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Recent Developments in

Condition Assessment, Repair Materials


and Repair / Retrof itting Techniques for
Concrete Structures
9-11 February, 2011

Editors
P. Srinivasan
Dr. J. K. Dattatreya
Dr. B. H. Bharatkumar

CBA Publishers
© CSIR-Structural Engineering Research centre
February 2011

No part of the material, protected by this Copyright notice, may be reproduced


or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including pho-
tocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrivel system, without
prior written permission from the Copyright owner.

ISBN: 978 93 80430 03 4

Printed by Betaprint, Chennai.


Published by CBA Publisher, Chennai.
Foreword
A sound and effective built environment is critical for socio-
economic development and economic growth in the country. Expand-
ing and improving infrastructure such as roads, rail networks, bridges,
ports, airports, buildings and other facilities is a national priority
and must be achieved without forfeiting environmental sustainabil-
ity. Concrete is widely used for the construction of structures such as
buildings, infrastructures such as bridges, dams, power plant struc-
tures, harbour structures, etc., Defects such as cracks, honeycombs
and voids are likely to be present in the hardened concrete due to con-
struction deficiencies. The concrete also undergoes degradation due to
unfavourable environment, ageing of materials, overloading etc., The
infrastructure which are becoming older are to be strengthened or
repaired for extending its service life. There are approximately 125000
bridges of Indian Railways. Of these, around 45% are more than 100
years old. Infrastructure such as Power plants structures (Thermal
and Nuclear), bridges, etc., which are more than 40 to 50 years old
are to be strengthened/ repaired for extending the service life. Even,
one day of shutdown in a thermal/nuclear power stations will cause
a loss of power in the order of few crores of rupees. Non Destruc-
tive Testing and Evaluation has become a regular feature in assessing
new concrete structures for their quality and structural integrity and
also the condition assessment of aging structures. The advancement
in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDTE) for concrete struc-
tures has led to methods such as Impact Echo, Ultrasonic Pulse Echo
and Ground Penetrating Radar besides the commonly used rebound
hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests. With these techniques,
critical features such as voids, cover thickness, delamination, location
of reinforcement and ducts, can be obtained, which enables better
assessment of structural integrity and more accurate identification of
defects. In the recent past, fibre optic sensors have been used for
health monitoring of concrete structures. The residual prestress in
PSC members can be obtained by core drilling technique. In addition
to the advancements in condition assessment techniques, consider-
able progress has also been made in developing new repair materials,
enhancing the performance of existing repair materials and repair tech-
niques to produce durable and sustainable repair of existing reinforced
and prestressed concrete structures. Protecting the civil engineering
structures is essential for a sustainable building that is likely to expe-
rience high-consequence natural hazard over its lifetime. CSIR-SERC,
Chennai has acquired considerable expertise in the latest NDTE tech-
niques for condition assessment of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete
iv Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

structures, and performance evaluation of new/improved repair mate-


rials and techniques. This course addresses recent developments and
advances on non destructive techniques and evaluation, repair materi-
als and retrofitting techniques. My scientist colleagues at CSIR-SERC,
who have first hand experience and expertise due to their involvement
in various field problems, have documented the technical notes.
I congratulate the coordinators Shri. P. Srinivasan, Dr. B.H.
Bharatkumar and Dr. J. K. Dattatreya for their excellent efforts in
bringing out this course volume for the advanced course on “Recent
developments in condition assessment, repair materials and repair
/ retrofitting techniques for concrete structures”. I also thank CBA
Publisher, Chennai, for the excellent cooperation in bringing out this
course volume in time.
Dr. Nagesh R. Iyer
Director,
February, 2011 CSIR-SERC, Chennai.
Contents

Foreword iii
1 Need for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation 1
Nagesh R. Iyer
2 Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non
Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 9
P. Srinivasan
3 Use of Impact Echo Method for Determination of
Thickness and Defects in Concrete Elements 23
S. Bhaskar
4 Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production
and Application to Repair 35
J. K. Dattatreya
5 Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and
Rehabilitation of Concrete 59
Meyappan Neelamegam
6 Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its
Application for Repair 79
P. S. Ambily and J. K. Dattatreya
7 Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its
Applications 109
T. S. Krishnamoorthy and S. Sundar Kumar
8 Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil
Engineering Applications 135
B. H. Bharatkumar and G. Ramesh
9 Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 159
J. Annie Peter
10 Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion
Damaged Concrete Structures 177
J. Prabakar
11 Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures - Case
Studies 199
K. Balasubramanian and V. Rajendran
vi Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

12 Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its


Rehabilitation 211
P. Srinivasan
13 Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures
Subjected to Vibration 223
K. Muthumani
14 Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance
Assessment of Concrete Structures 241
K. Ravisankar
15 Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete
Structures 259
S. Parivallal and K. Kesavan
16 Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC
Structures 275
K. Balaji Rao and M. B. Anoop
17 Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their
Rehabilitation 293
K. Ramanjaneyulu
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 1–7

1 Need for Non-Destructive Testing and


Evaluation

Dr. Nagesh R Iyer


Director,
CSIR-SERC, Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: nriyer@sercm.org

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The vast majority of structures and buildings consist of concrete and
masonry structures. Construction activities account for a major com-
ponent of the budget in our country. Cement Concrete is the most
extensively used material for construction of different types of struc-
tures/components such as buildings, bridges, etc., A very large part of
the infrastructure in most countries is made of concrete, providing the
basis of economical and social development. These are often affected
by damage due to ageing, environmental agents, overloading, vibra-
tions and other causes. A great variety of damage situations can occur,
as micro cracking and cracking due to material and structural dam-
age, material discontinuity, and surface degradation. Maintenance and
repair of constructed facilities/infrastructures is presently the most
significant challenge facing the country. As part of the sustainabil-
ity, it is necessary to extend the service life of these structures. For
distressed concrete structures, it is necessary to evaluate its present
condition so as to select proper choice of repair material and repair
techniques.
Non-destructive testing methods can play a supporting role in the
decision making process of the structure assessment. Not all defects or
deteriorations can be found by visual inspection. Some may only be
visible when it is already too late to avoid major repair. Based on reli-
able quantitative measurements, the engineer can grade the structure
with more certainty. Especially in cases, where processes are hidden
even to the experienced eye of an inspector, e.g., corrosion of strands
inside ducts, testing methods are very much needed. Non-destructive
2 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

methods are preferred because they will not alter the appearance or
functionality of the structure. Durability of concrete structures is the
main objective for the assessment of existing structures. Safety is an
issue where a sudden collapse of a structure might occur. This kind of
accidents fortunately is very unusual, structure do usually show visi-
ble signs of distress before collapse. However, post tensioned concrete
structures may collapse without warning and endanger lives.
Non-destructive testing can be applied to both old and new struc-
tures. For new structures, the principal applications are likely to be
for quality control or the resolution of doubts about the quality of
materials or construction. The testing of existing structures is usually
related to an assessment of structural integrity or adequacy. In either
case, if destructive testing alone is used, for instance, by removing
cores for compression testing, the cost of coring and testing may only
allow a relatively small number of tests to be carried out on a large
structure which may be misleading. Non-destructive testing can be
used in those situations as a preliminary to subsequent coring.
Typical situations where non-destructive testing may be useful are,
as follows:
• quality control of pre-cast units or construction in situ

• removing uncertainties about the acceptability of the material


supplied owing to apparent non-compliance with specification
• confirming or negating doubt concerning the workmanship
involved in batching, mixing, placing, compacting or curing of
concrete
• monitoring of strength development in relation to formwork
removal, cessation of curing, prestressing, load application or
similar purpose
• location and determination of the extent of cracks, voids, honey-
combing and similar defects within a concrete structure
• determining the concrete uniformity, possibly preliminary to core
cutting, load testing or other more expensive or disruptive tests
• determining the position, quantity or condition of reinforcement

• increasing the confidence level of a smaller number of destructive


tests
• determining the extent of concrete variability in order to help in
the selection of sample locations representative of the quality to
be assessed
Need for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation 3

• confirming or locating suspected deterioration of concrete result-


ing from such factors as overloading, fatigue, external or internal
chemical attack or change, fire, explosion, environmental effects
• assessing the potential durability of the concrete
• monitoring long term changes in concrete properties
• providing information for any proposed change of use of a
structure for insurance or for change of ownership

1.2 CAUSES OF DISTRESS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES


Distress in concrete structures may arise from a variety of causes. The
following are the major causes of distress in concrete structures1 :
• Structural deficiency arising out of faulty design and detailing as
well as wrong assumption in the loading criteria
• Structural deficiency due to defects in construction, use of inferior
and substandard materials
• Damages caused due to fire, floods, earthquakes

• Chemical deterioration and marine environments

• Damages caused due to abrasion, wear and tear, dampness

• Damages due to impact, vibration, fatigue

• Settlement of foundation, thermal expansion

Distress in concrete structures due to faulty design and/or defi-


ciency in detailing and its effect on durability of concrete could
be prevented through proper training and understanding of design
concepts, detailing and adhering to codes of practice.
Factors such as complication in geometric/structural form of the
structure leading to difficult execution, congested reinforcement detail-
ing, and difficult access for concrete to flow, increase the risks of
inferior insitu quality.
Deficiencies in construction practices in transportation, placing, fin-
ishing and curing of concrete affect durability of concrete. A good
concrete mix from a sound design can have its durability severely
impaired by improper placement and curing.
Excessive vibration can create internal bleeding resulting in weak
transition zones around coarse aggregate, weak bonding to reinforcing
steel and a porous skin at the contact of formwork. This results in
the development of a network of pathways starting from the concrete
surface and penetrating to the interior and these pathways are excel-
lent channels for transport of aggressive agents through the hardened
concrete which adversely affect the durability of the concrete.
4 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Curing is critical from durability point of view. A concrete that


dries very rapidly will be weakened forever and would permit aggres-
sive agents to penetrate easily.
Chemical Attack on Concrete
Chemical attack on concrete can be classified as follows
- Acid attack
- Alkali attack
- Carbonation
- Chloride attack
- Leaching
- Salt attack
- Sulphate attack
Damage in many cases dependent on the permeability of the surface
layers and not on the body of the concrete.

1.2.1 Damage due to corrosion of reinforcement


Under marine conditions and in other land-based structures where
chloride ions are deposited on the surface of concrete in substan-
tial amounts, rapid deterioration of poor quality reinforced concrete
occurs. The chloride ions tend to destroy the passivating film on the
steel even in uncarbonated concrete. The surface of the steel, there-
fore, becomes activated locally forming a small anode, while the rest of
the passive surface serves as the cathode. Since the latter (cathode) is
much larger, the dissolution of the iron in the anode is highly localized
(rather than the entire surface of the steel) and a pit is formed. The
chloride (Cl− ) ions combines with water forming hydrogen chloride
and hydroxyl ions. The hydrogen chloride formed produces an acidic
environment which prolongs the corrosion causing the pit to increase
in depth. In the presence of chloride ions, more generalised corrosion
occurs.
The voluminous corrosion product formed during corrosion of the
steel exerts a tensile stress on the concrete cover. As the corrosion
product grows, the tensile stresses increase until they become high
enough to crack the concrete cover. The effects of corrosion are usually
threefold: (1) cracking of the concrete along the line of the reinforce-
ment, (2) rust staining of the concrete surface, and (3) spalling of the
concrete away from the rebar, leaving it exposed to the environment
and to further corrosion2 .
Need for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation 5

1.2.2 Cracking in Concrete


Cracking in concrete indicates the presence of disruptive forces within
concrete which exceed its tensile strength. In concrete, they may be
caused due to application of external load or by internal changes or
by a combination of the two. Cracking in concrete can occur in the
prehardened or hardened state.
Cracking accelerates the penetration of aggressive substances into
the concrete, which in turn aggravates any one or a number of other
mechanisms of deterioration. For guidance, the acceptable limits on
crack widths are less than or equal to 0.1mm for the severe exposure
(industrial or marine environment), 0.1mm to 0.2mm for normal exter-
nal exposures or internal exposures in humid atmosphere, 0.2mm to
0.3mm for internal and protected members.
A list of some factors causing cracking is given below:
• Poor quality of concrete - too high a water content and use of
excessively high cement contents
• Poor structural design

• The development of differential thermal stresses due to high heat


of hydration
• The tensile stresses developed due to restrained thermal expan-
sion and concentration from temperature changes, and ensu-
ing dimensional changes as a result of diurnal and seasonal
temperature cycles
• Dimensional expansion and contraction caused by cycles of
wetting and drying
• Errors, negligence, or bad workmanship

• Corrosion of steel by chloride ions

• Rapid evaporation of moisture due to dry, hot, and windy


conditions prevailing at the time of placing
• Structural adjustment due to foundation movement by settlement
or due to expansive soils
• Chemical attack of concrete both internally(alkali-aggregate) and
externally (sulphate attack)
• Improper use or altered use of a structure

• Aging and weathering

• Plastic settlement and heavy loading


6 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

1.3 IDENTIFICATION OF DISTRESS IN CONCRETE


STRUCTURES
A correct diagnosis establishing the nature, cause, intensity and extent
of the damage in the structure is essential. Further, it is necessary to
determine if the major portions of the structure are of suitable qual-
ity to support a sound repair. Determination of material properties
of the concrete in the structure and assessment of safety and service-
ability of the structure have to be made to formulate a suitable repair
strategy. Undertaking initial site inspection followed up by detailed
condition survey of the distressed structure are important to collect
sufficient data to pinpoint the cause and source of the problem and
to determine the extent of the damage. Interpreting the results of the
condition survey requires expert knowledge and experience. A correct
and appropriate damage assessment is often the key to viable and
economical repair.

1.4 NDT FOR QUALITY CONTROL


NDT can play a very effective role as a quality assurance management
tool. Nowadays it has become mandatory that the Turbogenerator
foundations are to be tested for its integrity before commissioning.
For new tunnels with concrete in liners, a mandatory quality control
procedure was established in 2003 in Germany. Using NDT pulse echo
methods, the top part of the in liner has to be tested for voids after
construction.

1.5 LIFE EXTENSION OF STRUCTURES


The life of the major infrastructures such as power stations, bridges
etc., are to be extended. A large portion of the transportation infras-
tructure has been built around the mid of the last century and is now
approaching its designed service life. In addition to repair and main-
tenance, service life extension becomes a necessity. Input to the life
cycle analysis procedures is needed from quantitative measurements,
preferably from NDT. NDT will play an important role in providing
data on corrosion, quality of the structure, dimensions, state of com-
ponents and durability factors. The advanced NDT methods, such as
core meters, GPR or ultrasonic pulse echo do have the potential to
improve the inspection results.
Need for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation 7

1.6 NDT FOR DISASTER MITIGATION


Damage due to natural disasters such as earthquake, cyclone, etc., and
terrorist attacks may not be prevented, but the consequential damage
to concrete structures may be minimized through a proper design and
quality control during construction. The structures can be regularly
checked for any developing defects which may alter their resistivity
against mechanical forces. NDT methods such as Radar, Ultrasonic
Pulse Echo corrosion meters or gammagraphy are valuable tools for
this task3,4 . After an event rescue teams need information about the
safety of the remains of an affected structures. Remote sensing tech-
niques would be extremely valuable under such circumstances. NDT
can be helpful in mitigating the effect of disasters.

1.7 CONCLUSION
Non destructive testing and evaluation is adopted for concrete struc-
tures during its entire life to assess its health. NDT is used for a
number of tasks to locate and quantify a certain damage in a struc-
ture. Basic instruments, advanced methods and combined methods are
available for this task. Proper use and qualified interpretation needs to
be ensured through training and education. Beyond damage detection,
integrated quality control uttilizing NDT techniques is the application
with far reaching benefits. Disaster mitigation is an area where NDT
is of potentially great value. Research is needed to develop the right
tools for such applications.

1.8 REFERENCES
1. ACI manual of Concrete Practice, 2009, Part 6 ACI 506 R.05 to
AC II TG- 5-1-07.
2. Bhaskar S., Srinivasan P., Prabakar J., Neelamegam M., Nagesh
R. Iyer “Corrosion damage studies in cracked RC components
subjected to aggressive chloride environment”, CSIR-SERC -
Research report No. OLP-15241-RR-01, December 2010.
3. Srinivasan P., Murthy S.G.N., Bhaskar S., Wiggenhauser H.,
Ravisankar K., Nagesh R. Iyer and Lakshmanan N., “Applica-
tion of radar and pulse echo for testing concrete structures”, 7th
International Symposium on Non Destructive Testing in Civil
Engineering, Nantes (France), June 30th to July 3rd 2009.
4. Lai W. L., Kind T., Wiggenhauser H., “Using ground penetrating
radar and time-frequency analysis to characterize construction
materials” NDT & E International, Volume 44, Issue 1, January
2011, pp 111–120.
.
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 9–22

2 Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for


Non Destructive Evaluation of
Concrete Structures

P. Srinivasan
Assistant Director,
CSIR-SERC Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: sriniv@sercm.org

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Concrete is widely used for the construction of infrastructures such as
bridges, power stations, dams, etc., In the hardened state concrete may
contain defects such as voids/honeycombs, cracks etc., The presence of
voids particularly in the cover zone of a reinforced concrete structure
leads to early corrosion of the reinforcement. Non-destructive testing
in reinforced concrete structure plays a very important role for the
condition assessment of reinforced concrete structures. This includes
identification of defects such as honeycombs, voids, cracks, etc., and,
thickness measurement, location of reinforcements, ducts, etc., The
Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) technique is a very effective method
for investigating the integrity of concrete, thickness measurement,
reinforcement identification in concrete structures (Krause et al.,1995,
Maierhofer C. et al., 2003, Hevin G., 1998, Johannes Hugenschmidit,
et al., 2006) The Ultrasonic Pulse Echo is a one-sided technique
which can be used effectively for the thickness measurement, local-
ization of reinforcement and ducts, and the characteristics of surface
cracks(Krasue et al., 1997, Christoph Kohl, 2006, Wiggenhauser,2008).
This paper describes the test methods, its advantages and the lim-
itations. Both the methods have been adopted for the evaluation of
different parameters on the large scale NDT test specimen constructed
at CSIR-SERC and the results are presented in this paper.
10 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

2.2 INTRODUCTION TO GROUND PENETRATING RADAR


(GPR)
The ground penetrating radar (GPR) method, originally used for
geophysical surveys such as sub-grade investigations, is a very effec-
tive technique for investigating the integrity of concrete structures. It
is particularly suited for the assessment of large structures such as
prestressed concrete bridges, non-ballasted railway tracks, highways,
and tunnels. GPR is an electromagnetic investigation method. It is
also known as surface penetrating radar or electromagnetic reflection
method. Radar principle works in Reflection mode where a signal is
emitted through an antenna into the structure under investigation.
The transmitting antenna sends a diverging beam of energy pulses in
to the structure and the receiving antenna collects the energy reflected
from interfaces between materials of differing dielectric properties. A
strong reflection will be received from the air/concrete interface at
the surface whilst other, generally weaker reflections will occur wher-
ever distinct boundaries occur beneath the surface. Electromagnetic
pulses of frequency 500MHZ to 3000MHZ from radar transmitter are
directed into the material having a pulse duration of ≤ 1 ns. The
waves propagate through the material until a boundary of different
electrical characteristics is encountered (i.e.,) reflected at interface
of different layer and reinforcement along its travel path (Fig. 2.1)
Reflected energy caused by changes in material properties is recorded
and analyzed .The signal recorded is usually referred to as a scan or
trace. The vertical axis gives time axis or calibrated depth and the
horizontal axis corresponds to the length in the X-direction. Both the
propagation velocity of the pulses and the intensity of the reflections
are a function of the dielectric properties of the materials, which are
defined by the complex permittivity e of the material
ε = ε − iε
where ε = complex permittivity; ε’ = real part of complex permit-
tivity; and e” = imaginary part of complex permittivity. For virtually
lossless materials, such as materials with very low electric conductivity,
which mostly applies to concrete and masonry in a dry condition, the
imaginary part can be neglected. Then the following relation between
the propagation velocity v of the electromagnetic impulses and the
permittivity e can be established by approximation.
c
v= √
ε
Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 11

where v = propagation velocity of electromagnetic impulse; and c =


speed of light in vacuum (2.99792458 × 108 m/s). If the permittivity
of the material under investigation is known, the depth of the reflec-
tors, and thus their position, can be determined from the propagation
time. The fact that the permittivity is influenced by the following
parameters must be taken into account:
• Temperature of material;
• Moisture content of material;
• Salt content of material (only dissolved salt ions are important);
• Pore structure; and Pulse frequency
GPR has been put to a variety of application in the concrete
industry, such as
• Estimation of the thickness elements from one surface;
• Localization of reinforcing bars and metallic ducts and estimation
of the concrete cover depth;
• Determination of most important features construction;
• Localization of moisture variations;
• Localization and the dimensions of voids;
• Localization of cracking;
• Estimation of bar size.
• Location of moisture in the surface near region in concrete and
brickwork
• Location of voids and other in homogeneities in concrete

The advantages are as follows


• It can rapidly and effectively investigate large areas.
• Equipment is portable.
• Immediate continuous graphic display of results is possible.
• Requires only one accessible surface.
• No coupling medium is required.
• Sensitive to materials changes and features of structural interest.
• No special safety precaution is required.
GPR equipment contains three basic units.
1. Antennas
2. Control units
3. Recorder and display unit
12 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 2.2 shows the GPR equipment setup.


The system of GPR can be classified based on the recording devices
as
2.2.1 Antennas
Converts the driving power into a radiated signal and converts
returned signal from the material investigated into electrical infor-
mation. Mostly for structural investigations a single antenna is used
as transmitting/ receiving antenna (monostatic antenna). Generally
antennas at higher frequency range from 500MHz to 3000MHz and
are used for work on concrete. But 1.6 GHz frequency antennas are
used for structural concrete, roadways and bridge deck investigations.
High frequency units are small and suitable to work in formwork from
scaffolding. Lower frequency units may be effectively limited to use on
horizontal surfaces. Fortunately these factors do not affect the com-
monest uses of GPR in building surveys for shallow targets using high
frequencies. The choice of antenna type is selected based on the depth
of investigation and the waves to be penetrated. Normally for smaller
thick sections higher frequency antennas are used and for greater
thickness very low frequency antennas are used. Table 2.1 gives the
appropriate antenna frequencies to be chosen based on depth range.
2.2.2 Control Units
It manages the antennas and processes the transmitted and received
signals and output them to the recording / display media.
Key controls available are usually
• Maximum depth of penetration.
• Amplification of the signals to the data recorder or display.
• Filters used on the data to cut unwanted signals or enhance the
desired signals, before they are recorded or displayed.
• Rate at which measurements are taken.
• Digital system may simplify control of the above factors and aid
repeatability.
2.2.3 Standard test method for determining the thickness of
bound pavement layers using Short- Pulse Radar (ASTM
D 4748-98)
A test method and the procedure are given in ASTM D 4748 for the
nondestructive determination of thickness of bound pavement layers
using short-pulse radar. This test method permits accurate and non-
destructive thickness determination of bound pavement layers. This
Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 13

test method is widely applicable as a pavement system assessment


technique.

2.3 THE TEST SPECIMEN


The test specimen is a unique reinforced concrete specimen, designed
and constructed at Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC),
exclusively for the data generation and validation of different NDT
techniques. It consists of two slabs of sizes 4.15m × 4.15m (bottom
slab) and 3.0m × 3.0m (top slab with cantilever projection at one
end) with beams and columns. The entire block is supported on four
pedestals at a height of 1.2m to have access for the bottom slab. The
top slab is made with two different thicknesses (150mm and 250mm)
and bottom slab with three different thicknesses (150mm, 300mm
and 400mm) for validating the thickness measurements using NDT
methods. Top slab is provided with construction joints, different sizes
and shapes of honeycombs, PVC conduits, cracks for their identifica-
tion and quantification. Columns are provided with different diameter
of reinforcements with different spacing of lateral ties and different
cover thicknesses. Different grades of concrete are used in casting the
beams, columns and slabs. Fig. 3 shows the completed large scale test
specimen.. Radar measurements
For the radar measurements, SIR-20 model of GSSI has been used
with 1.60 GHz antenna. For data collection the bottom slab was
divided into grids of size 50 mm × 50 mm. A portion of 2.0 m ×
2.0 m within the beams was considered for scanning. The data was
collected from the top face on the bottom slab. Dielectric constant
of 6.25 was used. Fig. 2.4 shows the radargram for the bottom slab
before and after migration. The data which was collected in both the
directions were processed using RADAN software and the 3-D anima-
tion view was obtained. Fig. 2.5 shows the reinforcements present in
the bottom slab. The spacing of the reinforcements obtained in the
line scan was matching with the actual. The sloping portion of the
bottom slab, i.e., the back wall reflection was obtained and is shown
in Fig. 2.6. The top slab was also divided into grids of 50 × 50 mm
over an area of 2.0 m × 2.0 m between the beams. The radar data
was collected on the top and bottom side of the slab. The data was
processed using RADAN software. Fig. 2.7 shows the C-scan which
gives the presence of steel box and the PVC pipe. The column C1 of
size 300 mm × 450 mm was scanned in the 450 mm direction. Radar
14 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

data was obtained over a grid spacing of 50 mm in both the directions.


