6 views

Uploaded by manusansano

MATEMATICAS

- Day 02 - Algebra 2
- General Calculus II
- Geometric Series
- CC2 Ch 6 TV
- Math Iecep (Kung Nakakuha Ka Nito, Maswerter Ka)
- quiz9.solutions.pdf
- Divine Infinity
- Asymptotic Methods
- The Theory of Distributions Applied to Divergent Integrals of The
- Software Reliability
- A Harmonic Sequence
- Primes-II
- Fourier Expansions of Functions with Bounded Variation of Several Variables
- pre-calc
- Fourier
- Interview
- 1-3-Intro-to-series-plus-summation.ppt
- Mcqdoors Fm
- List of Mathematical Symbols Pascal ... ? I
- CalcII_RatioTest

You are on page 1of 4

You can often tell that a series converges or diverges by comparing it to a known series. I’ll look first

at situations where you can establish an inequality between the terms of two series.

X∞ ∞

X

Let ak , bk , be series with positive terms.

k=1 k=1

∞

X ∞

X

1. If ak ≥ bk for all k and ak converges, then bk converges.

k=1 k=1

∞

X ∞

X

2. If ak ≥ bk for all k and bk diverges, then ak diverges.

k=1 k=1

∞

X

It’s easy to see that these tests make sense. In the first case, the partial sums of bk are bounded

k=1

∞

X

above by ak . The bk partial sums increase, so they must converge.

k=1

In the second case, the ak partial sums are always bigger than the bk partial sums, but the bk partial

sums go to ∞. Hence, the ak partial sums go to ∞ as well.

∞

X 1

Example. Determine whether converges or diverges.

k3 + k + 7

k=1

The series has positive terms. In fact, I could use the Integral Test, but who would want to integrate

1

3

?

x +x+7

1 1

Instead, note that when k is large, the k3 term should dominate. How does 3 compare to 3 ?

k +k+7 k

Well, if you make the bottom smaller, the fraction gets bigger:

1 1

< 3.

k3 +k+7 k

∞ ∞

X 1 X 1

Now is a p-series with p = 3, so it converges. Hence, converges by comparison.

k3 k3 + k + 7

k=1 k=1

∞

X (sin k)2

Example. Determine whether converges or diverges.

k(k + 1)

k=17

(sin k)2 1 1

≤ ≤ 2.

k(k + 1) k(k + 1) k

The second inequality comes from the fact that making the bottom smaller makes the fraction bigger.

∞ ∞

X 1 X (sin k)2

Now 2

is a p-series with p = 2, so it converges. Hence, converges by comparison.

k k(k + 1)

k=17 k=17

1

∞

X arctan k

Example. Determine whether converges or diverges.

k3

k=1

π

The series has positive terms. Since arctan k ≤ ,

2

arctan k 1

3

≤ 3.

k k

∞ ∞

X 1 X arctan k

3

converges, because it’s a p-series with p = 3 > 1. Therefore, converges by direct

k k3

k=1 k=1

comparison.

∞ √

X k+3

Example. Determine whether √ converges or diverges.

k=1

k k+2

√ √

k+3 k+2 1

√ > √ = .

k k+2 k k+2 k

Notice how I avoided changing k + 3 to k; I changed it to something which cancelled the radical on the

bottom.

∞ ∞ √

X 1 X k+3

Now diverges — it’s harmonic! So √ diverges, by comparison.

k k k+2

k=1 k=1

∞

X 1

Example. Comparison won’t work if the inequalities go the wrong way. For example, consider .

k2 − 2

k=2

∞

X 1

I’d like to compare this to , but if I make the bottom bigger (by adding 2), the fraction gets smaller:

k2

k=1

1 1

> 2.

k2 −2 k

∞

X 1

It’s true that is a convergent p-series (p = 2), but it’s smaller than the given series. I can’t draw

k2

k=1

a conclusion this way.

∞

X 1

Nevertheless, is “close to” the given series in some sense. Limit Comparison will make precise

k2

k=1

the idea that one series is “close to” another, without having to worry about inequalities.

∞

X

Let ak be a positive term series.

k=1

X∞

Let bk be a positive term series whose behavior is known. (You usually choose this series because it

k=1

seems to be “close to” the given series.)

2

Look at the limiting ratio

ak

lim .

k→∞ bk

∞

X

1. If the limit is a finite positive number, then the two series behave in the same way. That is, if bk

k=1

∞

X ∞

X ∞

X

converges, then ak converges; if bk diverges, then ak diverges.

k=1 k=1 k=1

∞

X ∞

X

2. If the limit is 0 and bk converges, then ak converges.

k=1 k=1

∞

X ∞

X

3. If the limit is +∞ and bk diverges, then ak diverges.

k=1 k=1

bk

The first case is the most important one, and fortunately it will work even if you accidentally write

ak

ak

instead of . The second and third cases require that you get the fraction “right side up”.

bk

∞

X 4k2 + k + 9

Example. Determine whether converges or diverges.

7k3 + 13

k=1

When k is large, the top and bottom are dominated by the terms with the biggest powers:

4k2 + k + 9 4k2 4 1

3

≈ 3

= · .

7k + 13 7k 7 k

4k2 + k + 9

3 7 4k3 + k2 + 9k 7 4

lim 7k + 13 = · lim = · = 1.

k→∞ 4 1 4 k→∞ 7k3 + 13 4 7

·

7 k

∞ ∞

X 4 1 4 X1

· = ·

7 k 7 k

k=1 k=1

∞

X 4k2 + k + 9

diverges, because it is harmonic. Hence, the series diverges by Limit Comparison.

7k3 + 13

k=1

∞

X 4k + 5

Example. Determine whether converges or diverges.

7k − 42

k=2

When k is large,

4k + 5 4k

≈ .

