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TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT PAGE

y ABSTRACT / SUMMARY 2

y INTRODUCTION 2 ± 3

y AIMS / OBJECTIVE 4

y THEORY 4 ± 7

y APPARATUS 7

y PROCEDURE 8

y RESULTS 9 ± 11

y CALCULATION 12 ± 13

y DISCUSSION 14

y CONCLUSION 15

y RECOMMENDATION 15

y REFERENCES 16

y APPENDICES 16

2

ABSTRACT / SUMMARY

From this experiment, we want to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when

applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct. Secondly we want to measure flow

rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of

known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.

To run this experiment, firstly the Bernoulli equation apparatus on the hydraulic bench

was set up so that its base is horizontal for accurate height measurement from the

manometers. We used ǻh manometer 50, 100 and 150 between ǻh

1

and ǻh

5

for both

converging and diverging tube. After that, the section diverging in the direction of flow

was set up. Then water inlet and outlet was connected. The time to collect 3 L water in

the tank was determined. Lastly calculate the flow rate, velocity, dynamic head, and total

head using the reading we get from the experiment and data given. The step was repeated

using converging in the direction of flow.

INTRODUCTION

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the

speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the

fluid's potential energy. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician

Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738.

[2]

Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely

denoted as Bernoulli's equation. In fact, there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation

for different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for

incompressible flows (e.g. most liquid flows) and also for compressible flows (e.g. gases)

moving at low Mach numbers. More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to

compressible flows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the Bernoulli equation).

[2]

Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states

that in a steady flow the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is

the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and

potential energy remain constant. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir the sum of all forms

of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit mass (the

sum of pressure and gravitational potential ȡ g h) is the same everywhere.

[2]

3

Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. If a fluid is flowing

horizontally and along a section of a streamline, where the speed increases it can only be

because the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of

lower pressure; and if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved from a region

of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a fluid flowing

horizontally, the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest, and the lowest speed

occurs where the pressure is highest.

[2]

Bernoulli's equation is sometimes valid for the flow of gases: provided that there is no transfer

of kinetic or potential energy from the gas flow to the compression or expansion of the gas. If

both the gas pressure and volume change simultaneously, then work will be done on or by the

gas. In this case, Bernoulli's equation -- in its incompressible flow form -- can not be assumed

to be valid.

[1]

[4]

Suggested Shapes

Shape Title Comments

Narrow pipe

widens

As cross-sectional area increases, velocity drops and

pressure slightly increases

Rocket nozzle Exhaust is shot at high speed out of narrow opening

Drifting Rafters drift in lazy current between rapids

The relationship between the velocity and pressure exerted by a moving liquid is described by

the Bernoulli's principle: as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid

decreases. The Continuity Equation relates the speed of a fluid moving through a pipe to the

cross sectional area of the pipe. It says that as a radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid

flow must increase and visa-versa.

[3]

4

A MS / OBJE TIVE

1. To i ti t t vali it of t B oulli equation when applied to the steady

flow of water in a tapered duct.

2. To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a ri id

convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.

THEORY

[2]

In most flows of liquids, and of gases at low Mach number, the mass density of a fluid parcel

can be considered to be constant, regardless of pressure variations in the flow. For this reason

the fluid in such flows can be considered to be incompressible and these flows can be

described as incompressible flow. Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids and his

equation in its original form is valid only for incompressible flow. A common form of

Bernoulli s equation, valid at any arbitrary point along a streamline where gravity is constant,

is:

(A)

where:

is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline,

is the acceleration due to gravity,

is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction

pointing upward ² so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,

is the pressure at the point, and

is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.

For conservative force fields, Bernoulli s equation can be generali ed as:

5

where Ȍ is the force potential at the point considered on the streamline. E.g. for the Earth's

gravity Ȍ = gz.

The following two assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli equation to apply:

[5]

y the fluid must be incompressible ² even though pressure varies, the density must

remain constant along a streamline;

y friction by viscous forces has to be negligible.

