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Introduction: Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology wherein the physical modeling of a design is done using a specialized machining technology.

The
systems used in rapid prototyping quickly produce models and prototype parts from three-dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) model data,
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data and such data created from 3D digitizing systems. Using an additive approach for building shapes, the
systems in RP join different materials like liquids or powder to form some physical objects. Layer by layer, the RP machines fabricate these powdered
ceramic, wood, plastic and metal powders using very small and thin horizontal cross sections of the generated computer model. Rapid prototyping is
an emerging technology, the definition of which is derived from the key concept - making it rapid. Rapid prototyping is creating a profound impact on
the way companies produce models, prototype parts, and tooling. A few companies are now using it to produce final manufactured parts. It is believed
that rapid prototyping shall occupy a major share in manufacturing techniques in the years to come. Steps in RPT Creation of the CAD model of the
(part) design, Conversion of the CAD model into Standard Tessellation Language (STL) format, Slicing of the STL file into thin sections, Building
part layer by layer, Post processing/finishing/joining. Major RP Technologies: 1. Photo Masking or Solid Ground Curing technique. 2. LOM
(Laminated Object Manufacturing) 3. SLA (Stereolithography) 4. FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) 5. SLS (Selective Laser Sintering) 6. Thermo Jet
Process 7. 3D Printing 8. Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM).
Stereolithography (SL) is one of several methods used to create 3D-printed objects. It's the process by which a uniquely designed 3D printing
machine, called a stereolithograph apparatus (SLA) converts liquid plastic into solid objects. The process was patented as a means of rapid prototyping
in 1986 by Charles Hull, co-founder of 3D Systems, Inc., a leader in the 3D printing industry. There are many different ways to 3D print an object. But
nearly all of them utilize computer aided design (CAD) files. CAD files are digitalized representations of an object. They're used by engineers and
manufacturers to turn ideas into computerized models that can be digitally tested, improved and most recently, 3D printed.In 3D printing — or additive
manufacturing — CAD files must be translated into a "language," or file type, that 3D printing machines can understand. Standard Tessellation
Language (STL) is one such file type and is the language most commonly used for stereolithography, as well as other additive manufacturing
processes. Since additive manufacturing works by adding one layer of material on top of another, CAD models must be broken up into layers before
being printed in three dimensions. STL files "cut up" CAD models, giving the 3D printing machine the information it needs to print each layer of an
object. How it works: SLA Unlike the desktop printer you use to print documents, SLA machines don't extrude ink or some other liquid onto a surface.
Instead an SLA machine starts with an excess of liquid plastic, some of which is cured, or hardened, to form a solid object.
SLAs have four main parts: a tank that can be filled with liquid plastic (photopolymer), a perforated platform that is lowered into the tank, an ultraviolet
(UV) laser and a computer controlling the platform and the laser. In the initial step of the SLA process, a thin layer of photopolymer (usually between
0.05-0.15 mm) is exposed above the perforated platform. The UV laser hits the perforated platform, "painting" the pattern of the object being printed.
The UV-curable liquid hardens instantly when the UV laser touches it, forming the first layer of the 3D-printed object. Once the initial layer of the object
has hardened, the platform is lowered, exposing a new surface layer of liquid polymer. The laser again traces a cross section of the object being
printed, which instantly bonds to the hardened section beneath it. This process is repeated again and again until the entire object has been formed and
is fully submerged in the tank. The platform is then raised to expose a three-dimensional object. After it is rinsed with a liquid solvent to free it of
excess resin, the object is baked in an ultraviolet oven to further cure the plastic. Objects made using stereolithography generally have smooth
surfaces, but the quality of an object depends on the quality of the SLA machine used to print it. The amount of time it takes to create an object with
stereolithography also depends on the size of the machine used to print it. Small objects are usually produced with smaller machines and typically take
between six to twelve hours to print. Larger objects, which can be several meters in three dimensions, take days.
Companies using SLA Stereolithography was the first process developed for rapid prototyping, and though it is among the oldest 3D printing
methods, it is still very popular today. 3D Systems Inc., the company that pioneered stereolithography still uses this process to build prototypes for
clients. The company also sells SLA machines for use by businesses and manufacturers. Other leading 3D printing companies have their own
preferred methods for 3D printing prototypes and finished parts. For example, Stratasys, another leading 3D manufacturer, patented the Fused
Deposition Modeling process for 3D printing in 1992. But there are many companies around the United States that use SLA machines to provide their
clients with rapidly produced and relatively cheap prototypes.