Fig. 2.8 show the reinforcemnts present in the column.

2.4 ULTRASONIC PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE


Ultrasonic-echo needs only one side access with transmitter and
receiver at one side. Longitudinal waves or transverse waves can be
used for measurement. For longitudinal waves wet coupling is required
and for transverse waves dry point contact array system without
any coupling agent is adopted. For concrete, lower frequencies of 50
KHz is used because of the sound attenuation from absorption (pore
structure) and scattering (aggregates). Concrete is an inhomogeneous
material and the aggregates are nearly the same size as the ultrasonic
wavelength and hence several transmitters and receivers in array is
preferred to reduce the structural noise from its inhomogeneous struc-
ture. Low frequencies from 25 kHz allow thickness measurement from
more than 1 m but with limited resolution of objects, e.g. single rebars.
Higher frequencies from about 150 KHz allow high resolution of objects
but limited penetration. Thickness measurement with higher frequen-
cies can be limited with less than 50 cm. Fig. 2.9 shows the commercial
equipment namely A1220 monolith - ultrasonic Pulse Echo for con-
crete structures. The transmitter and receiver is housed in the same
unit which consists of A 24 element (6 × 4) matrix antenna array. The
antenna array elements construction allows to test without using any
contact liquid, i.e. with dry-point-contact. All of the elements have an
independent spring load, which allows to test on uneven surfaces.
An interface with a great impedance change (e.g. concrete / air)
produces a clear reflection signal like shown in Fig. 2.10 (a). The
reflected signal is attenuated by absorption and scattering due to
the inhomogeneous concrete structure. If wave speed c is known or
estimated the thickness can be calculated as follows.
A: Thickness/geometry
d = c/2 ∗ t
where
t = measured transit time; c = known or estimated wave speed,
d = calculated thickness/depth position
Fig. 2.10(b) shows the case of integrity testing for good and bad
concrete quality or workmanship. Bad quality results from decreased
density and E modulus. The wave speed is calculated as follows
B: Integrity
c = 2.d/t
Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 15

t = measured transit time; d = known thickness/depth position


c = actual calculated wave speed has to compared with the expected
wave speed
The measurement of intensity Vs time at a point is called A-scan.
The signals are processed of all the points along a line using a software
and the details are obtained for a particular line. These are called
B-scans. The sectional information parallel to the surface is called
C-scans. Fig. 2.11 shows a typical A- scan.
2.4.1 Pulse Echo Measurements
Measurements were made on the slabs of the large scale NDT specimen
constructed at SERC. The slab is divided into grid markings from the
bottom side of 50 × 50 mm in both horizontal and vertical directions.
The data is obtained over each point. Fig. 2.12 shows the measurement
with A1220 equipment from the bottom side of the slab. The data
was transferred from the instrument to the computer and the data
was analysed using the Introvisio Software. Fig. 2.13 shows the B-
scan and the back wall reflection and the thickness of different slabs
can be seen.
Fig. 2.14 shows the C- scan (parallel to the surface of the top slab)
and the steel plate buried in the concrete is being located.

2.5 CONCLUSIONS
The application of radar and ultrasonic pulse echo have been demon-
strated for the thickness measurement, identification of reinforce-
ments, steel embedment, and honeycombs. The B-scans and C-scans
as obtained for the radar measurements gives the reinforcement distri-
bution. The depth slice also provide useful information in identifying
the steel embedment and the PVC conduits. For the radar measure-
ments it was observed that the spacing of the reinforcement affects
the penetration of the waves in to the concrete. The ultrasonic pulse
echo technique provide information on the exact thickness of the con-
crete member. In addition, the embedments such as steel plate or PVC
pipe can be identified. With the radar method, additional research is
required for the effect of spacing and the size of the reinforcement on
the penetration of radar waves in concrete.
16 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

2.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author acknowledge the technical support given by Prof. Herbert
Wiggenhauuser, BAM for the preparation of specimen and also for the
analysis of test results during his stay at SERC, Chennai under the
CSIR- Humboldt Fellowship.

2.7 REFERENCES
1. Krause M., Maierhofer C., Wiggenhauser H., (1995) “Thickness
measurement of concrete elements using radar and ultrasonic
impulse echo techniques”, 6th International conference on struc-
tural faults and repair, Edited by Forde MC, 1997, London, UK,
vol. 1, pp. 17–24.
2. Maierhofer C., (2003) “Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete
Infrastructure with Ground Penetrating Radar”, Journal of
Materials In Civil Engineering, ASCE, May-June 2003, pp.
287–297.
3. Hevin G., Abraham O., Pedersen HA., Campillo M., (1998)
“Characterization of surface cracks with Rayleigh waves: a
numerical model”, Nondestructive testing and evaluation inter-
national, 31, 1998, pp. 289–97.
4. Johannes Hugenschmidit., Roman Mastrangelo., (2006)“GPR
inspection of concrete bridges”, Cement & Concrete Composites,
28, 2006 pp. 384–392.
5. Krause M., Barmann R., Friedlinghaus R., Kretzschamar F.,
Kroggel O., Langenberg K., Maierhofer Ch., Mu ller W., Neisecke
J., Schickert M., Schmitz V., Wiggenhauser H., Wollbold F.,
(1997), Comparison of pulse echo methods for testing concrete’
NDT & E International 4 (special issue), 1997 pp. 195–204.
6. Christoph Kohl., Doreen Streicher., (2006), “Results of recon-
structed and fused NDT-data measured in the laboratory and
on-site at bridges”, Cement & Concrete Composites, 2006,
pp.402–413.
7. Summary Report of the 2nd Phase Visit of Prof. Wiggenhauser,
Head of Division, Federal Institute for Material Research and
Testing (BAM), Berlin, Germany to SERC, Chennai under CSIR
- Humboldt Reciprocity Research Award for 2006, Report No.
MLP- 12241- CSIR HUMBOLDT 2006, May 2008
Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 17

Table 2.1 Appropriate antenna frequency for various applications.

Frequency Field of application Max depth (m)


1.6 GHz Structural concrete, 0.50
Roadways, Bridge decks
1.0 GHz Concrete structures, 1.00
Archaeology, shallow
soils
400MHz Geological field 4.00

Fig. 2.1 Principle of Radar Surveying


18 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Display unit

1.6 GHz antenna

Control unit

Fig. 2.2 GPR Equipment Setup

Fig. 2.3 Large Scale Test Specimen

First Floor – Migration

Rebars

SERC NDT SPECIMEN

Fig. 2.4 Reinforcements before and after Migration


Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 19

Fig. 2.5 Reinforcements in First Floor slab - 3D view

Fig. 2.6 Radargram in sloping portion of C- scan of first floor slab

Fig. 2.7 C-scan at 70 mm form top face


20 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 2.8 C- scan for the column

Fig. 2.9 Ultrasonic Pulse Echo instrument - A1220


Radar and Ultrasonic Pulse Echo for Non Destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures 21

Fig. 2.10 Concrete members and typical recordings for


ultrasonic-echo for (a) sound concrete member (b) member with
good and bad concrete quality

Fig. 2.11 A-Scan measured on a concrete slab showing a


reflection from a duct

Fig. 2.12 Measurement in Top slab


22 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Thickness - 150 mm Thickness - 250 mm

Fig. 2.13 Back wall reflection from the bottom slab.

Test results on Top Slab

C - Scan Steel Plate


at a depth
of 70mm

Fig. 2.14 Location of steel plate in the top slab


Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 23–33

3 Use of Impact Echo Method for


Determination of Thickness and Defects in
Concrete Elements

S. Bhaskar
Scientist
CSIR-SERC, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: bhaskar@Sercm.org.

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are inscreasingly gaining
popularity for the quality assessment of important structures such as
bridges, roadways, tunnel linings etc. Impact echo was developed in
the mid-1980s is a method based on impact generated stress waves1−2 .
Use of long wavelength low-frequency stress waves of impact-echo
distinguishes with other traditional ultrasonic methods3−4 . In impact-
echo testing, low frequency stress waves from about 1 to 30 kHz are
introduced by a short duration of impact by tapping a hammer or
small steel sphere against a concrete or masonry surface. The waves
propagate into the structure and are reflected by flaws and external
surfaces. Surface displacements, at the impact surface caused by the
arrival of reflected waves due to the generation of a standing wave
are recorded by a transducer, located adjacent to the impact posi-
tion. Both the waveform and frequency spectra will be plotted on the
computer screen. The dominant frequencies that appear as peaks in
the spectrum are associated with multiple reflections of stress waves
within the structure, and they provide information about the thickness
of the structure, its integrity, and the location of flaws5−6 . This paper
investigates the application of impact echo in manual scanning mode
in determining the thickness and also in identifying the flaws/defects.
The specimen used for the determination of thickness and flaws is
an R.C slab which is a part of large NDT model test specimen at
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Chennai.
24 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

3.1.1 Impact Echo Method


The IE system consists of i) a hand held unit containing an impact
hammer (steel ball) for producing low frequency stress waves (sound
waves), ii) a piezoelectric transducer that detects surface displace-
ments caused by reflected waves, iii) data acquisition system that
receives and digitises the analogue voltage signal from the transducer.
Fig. 3.1 shows the typical impact echo system.
3.1.2 Basic Principle
In the impact-echo technique (IE) a transient stress pulse is intro-
duced into a test object by mechanical impact on the surface. The
stress pulse propagates into the object along spherical wavefronts as
P- and S-waves. In addition, a surface wave (R-wave) travels along
the surface away from the impact point. The P- and S- stress waves
are reflected by internal interfaces or external boundaries. The arrival
of these reflected waves at the surface where the impact was gen-
erated produces displacements which are measured by a receiving
transducer. If the receiver is placed close to the impact point, the
displacement waveform is dominated by the displacements caused by
P-wave arrivals.
If the receiver is close to the impact point, the round trip travel
distance is 2T, where T is the distance between the test surface and
the reflecting interface. The time interval between successive arrivals
of the multiple reflected P-wave is the travel distance divided by the
wave speed. The frequency, f, of the P-wave arrival is the inverse the
time interval and is given approximately by the relationship:
Cpp
f= (3.1)
2T
Where Cpp = P wave speed through thickness of the plate
T = the depth of the reflecting interface.
In frequency analysis of impact-echo results, the objective is to
determine the dominant frequencies in the recorded waveform. This
is accomplished by using the fast Fourier transform technique (FFT)
to transform the recorded waveform into the frequency domain. The
transformation results in an amplitude spectrum that shows the ampli-
tudes of the various frequencies contained in the waveform. Generally
for intact plate-like structures, the thickness frequency will usually be
the only dominant peak in the spectrum. The value of the peak fre-
quency in the amplitude spectrum can be used to determine the depth
Use of Impact Echo Method for Determination of Thickness and Defects in Concrete ... 25

of the reflecting interface by expressing the Eq.(3.1) as follows:


Cpp
T = (3.2)
2f
In the case where the wave encounters a flaw, a part of that wave
reflects back to the surface of the slab. Here two distinct peaks will be
observed: one large amplitude peak at a lower frequency, corresponding
to the slab bottom, and another smaller amplitude peak at a higher
frequency corresponding to the flaw7 .
3.1.3 Test Specimen
The specimen used for IE scanning is the bottom and top slab of NDT
model test specimen constructed exclusively for NDT data collection
at CSIR-SERC, Chennai. Fig. 3. 2 shows the photograph of NDT
model test specimen. Both, bottom and top slabs are resting on four
columns and beams. The bottom slab is of different thicknesses and
the thicknesses are about 200mm, 300mm and 400mm as per draw-
ings. The top slab is of 2.4m × 2.4m and is of two different thicknesses,
150mm and 250mm. Also, defects in the form of PVC pipes, honey-
combs, cracked specimen and a steel plate are introduced in the top
slab during casting. The slab surfaces are polished/ground to get a
uniform and smooth surface that is essential for scanning
3.1.4 Impact echo (IE) scanning
The IE technique is a punctiform test method. It means one mea-
surement only gives information about one point of the structure. To
get more detailed information about the structure scanning techniques
measuring at multiple points are more useful. The combination of mea-
surement results of several points to a line (B-Scan) or, measurements
in two different orientations, to an area representing a surface of a
structure (C-Scan) will give a better idea of the structure.
The impact scanning on bottom slab is carried out on a 2m × 2m
area covering the three regions of slab thickness. For scanning, the grid
lines are marked at a spacing of 50mm × 50mm. Figs. 3.3 and 3.4 shows
the grid marking for scanning and cross section details of bottom and
top slab. A calibrated wave velocity of 4200 m/s is used during the
data collection. Scanning has been carried out systematically along
each line and average of two impacts that are repeatable in response
have taken at each grid point. For simplicity and easy understanding,
bottom slab is analysed to determine the thickness and top slab is
analysed to predict flaws/defects.
26 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

3.1.5 Thickness Determination


Bottom slab data is analysed for the determination of thickness. The
recorded waveform data is transformed into frequency spectra by FFT.
Fig. 3. 5 shows the typical frequency spectra of a point in the 200 mm
thick regions. The frequency corresponding to the maximum peak is
10.53 kHz. The thickness of the slab can be obtained by using the
Eq.(3.2) Using this, the average thickness of the slab of that region
is found to be 199 mm, which is almost equal to the actual thickness
of the slab. Similarly, Fig. 3. 6 shows the typical frequency spectra
of a point in the 300 mm thick portion. For the other two regions,
the average thickness of the slab is found to be 287 mm and 362
mm corresponding to the expected thickness of 300 mm and 400 mm.
The difference in estimation is found to be 0.5%, 4.3% and 9.5%. The
higher difference in estimation for 400mm could be due to geometri-
cal changes, scattering of signals, multiple reflections, etc8−9 . B-scan
image showing different frequencies (thicknesses) along a typical grid
line is presented in Fig 3.7.
3.1.6 Detection of Defects
For studying the applicability of impact echo in identifying the
defects/flaws, observations are made on the top slab along the selected
lines passing over the defects and the solid potion. Fig. 3.8 represents
the frequency spectra for the honeycombed portion, which is char-
acterized by multiple peaks, whereas a single dominant peak shown
in Fig. 3.8 corresponds to the solid portion. Successful identification
of the defects relies on identifying changes in the frequencies in the
frequency-amplitude spectra. Attempts are also made to identify the
location of flaws, buried objects using the B-scan image, which is a
combination of the frequency results from the spectra at several points
of a line. Fig. 3.9 shows the B-scan image obtained over a portion of
the slab. In the B-scan image, a shift in frequency is observed (marked
inside the dotted line) at positions which corresponds to the location
of the buried pipes. Fig. 3.10 represents the B-scan image along a line
18 which is passing over the steel plate and the cracked specimen.
From Fig.3.10, it can be assumed that region in the dotted circle indi-
cates the steel plate and the region in the dotted square represents the
cracked specimens present in the slab. However, the average thickness
observed for the two halves of the slab is found to be 145 mm and 246
mm corresponding to the expected thickness of 150 mm and 250 mm,
respectively.
Use of Impact Echo Method for Determination of Thickness and Defects in Concrete ... 27

3.2 SUMMARY
This chapter presents the application of impact echo technique for the
determination of thickness and identification of flaws/defects. The test
specimen used is a slab with simulated variabilities such as different
thicknesses, intentionally created defects, etc. From the analysis of
experimental data, it is observed that the thickness obtained is found
to be in close agreement with the actual value. The technique is also
successful in identifying the location of buried pipes/ducts and the
identification of defects. Further, number of studies is needed for the
exact identification of voids, their size, etc.

3.3 REFERENCES
1. Carino, N.J., Impact-Echo Principle, http://ciks.cbt,nist.gov
/carino/ieprin.html
2. Carino, N.J., (2001), “Impact-Echo Method: An Overview”, Pro-
ceedings of the 2001 Structures Congress & Exposition, National
Bureau of Standards.
3. Jennifer R.B. (2001), “Detection of Thickness and Tension Ducts
of Bounded Elements Using Impact-Echo Method”, University of
the Philippines.
4. Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., (1989), “Detecting Delamina-
tions in Reinforced Concrete Slabs with and without Asphalt
Concrete Overlays Using the Impact-Echo Method,” Materials
Journal of the American Concrete Institute, March/April, 1989,
pp. 175-184.
5. Chiamen, H., Chia-Chi, C., Tzunghao, L., and Yuanting Juang,
(2007), “Detecting Flaws in Concrete Blocks Using the Impact-
Echo Method”, NDT & E International 41, pp. 98-107.
6. Ertugrul, C., Sadettin, O., and Murat, L., (2005), “An Analysis of
Cracked Beam Structure Using the Impact-Echo Method”, NDT
& E International 38, pp. 368-373.
7. Martyn, H., John, M., and John, D.T., (2000), “Cross-Sectional
Modes in Impact-Echo Testing of Concrete Structures”, Journal
of Structural Engineering, February, 2000, pp. 228-234. Yajai,
T., Miller, P. K., and Olson, L. D. (2008), ’Internal void imaging
using impact-echo’, NDE/NDT for Highways and Bridges, Struc-
tural Materials Technology (SMT), 8-12, Sept. 2008, Oakland,
USA (CD format).
8. Bhaskar, S., Murthy, S.G.N., Srinivasan, P., Wiggenhauser, H.,
Ravisankar, K., Nagesh R. Iyer and Lakshmanan, N., “Reliability
28 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

of the impact-echo method on thickness measurement of concrete


elements”, International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing
in Civil Engineering NDTCE-2009, Nantes, France, June-July,
2009 (CD format).
9. Bhaskar, S., Srinivasan, P., Murthy, S.G.N., Nagesh R. Iyer and
Ravisankar, K., “Application of Impact-echo Method for the
Evaluation of Thickness and Defects in Concrete Structures”,
ACTEL-OLP131-RR-06, March 2010.

Data acquisition
system

Transducer

Steel ball

Fig. 3.1 Impact Echo System

Fig. 3.2 Model Test Specimen


Use of Impact Echo Method for Determination of Thickness and Defects in Concrete ... 29

N
C3

C4
B1
1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
1

10
A A
15

20
2400 2000 3000
25

30

35

40
2000
C2

C1
B2
TOP VIEW

200
100
300 100

2400
3000
SECTION A-A all dimensions are in mm
grid spacing 50mm x 50mm

Fig. 3.3 Bottom slab details with grid marking


X

B2 HONEY COMB B
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

Y C2 2 C1
4
50mmØ PVC PIPE(3m LONG)

6
8
10
STEEL
12 11
PLATE
14 CRACKED
16 111 SPECIMEN -2
112mmØ PVC (2.3m LONG)

18
B3
20
22
24
26
28
B4 30
HONEY COMB A
32
34
X 36
X
38
40
42
44
46

B1

TOP VIEW C4
C3

150 250

2400
1500 1500
SECTION X-X

Fig. 3.4 Top slab details with grid marking


30 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 3.5 Typical frequency spectra at a point in 200 mm thick


slab portion

12

Frequency = 10528.5645
10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
× 104

Fig. 3.6 Typical frequency spectra at a point in 300 mm thick


slab Portion
Use of Impact Echo Method for Determination of Thickness and Defects in Concrete ... 31

Fig. 3.7 B Scan Image along a typical grid line

Frequency Spectra
3.5
Frequency = 16174.3164

2.5

2
Amplitude

1.5

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Frequency in Hz × 104

Fig. 3.8 (a) Frequency spectra at the honeycombed portion


32 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Frequency Spectra
60
Frequency = 14801.0254

50

40
Amplitude

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Frequency in Hz × 104

Fig. 3.8 (b) Frequency spectra at the solid portion

Fig. 3.9 B-scan image along a typical line passing over buried
pipes (along x-dir)
Use of Impact Echo Method for Determination of Thickness and Defects in Concrete ... 33

Fig. 3.10 B-scan image along a line passing over buried pipes and
defects
.
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 35–58

4 Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)-


Production and Application to Repair

J. K. Dattatreya
Scientist
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus Tharamani, Chennai-600 113, India.
email: datta@sercm.csir.res.in

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The world’s infrastructure is largely built of concrete. For today’s con-
crete structures, we look for materials with four distinctive properties:
strength, workability, durability and affordability. Since ancient time,
mankind has been searching for construction materials with higher
and higher performance so they can build taller, longer and better
structures. The definition ’high performance’ is meant to distinguish
structural materials from the conventional ones, as well as to optimize
a combination of properties in terms of final applications. The need
for new materials with improved properties, which can provide higher
performance, is as imperative now as ever before. To address the prob-
lem of rapid deterioration of infrastructures and massive utilization of
construction materials and in turn natural resources, an exciting alter-
native has emerged in the form of advanced cementitious composites,
which include Slurry Infiltrated Cementitious Composites (SIFCON
and SIMCON), Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) and
Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC). They
are engineered in such a way that the contribution of each constituent
is optimized and results in a synergetic composite performance with
emphasis on strength or strain capacity or energy absorption as the
case may be. The target properties can reach levels unattainable with
conventional concretes. The ultra high strength materials result in
reduced material consumption by virtue of their enhanced strength
characteristics and provide a possibility of using thin sections, slen-
der elements and new geometries. Two distinct approaches have been
explored in an attempt to improve mechanical performance The first
36 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

involved concrete with a dense granular matrix known as Densified


Small Particle (DSP) concrete (Bache, 1987 ) when the use of sub-
micron particles in cementitious materials was conceived(Fig.4.1) and
Macro Defect Free (MDF) cements/mortars (Kendall et al 1983)
in conjunction with special processing techniques. In recent years
the principles of both are combined to produce UHPCs[Richard and
Cheyrezy, 1995, Guerrini, 2006]. An increase of mechanical strength is
always associated with an increase in brittleness. The use of reinforc-
ing fibers leads not only to the increase of tensile/bending strength
and specific fracture energy, but also to reduction of brittleness and,
consequently, to production of non-explosive ruptures. Besides, fiber-
reinforced materials are more homogeneous and less sensitive to small
defects and flaws. Therefore, with growing emphasis on improvement
of cement matrix to achieve enhanced strength, there has been a par-
allel development towards addition of fibers in order to improve the
ductility. The development of several types and geometries of fibers has
contributed immensely to this development. The culmination of these
two efforts is today’s ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete
(UHPFRC) as illustrated in Fig.4.2. Fig.4.3 provides a pictorial view
of the evolution in cementitious composites towards achievement of
high strength and ductility.
High and Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced cement Com-
posites fall under the more general category of Fiber Reinforced
Cement Composites (FRCC). FRCCs are further classified into Low
Volume FRCCs and Ductile FRCCs (DFRCs) (Fig.4.4), High Perfor-
mance FRCCs and Ultra High Performance FRCCs In the last few
decades or so, a new class of DFRCCs, generally labeled as high per-
formance FRC, or simply HPFRC, has been introduced for specific
applications, for which toughness, ductility, and energy absorption are
fundamental properties HPFRC exhibits apparent strain-hardening
behavior by employing high fiber contents. The tensile strain capacity
of HPFRC is typically about 1.5% or more. These HPFRCCs include
SIFCON (slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete) with 5-20% of steel fibers,
SIMCON (slurry infiltrated mat concrete) with 6% steel fibers. A spe-
cial type of HPFRCCs is the Engineered Cementitious Composites
(ECCs). Table.4.1 compares the characteristics of different types of
FRCCs with conventional concrete.
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 37

4.2 UHPFRCS
UHPFRCCs have a DSP matrix and moderate to high volume of
fibers and possess compressive strength generally exceeding 150 MPa.
The Association Franaise de Gnie Civil Interim Recommendations
for Ultra High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concretes 2002 states
that UHPC tends to have the following characteristics: Compressive
strength that is greater than 150 MPa, internal fiber reinforcement
to ensure non-brittle behavior, and high binder content with special
aggregates. Further, UHPFRC tends to have very low water content
and can achieve adequate rheological properties through a combina-
tion of optimized granular packing and the addition of high-range
water reducing admixtures.
The recent history of UHPFRC development has been marked by
separate approaches. In chronological order of their appearance, these
are:
1. Compact Reinforced Composites: UHPFRC containing 5 to 10%
of 6 mm (0.2 in.) long and 0.15 mm (6 mils) diameter metal fibers.
This type of concrete was developed by Aalborg Portland (Den-
mark) and has been marketed as Compact Reinforced Composites
(CRC).
2. Reactive Powder Concrete: UHPFRC containing mainly fine reac-
tive powders, such as, silica fume, quartz powder and cement and
quartz sand or other hard aggregates with particle size less than
600μ and a maximum of 2.5% metal fibers which are 6-13 mm
(0.5 in.) long and 0.16 mm (6.2 mils) in diameter. This type of
concrete was developed by Bouygues (France) and has been mar-
keted as Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC). Other UHPCCs of
this type currently being marketed are:
• BSI “Bton Spcial Industriel” (special industrial concrete)
developed by Eiffage, which technology is evolving in asso-
ciation with cement manufacturer Sika ( Ceracem),
• Different kinds of Ductal concrete, including BPR (reactive
powder concrete) resulting from joint research by Bouygues,
Lafarge and Rhodia, and marketed by Lafarge and Bouygues
• BCV being developed by Vinci group in association with Vicat
3. Multi-Scale Fiber-Reinforced Concrete[Rossi, 1997] : UHPFRC
containing mixtures of short and long metal fibers(6-20mm). This
was developed by the Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chausses
(LCPC, France) and CEMTEC.
38 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

4. UHPC with Coarse Aggregates : UHPC produced with crushed


basalt with the particle size from 2 to 5 mm by Ma and Orgass
and by Coppola and others. The cementitious paste volume frac-
tion is about 20% lower than that in RPC for achieving the same
order of compressive strength and fluidability. The mix more flow-
able and homogenized even with a shorter mixing time. There is
a decrease in autogenous shrinkage by about 60%. The higher
modulus and lower strain at peak stress under compression are
claimed to be the other advantages.
Durability of UHPC[Fehling et al, 2004a and b, Acker et al,
2004, Resplendino et al, 2004]
RPC has ultra-high durability characteristics resulting from its
extremely low porosity, low permeability, limited shrinkage and
increased corrosion resistance. In comparison to HPC, there is no
penetration of liquid and / or gas through RPC [Roux et al ,1996].
Tables.4.2 - 4.3 present a comparison of durability of RPC and HPC.
It has been shown that the total shrinkage of sealed UHPC with fine
aggregates amounts to 0.7 mm/m under isothermal conditions in the
first seven days after pouring. Until an age of 28 days, the total shrink-
age increases to about 0.9 mm/m. The influence of steel fibers on
the autogenous shrinkage is of minor importance. The development
of drying shrinkage of UHPC is similar as of HPC. For heat treated
UHPC, drying shrinkage can practically be neglected after the end
of the heat treatment. The creep of UHPC is generally less than for
concrete with lower strength. For UHPC with fine aggregates, 12 μ
m/mK have been recorded. This value is in the same range as for
NSC (about 11.0 μm/mK). The high strength of UHPC with fibers
does not lead to disadvantages with regard to fatigue. Due to the high
compressive strength and the high density, UHPC enables very high
bond strength. For smooth fibers (l = 13 mm, φ = 0.15/0.2 mm),
Behloul [1997] reports a value of fb = 11.5 MPa. For ribbed reinforc-
ing bars, very high bond stresses in the range of 40 to 70 MPa have
been reported.