By multiplying with the fluid density ȡ, equation (A) can be rewritten as:

or:

where:

is dynamic pressure,

is the piezometric head or hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z

and the pressure head) and

is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic

pressure q).

The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. A common approach is in terms of

total head or energy head H:

The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero, and at even

higher speeds the pressure is negative. Most often, gases and liquids are not capable of

negative absolute pressure, or even zero pressure, so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be

valid before zero pressure is reached. In liquids²when the pressure becomes too low --

cavitation occurs. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared

6

and pressure. At higher flow speeds in gases, or for sound waves in liquid, the changes in

mass density become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid.

In many applications of Bernoulli's equation, the change in the ȡ g z term along the streamline

is so small compared with the other terms it can be ignored. For example, in the case of

aircraft in flight, the change in height z along a streamline is so small the ȡ g z term can be

omitted. This allows the above equation to be presented in the following simplified form:

where qൌ

v

ʹ

g

where p

0

is called total pressure, and q is dynamic pressure. Many authors refer to the

pressure p as static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure p

0

and dynamic pressure q. In

Aerodynamics, L.J. Clancy writes: "To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures, the

actual pressure of the fluid, which is associated not with its motion but with its state, is often

referred to as the static pressure, but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this

static pressure."

The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be summarized in the following memorable

word equation:

static pressure + dynamic pressure = total pressure

Every point in a steadily flowing fluid, regardless of the fluid speed at that point, has its own

unique static pressure p and dynamic pressure q. Their sum p + q is defined to be the total

pressure p

0

. The significance of Bernoulli's principle can now be summarized as total

pressure is constant along a streamline.

If the fluid flow is irrotational, the total pressure on every streamline is the same and

Bernoulli's principle can be summarized as total pressure is constant everywhere in the fluid

flow. It is reasonable to assume that irrotational flow exists in any situation where a large

body of fluid is flowing past a solid body. Examples are aircraft in flight, and ships moving in

open bodies of water. However, it is important to remember that Bernoulli's principle does not

apply in the boundary layer or in fluid flow through long pipes.

7

If the fluid flow at some point along a stream line is brought to rest, this point is called a

stagnation point, and at this point the total pressure is equal to the stagnation pressure.

APPARATUS

y The F1-10 Hydraulic Bench, which allows us to measure flow by, timed volume

collection.

y The F1-15 Bernoulli¶s Apparatus Test Equipment.

y A stopwatch for timing the flow measurement.

8

PROCEDURE

1. The main switch and ump are switched on.

2. The venturi for the convergent flow position are setup.

3. The flow control valve are fully open to let the water flow into the venture and

manometer tubes.

4. The air bleed screw are adjusted.

5. The flow control valve and valve 1 are closed.

6. The air bleed screw are regulated until water level in manometer tubes reached 140

mmH

2

O.

7. The flow control valve are fully open.

8. Valve 1 are regulated slowly to get the different between water level in h

1

and h

5

that

is 50 mmH

2

O.

9. The reading from h

1

until h

5

are taken.

10. The ball in the water tank are dropped. The time are taken until the water reached 3 L.

11. Steps 8 until 10 are repeated for different value of ¨h that are 100 mmH

2

O and 150

mmH

2

O.

12. The experiment are repeated for divergent flow.

9

RESULTS

g = 9.81 m/s

2

1. Divergence

¨h = 50 mm

Volume collected ( m

3

) Time ( s ) Flow rate ( m

3

/s )

3 x 10

-3

30.59 9.80 x 10

-5

Distance

into duct

( m )

Area of

duct, A

x10

-6

( m

2

)

Static

head, h

( mm )

Static

head, h

( m )

Velocity,

v x 10

-3

( m/s )

Dynamic

head, q

( v

2

/2g )

(m)