Working curve
• The cure depth is propor5onal to the natural logarithm of the maximum exposure on the centerline of a scanned laser beam.
• A semilog plot of Cd vs. Emax should be a straight line.This plot is known as the working curve for a given resin.
• The slope of the working curve is precisely Dp at the laser wavelength being used to generate the working curve.
• The x--‐ axis intercept of the working curve is Ec,the cri5cal exposure of the resin at that wavelength.Theore5cally, the cure depth is 0 at Ec,but
this does indicate the gel point of the resin. • Since Dp and Ec are purely resin parameters, the slope and intercept of the working curve are
independent of laser power. • In prac5ce,various Emax values can be generated easily by varying the laser scan speed
Applications for SL Technology
With rapid and intricate forming capabilities, SL technology can be used in many industries including:
.Medical Technology/Tool .Components .Electronics .Communications .Aerospace/Defense .Energy .Form, Fit & Function Testing .Tooling Master
Patterns
Advantages of SL Prototypes
.High accuracy and smooth surface finish .Fine detail capability .Wide range of materials .Materials with transparent characteristics or high heat
resistance.Optical clarity .Multiple finishing options .Tight tolerances .Functional parts .Products to market faster
1 INTRODUCTION n 3D printing area, people say “If you can draw it, you can make it”. Additive manufacturing (AM) allows complex parts to be built
without the need for tooling, dies, or molds, using little human intervention. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology is an AM process that builds
3D shapes by taking filaments of thermoplastic polymer materials and driving them into a heated liquefier to be extruded through a small diameter
nozzle onto a build platform. Technologies capable of processing metals include, for example, electron beam melting, direct metal laser sintering, laser
engineered net shaping and selective laser melting. Utilizing FDM technology to extrude metals poses advantages and disadvantages when compared
to methods that currently build using metal alloys. An advantage of using FDM is the lack of expensive lasers equipped in sintering processes or an
electron beam as is present in the electron beam melting process. Less expensive materials and systems are available that use FDM technology
compared to sintering and melting technologies. A difference is also the ability to build using both thermoplastics and metals within the same build
which is not possible with other direct metal systems.
2 HOW DOES IT WORK?Fused deposition modeling, which is often referred as “FDM”, is a type of fabrication commonly used within engineering
design. Throughout the development and manufacturing production cycle, FDM systems are invaluable every step of the way including conceptual
prototyping, design verification and direct digital manufacturing.FDM is ideally suited for the designers who demand part stability and strength. Unlike
other additive processes, FDM 3D printed models are created with actual thermoplastics. The result is a prototype that can endure exposure to
chemicals, mechanical stress, and a variety of climate extremes. FDM has paved the way for functional use testing, and DDM manufacturing. Extruded
prints are supported with soluble enabling complex cavities and geometries. This also makes the process perfect for jigs and fixtures.FDM is a process
using molten plastics or wax extruded by a nozzle that traces the parts cross sectional geometry layer by layer. FDM creates tough parts that are ideal
for functional usage. FDM works on an “additive” principle by laying down material in layers. A plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and
supplies material to an extrusion nozzle which turns the flow on and off. The nozzle is heated to melt the material and can be moved in both horizontal
and vertical directions by a numerically controlled mechanism which is directly controlled by a computer-aided design software package. The model or
part is produced by extruding small beads of thermoplastic material to form layers as the material hardens immediately after extrusion from the nozzle
plant.
3. MATERIALS CAN BE USED Many different materials can be used for 3D printing, such as ABS plastic, PLA, polyamide(nylon), glass filled
polyamide, stereo lithography materials (epoxy resins), silver, titanium, steel, wax, photopolymers and polycarbonate.