4.3 ENGINEERED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITE, (ECC)[LI,


1998]
A new type of FRC which combines the favorable characteristics of the
various classes of FRCs in use today viz., flexible processing suitable
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 39

for pre-cast or cast-in-place applications[ short fibers of moderate vol-


ume fraction to facilitate flexible processing, reduce cost and weight;
Isotropic properties with no weak planes under multi-axial loading
conditions; high performance with improvements in strength, ductility,
fracture toughness and exhibiting pseudo strain-hardening[Table.4.4].
ECC is an easily moulded and shaped reinforced cementitious mor-
tar based with short random fibers, usually polymer fibers. It is a
micro-mechanically designed such that the mechanical interactions
between fiber, matrix and its interface are taken into account by a
model which utilizes these constituent properties to compute the com-
posite response. As a result, guidelines for selection of fiber, matrix
and interface characteristics advantageous for composite properties
have been made available.

4.4 TEXTILE REINFORCED ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE


CONCRETE
The past decade has seen an increased use of prefabricated cement-
bonded fiberboard around the world. Such elements are used for wall
panels, exterior siding, pressure pipes, and roofing and flooring tiles.
The use of reinforcement in these elements is essential to improve the
tensile and flexural performance. The reinforcements can be either
short fibers or continuous reinforcements in a fabric form. The use
of reinforcement in thin cement-based elements is essential to improve
the tensile and flexural performance. The reinforcements can be either
short fibers or continuous reinforcements, in a fabric form. Practical
use of fabric-cement composites requires an industrial, cost-effective
production process. Woven fabrics made from low-modulus polyethy-
lene and glass meshes are used to produce the composite by pressure
moulding or pultrusion.
In addition to ease of manufacturing, fabrics provide benefits such
as excellent anchorage and bond development. The flexural strength of
TFRC with low-modulus polyethylene (PE) fabrics is almost two times
higher than the strength of composites reinforced with straight con-
tinuous polyethylene yarns. In addition, they exhibit strain-hardening
behavior Cement composites containing 5% alkali resistance (AR) uni-
directional glass fibers achieved tensile strengths of 50 MPa, compared
with an average tensile strength of approximately 6 to 10 MPa of
conventional glass fiber-reinforced cement (GFRC) composites. Pul-
trusion products reinforced with polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon
40 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

continuous filaments achieve superior flexural strength of approxi-


mately 600 MPa with 16% content by volume and 800 MPa with
23% content by volume.
Production of UHPC In order to achieve sufficient ductility and
strength, ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) is produced with
• w/b-ratios near 0.25 or less
• silica fume contents up to 30 wt.% w.r.t. cement
• between 1.0 and 3.5 vol.% steel fibers and up to 0.65 vol.%. PP
fibers
• maximum aggregate size < 1mm
The homogeneous distribution of steel fibers in concrete is one of
the most important demands of UHPC. Moreover, the fibers should
then be aligned in the direction of the main tensile stress The following
requirements are placed on the mixer for UHPC production:
• Short mixing duration
• Homogeneous blending of small quantities of additives and
admixtures
• Homogenization of materials having different densities
Generally high shearing action type of mixers as shown in Fig.4.5
have been used for UHPC production. Planetary mixers with eccen-
trically mounted turning and dividing paddles, mounted very near
the bottom of the drum, as well as the drum wall scraper results in
three dimensional turning of the mix are used for UHPC mixing. . In
an intensive mixer Fig. 4.6 (Make Eirich with vacuum periphery) by
the optimum combination of drive and geometry, high mixture speeds
of up to 40 m/s (counter currents) are achieved and the tilt of the
drum produces optimum homogenization of materials with large dif-
ferences in density. The vacuum accessory permits evacuation down
to pressures of 50 mbar in a closed system. Depending on the required
performance the turning geometry can be varied.
Heat curing (low pressure steam or autoclaving) may be necessary
and depending on the mix composition, type of structural element and
the facilities and turnover time, the curing regime has to be worked
out by trials.
Production of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC)
Several types of processing routes have been developed for ECC viz.,
casting, extrusion and shotcreting. For casting, normal casting and
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 41

self-compacting casting are available. Extrusion of ECC has also been


demonstrated. Spray ECC, equivalent to shotcreting, but replacing
the concrete with ECC, is under development at the University of
Michigan.
ECCs can be formed with a variety of fibers, including polymeric,
steel and carbon fibers. The matrices used are mostly cement paste
and mortar. So far, most research has been conducted with a high
modulus polyethylene fiber (Trade name Spectra 900) in a cement
matrix. Typical material composition and mix proportions of a PE
based ECC are given in Table.4.5.
Normal ECC processing adopts the casting method for conventional
emendations materials that generally requires high-frequency vibra-
tion to place the fresh mix into molds. The efficiency of fibers can be
significantly reduced if fibers are not uniformly distributed due to the
low workability of fresh ECC mix. The polyethylene fibers are supplied
by the manufacturer in bundle-like form. Prior to mixing, the fibers
are dispersed using air pressure. Then the mixing is carried out using a
three speed (Hobart) mixer with a planetary rotating blade. The total
mixing time is between 15 to 30 minutes depending on the batch size
and the amount of fibers used (fiber volume fraction). After the mix is
ready, the specimens are cast under high frequency vibration (150 Hz).
Subsequently, they are covered with a polyethylene sheet and allowed
to harden at room temperature for one day prior to demoulding. The
specimens are then cured in water tank for 4 weeks.
Li and co-workers [1998] developed self-compacting ECC via a con-
stitutive rheological approach. In this approach, the ingredients of
the mortar matrix were tailored so that high flowability is achieved,
while respecting the conditions of strain-hardening for the compos-
ite as described earlier. The high flowability mortar matrix results
from an optimal combination of a strong polyelectrolyte (a super-
plasticizer) and a non-ionic polymer with steric action in maintaining
non-aggregation of the cement particle in the dense suspension. Sil-
ica sand with size ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 mm was used. Melamine
formaldehyde sulfate and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)
with molecular weight of 150,000 as a viscosity agent were used. To
characterize and quantify the self-compactability of fresh ECC, a num-
ber of tests were conducted, including deformability tests using slump
cone or flow cone, flow rate test using a funnel device, and self-placing
test using a box vessel with reinforcing bars as obstacles to ECC flow.
42 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

4.5 PROPERTIES OF ECC


A compendium of mechanical properties obtained far for the ECC in
uniaxial tension is given in Table. 4.8. The table also compares similar
data for FRC tested under the same conditions. Fig. 4.7 shows typical
comparison of ECC and FRC behavior.
Real-time observation shows that under uniaxial tension, multiple
cracking occurs with many sub-parallel cracks across the specimen
during strain-hardening phase. Beyond peak stress, localized crack
extension occurs accompanied by fiber bridging. Fig. 4.8 shows an
example of a damage record at four different stages of loading. The
compressive strength of this ECC, about 68.5 MPa, is not significantly
higher than that of the FRC (55 MPa). The compressive strain capac-
ity has been observed to increase by approximately 50%-100% over
normal concrete and FRCs. Post-peak ductility of ECCs are expected
to be similar to that of normal FRCs. The modulus of ECC has been
measured by strain gages as 20.3 GPa

4.6 APPLICATIONS OF UHPFRC TO REPAIR


Beams of Cattenom and Civaux Power Plants (Acker and
Behloul, 2004): Two important precasting jobs involving in replace-
ment of cooling tower’s steel beams by UHPC beams was carried out in
Cattenom (with BSI and Ductal) and Civaux power plants (with BSI
beams) in France The extremely aggressive environment of the cooling
towers induced corrosion of the steel structures. UHPC with its out-
standing qualities in terms of durability allows to replace steel beams
with light elements with very long lifetimes without maintenance or
repair. At the end of year 3 years, the AFGC-SETRA working group
on UHPCs visited the cooling tower at the Cattenom power plant.
Under a normal layer of sediment, no damage of UHPC was noticed
(Fig. 4.9).
Anchor Plates(Resplendino, 2004]: UHPC anchor plates were
used for a post-tensioned soil anchor retaining wall system. 6,300
anchor plates with polymer fibers and 200 plates with steel fibers
were used on the sea-front on La Runion island. This solution with
UHPC was chosen for its durability performances and the anchor
plates closely matched the existing concrete retaining wall sections
and replaces the traditional steel anchor plate/ concrete bearing pad
system.
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 43

Non-metallic anchorage for prestressing (Ehab Shaheen and


Shrive, 2006] : A new nonmetallic anchorage system consisting of
UHPC and suitable for CFRP post tensioning tendons has been devel-
oped by Shaheen and Shrive [2006]. It consists of a CFRP-wrapped
barrel and four wedges. The anchors were tested for fatigue static capa-
bilities. The new CFRRPC anchorage system will provide a completely
metal-free environment, with similar dimensions to the previously
developed steel anchorage with 67% mass reduction.
Bond Durability (Ming Gin lee et al, 2007): The important
property of RPC controlling its utility as a repair material is the bond
with existing concrete substrate. Ming Lee et al [2007] evaluated the
bond strength and bond durability of three materials RC, HSM and
RPC wrt to old concrete. Accelerated test viz., namely the freeze-
thaw cycle acceleration deterioration used as per ASTM C666 (1997),
The specimens were subjected to 0, 300, 600, or 1000 freeze-thaw and
evaluated before and after freeze-thaw cycling for their abrasion coeffi-
cient, compressive strength, bond strength (slant shear test), steel pull
out strength, and relative dynamic modulus. The study showed that
RPC displays excellent repair and retrofit potentials on compressive
and flexural strengthening (200 and 15% increase). The abrasion coef-
ficient of RPC is about 8 times higher than that of normal strength
concrete and RPC is much more durable under free-thaw tests than
HSM and RC. The strength and durability of bond of RPC to steel
are much better.
Composite elements: Wuest[2006] investigated composite elements
with a reinforced concrete central core with two UHPFRC layers
with the objective to increase the load carrying capacity and to
improve Durability. The study showed that the UHPFRC layers pro-
vide an increased stiffness under service conditions and the high tensile
strength of UHPFRC produces a significant increase in ultimate force
of composite elements as compared to conventional concrete elements.
The composite elements structural behavior was not influenced by
varying the interface roughness.
Permeability of Cracked UHPC; Jean Charron and Brhwiler
[2008] tested RPC for water and glycol under tensile loads in cracked
condition. The experimental results demonstrated that permeability
and absorption increased steadily until a residual tensile deformation
of 0.13% is reached and later then water seeping rises distinctly. The
44 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

test results revealed the high capability of the material to seal cracks
and improve its water-tightness with time.
RPC Overlay: Katrin Habel et al [2007] investigated to assess the
rehabilitation potential of RPC for r existing concrete structures. 12
full-sized flexural beams with UHPFRC layer in tension were tested.
UHPFRC significantly improved the composite member structural
response, including the ultimate force, stiffness, and cracking behavior.
Composite UHPFRC-RC elements behaved monolithically under ser-
vice conditions. Interface cracks developed only once localized flexural
macrocracks had propagated through the UHPFRC layer and inter-
sected the interface zone near the ultimate load. The interface cracks
developed into localized debonding cracks for composite elements
without reinforcing bars in the UHPFRC layer (NR beams). Interface
cracks remained sufficiently small and did not cause UHPFRC layer
debonding in elements with reinforcing bars in the UHPFRC layer; 3.
Composite UHPFRC-RC element stiffness and resistance was further
increased when reinforcing bar was embedded in the UHPFRC layer.
A 2 Vol.-% of reinforcing bars were embedded in the UHPFRC layer
and increased the composite element’s apparent hardening magnitude
by three times and significantly delayed the formation of localized
macrocracks. In the UHPFRC softening domain, the force transfer
through the reinforcing bar enhanced the composite element structural
response by preventing debonding.
4.6.1 Applications of ECC to Repair
ECC can find variety of applications. A number of investigations
into the use of ECC in enhancing structural performance have been
conducted in recent years. These include the repair and retrofit of
pavements or bridge decks; the retrofit of building walls to withstand
strong seismic loading and the design of new framing systems These
studies often reveal unique characteristics of ECC and R/ECC (steel
reinforced ECC) in a structural context. These include high damage
tolerance, resistance to shear load, energy absorption, delamination
and spall resistance, and high deformability and tight crack width
control for durability.
Deck Slab in Michigan[Li et al, 2003]: A jointless bridge deck is
created by the replacement of the expandable mechanical joint with
a slab of deck material that is usually called a link slab. In 2001, the
Michigan DOT and University of Michigan (MDOT) assessed the fea-
sibility of implementing an ECC link slab. The Grove Street bridge
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 45

renovation project was selected as a demonstration site. ECC was used


directly over the gap between the beams of two adjacent simple bridge
decks, in the location where an expansion joint would be installed. The
ECC material was placed 5 percent of the span length into each adja-
cent span. By removing the expansion joint and replacing a portion of
the two adjacent decks with a section of ECC material over the joint,
a continuous deck surface was constructed.
Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear [Kanda et al, 1998]:
Since shear failure often involves diagonal tensile cracks, it is expected
that ECC structural members should exhibit improved ductility under
shear. This was established by testing the Ohio beam configuration
as shown Fig. 4.11. The pseudo strain-hardening behavior of ECC
revealed itself in the form of multiple diagonal cracks (Fig. 4.12) with
small crack widths of less than 0.1 mm even up to ultimate load.
In contrast, the FRC beam failed shortly after first crack load with
a single crack opening as the crack width increased at continuously
softening load. It is clear from Fig. 4.12 that the ductility of the ECC
beam is extensive in both pre-peak and post-peak phases. Indeed Li
et al showed that the ductility of this ECC beam is even better than
a similar beam with conventional shear reinforcement in the form of
a welded steel wire fabric.
Crack Width Control in RC Beam: Maalej and Li [2000] proposed
replacement for the concrete material that surrounds the main rein-
forcement in a regular reinforced concrete member. With this design
it was shown that crack widths under service load conditions can be
limited to values that could never be achieved using conventional steel
reinforcement and commonly used concrete and prevent the migra-
tion of aggressive substances into the concrete or the reinforcement.
Furthermore, accelerated corrosion due to longitudinal cracking or
spalling will be reduced if not eliminated, and spalling and delam-
ination problems common to many of today’s reinforced concrete
structures will be prevented [Fig. 4.13].
Energy Absorption in Plastic Hinge of Beam-Column Con-
nection [Kesner et al, 2001]: The damage tolerance of a structure
is the ability for the structure to sustain load-carrying capacity even
when overloaded into the inelastic range. In general, however, it may
be expected that the following properties of the concrete material in
the plastic hinge should be advantageous: (i) high compression strain
capacity to avoid loss of integrity by crushing, (ii) low tensile first
cracking strength to initiate damage within the plastic hinge, (iii)
46 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

high shear and spall resistance to avoid integrity loss by diagonal frac-
tures, and (iv) enhanced mechanisms that increases inelastic energy
dissipation. In a recent study, the use of a strain-hardening ECC to
achieve these objectives instead of increased shear steel reinforcement
was investigated [Fig. 4.14].
The hysteretic behavior showed that for the PC hinge, the displace-
ment ductility factor is about 4.8. For the ECC hinge, the displacement
ductility factor increases to 6.4, with less amount of pinching and a
much reduced rate of stiffness degradation. The damage is mostly
in the form of diagonal multiple cracking in perpendicular direction.
Unlike the control specimen which fail in a predominantly shear diag-
onal fracture, the ECC specimen fails by a vertical flexural crack at
the interface between ECC plastic hinge zone and the plain concrete
at the column face.
Resistance to Delamination and Spalling in Repaired Concrete
Structures[Lim et al, 1997]: In patch repairs, the common failure
modes are spalling and/or delamination between the new and old
concrete. In bridge deck or pavements overlay repairs, reflective crack
and spalling in the concrete overlays and/or delamination between the
bonded overlay and the old concrete substrate are often observed. Lee
found that the delamination and spalling modes can be both elimi-
nated by means of a kink-crack trapping process (Fig. 4.15) As the
load increases, the initial interface crack extends slightly but quickly
kinks into the ECC overlay. The kink crack was subsequently trapped
in the ECC so that further load increase forces crack extension into
the interface. The kinking-trapping process then repeats itself, result-
ing in a succession of kink cracks in the ECC. However, spalling of the
ECC was not observed since the kink crack does not propagate to the
specimen surface. Delamination of the interface was also eliminated
since the interface crack tip repeatedly kink into the ECC. In contrast,
the specimen with a regular FRC overlay shows the expected kink-
spall brittle fracture behavior. Fig. 4.15 illustrates the improvement
in load-deflection characteristics.

4.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS


Advanced cementitious composites, such as RPC, UHPFRC, CRC and
ECC are slowly gaining acceptance for many interesting applications
and are likely to be strong candidate materials for infrastructure con-
struction and repair in the years to come. Their outstanding properties
in terms of strength, stiffness, ductility and durability have contributed
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 47

to their superior performance. Added to this, the optimum utilization


of resource materials provides a very attractive feature. CSIR-SERC
has been working on the development and utility of ACCs over the last
few years and the technology and for production is currently available.
Although the materials are costly in the present context, the cost will
come down with increase in usage over the years.

4.8 REFERENCES
1. Acker P., and Behloul M., “Ductal Technology: a Large Spectrum
of Properties, a Wide Range of Applications”, Proc. Int. Symp.
on UHPC, Kassel, Germany, 2004, pp 11–25
2. Arnon Bentur and Sidney Mindess, “Fiber reinforced Cemeti-
tious composites”, Modern concrete technology series, Taylor and
Francis, Oxon, 2007
3. Bache H. H., Introduction to Compact Reinforced Composite,
Nordic concrete research, No.6, pp 19–33, 1997
4. Bickley J. A., and Mitchell D., (2001), “A state-of -the - Art
Review of High performance Concrete structures Built in Canada:
1990-2000”, pp.96–102
5. Dauriac C., “Special Concrete may give steel stiff competition,
Building with Concrete”, The Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce,
May 9., 1997
6. Ehab Shaheen and Nigel G., Shrive, “Optimization of mechan-
ical properties and durability of reactive powder concrete”, ACI
Materials Journal, Nov. - Dec 2006, pp. 444–451.
7. Fehling E., Bunje K., Schmidt M., Schreiber W., 2004a, “Ultra
High Performance Concrete Bridge across the River Fulda in
Kassel - Conceptual Design, ”, Design Calculations and Invi-
tation to Tender ” Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Ultra High Performance Concrete, Kassel University Press,
Kassel, Germany, pp 69–76
8. Fehling E., and Bunje K., Leutbecher T., 2004b, “Design rele-
vant Properties of hardened Ultra High Performance Concrete,”
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ultra High Per-
formance Concrete, Kassel University Press, Kassel, Germany, pp
327–338.
9. Guerrini G. L., “Applications of High-Performance Fiber-
Reinforced Cement-Based Composites”, Naaman A. E., Rein-
hardt H. W., ” Proposed classification of HPFRC composites
48 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

based on theirtensile response”, Materials and Structures 39,2006


pp. 547–555
10. Jacques Resplendino, “Ultra-High-Performance Concrete : First
Recommendations and Examples of Application”, Proceedings of
the International Symposium on Ultra High Performance Con-
crete, Kassel University Press, Kassel, Germany, 2004, Part 2pp
79–89
11. Jean-Philippe Charron, Emmanuel Denari, Eugen Brhwil,
“Transport properties of water and glycol in an ultra high
performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) under high ten-
sile deformation”, Cement and Concrete Research 38 2008 pp
689-698
12. John Wuest, “Structural behaviour of reinforced concrete Ele-
ments improved by layers of ultra high Performance reinforced
concrete”, 6th international phd symposium in civil engineering,
Zurich, August 23-26, 2006, pp 1–8
13. Katrin Habel, Emmanuel Denari, and Eugen Brhwiler, ’Exper-
imental Investigation of Composite Ultra-High-Performance
Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and Conventional Concrete Members’,
ACI Structural Journal /January-February 2007, pp 93–101
14. Kanda T., Watanabe S., and Li V. C., “Application of Pseudo
Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites to Shear Resistant
Structural Elements”, in Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Struc-
tures Proc. FRAMCOS-3, AEDIFICATIO Publishers, D-79104
Freiburg, Germany, 1998 pp 1477–1490,.
15. Kendall K., Howard A. J., Birchall J. D., The relation between
porosity, microstructure and strength, and the approach to
advanced cement-based materials, Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society of London, A 310, London, England, 1983, pp
139–153.
16. Kesner K. E., and Billington S. L., “Investigation of Duc-
tile Cement-Based Composites for Seismic Strengthening and
Retrofit,” in Fracture Mechanics of Concrete Structures, de Bost
et al (eds), A.A. Balkema, Netherlands, 2001, pp 65–72,
17. Ming-Gin Lee, Yung-Chih Wang and Chui-Te Chiu, “A prelimi-
nary study of reactive powder concrete as a new repair material”,
Construction and Building Materials 21 2007 pp 182–189
18. Li V. C., “Engineered Cementitious Composites - Tailored Com-
posites Through Micromechanical Modeling,” in Fiber Reinforced
Concrete: Present and the Future. Eds. N. Banthia et al, CSCE,
Montreal, 1998, pp 64–97, .
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 49