7k − 42 7k

3

Compute the limiting ratio:

4k + 5 5

k − 42 1+ k

lim 7 = lim 4 = 1.

k→∞ 4k k→∞ 42

1− k

7k 7

The limiting ratio is 1, a finite positive number. The series

∞ ∞ k

X 4k X 4

=

7k 7

k=1 k=1

∞

4 X 4k + 5

is a convergent geometric series (since < 1). Therefore, converges, by Limit Comparison.

7 7k − 42

k=2

∞ k

X tan−1 k

Example. Determine whether converges or diverges.

2

k=2

∞ k

X π

It is possible to use Limit Comparison, comparing the series to the convergent geometric series .

4

k=2

After a long computation, you’ll find the limiting ratio is e−2/π , so the test works.

However, there is a better way, which I’ll discuss next. It is called the Root Test, and you perform it

by taking the kth root of the kth term, then taking the limit as k → ∞. If the limit is less than 1, the series

converges. In this case, s

k

k tan−1 k tan−1 k π

lim = lim = < 1.

k→∞ 2 k→∞ 2 4

Therefore, the series converges, by the Root Test.

c 2016 by Bruce Ikenaga 4

- Day 02 - Algebra 2Uploaded byIronfalcon101
- General Calculus IIUploaded byAditya Hendra
- Geometric SeriesUploaded byaditya01775
- CC2 Ch 6 TVUploaded byngyncloud
- Math Iecep (Kung Nakakuha Ka Nito, Maswerter Ka)Uploaded bydavidmeanne
- Divine InfinityUploaded bygurdjieff
- Asymptotic MethodsUploaded byBosonUp
- A Harmonic SequenceUploaded byJericho PN
- The Theory of Distributions Applied to Divergent Integrals of TheUploaded byJose Javier Garcia
- Software ReliabilityUploaded byKuldeep Singh
- Primes-IIUploaded byJoan Joel Cáceres Ramirez
- Fourier Expansions of Functions with Bounded Variation of Several VariablesUploaded byNicole Pennington
- pre-calcUploaded byapi-213604106
- FourierUploaded byparas
- InterviewUploaded bySuman Verma
- 1-3-Intro-to-series-plus-summation.pptUploaded byZender Drof
- Mcqdoors FmUploaded byAnish Rao
- List of Mathematical Symbols Pascal ... ? IUploaded byMark Richard Hilbert(Mark Richard Rossetti)
- CalcII_RatioTestUploaded byRishabh Singh

- quiz9.solutions.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- S0002-9947-1901-1500553-8(1)Uploaded bymanusansano
- sol2.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- Comparison TestUploaded bymanusansano
- Solving Equations WorksheetUploaded byLeovany Lopez
- 2369519Uploaded bymanusansano
- Hw 3 SolutionsUploaded bydevi
- 2300Project7ComparisonTestPracticeSol.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- 6959-7250-1-PBUploaded bymanusansano
- 4ef31a09a66625a26a74de59273dff5bb232.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- 832.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- document(1).pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- Szereg BgUploaded bymanusansano
- 42-400-2-PB.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- 721827.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- Classical_Analysis.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- TanneryTheorem1.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- 2300Project7ComparisonTestPracticeSol.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- Series4.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- MA102-Sloughter-Chapter-5.4.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- quiz9.solutions.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- direct-and-limit-comparison.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- testsforconvergencewithanswers.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- 4ef31a09a66625a26a74de59273dff5bb232.pdfUploaded bymanusansano
- Summ Ability of Positive Sequences and Sub SequencesUploaded bymanusansano
- Direct and Limit ComparisonUploaded bymanusansano

- Latin Vocabulary ChartUploaded byAbel Delgado
- Computer Applications [ICSE] Sample Paper 4Uploaded byGuide For School
- Engineering Mechanics CO POUploaded byvasanthmech092664
- Cobalt Chromium Implant Grade TubingUploaded bykunalkp88
- Series and ParallelUploaded byAntonea
- Linear algebra Review.docUploaded byShreyansh Shukla
- Seismic Response of Single-column Bent on Pile Evidence of Beneficial Role of Pile and Soil InelasticityUploaded bySofía Córdoba Sáenz
- Complete CP NotesUploaded byAnonymous 1HlNy6n
- Intro to algorithmUploaded byvsrivera
- EBee Ag BrochureUploaded byCarolina Gebler
- Lesson Plan 2 (1)Uploaded bysherdan geniston
- SQL Injection - Practically DetailedUploaded byshiva18390
- Pre SalesUploaded by김진태
- Isolation and Purification of Eugenol from ClovesUploaded byAngela Leong Feng Ping
- Multivoxel Pattern Analysis PresentationUploaded byHeather Walters
- Strncpy ProblemsUploaded byJohn Smith
- C++-How-to-Program-(5th-Edition)-CH13-solutionUploaded byWan Tak Si
- cUploaded byNEELIMA
- lab manual rock & aggregateUploaded byBatepola Arach
- Twisted Magnet Wire TXUploaded bySantiago Perez Alvarado
- a3434sdfUploaded byProfessor X
- TOC_IndexUploaded byDaniel Verdezoto
- stepup-neet-22.pdfUploaded byGurpreet Singh
- PIC MICROCONTROLLERSUploaded bydesaimanohar
- Distance Time Velocity SemUploaded byFernando Gonzalez
- Experimental Investigation of Regenerator Materials in Stirling-cycle_DFG_Final_ReportUploaded byimranakhtar
- P3 2003 QuestionUploaded byruslawati
- Instrumentation SyllabusUploaded byvnktsandeep
- Characterization of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Catalysts Supports by Point of Zero ChargeUploaded byBryan Dotson
- ExponentsandRadicals (1)Uploaded byShorya Kumar