4 MECHANICS OF FDM In order to create a complex physical object from a digital set of instructions, many mechanical systems must work together
to get the job done correctly. In addition to these mechanical systems, software used to control the nozzle temperature, motor speeds & direction, and
methods in which the printer lays out the material are equally important to create a highly accurate model. This section will describe these various
systems and how they contribute to the overall operation of the 3D printer. The nozzle in a 3D printer has one of the most important jobs of all the
mechanical systems. It is the last mechanical device that is used to build up a 3D object and it’s design and functionality is extremely important when it
comes to the accuracy and build quality of the printer. The biggest contributor to the performance of the nozzle is its orifice size. Typically, the nozzle
size used on many 3D printers is 0.4mm. This size is small enough to produce high quality parts while maintaining reasonable build times. Printers
such as the Makerbot Replicator use this size nozzle. Depending on the overall goal of the part being printed however, these nozzles can be changed
to larger diameters in order to increase the speed of the print job. While doing so will decrease the horizontal accuracy, parts that will be used as rough
drafts or that will be post processed with fillers or paints will still perform as intended. It is important to never set the layer height higher than the the
nozzle size. This will dramatically decrease the bond strength between the layers and overall build quality. For example, if a 3D printer is using a
0.6mm nozzle, then the maximum layer height should not exceed 0.5mm. While the nozzle is used to direct molten plastics in a precise manner, it’s
other job is to convert the solid coil of plastic material into the molten state by utilizing a heating element within the extruder assembly. This heating
element can be a vitreous enamel resistor, a nichrome wire, or a cartridge heater. In addition to the heating element, there is usually a thermistor
(temperature sensor) integrated into the extruder assembly to control the required temperature for the specific material being used. For example, one
of the most common materials used in FDM is PLA (polylactic acid) which has a melting temperature of around 160 degrees Celsius. In contrast,
another very popular material used is nylon. This material requires extrusion between 240 and 270 degrees Celsius. It is very important to use the
correct extrusion temperature in order to minimize the risk of the nozzle jamming and also maximize the bond between bead layers. The design of the
extruder is very important to not only the printing accuracy, but also to the overall performance and maintenance of the printer. While the bottom end of
the extruder must be able to heat the material to a desired temperature within a few degrees, the upper end must remain as cool as possible in order to
avoid jamming. This is due to the feed mechanism located above the extruder, which requires the filament material to be in a completely solid state in
order to function properly. One way to decrease heat transfer from the heating element to the feed mechanism and in turn decreasing the chance of
jamming, is to use fans to cool the top end of the extruder. Depending on the type of model being printed, and the type of material being used, a
heated bed may be important to maintain the structure’s shape while it cools. Since plastics shrink as they cool, a quick temperature drop could cause
the corners of a part to curl up off of the printer bed. To minimize this risk, some printers incorporate an electronically heated bed that keeps the
temperature steady. This allows the model to cool at a more even rate and improve its overall dimensional accuracy. There are many factors that
contribute to the build quality of a 3D printed part. As mentioned previously, the extruder assembly which includes the extruder, heating element, &
nozzle contribute greatly to the overall build quality. In this section, additional factors that contribute to build quality will be discussed.
Tool path generation. Once the thickness (h) of each sliced layer has been determined, the offset of the tool path are determined at the same time
according to Eqs. 3,4 and the choosing overlapping rate. To meet both the accuracy and efficiency requirements, a hybrid tool path is proposed with
the consideration of the characteristic of FDM technologies. The tool paths of one sliced layer contain two parts: contour parallel path along the
boundary of the layer, direction parallel path in the interior area of the layer. The former can guarantee the surface quality of the model and the latter
enables a fast fabrication in the interior-filling.
Tool path generation of boundary contouring. After a slicing process from a 3D model represented by STL, a sliced layer is represented by a set of
intersected points on the boundary. To bmaintain the accuracy of the original model, the offset of the nozzle/print head has been taken into
bconsideration. A direct point-offset approach can be employed in the intersected points to generate bthe offset of the point-set boundary. This can be
performed by three steps: (a) approximate the bintersected points with a NURBS curve [6]; (b) calculate the normal vectors of points in the curve band
obtain the offset points according to the offset distance; (c) approximate the offset points with banother NURBS curve. The flow of this work is shown in
Tool path generation of interior-filling. After the generation of the boundary contouring and related tool paths, the tool paths of the internal area of
the layer should be generated to complete the fabrication of the sliced layer. There are four steps for this process: (a) orientation determination; (b)
offset of boundary contouring; (c) computation of intersected points; (d) tool path generation.
(1) Orientation determination: the orientation of the tool path is the slope of the equidistant lines; the different orientation will result in the different
number of line elements which affects the abrication efficiency. Since the distance between adjacent tool paths has been determined by the
layer thickness (h), the number of line elements is decided by the length of a given sliced layer in the direction of normal to the equidistant lines. So
choosing the direction with shortest length as the normal direction of the orientation of tool path is an intelligible measure.