Total

head, h

o

( m )

h1 0.0000 490.9 150 0.150 0.200 0.0020 0.152

h2 0.0603 151.7 125 0.125 0.646 0.021 0.145

h3 0.0687 109.4 105 0.105 0.896 0.041 0.146

h4 0.0732 89.9 100 0.100 1.090 0.061 0.161

h5 0.0811 78.5 100 0.100 1.248 0.079 0.179

¨h = 100 mm

Volume collected ( m

3

) Time ( s ) Flow rate ( m

3

/s )

3 x 10

-3

23.62 1.27 x 10

-4

Distance

into duct

( m )

Area of

duct, A

x10

-6

( m

2

)

Static

head, h

( mm )

Static

head, h

( m )

Velocity,

v ( m/s )

Dynamic

head, q

( v

2

/2g )

Total

head, h

o

( m )

h1 0.0000 490.9 165 0.165 0.259 0.0034 0.168

h2 0.0603 151.7 125 0.125 0.837 0.0357 0.161

h3 0.0687 109.4 70 0.070 1.161 0.069 0.139

h4 0.0732 89.9 65 0.065 1.413 0.102 0.167

h5 0.0811 78.5 65 0.065 1.618 0.133 0.198

10

¨h = 150 mm

Volume collected ( m

3

) Time ( s ) Flow rate ( m

3

/s )

3 x 10

-3

20.0 1.50 x 10

-4

Distance

into duct

( m )

Area of

duct, A

x10

-6

( m

2

)

Static

head, h

( mm )

Static

head, h

( m )

Velocity,

v ( m/s )

Dynamic

head, q

( v

2

/2g )

Total

head, h

o

( m )

h1 0.0000 490.9 175 0.175 0.306 0.0047 0.180

h2 0.0603 151.7 115 0.115 0.989 0.050 0.165

h3 0.0687 109.4 45 0.045 1.371 0.096 0.141

h4 0.0732 89.9 25 0.025 1.669 0.142 0.167

h5 0.0811 78.5 25 0.025 1.910 0.186 0.211

2. Convergence

¨h = 50 mm

Volume collected ( m

3

) Time ( s ) Flow rate ( m

3

/s )

3 x 10

-3

48.5 6.19 x 10

-5

Distance

into duct

( m )

Area of

duct, A

x10

-6

( m

2

)

Static

head, h

( mm )

Static

head, h

( m )

Velocity,

v ( m/s )

Dynamic

head, q

( v

2

/2g )

Total

head, h

o

( m )

h1 0.0000 490.9 165 0.165 0.126 0.00081 0.166

h2 0.0603 151.7 155 0.155 0.408 0.0085 0.164

h3 0.0687 109.4 145 0.145 0.566 0.016 0.161

h4 0.0732 89.9 130 0.130 0.689 0.024 0.154

h5 0.0811 78.5 115 0.115 0.789 0.032 0.147

11

¨h = 100 mm

Volume collected ( m

3

) Time ( s ) Flow rate ( m

3

/s )

3 x 10

-3

32.4 9.26 x 10

-5

Distance

into duct

( m )

Area of

duct, A

x10

-6

( m

2

)

Static

head, h

( mm )

Static

head, h

( m )

Velocity,

v ( m/s )

Dynamic

head, q

( v

2

/2g )

Total

head, h

o

( m )

h1 0.0000 490.9 190 0.190 0.189 0.0018 0.192

h2 0.0603 151.7 165 0.165 0.610 0.019 0.184

h3 0.0687 109.4 145 0.145 0.846 0.036 0.181

h4 0.0732 89.9 120 0.120 1.030 0.054 0.174

h5 0.0811 78.5 90 0.090 1.180 0.071 0.161

¨h = 150 mm

Volume collected ( m

3

) Time ( s ) Flow rate ( m

3

/s )

3 x 10

-3

24.47 1.23 x 10

-4

Distance

into duct

( m )

Area of

duct, A

x10

-6

( m

2

)