19. Li V. C., Kong H. J., and Chan Y. W., “Development of


Self-Compacting Engineered Cementitious Composites,” in Pro-
ceedings, International Workshop on Self-Compacting Concrete,
Kochi, Japan, 1998 pp 46–59, .
20. Li V. C., Fischer G., Kim Y., Lepech M., Qian S., Weimann
M., and Wang S., Durable Link Slabs for Jointless Bridge Decks
Based on Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites, University
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2003.
21. Lim Y. M., and Li V. C., “Durable Repair of Aged Infrastructures
Using Trapping Mechanism of Engineered Cementitious Com-
posites” J. Cement and Concrete Composites, 19(4) 1997 pp
373–385, .
22. Maalej M., and Li V. C., “Introduction of Strain Hardening
Engineered Cementitious Composites in the Design of Rein-
forced Concrete Flexural Members for Improved Durability,” ACI
Structural J., 92(2), 1995. 2000. pp 167–176,
23. Parra-Montesinos G. J., and Wight J. K., “Seismic Response
of Exterior RC Column-to-Steel Beam Connections,” ASCE J.
Structural Engineering, pp 1113–1121
24. Richard P., and Cheyrezy M., “Composition of Reactive Powder
Concretes”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.25, No.7, 1995,
1995 pp 1501–1511.
25. Rossi P., High Performance Multimodal Fiber Reinforced Cement
Composites (HPMFRCC)The LCPC Experience, ACI Materials
Journal, Vol. 94, No. 6, November - December, 1997, pp 478–483.
26. Roux N., Andrade C., Sanjuan M. A., Experimental Study
of Durability of Reactive PowderConcretes, ASCE Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 1, February, 1996,
pp 1–6
50 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Table 4.1 Comparison of important properties of ACCs


Material Young’s Tensile Fracture Ductility
modulus E strength, σt energy, EG σt2
MPa MPa GF, N/m (mm)F
Cement 7000 4 20 10
DSP paste 15000 20 20(*) 0.8
Concrete 30000 3 60 200
DSP mortar 50000 20 100 12.5
DSP mortar 60000 40 16000 600
+6% vol. of fiber
CRC 100000 10 1.2 × 106 8300
RPC 50000 20 1200 150
-2000

Table 4.2 Durability of RPC compared to HPC [Dauriac, 1997]

Abrasive wear 2.5 times lower


Water absorption 7 times lower
Rate of corrosion 8 times lower
Chloride ions diffusion 25 times lower

Table 4.3 Durability comparison: HPC (80MPa) and RPC


200[Bickley and Mitchell, 2001]

Property HPC (80MPa) RPC200


Freeze - thaw, 90 RDF** 100RDF**
ASTM C666A
Salt scaling 80 g /cm2 < 10 g/cm2
Carbonation Depth: 36 2 mm 0 mm
days in CO2
Abrasion 275 *10-12 m2 /s 1.2*10-12 m2 /s
Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 51

Table 4.4 Comparison of different types of FRCCs


Design N.A. Use high Vf Micromechanics
Methodology based,
minimize Vf for
cost and
processibility
Fiber Any type, Mostly Vf Tailored,
Vf usually steel, usually >
polymer fibers, Vf
less than 2%; 5%; df < 50μm
df for df 150μm
df < 50μm
steel 500 μm
Matrix Coarse Fine Controlled
aggregates aggregates
for matrix
toughness, flaw
size; fine
sand
Interface Not controlled Not Chemical and
controlled frictional
bonds controlled for
bridging properties
Mechanical Strain Strain Strain
Properties -softening: -hardening: hardening:
Tensile 0.1% ¡1.5% >3% (typical);
strain 8% max
Crack Unlimited Typically Typically
several < 100
width hundred
micrometers, micrometers
unlimited during strain-
beyond 1.5% hardening
strain

Table 4.5 Material mix proportions of ECC

Materials Cement SF SP w/c Aggregates,


FA/CA
ECC 1 0.10-020 0.01-0.03 0.30-0.32 -
FRC 1 - - 0.45 1.73/1.73
52 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 4.1 Mechanism of DSP

Fig. 4.2 Principle of UHPFRC

Fig. 4.3 Evolution of of ACCs


Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 53

Fig. 4.4 Classification of cement Composites

Fig. 4.5 Lancaster Intensive Mixe

Fig. 4.6 Eirich Intemsive Mixer with Planetary Action


54 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 4.7 Tensile Stress-strain Behaviour of ECC and FRC

20 mm (a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 4.8 Damage Evolution in ECC Uniaxial Tensile Specimens at


Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 55

Fig. 4.9 UHPC Beams in Cattenom Power Plant

Fig. 4.10 UHPC Anchor Plates


56 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 4.11 Ohio Shear Critical Beam Application of UHPC

Fig. 4.12 Load deflection behaviour and crack pattern


Advanced Cement Composites (ACCS)- Production and Application to Repair 57

114
16
φ=5
102
127
φ = 10
152
25
16
13

Unit = mm

152

305 305 305

Control RC Beams
20 RC Beams with ECC layer

1.6

Crack width (mm)


Moment (kN/m)

15
1.2

10
0.8

5 0.4

0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Fig. 4.13 RC Beam with ECC Cover and Load-deflection


Behaviour

Fig. 4.14 ECC Hinge at Beam -column Joints


58 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 4.15 Illustration of Performance Characteristics of ECC


Overlay
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 59–78

5 Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and


Rehabilitation of Concrete

Meyappan Neelamegam,
S cientist-G
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: nellm@serc.org

5.1 INTRODUCTION
In a tropical country like India that has more than 3000 KM of coastal
line and where approximately 80% of the annual rainfall takes place
in the two monsoon months, corrosion related problems are alarming.
In metro cities, the carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions aggravate
the situation further by neutralizing the concrete cover. Typically, a
R.C. Structures require major restoration work within 15 years of its
construction. With the ageing of nation’s infrastructures, many of the
existing concrete structures have outlasted their useful life and it is
rather dangerous to continue to use them without any strengthening,
keeping in view the present day requirements. In recent years, the
concrete construction industry has faced a very significant challenge
in view of the rapid rate of deterioration of infrastructure. One of the
major reasons is that infrastructure is required in such severe exposure
condition where construction activity was not even imaginable earlier.
A large number of bridges, buildings and other structural elements
require repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting. Effect of environment,
increase in both traffic volume and truck weights and re-design and
strengthening of old structures, which may have been adequate as per
old codes of practice but are not structurally adequate as per the
current codes of practice, are all the factors that contribute to the
infrastructure becoming either structurally deficient or functionally
obsolete. Because of the dwindling of resources and serious economic
crunch faced by the construction industry, abandoning of existing
structures/ or replacement by a new construction fulfilling the present
needs, does not seems to be an economical agenda. Hence, the current
60 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

trend all over the world seems to be to rehabilitate a existing structures


rather than building a new one.
There is currently a range of techniques available for extend-
ing the useful life of structurally deficient and functionally obsolete
structures. One such technique is adding fibre reinforced polymer
composites (FRPC’s) as external reinforcement in conjunction with
concrete-polymer composites as repair materials. Since 1970‘s research
and development work on concrete polymer composites have been
carried out in many research centres, academic institutions and pri-
vate organizations in India. Considerable work on concrete polymer
composites has also been carried out by Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research (CSIR) laboratories in India, especially, at the
Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Chennai, Central
Building Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee, Central Road Research
Institute (CRRI), New Delhi and laboratories at Bhopal, Jorhat and
Thiruvanthapuram in India. This paper briefly presents studies on
the use of fibre reinforced polymer composites for repair, rehabilita-
tion and retrofitting of reinforced concrete structural elements. At the
Laboratories of CSIR, India, Indian Institutes of Technologies (IIT’s),
Anna University, Annamalai University, etc.
5.1.1 Repair Methodology
A basic understanding of the causes of concrete deficiency is essential
to perform meaningful evaluations and successful repair. If the causes
of deficiency is understood, it is much more likely that an appropriate
repair system will be selected and, consequently, that the repair will be
successful and the maximum life of the repair will be obtained. Symp-
toms or observations of a deficiency should be differentiated from the
actual cause of the deficiency, and it is imperative that causes and not
symptoms be dealt with wherever possible or practical. For example,
cracking can be symptom of distress that may have variety of causes
such as, drying shrinkage, thermal cycling, accidental over-loading,
corrosion of embedded metal or inadequate design or construction.
Only after the cause or causes of deficiency are determined can rational
decisions be made regarding the selection of a proper repair material
system and implementation of the repair process.

5.2 SELECTION OF REPAIR MATERIALS


The selection of repair materials is a predictive effort to maximize
future performance or durability. Therefore, selection must be based
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 61

on the knowledge of the physical and chemical properties, the function


the designers plans to impose on them, and the nature of the environ-
ment in which they will be placed. Also, in choosing a material, the
designer must be aware that it will posses same properties other than
those required for the basic function. Frequently, these will have a
greater influence on its durability in service than the properties that
dictated its choice. Consequently, all the properties of material must
be considered in the light of both function of requirements and the
effects of the microenvironments.
Durable repairs can be obtained only by matching the properties
of the base concrete with those of the repair material indented for use.
Therefore, the selection of appropriate material is imperative for the
purpose. Some of the material properties that should be considered
when selecting a repair material include:
• Dimensional stability
• Effective adhesion with parent concrete
• Development of positive grip with rebars
• Coefficient of thermal expansion
• Modulus of elasticity
• Permeability
• Chemical compatibility
• Electrical properties
• Fast gain in strength
• Durability even under adverse atmosphere conditions
• Easy of application
In addition to the material properties, the choice of the right
product also depends on the anticipated service conditions and the
prevailing conditions at the time of application of the products.

5.3 POLYMERS
All matter in this world is composed of extremely small units called
molecules. They are too small to be seen even under the most powerful
microscope and are a complex association of atoms. Molecules come in
different sizes and shapes. Molecules of plastics are much larger than
the ordinary molecules. They are giant molecules in the form of long
chain which are called polymers. ‘Poly‘ means many and ‘meros‘ means
parts. Thus polymer means ‘composed of many parts or many units‘.
Each polymer chain is made up of thousands of smaller molecules like
62 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

a string of glass beads. The small parts or beads in the string are called
monomers (mono means single). They are the building blocks of the
polymer chain. These monomers are organic molecules consisting of
carbon atoms as their base with the atoms of some other elements
like hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine or sulphur sticking to them. All the
monomers in a polymer chain are identical but the monomers of two
different polymers differ in their chemical composition.
5.3.1 Types of Polymers
The distinction between types of polymers is based on their reaction
to heating and cooling.
5.3.2 Thermoplastic polymers
Thermoplastic polymer soften upon heating, and can be made to flow
when a stress is applied. When cooled again, they reversibly regain
their solid or rubbery nature. Continued heating of thermoplastics
will lead ultimately to degradation, but they will generally soften at
temperatures below their degradation points.
5.3.3 Thermosetting polymers
Thermosetting polymers are materials which can be heated to the
point where they would soften and made to flow under stress. How-
ever, they do not revert to the original solid state as the heating
causes the material to undergo a curing reaction. Often, these poly-
mers emerge from their synthesis reaction in a cured state. Further
heating ultimately leads only to degradation and not softening and
flow.
5.3.4 Applications of Polymers
In building construction the application of polymers can be classified
in various ways, for example:
• Nonstructural polymers
• Structural and semi-structural polymers
• Auxiliaries to other materials
The first group constitutes, by far, the greatest volume and
number of different uses. The second group include patch repair,
overlays, linings to concrete/ steel products, injection to structural
cracks, strengthening of structural elements, etc. Auxiliaries include
adhesives, bonding agents, sealants, and decorative and protective
coatings.
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 63

5.4 TYPES OF CONCRETE POLYMER COMPOSITES


Depending on the manner in the polymeric materials are incorporated,
concrete polymer composites can be classified under the following
three major types:
• Polymer Modified Cement Composites (PMCC): In
PMCCs, polymeric materials are incorporated into cement com-
posites (cement concrete or cement mortar)during the mixing
stage. The composite is then cast to the required shape in the
conventional manner and is cured in a manner similar to the cur-
ing of cement concrete. The hydrated cement and the polymer
film, formed due to the curing of the polymeric material, form an
inter penetrating network that binds the aggregates .
• Resin Concrete (RC) also called polymer Concrete (PC):
In these, polymers are used as the binders of the aggregates, in
lieu of the cement water binder system adopted in cement com-
posites. Monomers or pre polymers are mixed with the aggregates
and the mix is cast to the required shape or form. The mix is then
polymerized either at the room temperature. The polymer phase
binds the aggregates to give a strong composite.
• Polymer Impregnated Concrete (PIC): In PIC, monomers
or pre polymers are impregnated into the pore system of hard-
ened cement composites and are then polymerized. A very strong
composite viz., PIC, results, in which cured polymer fills almost
all the pores.

5.5 POLYMER MODIFIED CEMENT REPAIR MATERIALS


5.5.1 Concrete Crack Repair Systems
The success of many crack repair applications depends on repair mate-
rials that have significantly different properties, such as high elasticity
and low modulus of elasticity, from that of substrate, and that will
perform better than the base concrete in the service environment. In
general, slight concrete cracks due to drying shrinkage, heat of hydra-
tion or poor placing joints in concrete structures are repaired by the
following three methods:
• Coating or lining using polymer modified pastes over concrete
cracks with widths of 0.20mm or less.
• Injection using polymer-modified pastes into concrete cracks with
widths of 0.20 to 1.00mm.
64 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

• Grouting polymer modified mortars into concrete cracks with


widths of 1.00mm or more. The polymer-modified pastes and
mortars such as styrerne butadiene rubber (SBR) latex, poly-
acrylic easter (PAE) emulsion and poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate)
(EVA)- modified pastes and redispersible polymer powders
such as poly(vinyl acetate-vinyl-versatate-acrylic ester) (VA/Veo
Va/AE), poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and poly(vinyl
acetate-vinyl versatate) (VA/Veo Va) powders are used for such
concrete crack repair systems.
5.5.2 Polymer-Cement Grout
Polymer-cement grout is a mixture consisting of primarily of cement,
fine aggregate, water and a polymer such as acrylic, styrene-acrylic,
styrene-butadiene, or a water-borne epoxy. The consistency of this
material may vary from a stiff material suitable for hand-packing
large cracks on overhead, and vertical surfaces to a pourable consis-
tency suitable for gravity feeding cracks in horizontal slabs. Typical
properties of polymer cement grouts are presented in Table 5.1.
Polymer-Modified Mortar/Concrete for Patch Repair Sys-
tems
5.5.3 Polymer Modified Concrete (PMC)
PMC has been of considerable interest to engineers because of its
similarity in process technology to conventional concrete. Most of the
monomers used successfully with PIC and PC have not worked well
when added to fresh concrete. However, polymer latexes have been
used very successfully to make latex modified concretes(LMC) and
mortars (LMM). Polymer latexes are usually copolymer systems such
as vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, and butadiene, besides elastomeric
systems like acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), neoprene, and styrene
butadiene(SBR). Polymer cement ratio is generally 6 20% by weight.
Epoxies are also available which can be added to fresh concrete to
improve properties of hardened concrete. Table 5.2 gives the typical
properties of polymer modified mortar and ordinary cement mortar.
PMC and PMM are increasingly used for rehabilitation because
they are cement based and therefore, give homogeneity to the sys-
tem and the repair materials, and are more compatible with concrete
compared to all other PC composites. The simple process technology
and low cost due to comparatively lower polymer content are added
attractions. Further, the alkaline nature of the repair material restores
the alkalinity of deteriorated concrete and arrests further corrosion of
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 65

rebars. After patch repairing with PMC or PMM, it is a common prac-


tice to coat the entire repaired surface with a protective coating using
elastomeric membrane forming materials like.
Acrylics in order to arrest the diffusion of harmful CO2 and Cl,
while at the same time, permitting escape of moisture, and thus
enabling the repaired structure to breathe.
Nowadays, PMC used for repair works generally consists of one dry
and one or two liquid components. The dry component is a ready
mixed mortar containing cement, gravel, and additives like redis-
persible polymer powder, shrinkage compensators, etc. The liquid
may be pure water or water mixed with acrylic or epoxy emulsion.
An advantage of solvent free PMC/PMM is the ease of adjusting
the working rhythm as against the pot life and film forming resis-
tance of polymer solutions. They are economical while maintaining
the technical value .
Several case histories on the use of PMC/PMM for the repair of
buildings and bridges have been documented. It has been estimated
that about 60000 m3 of SBR based LMC is used in US every year for
new as well as old construction. Fig. 5.1 shows the typical applica-
tions methods for repair materials for deteriorated reinforced concrete
structures.
5.5.4 Crack Repair Resin Materials
Epoxies
Crack width less than .05mm are generally not treated or considered
treatable. Very thin cracks may seal themselves due to autogeneous
healing, which occurs when the cement continues to hydrate and car-
bonates, forming calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide crystals
that can seal the cracks. Epoxies are used to repair cracks ranging
from 0.05 to 6.00mm in width. The most common method of appli-
cation in the range of 0.05 to 0.12mm is pressure injection method
into the cracks. Epoxy resins are the most common materials used in
pressure injection to repair cracks in this width range. Cracks in hori-
zontal slabs that are between 0.01 and 6.00mm. may filled by grouting
or ponding the epoxy over the crack. The depth of penetration is deter-
mined by the viscosity, pot life and surface tension of the epoxy resin.
The standards classifies into seven different types of epoxies depends
upon the applications. Typical properties of epoxy resins are given in
Table 5.3.
66 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

5.5.5 High-Molecular Weight Methacrylate (HMWM)


HMWM is an ester of methacrylic acid that contains carbon atoms
separated by double bonds through which the material polymerizes to
a solid. High molecular weight is a term used to differentiate methary-
lates by high and low volatile content and flash point; this molecular
weight has been arbitrarily chosen as 150. High adhesive strengths
make these materials suitable for structural repairs. Low viscosity
(25cP and less) and a more forgiving mixing ratio than epoxies make
these materials easy to mix. HMWMs are available in many mod-
uli and reaction rates, makes them versatile materials appropriate for
many application requirements. HMWMs are typically used as a struc-
tural bonding, waterproofing repair or both, for cracks 0.12mm and
greater in width. Because of their low viscosities, HMWMs are often
used on horizontal surfaces to flood the surface and fill the cracks with
the adhesive. Table 5.4 gives the Typical Properties of HMWM.
Polyurethane Chemical Grout: Polyurethane chemical grouts are
widely used to repair cracks that are both wet and active, or that
are leaking a significant amount of water. These grouts are semi-
flexible; thus, they may tolerate some change in crack width. The
reaction time to form the foam may be controlled from a few sec-
onds upto several minutes using different catalyst and additives. These
grouts penetrates effectively, and the technique of chemical grouting
is a water-proven method of repairing cracks. Polyurethane chemical
grouts may be used to treat cracks that are 0.12mm and greater in
width. These materials are pressure injected at the high pressure. In
contrast to epoxy resins that are suitable for dormant, dry or damp
cracks, polyurethane chemical grouts are suitable for injection of ver-
tical, overhead, and horizontal cracks that are active or leaking. These
characteristics make them particularly suited for vertical, overhead
and horizontal applications, and it is their ability to stop active leaks,
that makes them particularly well suited for tanks for the storage
of liquids, dams, tunnels, sewers and other water-containment struc-
tures. Typical properties of polyurethane chemical growth are given in
Table 5.5.
5.5.6 Silicone sealants
Silicone sealants are based on polymers where the polymer back
bone consists of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with carbon-
containing side groups. They have different curing mechanisms,
depending on the end group of the polymer. Typically, fumed silica,
plasticizers, calcium carbonate fillers, and silanes for adhesion. Sealant
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 67

performance life typically is 3 to 10 years. Silicon sealants are gener-


ally used to seal cracks that are from 2.5 to 50mm in width.Typical
properties of silicon sealant are shown in Table. 5.6a and 5.6b
5.5.7 Polymer Grout
Polymer grout is a mixture where the polymer, such as an epoxy resin,
serves as the binder, and where sand, usually an oven-dried silica with
a grading from 0.8 to 0.4mm is the filler. The consistency of this mate-
rial may vary from a stiff material suitable for hand-packing large
cracks on overhead and vertical surfaces to a pour able consistency
suitable for gravity feeding cracks in horizontal slabs. Polymer grouts
bond extremely well to concrete and have low shrinkage, resulting
in a liquid tight repair in dormant cracks. Similar to epoxy resins,
polymer grouts are suitable cracks requiring structural repairs. Mate-
rials of varying consistencies are readily available to repair cracks in
vertical, overhead, and horizontal applications. Some polymer grouts,
depending on the binder used, are moisture tolerant, and will cure in
the presence of moisture. While a few polymer grouts may effectively
bond to concrete with some moisture present in the concrete pores,
moist polymer grouts marketed in the engineering and construction
community will not bond to the concrete in the presence of moisture.
The chemical resistance of polymer grout is generally much better
than the substrate concrete. Finally, these materials may be designed
for a fast cure to minimize the downtime because of repairs.
5.5.8 Polymer Concrete(PC)
Polymer Concrete Patching Materials: PC can provide a fast curing,
high-strength patch material suitable for use in the repair of Portland
cement concrete structures. Many PC patching materials are primarily
designed for the repair of highway structures where traffic conditions
allow closing of a repair area for only a few hours. PCs are not lim-
ited to that usage: however, and can be formulated for a wide variety
of application needs. For any patching, the following aspects of the
repair should be given consideration by the user; a) evaluating the
surface to be repaired, b) preparing the surface, c) materials selection,
d) PC formulations, e) placement techniques, f)cleanup of tools and
equipments, and g) safety.
Initial use of PC was almost exclusively for repair of ordinary PCC.
The excellent bond of PC to concrete and very rapid cure time(30-90
minutes) make PC an ideal repair material, especially in urban areas
where fast, permanent repairs are essential. Added to these advantages
68 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

are the possibility of tailoring its properties to suit any particular


situation, excellent chemical resistance, and high bond strength. The
most common types of monomers used to produce PC are methyl
methacrylate (MMA), unsaturated polyester(UP) resin, and epoxies,
besides furan, urethane, furfuryl alcohol, and vinyl ester which are also
occasionally used.
In carrying out PC repairs, it is recommended that all unsound
concrete be removed and all surfaces to which PC will bond to be
cleaned, preferably by sand/steel shot blasting, and dried. Corrosive
scale should be removed from reinforcing steel. The monomer system
is added just prior to the mixing and placing of PC. The PC repair
can be carried out in two ways: (i) Dry pack system in which the
aggregates are prepacked and vibrated into the crater location and
then infiltrated by a low viscosity monomer like MMA. The repair
can then be finished and levelled by a more viscous monomer system;
(ii) Premixed PC in which the aggregates and monomer are mixed
together in a wheel barrow or a conventional concrete mixer and then
directly applied to the surface and levelled. The dry pack system,
although simple in principle, results in segregation of aggregates and in
case of wet aggregates or sudden rains , the initial moisture may affect
proper coating of aggregates. The premixed system on the other hand
results in a more cohesive and uniform mix, and is more popularly
used in practice. Many repairs have been carried out in a number of
bridges, pavements, foundations, and hydraulic structures using PC,
generally with excellent results. A typical resin mortar mix consists of
1 part of resin and hardener to 3 parts of sand. The aggregates are
predried and may be graded to impart unique surface properties.
Polyesters require accurate control of proportions and mixing. They
cure faster than epoxies and less sensitive to lower temperatures. How-
ever they shrink more and at a faster rate and therefore can be applied
in very thin sections only.
Vinyl esters combine resiliency, impact resistance, and excellent
chemical resistance. They are generally used for severe climatic envi-
ronments encountered in the paper and pulp, food, and beverage, and
chemical industries. Typical applications areas are floors, trenches,
and pickling and plating tanks.
The most widely used patching materials are based on acrylic
monomers. Two types of monomers are used: methyl methacry-
late(MMA), which has been used for over three decades and high
molecular weight methacrylates(HMWMA), a relatively new material.
Because of the disagreeable odour and high inflammability, there has
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 69

been a general reluctance in adopting MMA based PCs. The devel-


opment of HMWMA seems to have solved this problem to a great
extent. They have low viscosities and can be poured or sprayed onto
concrete and brushed on concrete surfaces. They are especially suit-
able for sealing of narrow cracks because of their excellent wettability
and can fill cracks as narrow as 0.2mm in width. They are odourless,
possess higher flash point (> 100◦ C), higher solvent resistance, and
are non toxic. They can be cured by ultra violet radiation in 2 5 hours
even at low temperatures.
5.5.9 Polymer Impregnated Concrete (PIC)
PIC was developed in the 1950s and received wide publicity in the 60s
and 70s. However, full depth PIC never became a commercial reality
in US, although partial depth PIC (PD PIC) was used for providing
durability to floors, bridge decks, and hydraulic structures in 1970s.
When it was discovered that some bridges had developed high chlo-
ride contents beneath the impregnated zone, apparently due to cracks
caused by the high temperature required for drying and/or polymer-
ization, the wide scale applications of PD PIC also received a set back.
Besides this, the complicated process technology for impregnation cre-
ates an undesirable balance between their performance and cost for
various practical applications. However, interest in this technique has
not completely subsided and quite a few applications continue to be
reported in the recent literature.
Recently, concrete sealing compounds like alkoxy silanes, alkoxy
siloxanes, and metallic stearates have entered the market with claims
of providing surface protection like surface impregnation. However,
they do not provide the same extent of surface penetration and abra-
sion resistance, and their long term durability and performance are
suspect, due to possibility of removal from surface due to shallow depth
of penetration.
The process technology of PIC, particularly for insitu applications,
needs further improvement to make it economically viable in order
that a process of rethinking may occur with regard to its large scale
commercial applications.