(2) Offset of boundary contouring: this step can be accomplished using the same method as mentioned in Section 2.2.1.
(3) Computation of intersected points: these intersected points separate the interior tool paths into two types: lines and tiny arcs.
(4) Tool path generation: According the intersected points, a zigzag tool path can be worked out. However, some problems will appear if we simply
use the zigzag tool path as the final path. First, unfilled areas may exist near the turning points because of the inherent shortcoming of direction
parallel tool path. And at the same time, excessive filled area exist in the other side of the corner. Second, the abrupt corners between line and tiny arc
will result in the sharp alternation of speed of nozzle/print head, which can jeopardize the surface smoothness according to Eq. 4. Hence, the
original tool paths need some adjustments in the corners to alleviate the influence of the mentioned issues.
There are two major principles to Cubital's Solid Ground Curing technology: 1.. The resin is exposed to UV flood light through a computerized
programmable mask 2.. The model generated within a solid environment and not in a vat full of liquid The process starts with the creation of three
dimensional composition of the part to be made in th$.next run and the definition of layer thickness. The Solider computer .then slices the whole
composition together into layers and generates a precise raster. image of each layer. This image is sent ot the mask plotting unit in the machine and a
high resolution, precise optical mask is generated by means of electrostatic charges and black toner powder. The optical mask is then positioned
precisely above the workpiece which already been spread with a thin layer of. Liquid photo polymer and under high pOwer UV lamp (200.0W) ,·ready
be exposed. The work piece now passes under an aerodynamic wiper that sucks the residual liquid from the surface, leaving behind only the cured
pattern. A thin layer of melted wax is then spread over the surface, filling all the voids> and cavaties left after the removal of the residual liquid. .A cold
plate is lower donto thesurfaceof the layer, cooling down the wax and solidifying it .Now we have fully solid layer that I made of partly from wax
The workpiece now passes under a milling disk that trims off the layer's surface down to the desired thickness, creating a flat, smooth surface ready for
the next layer. A new layer of liquid photopolymer is then spread and the whole process starts once again. After the last layer is done, we have a block
of wax, within which the model, or models, are embedded. The wax is melted away in a microwave oven, or by using a hot air gun or even using plain
warm water and the finished model is ready for use. If we now go back to the issue of accuracy, we can see how it is achieved in this technology. In the
X and Y direction it is achieved by the full curing of the patterns, and by the highly accurate mask. In the Z direction it is achieved by the precise milling
of each layer down to its desired thickness.
Model Building Process:The workstation operator creates a three dimensional composition of the models to be included in the next run and
determines layer thickness. The Solider Software slices the composition into layers and generates a precise raster image of each layer. Then, the
following process repeats for each layer
1.The raster image is sent to the mask plotter, and is converted into a high resolution optical mask on a flat glass plate 2. The optical mask is
positioned precisely above the workpiece under the high power uv lamp, ready to "print" the new layer. 3.A shutter is opened for a few seconds, and
the resin is cured by the light passing through the mask. The correct pattern is fully cured while the "masked" areas remain in liquid state. 4.The mask
on the glass plate is erased and the plate is cleaned for the next layer mask.4. The workpiece passes under an aerodynamic wiper, that collects all the
uncured liquid resin, and leaves the cured areas intact.5. The workpiece passes under a wax ao'pncal:or melted wax is spread on top of the layer,
filling all the cavities left by the liquid resin that was wiped off.6. A cooled plate is pressed down onto the instantly solidifying the wax, thus creating a
perfect solid support.7. The workpiece passes under a precise milling disk that trims the layer's surface down specified thickness and leaves a flat
surface, which substrate for the next layer. 8 .The workpiece is lowered by one layer height and passes under a resin applicator covers it with a thin
layer of resin, ready for curing the next layer.
Some other benefits that this technology offers are: 1.Shrinkage effect has been minimized due to the full cure of every layer 2. No final curing in a
special oven is needed 3.NO support structure is needed, the wax supports the model in all directions 4.Model structural strength and stability are
higher and the models are much less brittle. This is due to the curing process that minimized the development of internal stresses in the structure.