Static

head, h

( mm )

Static

head, h

( m )

Velocity,

v ( m/s )

Dynamic

head, q

( v

2

/2g )

Total

head, h

o

( m )

h1 0.0000 490.9 210 0.210 0.251 0.0032 0.213

h2 0.0603 151.7 180 0.180 0.811 0.034 0.214

h3 0.0687 109.4 145 0.145 1.124 0.064 0.209

h4 0.0732 89.9 105 0.105 1.368 0.095 0.200

h5 0.0811 78.5 60 0.060 1.567 0.125 0.185

12

CALCULATION

1. Divergent

¨h = h

1

± h

5

= ( 150 ± 100) mm

= 50 mm *

Flow rate =

volume ൫ m

͵

൯

time ሺsሻ

=

͵ x ͳͲ

Ǧ͵

m

͵

͵Ͳ Ǥͷͻ s

= 9.80 x 10

-5

m

3

/s *

Velocity, v =

ϐlow iate m

͵

Ȁs

aiea m

ʹ

=

ͻǤͺͲ x ଵ

షఱ

m

͵

Ȁs

ͶͻͲǤͻ x ଵ

షల

m

ʹ

= 0.200 *

Dynamic head , (m) =

v

ʹ

ʹg

=

Ǥଶ

మ

m

ʹ

Ȁs

ʹ

ʹ x ͻǤͺͳ mȀs

ʹ

= 0.00203 m. *

Total head = static head + dynamic head

= 0.150 m + 0.00203 m

= 0.152 m. *

13

2. Convergent

¨h = h

1

± h

5

= ( 165 ± 115) mm

= 50 mm *

Flow rate =

volume ൫ m

͵

൯

time ሺsሻ

=

͵ x ͳͲ

Ǧ͵

m

͵

ͶͺǤͷ s

= 6.19 x 10

-5

m

3

/s *

Velocity, v =

ϐlow iate m

͵

Ȁs

aiea m

ʹ

=

Ǥͳͻ x ଵ

షఱ

m

͵

Ȁs

ͶͻͲǤͻ x ଵ

షల

m

ʹ

= 0.126 m. *

Dynamic head , (m) =

v

ʹ

ʹg

=

Ǥଵଶ

మ

m

ʹ

Ȁs

ʹ

ʹ x ͻǤͺͳ mȀs

ʹ

= 0.00081 m. *

Total head = static head + dynamic head

= 0.165 m + 0.00081 m

= 0.166 m. *

14

DISCUSSION

From the Bernoulli¶s principle, he stated that that water is a fluid, and having the

characteristics of a fluid, it adjusts its shape to fit that of its container or other solid objects it

encounters on its path. Since the volume passing through a given length of pipe during a given

period of time will be the same, there must be a decrease in pressure. Hence Bernoulli's

conclusion: the slower the rate of flow, the higher the pressure, and the faster the rate of flow,

the lower the pressure.

[5]

For the divergence flow we can see that the total head at each tube

h

1

until h

5

are not constantly increased but for the convergence flow, the total head are

increased due the increased of flow rate of water.

The flow rates of each flow also incresed that is :

¨h Divergence Convergence

50 mm 9.80 x10

-5

m/s 6.19 x10

-5

m/s

100 mm 1.270 x10

-4

m/s 9.26 x10

-5

m/s

150 mm 1.50 x 10

-4

m/s 1.23 x10

-4

m/s

From the experiment, we found that the total head pressure in both convergence and

divergence flow should be increased according to Bernoulli¶s principle. So it shows that

Bernoilli¶s equation is valid when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and

velocity values increased along the same channel.

There must be an error during the divergence flow experiment as the total head are not

constantly increased. During the experiment, the pressure on h

1

until h

5

are not stable yet but

the reading are taken and time for 3 litres water are also recorded. These will affected the

calculation thus affected the total pressure at each tube. Other than that, the time should be

recorded when the water level reached at 0 litre but the time are started before the water level

reached 0 litre. Other than that, the position of eye during reading the manometer tube should

be staright to the meniscus. To get the constant desired pressure difference, the valve 1 and

bleed screw should be regulated smoothly and slowly.