5.6 APPLICATION AREAS OF FFMC


In several important industrial installations, often damaged or dis-
tressed reinforced concrete structural components may have to be
replaced or encased within shortest possible time. On account of high
70 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

early strength of these “free flow concrete”, such a replacement or


encasement is feasible without any risk. As mentioned above, it is
compatible with conventional concrete. It has excellent adhesive prop-
erties and develops positive grip with reinforcements or embedment.
The restraint is that it has to be restrained from expansion for at least
48 hours to get the optimum results. In one of the paper plants, at
Badravathi, in Karnataka, corrosion affected areas in reinforced con-
crete gables had to be restored without affecting the running of the
plant below. The job could be done effectively with this material.

5.7 INTELLIGENT REPAIR MATERIALS


Polymer-modified mortar with nitrite-type hydrocalumite:
Nitrite-type hydrocalumite [3CaO.Al2 O3 .Ca(NO2 )2 .nH2 O(n =11-12)]
is a corrosion-inhibiting admixture or anti-corrosive admixtures
which can observe the chloride ions (Cl− ) inhibiting the corro-
sion as expressed by the following formula, 3CaO .Al2 O3 .nH2 O+2Cl
+ 3CaO.Al2 O3 .CaCl2 .nH2 O+2NO2 and provides excellent corrosion-
inhibiting property to the reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete.
Polymer-modified mortars using polymer dispersions and redispersible
polymer powders with the nitrite-type hydrocalumite (calumite) have
superior corrosion-inhibiting property and durability, and attract
notice as effective repair materials for deteriorated reinforced concrete
structures. A calumite content of around 5-10% is recommended to
make effective repair mate4r5ials for deteriorated reinforced concrete
structures.

5.8 HARDENER-FREE EPOXY-MODIFIED MORTARS WITH


AUTOHEALING OR SELF-REPAIRING FUNCTION
Ohama et. al. developed a hardener-free epoxy resin-hydraulic cement
system with a new concept in the early 1990s. In this system, hardener-
free epoxy resin can harden in the presence of alkali or hydroxide
ions produced by the hydration cement, the unhardened epoxy resin
phase may be sealed with the hardened epoxy resin forms self-capsuled
epoxy resin phase has an autohealing or self-repairing functions for
microcracks is shown in Fig. 5.2.
There have been many recent developments in the production of
more durable concrete. Self-healing of concrete provides a valid and
practical solution to the problems. Even a combined model of auto-
genic and autonomic principle may be incorporated for better solution.
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 71

These systems will be highly applicable in the remote and physically


unreachable portion of the structure, where direct repair is not possi-
ble from outside. The self-healing technology may be also used in that
portion of concrete structure where the reinforcing bars are in danger
of corrosion. The chemical in the microcapsule, micro tube or spores
should be then a corrosion inhibitor that will delay the corrosion by
releasing corrosion inhibiting chemicals. There by the life span of the
reinforced concrete structure will be substantially increased.

5.9 FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES


Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) is a composite material generally con-
sisting of carbon, aramid or glass fibres in a polymeric matrix. FRP
composites are, as the name suggests, a composition of two or more
materials which, when properly combined, from a different material
with properties not available from the ingredients alone. Depending
on the ingredients chosen and the method of combining them, a large
variety of properties can be achieved. A brittle material can be made
more ductile by adding a softer material; conversely a soft material
can be made stiffer. Fig. 5.3 shows the typical application procedure.

5.10 CONCLUDING REMARKS


The selection of appropriate types of polymers and concrete polymer
composites is one of the most important steps in their applications,
such as, new construction, specific products and repair and rehabili-
tation works. The civil engineer is confronted with an infinite number
of proprietary materials and products available in the market and is
liable to err on this count. Commercial literature speaks abundantly
about the advantages of the materials and products but is highly defi-
cient regarding necessary technical data and suitability for specific
applications. Concrete polymer composites are being used extensively
in India for repair of damaged RC structural elements. With the fast
growing knowledge about the advantages of other applications, such
as, PC floorings and overlays and specific products, such as, floor tiles,
insulators, etc., the usage is expected to steadily increased.

5.11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This paper is published with the kind permission of the Director,
SERC, Chennai. The authors sincerely thank their colleagues and
72 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

technical staff in the Concrete Composites Laboratory of SERC for


their help and encouragement.

5.12 REFERENCES
1. Neol Mailavaganam, “Repair and Production of Concrete Struc-
tures”, CRC Press, 1991.
2. Dorel Feldman,“Polymeric Building Materials”, Elsevier Applied
Science, London-New York, 575 pp.
3. Satish Chandra and Yoshihiko Ohama, “Polymers in Concrete”,
CRC Press, 1994.
4. Yoshihoko Ohama, “Hand Book of Polymer-Modified Concrete
and Mortars, Properties and Process Technology”, Noyes Publi-
cations, 236 pp.
5. Rajamane N. P., Neelamegam M., Peter J. A., Dattatreya J. K
and Gopalakrishnan S., “Development and Applications of Natu-
ral Rubber Latex Modified Concretes”, Internal Technical Report,
No. MLP 06641/1/97, SERC, March 1997.
6. Bentur A., “Properties of Polymer Latex-Cement Steel Fibre
Composites”, International Journal of Cement Composite and
Lightweight Concrete, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1981, pp 283–289.
7. Viswanatha C. S.,“ Restoration Materials for Concrete
Structures- a recent Trend”, Proceedings of ICI-Asian Confer-
ence on Escasy in Concrete (ICI-ACECON-2000), Nov. 2000,
Bangalore, India, pp 393–400.
8. Oshiro T., Yamada Y., Tanigawa S. and Goto N., “Deterioration
of R.C Buildings Under Marine Environment”, Concrete Under
Severe Conditions and Loading, Vol. 1, E & FN Spon, pp 523–532.
9. Fowler D.W., “Status of Concrete-Polymer-Materials”, proceed-
ing of the vi International Congress on Polymers in Concrete,
Shangai, China, 1990, pp 10–27.
10. Shaw, J.D.N., “Concrete Decay: causes and Remedies”, proceed-
ing of the Seminar on Corrosion and deterioration in Concrete,
1991.
11. “New Millinium New Material, FRPs”, Concrete Engineering
International, Vol. 2, No. 8, Nov-Dec. 1998, pp 29–31.
12. Ir. Bart Herrelen, Triconsult N. V. and Ir.Kris Brosens, “CFRC
Roof Repair” Concrete Engineering International, Vol. 2, No. 2,
March 1998, pp 55–56.
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 73

13. Subrahmanyam B.V, Neelamegam .M, Rajamane N. P, Joseph


G.P, Pandian .N, Karim E.A And Rao E.U. Modular Light-
beacon Tower of Polymer Impregnated Ferrocement, Journal of
Ferrocement, Vol.16, No.3, July 1986, pp 263–271.
14. Neelamegam M., Parameswaran V. S. Durability of Glass Fibre
Reinforced Polymer Composites, Proceeding of the IV RILEM
International Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Sheffield,
UK., pp 802–821.
15. Neelamegam M., Dattatreya J. K., Parameswaran V. S. PC Com-
posite Laminates for Strengthening RC Beams, Proceeding of the
VIII International Congress on Polymers in Concrete, July 1995,
pp 149–154.
16. Neelamegam M., Dattatreya J. K. Behaviour of Concrete Beams
with Externally Bonded Polymer Impregnated Highly Reinforced
Ferrocement Plates, Proc., Second East Asia Pacific Symposium
on Polymers in Concrete, Nihon University, Koriyama, Japan,
May 11–13, 1997, pp 493–502.
17. Neelamegam M., Dattatreya J. K ,Parameswaran V. S. PC Com-
posite Laminates for Strengthening RC Beams, Proceeding of the
VIII International Congress on Polymers in Concrete, July 1995,
pp 149–154.
74 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Table 5.1 Typical Properties of Polymer Cement Grout


Description Test Specimen Values
Method Age Typical Recommended
Value Value
Polymer -cement
grout
Bond strength (MPa) ASTM C 1042 28 Days 10 to 21 >10
Direct tensile bond ACI 503 R 28 Days 0.69 to 2.1 >0.86
(MPa)
Tensile strength (MPa) ASTMC496/C 496M 28 Days 2.1 to 6.9 >2.1
Modulus of elasticity ASTM C 469 28 Days 6.9 to 38 -
(GPa)
Thermal expansion ASTM C 531 28 Days 1.37 to 6.4 -
∗10− 5◦ C
Drying shrinkage (%) ASTM C 596 28 Days 0.05 to 0.15 ¡0.1
Flexural strength ASTM C 293 28 Days 8.3 >3.4
Compressive strength ASTMC109/C 109M 28 Days 28 to 85 >20.7
(MPa)

Table 5.2 Ordinary mortar and PAE mortar, SBR mortar physics
mechanics performance
S.No Physical & Mechanical Ordinary PAE SBR Remark
property mortar mortar mortar
1 Compressive strength 50.1 47.7 42.5
(MPa)
2 Flexural strength (MPa) 8.8 10.4 9.5

3 Tensile strength (MPa) 3.5 4.6 4.9 Specimen size


7.07 cm ×7.07 cm
× 7.07 cm
4 Bonding strength (MPa) 1.4 3.4 4.2
5 Anti-permeability 9 2 2.6 Anti-permeability
(mm) Height of water test machine
seepage, under constant
pressure 1.5 MPa, 24 h
6 Frost-resistance Grad - F300 F300
7 Modulus in tension 2.56 2.29 2.19
(x104 MPa)
8 Ultimate Tensile 220 318 306 Specimen size 10 cm ×
Elongation (x10−6 )
9 Dry-shrinkage 580 166 188 10 cm × 515 cm
deformation (x10−6 )
10 Tear factor (×10−5 ) 5.2 38.5 36.4 -
11 Wear resistance (%) 5.47 3.95 1.65 -
12 Weight loss by 10.7 8.9 - Water blasting
water blasting (%) gun
13 Fast carbonation 3.6 0.8 - -
depth (mm)
14 Penetration depth >20 1 - Immersion
of Cl− (mm)
15 Water absorption 12 0.8 3.3 -
rate (%)
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 75

Table 5.3 Typical properties of Epoxy Resin


Description Test Method Specimen Age Values
Typical Recommended
Value Value
Slant shear ASTM 14 Days 6.9 to 21.0 >10
bond (MPa) C 882
Tensile strength ASTM 7 Days 28 to 55 >35
(MPa) D 638
Elongation at ASTM 7 Days 1 to 10 % 1 to 10
break (%) D 638
Modulus of ASTM 14 Days 1.4 to 4.1 2.1 to 3.4
elasticity (GPa) D 638
Deflection ASTM 7 Days 43 to 71 >49
temperature (◦ C ) D 648
Flexural ASTM 14 Days 35 TO 105 >6.9
strength (MPa) D 790
Compressive ASTM 7 Days 35 TO 105 >21
strength (MPa) D 695
Compressive ASTM 7 Days 0.52 to 3.4 >1
modulus (GPa) D 695
Shear ASTM 14 Days 17 TO 70 >14
Strength (MPa) D 732
Gel time ASTM - 5 minutes to >30 minutes
C 881 3 hours
Water ASTM D 570 24 hours 0.25 to 1.5 <1
absorption (%)
Coefficient linear ASTM - 0.002 to 0.01 <0.005
shrinkage D 2566
Viscosity (cP) ASTM Immediately 50 to 2000 <1000
D 2393

Table 5.4 Typical properties of High-Molecular Weight


Methacrylate (HMWM)
Description Test Method Specimen Age Values
Typical Recommended
Value Value
Slant shear ASTM 14 Days 6.9 to 21 >10
bond (MPa) C 882
Compressive ASTM 7 Days 21 to 70 >21
strength (MPa) D 695
Viscosity (cP) ASTM Immediately 20 to 200 < 100
D 2393
Gel time ASTM - 5 minutes to > 10 minutes
C 881 1 hour
76 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Table 5.5 Typical properties of Polyurethane chemical grout


Gel time ASTM C 881 - 5 minutes to 1 hour >10 minutes
Shear strength ASTM C273 - -- -
Tensile strength ASTM D 1623 - - -
Elongation (%) ASTM D 1623 14 Days 25 to 400 >15
Shrinkage (%) ASTM D 2126 14 Days 0 to 10

Table 5.6a Typical properties of Silicon Sealant


Description Test Method Specimen Age Values
Typical Recommended
Value Value
Adhesion in peel ASTM 21 Days 2.3 to 11 >2.3
(concrete) (Kg) C794
Tensile strength ASTM 21 Days 0.69 to 2.1 0.69 to 2.1
(MPa) D 412
Elongation at ASTM 21 Days 400 to 1000 >400
break (%) D 412
Shore A ASTM 21 Days 5 to 15 5 to 15
hardness (%) C 661
joint ASTM 21 Days 50 to 100 50 to 100
movement (%) C719
Tack free ASTM - 1 to 2 <72
(hours) C 679
Artificial weathering ASTM 21 Days 500 to 2000 >100
and staining (hours) C510
Tear strength ASTM 21 Days 0.36 to 0.71 >0.89
(Kg/mm) D 624

Table 5.6b Typical properties of Silicon Sealant


Description Test Method Specimen Age Values
Typical Recommended
Value Value
Slant shear ASTM 14 Days 6.9 to 21 > 10
bond (MPa) C 882
Tensile strength ASTM 14 Days 3.4 to 10 >5.2
(MPa) D 638
Modulus of ASTM 14 Days 1.4 to 6.9 1.4 to 6.9
elasticity (GPa) D 638
Deflection ASTM 7 Days 43 to 71 > 49
temperature (◦ C) D 648
Flexural ASTM 14 Days 14 to 35 >6.9
strength (MPa) D 790
Compressive ASTM 7 Days 21 to 85 >21
strength (MPa) D 695
Compressive ASTM 7 Days 0.69 to 6.9 >1.0
modulus (GPa) D 695
Shear ASTM 14 Days 14 to 35 >14
strength (MPa)
Gel time ASTM Immediately 5 minutes to >30 minutes
C 881 3 hours
Thermal expansion ASTM - 4.1 to 5.1 / ◦C Note 3
expansion C 531 ∗10−5 / ◦C
Polymer Concrete Composites for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete 77

Coating Material for


Finishing and Protection
Reinforcing Bar
Coating Material for
Surface Protection

Patch Material

Concrete
Corrosion-Inhibiting
Coating Material

Impregnant

Grout for Cracks

Fig. 5.1 Typical applications methods for repair materials for


deteriorated reinforced concrete structures

Cement Hydrate Matrix Cement Hydrate Matrix Cement Hydrate Matrix


OH–

Unhardened Curing Unhardened Loading Unhardened


Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resin

Hardened Hardened
OH– Epoxy Epoxy Microcracks
Resin Resin
After mixing of epoxy-modified Self-capsuled Partially breaking of self-capsuled
mortar without hardener epoxy resin epoxy resin and microcracking of
cement hydrate matrix

Cement Hydrate Matrix Cement Hydrate Matrix

Unhardened Curing Unhardened


Epoxy Resin Epoxy Resin

Hardened Hardened
Self-Repaired
Epoxy Epoxy
Microcracks
Resin OH– OH– Resin

Filling of microcracks with Self-repair of microcracks with


unhardend epoxy resin hardened epoxy resin

Fig. 5.2 Simplified model for self-repair mechanism for


micro-cracks in epoxy-modified mortars
78 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Protective Coating
2nd Resin Coat
Carbon Fiber
1st Resin Coat
Epoxy Putty Filter
Primer
Concrete Substrate

Fig. 5.3 Typical Application Procedure for Repair and


Retrofitting of RC Structural Members
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 79–107

6 Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and


its Application for Repair

Mrs. P. S. Ambily and Dr. J. K. Dattatreya


CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: ambilyps@sercm.org

6.1 INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the most widely used man-made material in the world.
The production of cement, the main active ingredient of concrete,
releases approximately one ton of CO2 for one ton of Portland cement
consumed. As one of the most energy-intensive materials and its expo-
nential growth in production and utility in the developing countries, it
is incumbent on the concrete manufactures to arrest further damage
to the environment by drastically reducing or eliminating OPC con-
sumption. The Conservation of rapidly dwindling natural resources
and promotion of sustainable development through gainful utilization
of industrial byproducts are the primary objectives of the Construction
industry today. Efforts are underway all over the world to develop envi-
ronmentally friendly construction materials, which make minimum
utility of fast dwindling natural resources and help to reduce green-
house gas emissions. In this connection, geopolymer cement concretes
show great promise.

6.2 GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE


Geopolymer concretes (GPCs) are a new class of building materials
that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement con-
crete (OPCC) and possess the potential to revolutionize the building
construction industry. The term geopolymer was first introduced by
Davidovits1 in 1970s to name the three-dimensional alumino-silicate
based binding material produced from the reaction of a source material
or feedstock rich in silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) with a concen-
trated alkaline solution. The source materials include Fly ash (FA),
Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin or other
80 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

natural/industrial byproducts that are rich in silicon(Si) and alu-


minium(Al). Since then considerable research has been carried out
on development of Geopolymer concrete and its applications in civil
engineering by several researchers2−7 . Fig. 6.1 and Table 6.1 summa-
rized the difference in features between Ordinary Portland cement
(OPC) and Geopolymer (GP) binder and the advantages of GP
over OPC. The majority of GP production technologies necessitate
thermal/hydro-thermal curing.
The CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre(SERC), Chen-
nai has been working on room temperature curing Geopolymer Con-
crete (GPC) for the past five years. Extensive research has been carried
out at SERC to structural grade GPCs with compressive strength
ranging from 20 to 70 MPa6−19 . The mechanical and durability char-
acteristics of these materials have been studied in detail18,19 . Some
pilot studies were also carried out on the feasibility of using GPC for
the production of building blocks and pavers6 .

6.3 APPLICATIONS
Fig 6.2 shows the successful applications carried out since 1979 with
geopolymer cements of different types20
Geopolymer cementitious products are currently being developed
in the following areas21 :
• civil construction applications -stabilized fill, pavement materials,
and soil stabilization;
• building materials - bricks, blocks, tiles, pavers, lightweight/fire
retardant/acoustic panels, pipes, precast concrete products and
ready mixed concrete products;
• mining–paste back-fill, tailings; dams,-liners, capping media;
shotcrete, and acid resistant concrete;
• environment / waste management–impermeable barriers, encap-
sulation of domestic, hazardous, radioactive and contaminated
materials in a very impervious, high strength material; and
• specialist applications–rapid set binders, very high strength
binders, lightweight products, super flat floors, low shrinkage,
and acid resistant storage facilities.
Geopolymer cements have been around since quite a few decades
and some trace it to the time of the Ancient Egyptians and yet are
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 81

still considered a relatively new material, given the limited commer-


cial applications in recent history. Australia is currently leading the
world in the research and development of geopolymer applications,
with interest in the technology growing from within the building,
mining and quarrying industries21 .

6.4 WORK CARRIED OUT AT CSIR-SERC ON


GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE8
The CSIR-SERC initiated the studies on GPCs with the aim of their
utility in structural concrete, both cast insitu and precast. Since the
reactivity and physical characteristics of Indian fly ashes do not com-
pare favorably with that from Canada and Australia, it is difficult
to achieve this target without heat treatment using fly ash alone
as binder. Therefore, a judicious combination of FA and GGBS was
adopted as both the materials are available in plenty.
Following materials were used to produce GPCs:
• Fly ash,
• Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag,
• Fine aggregates and
• Coarse aggregates
• Alkaline activator system (AAS) for GPC. It is a combination of
alkali silicates and hydroxides, liquids and additives. The role of
AAS is to dissolve the active ingredients of fly ash and GGBS
and promote polymerization.
Formulation of GPC Mixes: Unlike conventional cement con-
cretes, GPCs area new class of materials and hence, conventional
mix design approaches for cement concrete are not directly applicable.
The formulation of the GPC mixtures requires systematic experimen-
tal investigations on the source materials available and the recipes
developed are more specific to the materials being used as the source
materials are not standard synthesized products.
Preparation of GPC Mixes10−12
The production of GPCs can be carried out using conventional con-
creting machinery and tools used for conventional cement concretes.
The mix recipes developed at CSIR-SERC need moist gunny curing
for about a day and set and harden within this period and the strip-
ping time and formwork removal time are rather short compared to
82 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

OPCs. The products need only a shaded Exposure or cover against


direct sunlight and there is no need for moist/hydrothermal curing.
Mechanical Properties
Compressive Strength: With proper formulation of mix ingredients,
24 hour compressive strengths of 25 to 35 MPa can be easily achieved
without any need for any special curing. Such mixes can be considered
as self curing. However, GPC mixes with 28 day strengths exceeding
50-60 MPa have also been developed at CSIR- SERC. The rate of
strength development is generally faster compared to OPCs.
Elastic Modulus and Stress Strain Characteristics: The stress-strain
relationship depends upon the ingredients of GPCs and the curing
period. The elastic modulus is generally 10-30% less than that of
OPCCs for the same order of compressive strength depending on the
mix composition. The strain at peak stress ranged from 1.5 to 1.75
times higher while the failure strain is about 20% to 30% higher.
Reinforced GPC Beams17 :
Reinforced Geopolymer concrete (RGPC) beams were cast and tested
under two point static loading to evaluate the performance under
conditions critical in flexure and shear and the behavior of RGPC spec-
imens were satisfactory and matched or exceeded the performance of
corresponding OPCC beams in terms of ultimate moment capacities.
However, the cracking and service load moments were lower (10-30%)
compared to OPCC beams while the post yield ductility was somewhat
lower.
Reinforced GPC Columns
The concrete compressive strength and longitudinal reinforcement
ratio influence the load capacity of columns. The load carrying capac-
ity increases with the increase in concrete compressive strength and
longitudinal reinforcement ratio as in case of OPCC columns. Crack
patterns and failure modes of GPC columns are similar to those of
OPCC columns but they show lower buckling strength and greater
lateral deflection.
Bond Strengths of GPC with Rebars16
The bond strengths of GPCs with rebars are marginally higher com-
pared to OPC due to better adhesion. Thus developmental length
of steel bars in reinforced GPC can be kept same, as in the case of
reinforced CC.
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 83

Durability Aspects of GPCs13,18−19


The GPC specimens have chloride permeability rating of ’low’ to ’very
low’ as per ASTM 1202◦ C but high fly ash content can take it high to
vey high range. Water absorption and porosity can range from slight to
significantly higher depending on the mix recipe. GPCs offer generally
better protection to embedded steel from corrosion as compared to
OPCC. The GPC were found to possess very high acid resistance
when tested under exposure to 2% and 10% sulphuric acids.
6.4.1 PRODUCTION OF GEOPOLYMER PAVER/BUILDING
BLOCKS6
On the basis of experience gained from the production of geopolymer
building/paver blocks at CSIR-SERC large scale production of these
blocks were taken up under the sponsorship of AEON’S Construction
Products Limited (ACPL), Chennai. Extensive studies were carried
out in the laboratory to develop mixture proportions and finalize pro-
duction technology for geopolymer concrete paver blocks and building
blocks. Based on these trials, two mix compositions one incorporat-
ing high volume GGBS (75% GGBS) and other one (high volume
fly ash 80% FA), which can acquire the target strength by ambient
temperature curing alone were finalized. About 1200 building blocks
of geopolymer concrete consisting of 950 solid paver blocks of size
100 × 200 × 90 mm, 100 solid blocks with fly ash based light weight
aggregate 100 × 200 × 90 mm and 150 hollow building blocks of size
190 × 390 × 190 mm were produced at the AEON’S factory [Fig. 6.3].
Analysis of the test results shows that the blocks made with both
GGBS, fly ash and fly ash aggregate based hollow and solid block will
satisfy the codal provision as per IS 2185 (Part I & II). The paver
blocks made with different GGBS mix is suitable for use in heavy,
medium, light and Non traffic application as per IS 15658:2006. This
is the first time in India a factory scale production of geopolymer
blocks have been made.
6.4.2 GEOPOLYMER CONCRETES AS JOINTING
MATERIAL FOR PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION
An investigation was taken up at CSIR-SERC to study the struc-
tural behaviour of large panel floor and wall elements, the connections
and the performance of joint assemblies. The performance was eval-
uated by means of experimental testing of large panel prefabricated
assemblages. In order to speed up erection of prefabricated building
components, a quick setting binder would be a promising material
84 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

for in-situ jointing of prefabricated elements. Geo-polymer concretes


having compressive strength of more than 30 MPa in 24 hours would
be a best alternative in this regard. They have excellent resistance
to sulphate attack and good acid resistance13,18−19 and excellent fire
resistant20 and hence ideal for use in building constructions. A com-
prehensive testing programme on joint assemblages to evaluate the
ability of joint/ connections to transfer moments and lateral loads
from floor to wall panels and from wall to wall panels at service condi-
tions was undertaken. In the present study, behaviour of GGBS based
geo-polymer concrete [30Mpa in 24 hrs] as jointing material for large
panel prefabricated systems where wall to wall and roof to roof pan-
els need to be jointed in- situ. Two foamed concrete panels of size
1200mm × 1200mm × 100 mm with RC ribs on all the four sides
were cast separately. After 28 days the two precast RC ribbed foamed
concrete panels were jointed using GGBS based geo-polymer.
After 24 hours the jointed RC ribbed foamed concrete panel was
subjected to flexural load test.
Flexural Load Test
The flexural test on the geo-polymer jointed panels was conducted
using a reaction frame and 100 t capacity hydraulic jacks (Fig. 6.4).
The span of the jointed panels was kept at 2400 mm. The panels were
kept in a horizontal position and supported on the steel pedestal and
simply supported boundary condition was adopted. A line load was
applied on the joint potion of the panel through two 30 mm rollers
kept on the top of the panel. The load was applied gradually through
a hydraulic jack and the deflection at the centre of the joint and at
other six points was measured at regular load intervals. The load was
applied gradually till failure. The first crack and failure loads were
recorded. The deflection measurements were taken at seven points.
Steel strain on the four U-bars in the joint portion was recorded.
The load was applied gradually and strain and deflection measure-
ments were measured. From the study the following observations were
made:
• Geopolymer concrete hardens and attains high strengths in one
day and hence finds application as jointing material.
• GPC was used to join two precast foamed concrete slab elements
(with RC grids) of size 1.2m × 1.2m × 0.1m. The assemblage had
a size of 2.6m × 1.2m. The jointed slab was tested for continuity
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 85

by simply supporting at the two ends and applying a line load


along the joint.
• The joint performed well in the test and withstood a load of 27
kN.
• The maximum deflection recorded was 17.65 mm.
Hence, geo polymer concretes have great potential for use in prefab-
ricated constructions as it facilitates speeder construction and savings
in cost of construction.