5.Any geometrical shape can be made without limitation 6.High throughput is achieved due to the three dimensional nesting of models within· the wax
7. No hazardous odor are generated, the resin stays in liquid state for. a very short time, and the uncured liquid is wiped off immediately. Thus safety
considerably higher. 8 .By altering the process slightly, wax models can be made and be used in the lost wax casting process.
Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) is a method of 3D printing. It was developed by the California-based Helisys Inc. (now Cubic Technologies).
During the LOM process, layers of plastic or paper are fused — or laminated — together using heat and pressure, and then cut into the desired shape
with a computer-controlled laser or blade. While LOM is not the most popular method of 3D printing used today, it is still one of the fastest and most
affordable ways to create 3D prototypes.
How LOM works :Like all 3D-printed objects, models made with an LOM system start out as CAD files. Before a model is printed, its CAD file must be
converted to a format that a 3D printer can understand — usually STL or 3DS. An LOM apparatus uses a continuous sheet of material — plastic, paper
or (less commonly) metal — which is drawn across a build platform by a system of feed rollers. Plastic and paper build materials are often coated with
an adhesive. To form an object, a heated roller is passed over the sheet of material on the build platform, melting its adhesive and pressing it onto the
platform. A computer-controlled laser or blade then cuts the material into the desired pattern. The laser also slices up any excess material in a
crosshatch pattern, making it easier to remove once the object is fully printed. After one layer of the object is formed, the build platform is lowered by
about one-sixteenth of an inch — the typical thickness of one layer. New material is then pulled across the platform and the heated roller again passes
over the material, binding the new layer to the one beneath it. This process is repeated until the entire object has been formed. Once an object is done
"printing," it is removed from the build platform, and any excess material is cut away. Objects printed in paper take on wood-like properties, and can be
sanded or finished accordingly. Paper objects are usually sealed with a paint or lacquer to keep out moisture.
Materials: Typically paper rolls but recently also plastic films
Advantages of LOM: • Components do not need support structures • Only the circumference of the part is processed, whilst in most RP methods the
whole part area needs to be processed • a potential for high manufacturing speeds.
Disadvantages of LOM The main problems are: • Producing good bonds between layers • Poor surface finish • Difficulty in producing hollow parts.
Application : Builds the model with layers of materials, which are cut individually by a laser in the shape of the cross-section of the part
» The layers are added (glued) and the excess material not required for the cross-section is being cut away. Layers are glues to the stack virtually
instantaneously, thus reducing layer formation time » It is suitable for very large parts and is able to use paper, plastic or composite materials
» Much faster than competitive techniques as the laser does not have to scan the entire area of the cross-section but just go around its periphery
» Virtually no internal stress and associate undesirable deformation
Sandia National Laboratories has developed a new technology to fabricate three-dimensional metallic components directly from CAD solid models.
This process, called Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS®), exhibits enormous potential to revolutionize the way in which metal parts, such as
complex prototypes, tooling, and small-lot production items, are produced. The process fabricates metal parts directly from the Computer Aided Design
(CAD) solid models using a metal powder injected into a molten pool created by a focused, high-powered laser beam. Simultaneously, the substrate on
which the deposition is occurring is scanned under the beam/powder interaction zone to fabricate the desired cross-sectional geometry. Consecutive
layers are sequentially deposited, thereby producing a three-dimensional metal component. This process is similar to other rapid prototyping
technologies in its approach to fabricate a solid component by layer additive methods. However, the LENS® technology is unique in that fully dense
metal components are fabricated directly from raw materials, bypassing initial forming operations such as casting, forging, and rough machining.
LENS® offers the opportunity to dramatically reduce the time and cost required to realize functional metal parts. As a material additive process,
additional cost savings will be realized through increased material utilization as compared to bulk removal processes. LENS® can also be used to
modify or repair existing hardware. Parts have been fabricated from stainless steel alloys, nickel-based alloys, tool steel alloys, titanium alloys, and
other specialty materials; as well as composite and functionally graded material deposition. Microscopy studies show the LENS® parts to be fully
dense with no compositional degradation. Mechanical testing reveals outstanding as-fabricated mechanical properties.