15

CONCLUSION

From the experiment, we found that the total head pressure in both convergence and

divergence flow increased according to Bernoulli¶s principle. So it shows that Bernoilli¶s

equation is valid when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and velocity

values increased along the same channel.

RECOMMENDATION

1. Make sure that there are no leakages on the connection between the pipes. The leakage

will cause the water bleed out from the pipes connection so its will make our

experiment have an errors.

2. Make sure that there are no bubbles in the manometer to get the accurate reading.

3. When take the reading of the volume of the water make sure that eyes parallel with the

volume meter.

4. Control the air bleed screw slowly and smoothly.

5. Waited until the pressure at each manometer tube are stable before the reading are

taken.

16

RE ERE ES

1. http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Bernoulli%27s_principle

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle

3. http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/bernoulli.html

4. http://home.earthlink.net/~mmc1919/venturi.html

5. http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3/Bernoulli-s-

Principle.html

APPE I ES

h

4

h

3

V

1

h

1

h

5

h

2

venturi

Air bleed screw

an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy. In fact.g. Lastly calculate the flow rate. [2] Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. most liquid flows) and also for compressible flows (e. dynamic head. After that. the section diverging in the direction of flow was set up. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738. This states that in a steady flow the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is the same at all points on that streamline. Secondly we want to measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. and total head using the reading we get from the experiment and data given.g. gases) moving at low Mach numbers. 100 and 150 between h1 and h5 for both converging and diverging tube. More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to compressible flows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the Bernoulli equation). velocity. Then water inlet and outlet was connected. [2] Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow. INTRODUCTION In fluid dynamics. We used h manometer 50. Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows (e.ABSTRACT / SUMMARY From this experiment. firstly the Bernoulli equation apparatus on the hydraulic bench was set up so that its base is horizontal for accurate height measurement from the manometers. The time to collect 3 L water in the tank was determined. [2] 2 . This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy remain constant. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir the sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per unit mass (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential g h) is the same everywhere. The step was repeated using converging in the direction of flow. there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for different types of flow. we want to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct. resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli's equation. To run this experiment.

the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest. Consequently. It says that as a radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid flow must increase and visa-versa.can not be assumed to be valid. [3] 3 . If a fluid is flowing horizontally and along a section of a streamline. the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases. In this case. velocity drops and pressure slightly increases Exhaust is shot at high speed out of narrow opening Drifting Rafters drift in lazy current between rapids The relationship between the velocity and pressure exerted by a moving liquid is described by the Bernoulli's principle: as the velocity of a fluid increases. [1] [4] Suggested Shapes Shape Title Narrow pipe widens Rocket nozzle Comments As cross-sectional area increases.Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. and the lowest speed occurs where the pressure is highest.in its incompressible flow form -. within a fluid flowing horizontally. then work will be done on or by the gas. The Continuity Equation relates the speed of a fluid moving through a pipe to the cross sectional area of the pipe.[2] Bernoulli's equation is sometimes valid for the flow of gases: provided that there is no transfer of kinetic or potential energy from the gas flow to the compression or expansion of the gas. it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. Bernoulli's equation -. If both the gas pressure and volume change simultaneously. and if its speed decreases. where the speed increases it can only be because the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure.

valid at any arbitrary point along a streamline where gravity is constant. For conservative force fields. To i ti t t vali it of t B oulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct. is the pressure at the point.A MS / OBJE TIVE 1. is the acceleration due to gravity. Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids and his equation in its original form is valid only for incompressible flow. is the elevation of the point above a reference plane. and is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid. A common form of Bernoulli s equation. and of gases at low Mach number. regardless of pressure variations in the flow. To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a ri id convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. the mass density of a fluid parcel can be considered to be constant. with the positive z-direction pointing upward ² so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration. is: (A) where: is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline. Bernoulli s equation can be generali ed as: 4 . For this reason the fluid in such flows can be considered to be incompressible and these flows can be described as incompressible flow. 2. THEORY [2] In most flows of liquids.