6.5 GEOPOLYMER FOR REPAIR APPLICATIONS


6.5.1 Geopolymer for Repair and rehabilitation of reinforced
concrete beams
Balaguru et al29 have carried out an experimental investigation of
the behaviour of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon
fiber fabrics bonded using geopolymer adhesive in lieu of conventional
organic polymers for fastening the carbon fabrics to concrete. The
major disadvantage of composite is their lack of fire resistance and
degradation under UV light leading to long-term durability problems.
The inorganic polymer (geopolymer) used in this study was an alumino
silicate which can sustain up to 1000 C, durable and does not degrade
under UV light. Three beams were strengthened using 2, 3, and 5
layers of unidirectional carbon T 300 carbon fibre fabrics after the
bottom surface of the beams were roughened by dry grinding and sand
blasting. The fabrics were impregged with the adhesive and affixed to
the bottom surface of the beam. The beam with two layers was allowed
to dry for 24 hrs while the beams with 3 and 5 layers were subjected
to a vacuum of about 711 mm of mercury for better adhesion. All the
beams were subsequently heat cured at 80◦ C.
The beams were instrumented to measure the beam deflections and
the strains in concrete, tension steel, and the fabric using bonded
strain. The simply supported beams were tested over a span of 3000
mm and two one third point loading. All the strengthened beams failed
by rupturing of the composite demonstrating the effective bond pro-
vided by geopolymers adhesive even when five layers of fabric were
used. As the number of layers increased, the length of composite
that rupture also increased. Hence, if the repair system is properly
applied, failure by delaminating of composite can be eliminated. The
strengthened beams showed higher service and ultimate loads (Fig.
6.5).
86 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

The primary difference between the organic and the geopoly-


mer adhesives is the failure pattern. In the Sherbrooke study30
using organic adhesive, the composite peeled off, whereas with GPC
adhesive, the composite ruptured in this study (Fig. 6.6). Delami-
nation failure not only underutilizes the composite strength, but is
also extremely brittle. The deflections and crack patterns of beams
with organic and geopolymers were comparable. The composite in
this study recorded larger strains than the strains reported in the
Sherbrooke study.
Field implementation of geopolymer coating31
The primary objectives of the current study was to
• Establish a temperature range in which the coating can be
applied, given the requirement being that the coating should be
able to withstand rain after 24 hours of curing.
• Establish the surface condition and requirements.
• Make field demonstration applications at Rutgers University
campuses and on actual transportation structures
Durability: Wet-Dry Conditions
Epoxies and other organic matrices have been utilized as a protec-
tive coating for several decades because they seal the surface of the
concrete. Their main drawback is their inability to release vapor pres-
sure buildup that causes damage in the concrete and delamination of
the dried epoxy. The inorganic matrices that comprise the next gen-
eration of barrier and strengthening systems are less permeable than
concrete, thus slowing the flow of water through the weakened exte-
rior surfaces. Vapor pressure is released because the matrices are not
totally impermeable. In strengthening applications, the matrices form
a strong bond between the surface of the concrete and the fiber rein-
forcement. A study was undertaken31 to evaluate the effect of wet-dry
cycles found in marine environments on the coatings and the durabil-
ity of coated concrete. In strengthening applications, the effectiveness
of the carbon reinforced (tows or fabrics) coatings with Geopolymer
matrix based on potassium alumino silicate solution and silica fume
was studied with no carbon contamination. The pure silica fume was
needed to obtain a matrix that could be used to wet the carbon fibers.
The formulation consisted of Liquid: 100g, Silica fume: 125g and Wet-
ting Agent: 1g. The coating was applied in 2 layers to high strength
concrete prisms 50 × 50 × 330 mm after surface preparation by sand
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 87

blasting and cured for 24 hours at room temperature, followed by 24


hours at 80◦ C.
The specimens were exposed to wetting and drying in a wet dry
chamber under 3% saline water) for 50 and 100 cycles. The variables
considered for the study were fiber volume fraction in discrete fibers
(2 and 4%) and no. of tows/layers in case of tows/fabrics (1, 2 and 3).
The response was measured in terms of maximum strength, flexural
stiffness and toughness and obtained from the load deflection response.
The failure loads are presented as a factor of the failure load of the
unexposed control sample. Flexural strength of the control samples
improved after exposure to wet-dry conditions [Figs. 6.7-9]. In some
cases, after 100 cycles of wet-dry, the failure load of the control samples
was found to increase by increase by approximately 50 percent. In
all cases, the strengthened samples were durable up to 100 cycles of
wetting and drying. The strength and ductility of the concrete samples
was increased by the application of the carbon composite system. Peak
load and toughness factor values increased as the area of the carbon
reinforcement was increased. Effectiveness of the strengthening system
was not diminished by exposure to wet-dry conditions.
Durability: Scaling Conditions
One possible solution to the problem of scaling in concrete is to apply
a protective coating that will cover existing micro-cracks. The coating
should have a lower permeability than the concrete. Scaling resistance
study was conducted using inorganic matrices and carbon fibers.
Experimental study
The effectiveness of the inorganic geopolymer matrix as a surface pro-
tector for concrete was evaluated. The matrices were applied to both
a high and low strength mortar and subjected to scaling conditions.
Specimens of size 50 × 50 × 330mm were cast and cured. These prisms
were coated with the various matrices or strengthened with carbon
reinforcement. A special set-up was built for exposing the test samples
to scaling conditions as shown in Fig. 6.10. The scaling test described
in ASTM C672 was followed.
Test results for strength
Test results for strength evaluation were made at the completion of
fifty scaling cycles. The data obtained from the flexure testing of sam-
ples strengthened with carbon reinforcement is shown in Figs. 6.11 to
6.13.
88 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

The results obtained from the flexure testing of these samples indi-
cate that the system is resistant to scaling conditions. The flexural
strength and ductility of the specimens were determined before and
after exposure to the scaling conditions. Comparable results were
observed regardless of the type of carbon reinforcement used.
Evaluation of plain concrete strengthened with an inorganic
geopolymer coating and subjected to wetting and drying and scaling
conditions led to the following conclusions:
• The inorganic matrix in combination with carbon tows and
carbon fabrics can be used to strengthen plain concrete members
• Wetting and drying conditions (100 cycles) do not decrease the
strength of samples coated with carbon reinforced geopolymer.
• Strengthened samples exposed to scaling conditions had a small
(about 3%) decrease in strength from their exposed strength.
Field durability and demonstration application:
Field durability
Durability under field conditions was evaluated using two locations
at the Rutgers University Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. A
total of 18 test applications were made. Most of the surfaces were on
vertical walls and some of them were on relatively smooth concrete
surface, Fig. 6.14 a-e. In the case of vertical walls, the surface deterio-
ration varied from a weathered but good concrete surface to completely
spelled surface. In addition to surface deterioration, a second major
variable was fiber type and fiber volume content. Both micro and dis-
crete fibers were evaluated at volume fractions ranging from 0.5 to
20%. All but two coatings were applied using paint brushes while the
other was applied using sprayers.
These applications served as demonstration projects confirming
that very little surface preparation is needed. All these surfaces were
cleaned with low pressure water and allowed to dry to saturated
surface dry conditions before applying the coating. All but two coat-
ing were applied using paint brushes. One coating was applied using
a custom made sprayer and another coating was applied using an
inexpensive sprayer. The coating was applied between March and
November to evaluate the influence of temperature range.
The second set of coatings was applied on the parking lot on Busch
Campus, Fig. 6.15. These curbs had a good surface except in one case;
part of the curb was broken. The surface was simply wetted before
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 89

the application of the coating. In these applications, the coating was


subjected to snow exposure and abrasion of snow removal equipment.
There was also abrasion due to sand or dust particles blown by the
wind.
Experience gained during these applications was used to formulate
an application procedure.
Field Applications on Transportation Structures
Field applications consisted of: (1) Coating a New Jersey Barrier in
Trenton, N.J., (2) Coating a guide rail near Trenton, (3) coating a
retaining wall on Route 18 in New Brunswick, (4) Coating a New
Jersey Barrier near an ocean front in Rhode Island, and (5) Coating of
curbs and a retaining wall on Route 1 and Route 295 near Providence,
Rhode Island.
The coating application on Route 1, Trenton was carried out with
the cooperation of NJDOT (New Jersey Department of Transporta-
tion) engineers and field personnel Fig. 6.16.
The retaining wall coating on Route 18 was applied in November
2000 and covered about 10 square feet. This coating contained only
micro fibers and was applied using paint brushes on the pre-wetted
surface.
The coatings in Rhode Island were applied in October 1998 and
April 1999 (Fig. 6.17). Coatings on NJ barriers and curbs were applied
using paint brushes and the coating on the retaining wall was applied
using a power sprayer. The retaining wall on which the coating was
power sprayed covered several hundred square feet.
This study focused on the development of a two component inor-
ganic geopolymer matrix (the liquid Component was mixed with a
powder component using a high shear mixer to achieve a thick paint
consistency, which can be applied by brush, roller, or sprayer) that can
be used both as a protective coating and also as a strengthening coat-
ing with the addition of micro, discrete, and continuous carbon fibers
and carbon fabrics. This matrix, which is water based, is non toxic,
cures at room temperature, were evaluated for working time and cur-
ing temperatures ranging from 40◦ F to 70◦ F, durability under wet-dry
and scaling conditions. The application was demonstrated both in the
laboratory and in the field. The durability under field (outside expo-
sure) conditions was evaluated using two locations. A total of 18 test
applications were made. Most of the surfaces were on vertical walls
and some of them were on a relatively smooth concrete surface. In the
90 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

case of vertical walls, the surface deterioration varied from a weath-


ered but good concrete surface to completely spalled (with exposed
aggregate) surface.
Evaluation of the geopolymer matrix for field applications led to
the following conclusions:
• The geopolymer coating can be applied in the ambient temper-
ature range of 40 to 90◦ F. At temperatures higher than 80◦ F,
the pot life might be less than 2 hours.
• The coated surface should be protected from direct rain or
running water for the first 24 hours.
• The coating should not be subjected to freezing in the first 24
hours.
• The geopolymer coating can be applied to new or weathered
concrete surfaces that have exposed aggregates.
• The surface should be pre-wetted. Loose and oily materials should
be removed. Light dust will not reduce the adherence of the
geopolymer coating material.
• The geopolymer coatings are durable in field conditions. The old-
est application, under saltwater exposure conditions in Rhode
Island, is 9 (in 2008) years old.
Balaguru32,33 has also demonstrated the viability of coating an
existing 300 ft. parapet wall with inorganic (geopolymer) coating
(Figs. 6.18-19) and column wrapping (Figs. 6.20a-d) of a bridge.
Geopolymer Coating of 300ft parapet wall
This project carried out to prove the viability of coating an existing
300 ft. parapet wall with inorganic (geopolymer) coating. This wall,
located at the Scenic Overlook on I-295 South near Trenton, N.J. (mile
post 58.5), was coated with Geopolymer tinted with pigments. The
wall surface was pressure washed before applying the coating. Wash-
ing of the wall was needed to obtain as uniform a finish as possible.
The performance of the Geopolymer coating was monitored. The field
demonstration project shows that the inorganic-polymer coating can
be easily applied to large surfaces. The application system was easy to
work with and the geopolymer coating was applied using paint rollers
and brushes. Extensive surface preparations are not needed prior to the
application of the coating. Finished surfaces provide an aesthetically
pleasing appearance.
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 91

Geopolymer column wrapping


The coating was originally developed for use in aircraft structures and
modified for use as a coating material and adhesive for brick, concrete,
wood, and steel. The constituents of the coating include nanosilicates
and other nano-size activators and fillers. The demonstration project
consisted of wrapping of columns with carbon fibers and inorganic-
polymer, which is located in Maryland State. The studies showed that
the inorganic-polymer coating can be applied with and without con-
tinuous fiber reinforcement. The system is easy to work with and the
applications can be carried out with paint brushes or rollers. The
oldest application is about 7 years old and is performing well. The
coated surfaces have been exposed to a number of snow storms, freeze
thaw cycles, salts used to melt snow and abrasion by snow removing
equipment. The self cleaning and de-polluting properties are being
evaluated.
An experimental investigation was conducted Pasco et al [435] to
evaluate bond strength between OPCC substrate and three repair
materials. Tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder and two com-
mercial repair products were used as repair materials.
This study indicates that:
• Tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binders possess much higher
bond strength than current commercial repair products.
• Commercial repair products gain no bond whatsoever to sawn
concrete specimens. Scanning electron micrographs reveal that
tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binders chemically bond to
the concrete substrate.
• Cost comparisons between tungsten mine waste geopolymeric
binder and current commercial repair products are also made
showing that geopolymeric ones are by far the most cost efficient
solution

6.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS


From the studies conducted by CSIR-SERC and the field demonstra-
tion projects, other strengthening and repair applications presented in
this paper show that:
• Geopolymer concrete hardens and attains high strengths in one
day and hence finds application as a jointing material.
92 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

• The geopolymer coating can be easily and successfully applied to


concrete surfaces.
• Geopolymer coating can be applied using paint rollers and
brushes.
• Extensive surface preparations are not needed prior to the appli-
cation of the geopolymer coating. Finished surfaces provide an
aesthetically pleasing appearance.
• The geopolymer coating is durable in wetting and drying and
scaling conditions.
• Geopolymer provides as good or better adhesion in comparison
with organic polymers. In addition, geopolymer is fire resistant,
does not degrade under UV light, and is chemically compatible
with concrete. Hence it can be successfully developed for use in
repair and retrofitting of concrete structures

6.7 REFERENCES
1. Davidovits, J. (1994). “High-Alkali Cements for 21st Century
Concretes in Concrete Technology, Past, Present and Future”,
Proceedings of V. Mohan Malhotra Symposium. Editor: P.
Kumar Mehta, ACI SP-144, 383–397.
2. Bakharev, T. (2005a). “Resistance of Geopolymers Materials to
Acid Attack”, Cement and Concrete Research, 35 (6), 658–670.
3. Bakharev, T. (2005b). “Geopolymeric Materials Prepared Using
Class F Fly Ash and Elevated Temperature Curing”, Cement and
Concrete Research, 35(6), 1224–1232.
4. Bakharev, T. (2005c). “Durability of Geopolymer Materials in
Sodium and Magnesium Sulfate Solutions”, Cement and Concrete
Research, 35 (6), 1233–1246.
5. Rangan.B. V, Hardjto, D, Development and properties of low cal-
cium fly ash based geopolymer concrete. Research report GC-1,
Faculty of Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth,
Australia, 2005.
6. N. P. Rajamane, J. K. Dattatreya, Ambily P. S. and D. Sabitha,
“Technical feasibility studies on Geopolymer based building
blocks/ Pavers and fly ash aggregate based building prod-
ucts”, SSP 07241, Prepared for AEON’S Construction Products
Limited, Chennai.
7. Dattatreya J. K., Bharathkumar, B. H., and Rajamane, N. P.,
“Geopolymer Cement Concretes- A Viable and Green Alternative
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 93

to Portland Cement Based Structural Concretes”, Keynote paper,


ACECON 2010, IIT Chennai, Dec 2010., pp 243-255
8. N. P. Rajamane, Nataraja M. C., N. Lakshmanan and P. S.
Ambily, “Geopolymer concrete an eccofriendly concrete”, The
Master Builder, Vol.11, November 2009 Rajamane, N. P., J. K.
Dattatreya, and P. S. Ambily, “Compatibility of Geopolymeric
Cement with Superplasticisers Formulated for Portland Cement”,
’ICI-IITM Workshop on Compatibility Issues Between Cement
and Chemical Admixture in Concrete’, IC & SR Building, IIT
Madras, 9th April 2010, pp 30–33.
9. Rajamane N. P., J. K. Dattatreya, P S Ambily, and D. Sabitha,
[2010], “Effect of Portland Cement Compatible Superplasticiser
in GGBS Based Geopolymeric Cement Concrete”, National Con-
ference on Trends and Advances in Civil Engineering, TRACE-
2010, 21-22 April, BSAR University, Chennai, pp 1–6.
10. Rajamane, N. P., Sabitha, D., and Sajana Mary James, (2005),
Potential of industrial wastes to produce geo-polymeric mortar
of practical utility - a study, Indian Concrete Institute Journal,
Vol. 5, No 4, Jan-Mar, pp 9–20.
11. Rajamane, N. P., Sabitha D, Sajana Mary James, Gopalakr-
ishnan S, (2005), Studies on development of geo-polymeric
low-energy cement from fly ash for structural applications, Pro-
ceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Concrete
Composites and Structures, ICAS, 6-8 January, SERC, Chennai,
India, pp 219–226.
12. Rajamane, N. P., Sabitha. D, (2005), Studies on geo-polymer
mortars using fly ash and blast furnace slag powder, International
Congress on Fly Ash, Fly Ash India, Chapter 6, pp 0019, pp 1–7.
13. Rajamane N. P., D. Sabitha, Nataraja M C, N Lakshmanan,
and J.K. Dattatreya, Studies on Sulphuric Acid Resistance of
Geopolymer Concretes, Seminar on Green Structures for Sustain-
ability, 10-October, 2009, Allahabad (In CD form).
14. Rajamane, N. P. Nataraja M C, N Lakshmanan, and J.K Datta-
treya, “Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete
Beams”, International Seminar on Waste to Wealth, conducted
by BMPTC, 12th-13th, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi.
15. Saranya V., N. P. Rajamane, J. K. Dattatreya, and Angeline
Prabhavathy, [2009], “Investigation on bond-slip behaviour of
geopolymer concrete with steel reinforcement”, Proceedings of
the National Conference on “Advances & Innovations in Civil
94 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Engineering”, March, Department of Civil Engineering, Mepco


Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi.
16. Sumesh Shankar, N. P. Rajamane, J. K. Dattatreya, and H. R.
Dhananjaya, [2009], “Effect of fly ash content on bond strengths
of geopolymer concretes”, Proceedings of the National Conference
on “Recent trends in concrete composites for structural systems”,
April, Department of Civil Engineering, Kongu Engineering
College, Erode.
17. Sumesh Shankar, N. P. Rajamane, J. K. Dattatreya, and H. R.
Dhananjaya, [2009], “Flexural behaviour of reinforced geopoly-
mer concrete beams”, Proceedings of the National Seminar on
“Performance of disaster resistant structures”, 7-8 May, Struc-
tural Engineering Division, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna
University, Chennai
18. Sathish E., J. K. Dattatreya, N. P. Rajamane, D. Sabitha and R.
Srinivasa Raghavan, [2009], “Sulphuric acid attack on geopolymer
concrete and Portland plain cement concrete”, Proceedings of the
National Conference on “Innovation in civil engineering”, 19-20
March, Department of Civil Engineering, B.S. Abdur Rahman
Crescent Engineering College, Chennai.
19. Sathish E., J. K. Dattatreya, N. P. Rajamane, D. Sabitha and
R. Srinivasaraghavan, [2009], “Studies on sulphuric acid resis-
tance of geopolymer concretes”, Proceedings of the National
Conference on “Recent trends in concrete composites for struc-
tural systems”, April, Department of Civil Engineering, Kongu
Engineering College, Erode.
20. Joseph Davidovits, “30 years of successes and failures in geopoly-
mer application Market trends and potential breakthroughs”,
Geopolymer 2002 Conference, October 28-29, 2002, Melbourne,
Australia.
21. “Mark Drechsler, Parsons Brinckerhoff and Andrew Graham
BAppSc MEcon Geol”, 48th Institute of Quarrying Conference,
Innovative Materials Technologies: Bringing Resource Sustain-
ability to Construction and Mining Industries 12-15 October
2005, Adelaide SA.
22. Rangan, B.V. (2008a). “Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete”,
Research Report GC4, Faculty of Engineering, Curtin Uni-
versity of Technology, WA, available at espace@curtin or
www.geopolymer.org.
23. Rangan, B.V. (2008b). “Studies on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer
Concrete”, Malaysia Construction Research Journal, 3 (2), 1–20.
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 95

24. Duxson, P., Fernndez-Jimnez, A., Provis, J.L., Lukey, G.C.,


Palomo, A. and van Deventer, J.S.J. (2007a). “Geopolymer Tech-
nology: The Current State of the Art”, Journal of Material
Science, 42, 2917-2933.
25. Fernndez-Jimnez, A., Palomo, A. and Lpez-Hambrados, C.
(2006). “Engineering Properties of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash
Concrete”, ACI Materials Journal, 103(2), Mar-Apr, 106–112.
26. Palomo A., Grutzeck, M.W. and Blanco, M.T. (1999). “Alkali-
activated Fly Ashes: A Cement for the Future”, Cement and
Concrete Research, 29, 1323–1329.
27. Sindhunata, Van Deventer, J. S. J., Lukey, G. C. and Xu, H.
(2006). “Effect of Curing Temperature and Silicate Concen-
tration on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymerisation”, Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, pp 2991–2999.
28. Sofi, M., van Deventer, J. S. J., Mendis, P and Lukey, G. C.
(2007a). “Engineering properties of Inorganic Polymer Concretes
(IPCs)”, Cement and Concrete Research, 37 (2), pp 251–257.
29. P. Balaguru, Stephen Kurtz, and Jon Rudolph, Report on
“Geopolymer for Repair and Rehabilitation of Reinforced Con-
crete Beams”, www.geopolymer.org
30. M’Ba Zaa, I., Missihoum, M., and Labossiere, “Strengthen-
ing of Reinforced Concrete Beams with CFRP sheets”, Fiber
Composites in Infrastructure, 1996, pp 746–759.
31. P.N. Balaguru, “Field Implementation of Geopolymer Coatings”,
Final Report, September 2004.
32. P. N. Balaguru, “Geopolymer coating demonstration project for
Route I-295 Scenic Overlook”, Final Report, August 2006.
33. Christian Defazio, Mohamed Danish Arafa, P. N. Balaguru,
“Geopolymer column wrapping”, Final report, Report no. Mary-
RU9088, June 2006.
34. ACI Committee 515. (1986). “A Guide to the Use of Water-
proofing, Damp Proofing, Protective, and Decorative Barrier
Systems for Concrete,” ACI Standard 515-86, American Concrete
Institute, Detroit, MI, 44 pp.
35. F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. P. Castro-Gomes, S. Jalali, “Bond Strength
between Concrete Substrate and Repair Materials. Comparisons
Between Tungsten Mine Waste Geopolymeric Binder Versus
Current Commercial Repair Products”, Seventh International
Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, Yildiz TechnicalUni-
versity, Istanbul, Turkey, October 11-13, 2006.
96 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