Capabilities
• Ability to build fully dense shapes • Closed loop control of process for accurate part Fabrication • Ability to tailor deposition parameters to feature size
for speed, accuracy, and property control • Composite and functionally graded material deposition • Three- and four-axis systems for complex part
Fabrication • Wide variety of materials that, at minimum, include: stainless steel alloys (316, 304L, 309, 17- 4), maraging steel (M300), nickel-based
superalloys (Inco designations 625, 600, 718, 690), tool steel alloys (H13), titanium alloy (6Al- 4V), and other specialty materials • Mechanical
properties similar or better than traditional processing methods Resources • LENS® (12" x 12" x 12") machine with 4-axis Capability • Specialized path
planning software for tailored processing (variable deposition parameters, smart path sequencing, multiple materials) • Closed loop control system to
control the molten pool volume • CAD solid modeling • State-of-the-art metrology laboratory including: coordinate measuring machine, video measuring
system, and non-contact surface analyzer • Three-dimensional laser digitizing system • Complete machine shop including: three-, four-, and five-axis
computer numerical control (CNC) mills, CNC lathes, electrical discharge machines (wire and sinker), lathes, mills, and grinders
Advantages: LENS® precision deposition used to complete set of production Kovar braze fixtures to prevent diffusion bonding • Composite and
functionally graded impeller to show geometric and composition precision in multi-material fabrication • Verification of mathematical model of cellular
structure, enabling prediction of crush behavior (modes, etc.) • Rear load spreader with 95% improvement in material waste over conventional
machining • Tooling for injection molding with conformal cooling channels to improve thermal characteristics in-use • Laser marking, with high strength
bonding, on weapon components • Commercialization of the technology

Jp system: The JP-System 5 (JP-5) is perhaps the simplest of all rapid prototyping (RP) processes. The JP-5 is nothing more (and nothing less) that a
pen plotter that uses a knife blade and label paper instead of pens and draft paper. The JP-5 is manufactured by Schroff Development, Inc., and
provides possibly one of the most economical bases for rapid prototyping on the market today. The system is a table-top unit
JP-5 Operation/Build Technique CAD File Preparation The JP-5 starts with a CAD file, which can either be drawn up in Silver Screen or any other
CAD package that puts out the standard .STL file format. The JP-5 operating software is started up from Silver Screen, and the file you wish to build is
opened. The CAD file must be converted from the three-dimensional format into horizontal two-dimensional slices, which will control the plotter
motions. The CAD file is represented graphically in the software, and you have several operations you can execute before building the part. It is
important to note that the style for assembling models on the JP-5 will vary from user to user, and the following is just one of those styles. 2.2.1.1
Scaling/Part Size JP-5 allows you to scale parts to the size you wish to build. Parts can either be scaled uniformly across the -x, -y, and -z
coordinates, or be scaled in a combination thereof. When scaling down it is important to note smaller features that may not be distinguishable at
smaller sizes.Orientation/Positioning When building with the JP-5, the position of the parts can play an important role in the ease fabrication scheme.
JP-5 allows you to rotate parts to a desired position before slicing and building. One consideration is the height of the part. If a part can be placed with
the shortest dimension in the -z direction, it will require the least amount of slices and therefore take less time and effort to put together. Another aspect
of orientation takes into account the shape of the part. It is usually effective to place larger cross sections near the bottom of the build, so that
overhangs do not have to be supported. If a large cross section were to be placed on top of a significantly smaller one, the edges of the top slice would
sag due to lack of physical support. This concept is demonstrated in Figure 2.2. Curved surfaces provide another need for orientation. If it is practical
concerning the number of slices, curves will be smoother if placed in the cutting plane. Sometimes a trade-off between curve accuracy and build layers
can be achieved by rotating the part at a slant.
Materials Properties The JP-5 parts are actually fairly rugged once they are sealed with glue. Since the parts are only paper and glue, there haven't
been many official tests done on the parts for tensile and compression strengths. The parts can survive being handled and dropped, but would
probably not be used in many testing applications. For one, the dimensional tolerance relies heavily on the user, and at best probably is still
approximately ±0.1 inches. Also, any exposure to fluids or pressures may result in delamination of the paper between layers. Regardless, the
application of verifying a concept visually is well filled by these parts.
Key Terms 1. Plotter system. For the JP-5, the plotter system consists of a computer and a modified Graphtec pen plotter with knife blades.
Assembly board. A large peg board with threaded holes at regular intervals that match pegs used for JP-5 part assembly. Part orientation. The most
crucial preprocessing step of the JP-5 system setup, consisting of placing the part in relative threedimensional space whereas the build time and
support geometry are both optimized.