so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before zero pressure is reached. In liquids²when the pressure becomes too low -cavitation occurs. equation (A) can be rewritten as: or: where: is dynamic pressure. A common approach is in terms of total head or energy head H: The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero. y friction by viscous forces has to be negligible. E. the density must remain constant along a streamline. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared 5 . for the Earth's = gz. is the piezometric head or hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z and the pressure head) and is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q). gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure. Most often.where gravity is the force potential at the point considered on the streamline. The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. and at even higher speeds the pressure is negative.g. By multiplying with the fluid density . or even zero pressure. The following two assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli equation to apply:[5] y the fluid must be incompressible ² even though pressure varies.

the changes in mass density become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid. which is associated not with its motion but with its state. L. In Aerodynamics. and q is dynamic pressure.J. Clancy writes: "To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures. Their sum p + q is defined to be the total pressure p0. However. At higher flow speeds in gases. it is important to remember that Bernoulli's principle does not apply in the boundary layer or in fluid flow through long pipes. The significance of Bernoulli's principle can now be summarized as total pressure is constant along a streamline. If the fluid flow is irrotational.and pressure. the actual pressure of the fluid. In many applications of Bernoulli's equation. 6 . It is reasonable to assume that irrotational flow exists in any situation where a large body of fluid is flowing past a solid body. This allows the above equation to be presented in the following simplified form: where where p0 is called total pressure. the total pressure on every streamline is the same and Bernoulli's principle can be summarized as total pressure is constant everywhere in the fluid flow. regardless of the fluid speed at that point. but where the term pressure alone is used it refers to this static pressure. is often referred to as the static pressure. Many authors refer to the pressure p as static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure p0 and dynamic pressure q. the change in the g z term along the streamline is so small compared with the other terms it can be ignored. Examples are aircraft in flight. or for sound waves in liquid. has its own unique static pressure p and dynamic pressure q. and ships moving in open bodies of water." The simplified form of Bernoulli's equation can be summarized in the following memorable word equation: static pressure + dynamic pressure = total pressure Every point in a steadily flowing fluid. the change in height z along a streamline is so small the g z term can be omitted. For example. in the case of aircraft in flight.

which allows us to measure flow by. APPARATUS y The F1-10 Hydraulic Bench.If the fluid flow at some point along a stream line is brought to rest. this point is called a stagnation point. and at this point the total pressure is equal to the stagnation pressure. timed volume collection. y y The F1-15 Bernoulli¶s Apparatus Test Equipment. 7 . A stopwatch for timing the flow measurement.

9. The experiment are repeated for divergent flow. 12. The air bleed screw are adjusted. 8. The time are taken until the water reached 3 L. The reading from h1 until h5 are taken. The ball in the water tank are dropped. Steps 8 until 10 are repeated for different value of ¨h that are 100 mmH2 O and 150 mmH2 O. 3. The main switch and ump are switched on. 2. The flow control valve are fully open to let the water flow into the venture and manometer tubes. 8 . 10. The flow control valve are fully open. Valve 1 are regulated slowly to get the different between water level in h1 and h5 that is 50 mmH2O. 4. 5.PROCEDURE 1. 7. 11. The flow control valve and valve 1 are closed. 6. The venturi for the convergent flow position are setup. The air bleed screw are regulated until water level in manometer tubes reached 140 mmH2 O.