36. American Society for Testing and Materials (1993). “Standard


Test Method for Scaling Resistance of Concrete Surfaces Exposed
to De-icing Chemicals.” Standard C-672, Section 4, Volume 2, pp
345–347.
37. American Society for Testing and Materials (1993). “Resistance
of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing.” Standard C-666A,
Section 4, Volume 2, pp 326–331.
Web Site (WS)
1. http://www.civil.canterbury.ac.nz/events/pandp/03McSaveney
2. www.geopolymer.org
Table 6.1 Comparison of OPC vs GP Binder6

Sl No OPC Binder GP Binder


Reactants / Calcium Sodium / potassium
monosilicate oligo-sialate-siloxo
feedstock
Raw materials Lime, clay, Metakaolin/fly ash/
gypsum GGBS/red mud/other
slags
Reaction Hydration presence of alkaline
activators and subsequent
polymerization by
polycondensation
Water Essential for Required as a carrier for
hydration), promotes activators and medium
rheology of paste, for dissolution of silicon
hydrated water is and aluminium ions
chemically bound, from the feedstock,
excess water promotes rheology of
forms capillary pores paste.
Reaction- Ca-disilicate hydrate, Sodium / potassium
Products lime, Ca-sulpho Poly-sialate-siloxo
aluminates
Time scale of Relatively longer Short
reactions
Process 1450◦C 750◦C
calcining of coal /
kaolinite clay /fusion
of lime
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 97

Sl No OPC Binder GP Binder


Role of alkalies Formation of undes Soluble alkali
irable silicate compounds speed up
and aluminous phases dissolution and
of the type condensation
KC12 S23 , and polymerization
NC8 A3 consequent
problems with
workability and
ASR
Mixing and More or less Depends on the
curing procedure standardized chemistry of source
material and the
activator, thermal
curing is often
necessitated,
Variability of
feedstock
Microstructure structure 3-D Al-Si
-a 2-D chain or network forming
layered molecular amorphous (gel-like)
structure, or partially
bonding network. amorphous or
Discontinuous crystalline substances
and inhomogeneous depending on the
structure in a character of raw
3-D, restricts material materials and on the
performance concentration of the
and durability, pores activator. Relatively
ranging from dense and less porous
nanometers to than HCP. The
micrometers Geopolymer gel is
constituted from an
array of non-spherical
aluminosilicate particles
with mesopores 2-50 nm
CO2 emission 90-100% 20%
98 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Sl No OPC Binder GP Binder


Shortcomings CSH, CH, CA, CF aluminosilicate
and CSA that do binding phase
not occur as extremely
natural durable in an
minerals are aggressive environment
susceptible to and mechanically strong,
degradation in the alkali cation (Na,
certain K) is present
environments, in the structure
CSH is in a solvated form
thermodynamically and bonded more
unstable, and weakly than in the
tends to revert to crystalline zeolites and
silica gel and possible occurrence of
calcium carbonate efflorescence, residual
in the natural alkali can easily
environment and carbonate, higher
even faster in electrical conductivity,
aggressive susceptibility
environment, to sulphate
CH and attack and sulphuric
CSH are prone to acids especially with
sulfate attack. binders containing Ca,
water held in the pores
reduces strength
Rheological High percentage Static and
properties of fly ash dynamic viscosity
improves the of the geopolymers
rheological concrete are substantially
behaviour, little higher, longer
adhesion in early processing time and
stages careful selection of
aggregates required,
pronounced adhesion
ability of the fresh
composition
coating even the
smallest grains of the
aggregate, higher air
entrainment due to low
mobility of the paste,
leaving closed
unconnected voids
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 99

Sl No OPC Binder GP Binder


Shrinkage Higher No shrinkage
shrinkage due to
susceptibility as hydration, however large
hydration mechanism residual water can cause
itself results drying shrinkage
in shrinkage
ITZ Present at No transition zone could
paste-aggregate be detected either
interface, thickness morphologically or by a
20 to 100 µm, direct measurement in
presence of oriented pure gel, no
CH and compositional gradient
ettringite, ITZ porosity at aggregate interface
higher than
matrix porosity
Miscellaneous Time scale Time scale
of strength shorter and
development extends over several
extends up to year, day, higher temperature
relatively poor stability, resistance to
temperature chemical degradation
stability, low and freeze thaw
resistance to chemical resistance
degradation
and poor freeze thaw
resistance
100 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 6.1 Difference in the Chemistry of OPC and GP Binders WS1

Fig. 6.2 Geopolymer types involved in successful applications


Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 101

Fig. 6.3 (a) and (b) An Inside view of ACPL Production Yard
and Stacking of GPC blocks Produced on Steel Shelves

Fig. 6.4 Flexural test on geopolymer joint


102 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

12.5 5 layers
Failure load
(tonnes)
3 layers
10
2 layers

7.5
Control

2.5 Failure load with 2, 3, 5 layers of


Geopolymer-Carbon composite
on concrete beam

2.5 500 Deflection 1000

Fig. 6.5 Load vs deflection

Fig. 6.6 Failure of geopolymer-Carbon composite

3
Failure load as a fraction of
unexposed control sample

Control
2.5
2 percent
2 4 percent

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50 100
Cycles of wet-Dry

Fig. 6.7 Comparison of Failure Loads: Control, 2 Percent and 4


Percent Discrete Carbon Fibers
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 103

unexposed control sample


Failure load as a factor of
Control
2.5 1 ToW
2 Tows
2 3 Tows

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50 100
Cycles of wet-Dry

Fig. 6.8 Comparison of Failure Loads: Control, 1, 2 and 3 Carbon


tows
3
unexposed control sample
Failure load as a factor of

Control
2.5
2 Tows
2 3 Tows

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50 100
Cycles of wet-Dry
Fig. 6.9 Comparison of Failure Loads: Control, 1 and 2 carbon
fabric layers

1 in Dam
0.25 in

Concrete
2 in specimen Saline solution

13 in
Fig. 6.10 Schematic of Scaling Test Specimen
104 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

unexposed control sample


3

Failure load as a factor of


2.5 Control
2 percent
2
4 percent
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50
Cycles of Scaling
Fig. 6.11 Comparison of Failure Loads: Control, 2 and 4 Percent
Discrete Carbon Fibers
unexposed control sample

3
Failure load as a factor of

Control
2.5 1 Tow
2 Tows
2 3 Tows

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50
Cycles of Scaling

Fig. 6.12 Comparison of Failure Loads: Control, 1, 2, and 3


Carbon Tows
2.5
unexposed control sample

Control
Failure load as a factor of

1 layer
2
2 layers
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 50
Cycles of Scaling
Fig. 6.13 Comparison of Failure Loads: Control, 1 and 2 Carbon
Fabric Layers
Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 105

Fig. 6.14 Application of geopolymer coating on different surfaces

Fig. 6.15 Coating on Concrete Curb on Busch Campus


106 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 6.16 Coating on Route 1 South, Close-Up View

Fig. 6.17 Application of Coating on Curb in Rhode Island

Fig. 6.18 Uncoated Concrete Block Next to a Coated One


Investigations on Geopolymer Concrete and its Application for Repair 107

Fig. 6.19 Close-up View of Coated Surface

Fig. 6.20 (a) Column after cleaning (b) Column wrapped with
carbon tape (c) During final coating application (d) Column after
final coating
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 109–134

7 Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and


its Applications

T. S. Krishnamoorthy and S. Sundar Kumar


Scientist
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Complex, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: tsk@scrcm.org

7.1 INTRODUCTION
Random oriented fibre reinforced concrete is one of the most promising
composites used in the construction. Generally, for structural applica-
tions, steel fibres should be used in a role supplementary to reinforcing
bars. Steel fibres relatively inhibit cracking and improve resistance to
material deterioration as a result of fatigue, impact, and shrinkage
or thermal stresses. In applications where the presence of continuous
reinforcement is not essential to the safety and integrity of the struc-
ture (e.g., floors on grade, pavements overlays and shotcrete linings),
the improvements in flexural strength, impact resistance, and fatigue
performance associated with the fibres can be used to reduce section
and to enhance performance or both. Some full-scale tests have shown
that steel fibres are effective in supplementing or replacing the stirrups
in the beams.
The mechanical properties of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) are
influenced by: the type of fibre; fibre length to diameter ratio(aspect
ratio); the amount of fibre; strength of matrix; the size, shape and
method of preparation of the specimen; and the size of the aggregate.
Fibres influence the mechanical properties of concrete and mortar in
all failure modes. The commonly available shapes of steel fibres are
straight, crimped, hooked, trough shaped. The strengthening mecha-
nism of the fibres involves transfer of stress from the matrix to the fibre
by interfacial shear or by interlock between the fibre and matrix, if the
fibre surface is deformed. Besides the matrix itself, the most important
variables governing the properties of FRC are the efficiency factor and
the fibre content. Fibre efficiency is controlled by the resistance of the
110 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

fibres to pullout, which in turn depends on the bond strength at the


fibre matrix interface. Also, since pullout resistance is proportional to
interfacial area, non round fibres offer more pullout resistance per unit
volume than larger diameter fibres. Therefore, for a given fibre length,
higher aspect ratio is more beneficial. Most mixes used in practice
employ fibres with an aspect ratio less than 100, and failure of com-
posites, therefore is, due primarily to fibre pullout. However, increased
resistance to pullout without increasing the aspect ratio is achieved
in fibres with deformed surface or end anchorage; failure may involve
fracture of some of the fibres, but it is still usually governed by pullout.

7.2 BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED


CONCRETE
7.2.1 Compression
The effect of steel fibres on the compressive strength of steel fibre
reinforced concrete (SFRC) varies with fibre content1 . It is interesting
to note that both increase and decrease in compressive strength with
different fibre types have been experimentally observed. Even for the
same material, there is mounting evidence to show that compressive
strength may first rise, then drop, with increasing fibre volume frac-
tion. These observations suggest that the addition of fibres in a cement
composite leads to a likely manifestation of increased resistance to
microcrack sliding and extension, whereas strength degradation is a
likely manifestation of increase in either pore or microcrack density,
as a result of fibre addition. The pores may be caused by insufficient
compaction and the additional microcracks may be related to poor
fibre/matrix bonding, or poor adhesion between filaments within fibre
bundles.
Krishna Raju et al2 and Narayanan and Kareem3 observed a signifi-
cant increase in the compressive strength with increasing fibre content.
The test results showed a more or less linear relationship between the
percentage increase in the compressive strength and the fibre content.
Fanella and Naaman4 concluded that the presence of any type
of fibre in a concrete matrix changes the basic characteristics of its
stress strain characteristics. While the ascending portion of the curve
is only slightly modified, the descending portion of the curve is modi-
fied significantly (Fig. 7.1). A higher fibre content produces a less steep
descending portion, which results in high ductility and toughness of
the material. They concluded that except for the case of steel fibres,
adding fibres to a concrete matrix does not improve its compressive
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 111

strength. However, the strain at the peak stress is increased by the


presence of any type of fibre. The strength improvement with steel
fibres ranged from 0 to 15%.
Ramakrishnan et al5 showed that the addition of fibres (hooked
end) seemed to have no effect on the compressive strength of concrete.
Based on their investigation on normal and light weight concretes with
fibres, Balaguru and Ramakrishnan6 have shown that there was only a
marginal improvement in the compressive strength of concrete by the
addition of steel fibres. Oh7 also found that the cylinder compressive
strength was increased by about 17%, when the fibres were introduced
in the concrete upto 2% by volume.
7.2.2 Direct Tension
Because of the brittle nature of concrete, valid direct tensile testing
of concrete and FRC is always difficult to carry out. Presently, no
standard methods are available for the direct tensile test. Due to the
importance of the tensile behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete
and concrete, many direct tensile tests of these materials have been
attempted, using different designs of loading grips. Indirect methods
of measuring the stress strain curves have been attempted.
SFRC has superior tensile properties, particularly ductility, over
plain concrete. Studies have indicated that the tensile stress crack
separation curve is the best alternative to characterise the tensile
behaviour of SFRC. The observed stress crack separation curve of
SFRC depends on the size of the specimen, method of testing, stiffness
of the testing machine, gauge length and whether single or multiple
cracking occurs in the gauge length used. The ascending part of the
curve up to first crack is similar to that of unreinforced concrete. The
descending part depends on the fibre reinforcing parameters, namely
shape, volume and aspect ratio of the fibre. The strength of SFRC in
tension is generally of the same order as that of unreinforced concrete
for lower volume percentage of fibres. The direct tensile strength of
SFRC can be predicted by the law of mixtures applicable to composite
materials as under:

ft = fm (1vf ) + 2(l/d)vf

where, ft and fm are tensile strength of the composite and the matrix,
respectively, vf the percentage of fibres by volume, l/d the aspect
ratio, and, the average interfacial bond strength. Tensile strengthening
occurs at all fibre contents as long as 2τ (l/d) > fm .
112 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

7.2.3 Flexure
According to ACI Committee Report 544(4R) 1, the influence of steel
fibres on the flexural strength of concrete and mortar is much greater
than for direct tension and compression. Two flexural strength values
are commonly reported. One corresponds to the first crack and the
other corresponds to the maximum load. For large amounts of fibres,
the two loads are quite distinct, but for very small fibre volumes, the
first crack load may be the maximum load as well.
Ultimate flexural strength generally increases in relation to the
product of fibre volume concentration and the aspect ratio l/d. Con-
centrations less than 0.5 volume percent of low aspect ratio fibres
have negligible effect on the static flexural strength properties. Pris-
matic fibres, or hooked or enlarged end fibres, have produced flexural
strength increases over unreinforced matrices of as much as 100%. A
post cracking load deformation characteristic depends greatly on the
choice of fibre type and volume percentage of the specific fibre type
used.
Crimped fibres, surface deformed fibres and fibres with end anchor-
age produce strengths above smooth fibres of the same volume
concentration, or enable same strength to be achieved with lower fibre
concentration.
The first crack composite flexural strength (σcf ) and ultimate
composite flexural strength (σcu ) of SFRC are given by 1:
σcf = 0.843fr Vm + 2.95Vf .l/df
σcu = 0.97fr Vm + 3.42Vf l/df
where, fr is the stress in the matrix (MPa); Vm is the volume fraction
of the matrix; Vf is the volume fraction of the fibres; and l/df is the
aspect ratio
Hughes and Fattuhi8 examined the effect of addition of various
types of steel fibres upon the flexural strength and fracture toughness
of basic concrete matrix at three different ages. It was seen that maxi-
mum increase in the first crack flexural strength and ultimate flexural
strength were 15% and 85% respectively.
Craig9 investigated the elastic and inelastic behaviour of SFRC
beams. Thirteen beams consisting of normal concrete, high strength
concrete, and light weight concrete with and without fibres were
tested. The test results were verified by theoretical analysis. It was
reported that there is an increase in first cracking load, the stiffness of
the beam and ductility of the beams with the presence of the fibres.
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 113

Swamy and Al Noori10 showed that the fibre reinforcement alone in


the form of discrete fibres cannot be used as direct replacement of con-
ventional steel in reinforced and prestressed structural members. The
superior resistance of fibre concrete to cracking and crack propagation
may, however, be utilised to improve the resistance of structural mem-
bers to cracking, deflection and other serviceability conditions. Tests
were also carried out on the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete
beams with fibre content in the tension or compression zone or as a
tensile skin. It was found that fibre content in the tension zone enabled
high strength steels to be used in practice with characteristic strength
of 70 MPa. Both crack width and deflection were found to be within
acceptable limits, and the beam was able to develop plastic defor-
mation characteristics at failure. The use of a single layer of tensile
skin of fibre concrete transforms a conventional over reinforced beam
to behave in a ductile manner. Fibre concrete can thus enable higher
steel percentages to be used in practice without the fear of brittle type
of failure.
Johnston and Skarendahl11 evaluated the flexural performance
of steel fibre reinforced beams with varying amounts and types of
fibre. They concluded that the first crack strength depends primar-
ily on matrix characteristics that influence matrix strength, notably
the degree of consolidation and water/cement ratio. It is minimally
dependent on fibre parameters such as type, size, and amount.
A limited number of tests carried out by Hannant12 showed that the
increased deflections of lightweight concrete beams due to the reduced
elastic modulus of the lightweight material can be significantly reduced
by the addition of steel fibres. It was reported that the load at which
cracks were first seen for the fibre beams was approximately twice that
for the beams without fibres.
Kormeling et al13 tested a series of concrete beams with a size of
100 × 153 × 2200mm. The beams were tested in four point load-
ing with a span of 2000mm and a constant bending moment zone of
800mm. Three different reinforcement ratios were used 0.17, 0.75, and
2.09 percent. Contribution of steel fibres to the strength of reinforced
concrete beams was moderate.
Oh7 investigated the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete
beams containing steel fibres. It was reported that the crack widths
increased almost linearly with the increase of steel stress and the crack
widths at the same loading stages were greatly reduced as the content
of steel fibres increased. The ductility and ultimate resistances were
114 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

found to be enhanced due to the addition of fibres. A method for


incorporating fibre effects in the flexural analysis of singly and doubly
reinforced concrete was discussed.
Krishnamoorthy et al14 investigated the behaviour of SFRC with
three different types of fibres, namely straight, crimped and trough
shaped fibre. The results of the investigation are given in Table 7.1
and Fig. 7.2.
7.2.4 Flexural Toughness
Toughness is an important characteristic for which SFRC is noted.
Under static loading, flexural toughness may be defined as the area
under the load deflection curve in flexure, which is the total energy
absorbed prior to complete separation of the specimen. The test pro-
cedures for measurement of flexural toughness indices given in the
codes of practice, such as ASTM C 1018, JCI SF4, JSCE S4, and ACI
544, help one to obtain information on the qualitative performance
of different materials and mix proportions. The procedure given in
ASTM C 101815 involves determining the amount of energy required
to deflect a beam to a specified multiple of the first crack deflection.
The toughness indices I5 , I10 , and I30 are determined, respectively, as
ratios of the area of the load deflection curve up to deflections of 3,
5.5, and 15.5 times the first crack deflection divided by the area of the
load deflection curve up to the first crack deflection.
Values of the ASTM C1018 toughness indices depend primarily on
the type, concentration and aspect ratio of the fibres and essentially
independent of whether the matrix is mortar or concrete. Thus, the
indices reflect the toughening effect of the fibres as distinct from any
strengthening effect that may occur. Toughness is expressed as index
as per ACI and as absolute energy as per Japan Concrete Institute.
These index values indicate a composite with plastic behaviour after
first crack that approximates the behaviour of mild steel after reaching
its yield point. Lower fibre volumes or less effectively anchored fibres
produce correspondingly lower index values. The flexural toughness
values for SFRC are shown in Table 7.2.
7.2.5 Fatigue Strength
The behaviour of SFRC in cyclic fatigue, despite its importance, has
reckoned relatively little attention. FRC improves the dynamic prop-
erties like energy absorption, behaviour under fatigue loading over
the plain concrete16 . Batson et al17 conducted experimental investi-
gation to determine the effectiveness of steel fibre reinforcement for
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 115

resisting fatigue loads. It shows that the fatigue strength generally


increases with the volume percentage for different fibre sizes. It was
also observed that the post fatigue static strength is greater than the
pre fatigue static strength. Romualdi18 also observed this and pro-
posed an explanation based on the shrinkage of the mortar during
curing and relaxing of the residual tensile stress due to shrinkage by
the action of the cyclic loading. A comprehensive evaluation of fatigue
properties has been investigated by Ramakrishnan et al5 among plain
concrete and FRC with four different types of fibres. They observed
that the fatigue strength increased with the fibre content for all the
fibre types. The largest increase was found in the hooked end fibres
and the smallest increase was found with polypropylene and straight
steel fibres. The endurance limit expressed as a percentage of modulus
of rupture of plain concrete increased with increasing fibre content.
7.2.6 Behaviour under cyclic loading
The objective of subjecting the plain and SFRC specimens to cyclic
loading is to investigate whether the specimens after subjecting them
to cyclic loading would continue to possess their original integrity (i.e.
without suffering damage). Since the peak strain for plain concrete
is around 0.002, and these specimens fail suddenly, it is possible to
subject them to cyclic loading only at very low strain levels. The
performance of SFRC is found to be far superior to plain concrete
even with 0.75% fibre volume fraction. The SFRC specimens, when
loaded monotonically after cyclic loading at a strain of 0.003, reached
almost the same peak load as was obtained under monotonic loading.
All the SFRC specimens were able to sustain higher strain even after
being loaded cyclically for fifteen cycles at a high strain of 0.007 (i.e. in
the post-peak stress region). It is clear from the Fig. 7.3 that the SFRC
specimens did not suffer damage even after loading them cyclically at
a strain of 0.00719 . This particular characteristic of SFRC could be
beneficially used in the design of seismic resistant structures.
7.2.7 Shear and Torsion
Studies in the last few decades indicate that use of steel fibres as
shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete beams helps in enhancing
the tensile strength, resulting in increase in shear strength and possi-
ble prevention of shear failure. Studies carried out so far have shown
that steel fibres upto about 1.5% by volume are effective as shear
reinforcement either by themselves or in combination with vertical
stirrups.
116 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

The first study on shear behaviour was reported by Batson et al20


where the fibres have been used with and without stirrups. Jindal21
tested 44 beams to study the effect of steel fibres as shear reinforce-
ment and found that the increase in the shear capacity of the beam
was substantial. Kaushik et al22 shown that a strength ratio of 1.67
can be achieved with the addition of 1.5% fibres with an aspect ratio of
100. Batson23 evaluated the effectiveness of hooked fibres in T beams;
Narayanan and Darwish24 have shown that the shear cracks in FRC
beams are not significantly different from the ones observed in con-
ventional beams. However, the spacing of cracks in the former is seen
to be closer than the later due to a more uniform stress distribution.
The studies carried out on the torsional behaviour of SFRC have
shown that there is an improvement in the torsional strength of con-
crete on addition of steel fibres of various types in varying volume
fractions.

7.2.8 Impact
Impact is a complex dynamic phenomenon involving crushing, shear
failure and tensile fracturing. It is also associated with penetration
perforation and fragmentation end scaling of the target being hit. The
addition of fibres improved the impact resistance of the plain concrete
to a great extent. The improvement in the strength is dependent on
the fibre type and fibre volume fractions.
As there is no acceptable standard method for determining the
impact resistance of SFRC, several tests have been used, namely,
weighted pendulum Charpy type impact test, drop weight test,
rotating impact test, blast impact test, projectile impact test and
instrumented impact test. The simplest of the impact tests is the
drop weight test. This test yields the number of blows necessary to
cause prescribed levels of distress in the test specimen. The test can
be used to compare the relative merits of different fibre concrete mixes
and to demonstrate the improved performance of FRC compared to
conventional concrete25 .
A simple, portable, and economical test has been devised by
Schrader26 . This impact test equipment and procedure has been pub-
lished in the report by ACI committee 544. The test is currently under
consideration for inclusion as an ASTM standard. Ramakrishnan et
al27 have done a comparative evaluation of concrete reinforced with
three different types of fibres. The Schrader’s drop weight impact test-
ing equipment was used. The test results showed considerable scatter,
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 117

possibly because no redistribution of stresses was possible during the


very short period of deformation. Hence, local weakness has a great
influence on the relative strength of the specimen. SFRC has shown
better impact resistance than plain concrete and it increases as fibre
volume percentage increases. It is also observed that the impact resis-
tance of hooked fibres is higher compared to plain or crimped fibres.

