs.Weirs Posted in Hydraulics | Email This Post Weir is defined as a barrier over which the water flows in an open channel. Weirs not sharp crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section. such as broad-crested weirs. The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. the weir is submerged or drowned. such as rectangular weirs. If the discharge is partly under water. Types of Wei s. and trapezoidal weirs. All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp crested. If the nappe discharges into the air. Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of meas.uring flowing water. triangular or V-notch weirs. with measurement of flow as their secondary function. A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharp-crested weir. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach.

2) Triangular Weir The discharge of triangular weirs with notch angles of 30°.45h2. and 90° is given by the formulas as Discharge of Triangular Weirs Notch (vertex) angle Discharge formula 90° 60° 30° Q Q Q 0. n=1. and n= 2. If both sides of the weir are far enough removed from the sides of the approach channel to permit free lateral approach of water. or 2) h0= head of velocity of approach If the sides of the weir are coincident with the sides of the approach channel. ft3/s (m3/s) b= length of weir.47 2.The Francis formula for the discharge of a sharp-crested rectangular weir having a length b greater than 3h is Q=0. the weir is considered to be contracted.48 16 . ft (m) n= number of end contractions (0. ft (m) h= vertical distance from level of crest of weir to water surface at point unaffected by weir drawdown (head on weir).685h2. If one side is suppressed and one is contracted.49h2. 1.45 1. 60°.333*(b -nh)*[(h+h0 )(3/2)-h0(3/2) ] where Q= discharge over weir. and n=0. the weir is considered to be suppressed.

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- Flow Over Weirs
- Flow of Water Over Weirs
- Hydraulic Laboratory
- flow over weirs Report
- flow of water by notch and weirs
- Flow Over Weirs
- Weirs
- (1)Flow Over Notch
- Osbourne Reynolds Apparatus Experiment
- Sharp Crested Weir
- Flow Over a Broad-crested Weir Exp4
- Filmwise and Dropwise Experiment
- Flow Over Weirs
- KIRK - Broad Crested Weir
- Flow Over Weirs
- Hydraulic Jump
- Experiment 4 Stuructur
- Broad Crested Weir
- Impact of Jet
- Dropwise and Fimwise Condensation Lab Report
- LAB REPORT-Osbourne Reynolds Apparatus
- Experiment 3-Fixed End Moment for a Fixed End Beam
- Flow Over Weirs
- Expt 1 - Friction Loses in Pipes
- Hydraulic Jump
- Full Report Bernoulli Experiment Tiqa
- membrane
- Lab Report 2
- Flow Over Weirs

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