0000 0. ho (m) 0.9 78.27 x 10-4 Distance into duct (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.0020 0.150 0.090 1. v x 10-3 ( m/s ) 0.259 0.069 0.0687 0.81 m/s2 1.065 0.161 0.618 9 .070 0.0811 Area of duct.168 0.079 Total head.125 0.0811 Area of duct. h ( mm ) 165 125 70 65 65 Static head.646 0. q ( v2/2g ) (m) 0.0000 0.837 1. v ( m/s ) Dynamic head.59 Flow rate ( m3/s ) 9.7 109.0732 0.065 Velocity.167 0.102 0. Divergence ¨h = 50 mm Volume collected ( m3 ) 3 x 10-3 Time ( s ) 30.0603 0. A x10-6 ( m2 ) 490.413 1. h (m) 0.0603 0.9 151.145 0.200 0.5 Static head.105 0.0687 0.RESULTS g = 9.152 0.100 0. ho (m) 0.0357 0. h ( mm ) 150 125 105 100 100 Static head.80 x 10-5 Distance into duct (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.896 1.161 0.146 0.4 89.5 Static head.100 Velocity.7 109.248 Dynamic head.161 1.061 0.9 78. A x10-6 ( m2 ) 490.125 0.041 0. q ( v2/2g ) 0.9 151.4 89.165 0.62 Flow rate ( m3/s ) 1.0732 0.0034 0. h (m) 0.198 0.133 Total head.179 ¨h = 100 mm Volume collected ( m3 ) 3 x 10-3 Time ( s ) 23.139 0.021 0.

141 0.211 0. A x10-6 ( m2 ) 490.9 151.0732 0.19 x 10-5 Distance into duct (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.0811 Area of duct.0085 0.025 Velocity. q ( v2/2g ) 0.5 Static head.¨h = 150 mm Volume collected ( m3 ) 3 x 10-3 Time ( s ) 20.0047 0.024 0.0603 0.5 Flow rate ( m3/s ) 6. h (m) 0.689 0. h ( mm ) 165 155 145 130 115 Static head.161 0.0687 0. v ( m/s ) Dynamic head.147 0. v ( m/s ) Dynamic head.045 0.0000 0.115 0.9 78.142 0. h ( mm ) 175 115 45 25 25 Static head.186 Total head.0687 0.371 1.50 x 10-4 Distance into duct (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.025 0.0811 Area of duct.165 0.145 0.910 2.5 Static head.167 0.566 0.408 0.0 Flow rate ( m3/s ) 1.130 0.096 0.0603 0.115 Velocity.165 0. ho (m) 0.166 0.989 1.669 1.4 89. q ( v2/2g ) 0.7 109.0732 0.9 151. h (m) 0.9 78. Convergence ¨h = 50 mm Volume collected ( m3 ) 3 x 10-3 Time ( s ) 48.032 Total head.155 0.164 0.126 0.4 89.789 10 . A x10-6 ( m2 ) 490.050 0.0000 0.154 0.016 0.306 0.175 0.180 0.00081 0.7 109. ho (m) 0.

200 0.0018 0.368 1.0732 0.567 11 .0811 Area of duct.846 1.145 0.610 0. v ( m/s ) Dynamic head.105 0.120 0. ho (m) 0.064 0.125 Total head.0687 0. v ( m/s ) Dynamic head. ho (m) 0.165 0.034 0.095 0.9 151.174 0.4 89.071 Total head.26 x 10-5 Distance into duct (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.0603 0.47 Flow rate ( m3/s ) 1.161 0.9 78.7 109.0032 0.5 Static head.185 0.030 1.251 0.036 0. h (m) 0. h ( mm ) 210 180 145 105 60 Static head.054 0.4 89. A x10-6 ( m2 ) 490.7 109.0732 0. A x10-6 ( m2 ) 490.811 1.184 0.214 0.181 0.0687 0.4 Flow rate ( m3/s ) 9.210 0. q ( v2/2g ) 0.192 0.019 0.9 78.0000 0. h ( mm ) 190 165 145 120 90 Static head.¨h = 100 mm Volume collected ( m3 ) 3 x 10-3 Time ( s ) 32.23 x 10-4 Distance into duct (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.180 ¨h = 150 mm Volume collected ( m3 ) 3 x 10-3 Time ( s ) 24.124 1.213 0.145 0.090 Velocity.9 151.060 Velocity.0811 Area of duct.190 0.5 Static head.0603 0.209 0.0000 0. h (m) 0.180 0.189 0. q ( v2/2g ) 0.

80 x 10-5 m3/s * Velocity.152 m. Divergent ¨h = h1 ± h5 = ( 150 ± 100) mm = 50 mm * Flow rate = = = 9. * 12 . (m) = = = 0.00203 m = 0.00203 m.150 m + 0. v = = = 0. * Total head = static head + dynamic head = 0.200 * Dynamic head .CALCULATION 1.

00081 m. * Dynamic head . * 13 .165 m + 0.19 x 10-5 m3/s * Velocity. Convergent ¨h = h1 ± h5 = ( 165 ± 115) mm = 50 mm * Flow rate = = = 6. * Total head = static head + dynamic head = 0.166 m.00081 m = 0.2. (m) = = = 0.126 m. v = = = 0.

Since the volume passing through a given length of pipe during a given period of time will be the same.270 x10 -4 m/s 1. So it shows that Bernoilli¶s equation is valid when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and velocity values increased along the same channel. there must be a decrease in pressure.19 x10-5 m/s 9. the position of eye during reading the manometer tube should be staright to the meniscus. and the faster the rate of flow. These will affected the calculation thus affected the total pressure at each tube. he stated that that water is a fluid. Other than that. the valve 1 and bleed screw should be regulated smoothly and slowly. During the experiment. the lower the pressure. Hence Bernoulli's conclusion: the slower the rate of flow. the time should be recorded when the water level reached at 0 litre but the time are started before the water level reached 0 litre.[5] For the divergence flow we can see that the total head at each tube h1 until h5 are not constantly increased but for the convergence flow.23 x10-4 m/s From the experiment. and having the characteristics of a fluid. the higher the pressure. The flow rates of each flow also incresed that is : ¨h 50 mm 100 mm 150 mm Divergence 9. Other than that. 14 .DISCUSSION From the Bernoulli¶s principle. the pressure on h1 until h5 are not stable yet but the reading are taken and time for 3 litres water are also recorded. To get the constant desired pressure difference. There must be an error during the divergence flow experiment as the total head are not constantly increased. we found that the total head pressure in both convergence and divergence flow should be increased according to Bernoulli¶s principle. the total head are increased due the increased of flow rate of water.80 x10-5 m/s 1. it adjusts its shape to fit that of its container or other solid objects it encounters on its path.26 x10-5 m/s 1.50 x 10-4 m/s Convergence 6.

5. When take the reading of the volume of the water make sure that eyes parallel with the volume meter. RECOMMENDATION 1. 4.CONCLUSION From the experiment. we found that the total head pressure in both convergence and divergence flow increased according to Bernoulli¶s principle. Waited until the pressure at each manometer tube are stable before the reading are taken. Control the air bleed screw slowly and smoothly. 15 . 2. 3. The leakage will cause the water bleed out from the pipes connection so its will make our experiment have an errors. Make sure that there are no bubbles in the manometer to get the accurate reading. So it shows that Bernoilli¶s equation is valid when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and velocity values increased along the same channel. Make sure that there are no leakages on the connection between the pipes.

http://library.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3/Bernoulli-sPrinciple.org/27948/bernoulli.wikipedia.html 5.net/~mmc1919/venturi.com/topics/Bernoulli%27s_principle 2. http://www.thinkquest.html APPE I ES Air bleed screw h2 h4 h1 h5 V1 h3 venturi 16 .scienceclarified.earthlink.org/wiki/Bernoulli%27s_principle 3. http://en.absoluteastronomy.html 4. http://home.RE ERE ES 1. http://www.

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