7.2.9 Abrasion/Cavitation/Erosion
Both laboratory tests and full scale trials have shown that SFRC has
high resistance to cavitation force resulting from high velocity water
flow and the damage caused by the impact of large water borne debris
at high velocity. Tests at the Waterways Experiment Station (USA)
indicate that steel fibre addition do not improve the abrasion/erosion
resistance of concrete caused by small particles at low water velocities.
This is because adjustments in the mixture proportions to accom-
modate the fibre requirements reduce coarse aggregate content and
increase paste content.

7.2.10 Creep and Shrinkage


There has been little work on the creep of steel fibre reinforced con-
crete. Fibres generally reduce the compressive and tensile creep. Test
by Mangat and Azari 28 have shown that steel fibres restrain the
creep of cement matrices at all stress strength ratios. The restraint is
found to be more at lower stress and at higher fibre content. Swamy
et al found that steel fibres are more effective in controlling com-
pressive creep than tensile creep and the reason for this is not fully
understood. Tests have shown that steel fibres have little effect on
free shrinkage of SFRC. However, when shrinkage is restrained, steel
fibres can substantially reduce the amount of cracking and mean crack
width.

7.2.11 Freeze Thaw Resistance


Steel fibres do not significantly affect the freeze thaw resistance of con-
crete, although they may reduce the sensitivity of the visible cracking
and spalling as a result of freezing in concrete with inadequate air
void system. The freeze thaw resistance of non air entrained concrete
is similar for SFRC and control concrete, whereas SFRC was found to
be better in the case of air entrained concrete29 .
118 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

7.3 BEHAVIOUR OF FRC WITH OTHER TYPES OF FIBRES


7.3.1 Glass Fibres
Since 1960, glass fibres have been explored as a possible alternative to
other fibres in high pH content system. Glass fibres possess high ten-
sile strength and modulus of elasticity, but serious concern is expressed
regarding their durability in an alkaline environment. Majumdar and
his co workers developed an alkali resistant zirconia glass containing
approximately 16 percent by weight of ZrO2. While Zirconia glass
appears to provide a measure of resistance to alkali attacks, per-
formance and durability aspects of these composites remain to be
ascertained.
For low w/c pastes, compressive strength is reduced by about 20%
and for higher w/c ratio the decrease can be as high as 30%. Uniaxial
tensile strength increases with age and amount of fibre. Aggregate
grading does not influence the strength. Also, the increase of tensile
strength in the early stages of hydration is dependent on the type
of fibre. In glass reinforced mortar, the ultimate tensile and flexural
strengths are not linear function of the term vf (l/d); this is not true
for steel fibre composites. Increasing the length and volume fraction
of fibres creates mixing problem. In spite of the enhanced mechanical
properties, question of the durability of alkaline resistant glass fibre
concrete composite in alkaline environment remain unresolved.
7.3.2 Polypropylene Fibres
Investigations on the use of polypropylene(PP) fibres in concrete
started around 1965 by the Shell Chemical Co. A yarn with a net
structure of fibrillated fibres designed to enhance mechanical keying
with cement matrix was produced and successfully marketed. PP fibres
have high tensile strength and low modulus of elasticity.
The exact nature and properties of fibre cement interfaces, which
control the behaviour of most cement composites are not well estab-
lished. A porous contact zone rich in calcium hydroxide has been
identified through microscope. The presence of small amount of ettrin-
gite and C S H in the contact layer which is a few micron thick has
been confirmed. The growth of the calcium hydroxide crystals is essen-
tially complete after 24 hour hydration time. A transmission region (10
to 20 micron) containing calcium silicate hydrate crystals grow out-
ward from the contact zone and mesh with the transmission zone. The
transmission zone moves in to a region of dense, less porous cement
hydrates.
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 119

The elastic properties would be influenced by the extent to which


calcium hydroxide interacts with fibre at the interface and therefore
dependent on the fibre type. The brittleness of the composite is prob-
ably also affected by the amount and size of the calcium hydroxide
crystals present. Further crystallisation of the calcium hydroxide in
the contact zone may actually result in a weakening of the bond
between the fibre and matrix. Surface modification of PP can result
in improving interfacial bond.
The decrease in stress at first cracking is dependent on the volume
concentration of fibres. In general, most works confirmed that incor-
poration of discontinuous fibres does not improve flexural or tensile
strength. Reinforcement of cement matrices with continuous fibres,
fibrillated filaments, fibrillated films, tape or woven fabric generally
results in increased flexural and tensile strength. Use of collated fib-
rillated fibres increases the flexural strength of matrix by about 15 to
20%. Compressive strength of concrete decreases by about 5 to 10%
when collated fibrillated mesh is used. PP degrades when exposed to
ultraviolet radiation. PP fibres do not modify significantly the abrasion
resistance of concrete.
7.3.3 Natural Fibres
There has been a growing interest in utilising natural fibres for making
low cost building materials in recent years. Some investigations have
already been carried out on the use of natural fibres from coconut husk,
sisal, sugar cane bagasse, bamboo, akara, plantain and musamba in
cement paste, mortar, and concrete. These investigations have shown
encouraging results.
Flexural strength increases with fibre addition to a maximum and
then decreases. The decrease at higher fibre content is due to incom-
plete compaction and increased porosity. A decrease in maximum
strength occurs with increase in sand cement ratio. A similar flexu-
ral and tensile strength dependence on fibre volume fraction and fibre
length has been observed for coconut fibre reinforced mortars. The
decrease in the strength for longer fibres was mainly due to balling
effects of the fibres.
Impact strength depends on curing period and fibre volume fraction
for both jute and coir fibre reinforced concretes. After 90 days of moist
curing, concrete made at a w/c ratio 0.5 has an impact strength more
than 3 times that of the control concrete. Incomplete compaction and
greater porosity contribute to a decrease in toughness at higher volume
120 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

fractions. Jute FRC requires a longer curing period to attain equal


toughness to that of coconut FRC.
Durability is of major importance in evaluating the suitability of
natural fibres for inclusion in cement matrix. Coir fibre exhibits ductile
failure characteristics, while most of the other fibres exhibit brittle
failure. Coir also shows greater resistance to alkali attacks. It has been
shown by many researchers that concrete reinforced with vegetable
fibres loses strength in an alkaline environment. Resin coatings provide
a reasonable measure of protection against alkali attack.

7.3.4 Carbon Fibres


Widespread use of carbon fibres in cement has been limited due
primarily to cost consideration. Initially it was used in the pipe man-
ufacturing only. Alternative uses are now being exploited as a result
of the development of less expensive discontinuous fibres in Japan.
Although discontinuous randomly distributed carbon fibres are less
efficient than continuous aligned fibres, the properties of composites
containing these carbon fibres are significantly improved. Tensile and
flexural strengths increase with fibre content and they are generally
less than those with continuous fibres. At low water cement ratios, the
strengths are similar. Compressive strength of carbon fibre reinforced
cements generally decreases with fibre addition.

7.3.5 Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete


The use of two or more types of fibres in a mix has been explored
to arrived at specific requirements. There are two main categories of
hybrid FRC, 1) Fibres of different sizes and/or shapes mix together
to achieve better packing and stability 2) Fibres of about the same
dimensions, but with different elastic moduli mixed together to provide
better toughness over a wide range of crack opening. Mazin Burhan et.
al have investigated the performance of steel-nylon hybrid FRC. 0.5%,
1% and 1.5% fiber percentage by volume of concrete were used in the
study with five different mixes of 100-0%, 70-30%, 50-50%, 30-70% and
0-100% for each fibers percentage (nylon to steel). It has been reported
that the optimum performance in terms of compressive strength was
with a fibre percentage of 0.5% for various combination of steel and
nylon fibres. But in terms of split tensile strength the best performance
was at 1% fibre, whereas the modulus of rupture increased with the
increase in the fibre volume. Piti et. al., investigated a hybrid FRC
with different sizes of steel fibres. Two macro fibres and one micro
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 121

fibre were mixed together at a combined volume fraction of 2% and


subjected to flexural loading. With micro fibre as a secondary fibre, the
performance was poorer than the single fibre system, when a macro
fibre itself was used as a secondary fibre the results were similar to that
of the single fibre system, as the aspect ratio of both the macro fibres
was similar. In case of the hybrid system with three types of fibres,
the lack of macro fibre did not affect the performance much as better
packing played an important role in the performance. Zhean et. al.,
investigated the mechanical properties of layered steel fibre (LSFRC)
and hybrid fibre reinforced concrete (LHFRC). Experimental results
showed that LSFRC and LHFRC can improve the flexural strength of
concrete by 20 to 50%

7.4 APPLICATIONS OF SFRC


7.4.1 Precast Products
One of the largest applications of SFRC in India has been in the pro-
duction of precast concrete manhole covers and frames. It has been
estimated that every kilometer of urban road may require 15 to 20
manhole chambers. Presently, grey cast iron is being used for the
manufacture of these covers. Cast iron covers are expensive and are
susceptible to pilferage. They are also liable to break easily as the
material is brittle. The SFRC manhole covers and frames possess high
ductility and impact resistance and cost relatively less as compared to
cast iron manhole covers and frames. Manhole covers, in general, are
classified as heavy, medium and light-duty, based on the intensity of
the vehicular traffic and their usage. The technology for production of
SFRC manhole covers developed by SERC, Chennai has already been
transferred to more than forty agencies in the country for commercial
exploitation. Thus, SFRC is being used extensively in our country for
the production of manhole covers and manhole frames and has much
potential for use in other precast concrete products such as lost forms,
dolosses, wall panels, etc.
Central Building Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee used both
steel and vegetable fibres in the development and production of build-
ing components, such as, precast doubly-curved roofing tiles (1000 ×
1000× 20mm and 700 × 700× 20mm), precast lintels (120 × 230×
75mm) and precast planks (1200 × 400 × 25 or 50mm). In the early
1980s, corrugated roofing sheets made out of coconut fibre reinforced
concrete have been used in a major leprosy settlement in a village near
122 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Titilagarh in Orissa, and have withstood many monsoon seasons. Sim-


ilar FRC roofing is also now being used in various villages in Andhra
Pradesh.

7.4.2 Steel Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete


One of the most important applications of SFRC is in the shotcrete,
popularly known as ’Steel Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete (SFRS)’. The
inclusion of steel fibres in shotcrete improves many of the mechanical
properties of the basic material, viz., the toughness, impact resistance,
shear strength, flexural strength, ductility factor, and the fatigue
endurance limits. An important improvement is evident in the mode
of failure, i.e., the material continues to carry a significant load after
cracking and failure takes place only after considerable deformation.
While the failure of plain shotcrete under flexure is essentially brit-
tle at the occurrence of peak load, SFRS continues to support loads
well beyond cracking of the cement matrix upto large deflections. It is
generally accepted that Steel Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete (SFRS) can
be designed in thinner sections than that required by conventional
shotcrete to resist the same load. By enabling mesh reinforcement to
be replaced by steel fibres, the use of SFRS can offer considerable time
savings to contractors in executing tunnel lining jobs. In the Srisailam
hydropower (A.P) and Uri hydropower projects (J & K), steel fibre
reinforced shotcrete has been used.
At SERC, Chennai, the investigations on SFRS were mainly
directed towards studying the flexural strength, toughness indices of
beam specimens and to establish the load deflection curves and eval-
uate the energy absorption characteristics of panel specimens. Tests
were also conducted on the companion specimens, which were cast
using conventional shotcrete with weld mesh reinforcement. It was seen
from the investigations that the addition of steel fibres in shotcrete
improves the ductility and energy absorption of SFRS panel speci-
mens. The peak load obtained with SFRS panels increases upto two
times and their energy absorption at 25mm deflection increases upto
three times when compared with that of weld mesh shotcrete panels.
These improvements, as reflected in the flatter post peak response,
were due to the contribution of steel fibres in controlling cracking and
holding the material together even after extensive cracking. The energy
absorption at 25mm deflection for 100mm thick panels increases upto
2 to 3 times over that of panels with weld mesh, as the fibre volume
increases [Table 7.3]. It was noted that the energy absorption of 500
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 123

N-m, withstood by the 100mm thick panels with weld mesh at 25mm
deflection is obtained with 50mm thick SFRS panels having fibre vol-
ume of 0.5 percentage. Since the energy absorption of SFRS panels is
much higher than that of weld mesh shotcrete panels, to match the
energy absorption of 100mm thick weld mesh shotcrete panels, it would
be sufficient to provide 50mm thick SFRS panels resulting in savings
in concrete. As already pointed out, with fibre shotcreting, shotcrete
can be placed to follow the exact contours of the tunnel which would
result in additional savings in materials and due to elimination of weld
mesh placement, time of execution could be considerably reduced.
7.4.3 Beam-Column Joint
Ductility at beam-column joints or connection is desirable in reinforced
concrete frames under seismic loading. Ductility at joints is generally
achieved by providing closely spaced horizontal or diagonal ties of
hoops, but this causes difficulty in placing concrete in densely rein-
forced portions, which results in bad concreting, leading to failure of
core concrete under seismic type of loading. Steel fibre reinforced con-
crete, which possesses high ductility, toughness and tensile strength,
can be considered to replace the plain concrete in the portion of the
joint. Hence, investigations were carried out at SERC, Chennai to
study the influence of fibres to eliminate the congestion of reinforce-
ment in the joint portion of the exterior beam-column joint under
static as well as cyclic loading. A constant axial load of 300 kN was
applied on the column having both its ends hinged and the beam was
loaded at the free end. It was found that:
• The SFRC is very effective in the beam column connections and
the replacement of shear reinforcement at the joint portion by
SFRC did not decrease the shear capacity.
• There is increase in the strength capacity of joint by 20% in the
case of SFRC specimens.
• The SFRC joints behaved better under cyclic loading and with-
stood 5 cycles (for 1.0% fibres) and 7 cycles (for 1.5% fibres)
against one cycle of loading of joints without fibres before failure.
• From the investigations, it is recommended that the spacing of
stirrups at the beam-column joint can be increased to twice that
of design spacing with the addition of 1.0% fibres in the joint
portion for exterior beam-column joint.
124 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

7.4.4 Pavement and Industrial Floors


Cement concrete, in general, is being used for pavement and paving
large areas of industrial floors. To improve the wear resistance quality
of concrete industrial floors, the concrete base of the floor is provided
with a topping or overlay material, such as quartz, emery or metallic
aggregates. However, such concrete floors are found to be adequate
in terms of trouble free performance with minimum disruption to
activities on the floor, especially, in aggressive environments such as
chemical factories, dairy and food processing industries and when sub-
jected to heavy impact loads and abrasion. With the use of material
handling equipments/machines, such as forklifts, trucks and the use
of robots in production, the performance specification in terms of flat-
ness, levelness and dust free surface for concrete floors have become
important.
Use of SFRC in the place of plain concrete, for laying the base of
the floor results in many advantages. Since the flexural strength of
SFRC is more than that of plain concrete, with the use of SFRC, it is
possible to reduce the thickness of concrete floor upto 30% and spacing
of contraction joints could be increased by 50%. Further, due to higher
tensile strength of SFRC, shrinkage cracks and warping cracks due to
thermal stresses are minimised. Due to higher abrasion resistance of
SFRC, scaling of concrete is prevented. In case of thin overlay applica-
tions, the specified location of continuous reinforcing steel in concrete
is literally impossible to achieve, given the minimum cover, variable
thickness of overlay and construction difficulties. SFRC because of its
pre-crack and post-crack load carrying capacities has better resistance
to development and propagation of cracks originating from underly-
ing pavement. This delayed propagation of cracks provide a two to
three fold increase in the life of overlay. Thus, SFRC is ideally suited
for providing overlays for pavements and industrial floors. SFRC has
been used abroad for pavement and industrial floor toppings and has
much potential for laying industrial floors in heavy vehicle factories,
boiler plants, thermal power plants, where very heavy machinery and
tools are to be moved on tracked vehicles.

7.4.5 Application of SFRC to Repair of Distressed Structures


The applications of SFRC fall in two categories repairs and new
construction. Repairs are invariably required to tackle problems of
abrasion, cavitation or impact damage in various components of
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 125

hydraulic structures, such as, spillways, stilling basins, baffle blocks,


outlet conduits, etc.

7.5 SLURRY INFILTRATED FIBROUS CONCRETE


(SIFCON)
Slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete is a relatively new material in India
and can be considered as a special type of fibre reinforced concrete.
It is different from normal fibre reinforced concrete in two aspects.
In FRC, the fibre content usually varies from 1 to 3% by volume
whereas in SIFCON, the fibre content may vary between 5 to 20%.
The matrix of SIFCON consists of cement paste or flowing cement
mortar as opposed to regular concrete in fibre reinforced concrete.
The process of making SIFCON is also different because of the high
fibre content. In FRC, the fibres are added to the wet or dry mix of
the concrete during mixing but SIFCON is prepared by infiltrating
cement slurry into a bed of preplaced fibres. SIFCON has been suc-
cessfully used for refractory applications, pavements and overlays, and
structures subjected to blast and dynamic loading30 . Because of high
ductility and impact resistance, the composite has excellent poten-
tial for constructing structural components which need to resist high
impact force and exhibit high ductility, such as explosive storage cab-
inets, blast resistant doors, high security vaults, repair of concrete
bridge decks, test track for heavy vehicles, missile silo structures and
precast shapes, where standard modes of reinforcement are ineffective.
At CSIR-SERC investigations have been carried out on SIFCON
with different types, volume and cement to sand ratio. Two mix pro-
portions (1:1 and 1:1.5) and two w/c ratios (0.40 and 0.35) were
investigated. Sulphonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde (SNF) based
superplasticizer was used for higher w/c ratio (0.40) and Polycar-
boxylic(PC) based superplasticiser was used for lower w/c ratio (0.35).
In order to arrive at the optimum dosage of superplaticizer, Marsh
Cone test was used. Marsh Cone test consisted of the evaluation of
time required to collect 400ml of paste through a standard Marsh
Cone. During the casting of the test specimens, sand that was retained
in a 1.18mm sieve was used. Specimens were cast to evaluate the com-
pressive strength (100 ×100× 100mm cubes) and split tensile strength
(100mm dia × 200mm height cylinders) at 28 days. The details of var-
ious mixes and the test results are given in Table 7.3. The test results
revealed that the mix proportion 1:1 with a water cement ratio of
0.35 and polycarboxilic based superplasticiser and Viscosity Modifying
126 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Agent (VMA) gave the best performance in terms of compressive and


split tensile strength hence was choosen for further studies. Similarly
tests very conducted to determine the suitable fibre type and optimum
dosage. With the addition of 8% fibres the compressive strength was
in the range of 70-80 MPa and the split tensile strength was around
15 to 18 MPa. Figure 7.4 is the stress-strain plot for the various types
of fibres at 8% fibre volume. The aspect ratio of straight and crimped
fibres was 66 whereas that for the hooked fibre was 48. In order to
show the enhancement in the stress - strain characteristics achieved
with SIFCON a type stress-strain plot of a traditional SFRC mix with
1% fibre volume has been plotted.

7.6 SLURRY INFILTRATED MAT CONCRETE (SIMCON)


One promising new development called SIMCON (Slurry infiltrated
mat concrete) uses steel fibre mats to reinforce the concrete matrix.
SIMCON produces concrete components with extremely high flexural
strength31 .
SIMCON can also be considered a preplaced fibre concrete, the
only difference between SIMCON and SIFCON being that the fibre
is placed in a mat rather than as discrete fibres. The advantage of
steel fibre mats over a large volume of discrete fibres is that the mat
configuration provides inherent strength and utilises fibres with much
higher aspect ratios. The fibre volume is less than half that required
for SIFCON (slurry infiltrated fibre concrete), while achieving similar
flexural strength and energy absorbing toughness.
SIMCON is a non-woven steel fibre mat that is infiltrated with
concrete slurry. The steel fibre is directly cast from molten metal using
a chilled wheel concept, then interlayed into a 1/2 to 2 in. thick mat.
This mat is then rolled and coiled into weights and sizes convenient to
a customer’s application, and can range upto 48 in. wide and 500 lb.
A variety of factors such as, aspect ratio and fibre volume influ-
ence the performance of SIMCON. Higher aspect ratios are critical
to obtain increased flexural strength in the concrete composite. SIM-
CON utilizes fibers with aspect ratios exceeding 500. Since the mat is
already in a preformed shape, handling problems are minimized and
balling does not become a factor. Hackman et.al carried out investi-
gations on SIMCON using manganese carbon steel mat having fibres
approximately 9.5 in. long with an equivalent diameter of 0.010 to
0.021 in. and stainless steel mats produced using 9.5 in. long fibres
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 127

with an equivalent diameter of 0.010 to 0.020 inches and compared the


performance of SIMCON with SIFCON having fibres 14% by volume.

7.7 CONCLUSION
The most significant influence of incorporation of fibres in concrete
is to delay and control the tensile cracking of concrete. Thus, inher-
ently unstable tensile crack propagation in concrete is transformed into
a slow and controlled crack growth. The addition of fibres improves
the static flexural strength, flexural fatigue strength, impact strength,
shock resistance, ductility, and flexural toughness of concrete. The
designer may best view FRC as a concrete with improved mechanical
properties. However, the increase in these properties will vary from
substantial to nil depending on the quality and types of fibres used;
in addition, the properties will not increase at the same rate as fibres
are added.
Steel fibre reinforced concrete has been used with considerable
success in paving, hydraulic, and shotcreting applications, and the
indications are that its use, at least in paving and shotcreting, is
likely to increase. There are also signs of increasing interest in using
steel fibres in a variety of precast products. There has been grow-
ing interest in utilizing natural fibres for making low cost building
materials in recent years. Alkali resistant glass fibres have generated
world-wide interest and are considered as a possible replacement for
asbestos fibres.

7.8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author is thankful to Director, CSIR-SERC for granting permis-
sion to deliver the lecture.

7.9 REFERENCES
1. Report by ACI committee 544, ‘Design Consideration for Steel
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Reinforced Concrete’, Indian Concrete Journal, June 1977, pp
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128 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

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4. Fanella D. A. and Naaman, A.E., “Stress Strain Properties of
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6. Balaguru P., and Ramakrishnan V., “Properties of Light Weight
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8. Hughes, B. P., and Fattuhi, N. I., “Load Deflection Curves of
Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams in Flexure”, Mag. of Concrete
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Concrete Members”, ACI Special Publication, SP 105, 1987, pp
517–563.
10. Swamy, R. N., and Al Noori K. A., “Flexural Behaviour of Fibre
Concrete with Conventional Steel Reinforcement”, Rilem Symp.
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12. Hannant, D. J., “Steel Fibres and Lightweight Beams”, Concrete,
Vol. 6, No. 8, Aug. 1972, pp 39–40.
13. Kormeling, H. A., Reinhardt, H. W., and Shah, S. P., “Static
and Fatigue Properties of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Con-
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Feb.1980, pp 36–43.
14. Krishnamoorthy, T. S., Parameswaran, V. S., and Bharatkumar,
B. H., “Flexural Behaviour and Toughness of Steel Fibre Rein-
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15. American Society for Testing and Materials, “Standard Method


of Test for Flexural Toughness of Fibre Concrete”, ASTM Stan-
dards for Concrete and Mineral Aggregates, Vol. 04, No. 02,
Standard Number C-1018, August 1984, pp 637–644.
16. Balasubramanian, K., Santhi Gangadar, and Parameswaran, V.
S., “Fatigue Performance of Fibre Reinforced Concrete A state
of the art report”, Technical report, SERC, Madras.
17. Batson, G., Ball, C., Bailey, L., Landers, E., and Hooks, J., “Flex-
ural Fatigue Strength of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams”,
ACI Journal, Vol. 69, No. 11, November 1972, pp 673–677.
18. Romualdi, J. P., “The Static Cracking Stress and Fatigue
Strength of Concrete Reinforced with Short Pieces of Steel Wire”,
The Structure of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Association
(London), 1968, pp 190–216.
19. Balasubramanian, K., Krishnamoorthy, T. S., Bharatkumar,
B. H., and Gopalakrishnan, S., “Study of the Behaviour of
Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete under Cyclic Loading” Research
Report No.CCL-FRC-97-1, SERC, Madras, October 1997.
20. Batson, G. B., Jenkin, E., and Spathey, R., “Steel Fibres as Shear
Reinforcement in Beams”, ACI Journal, Vol. 69, No. 10, 1972, pp
640–647.
21. Jindal, R. L. “Shear and Moment Capacities if Steel Fibre Rein-
forced Concrete Beams”, Fibre Reinforced Concrete, SP 81, ACI,
Detroit, 1984, pp 1–16.
22. Kaushik, S. K., Gupta, V. K., and Tarafdar, N. K., “Behaviour
of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams in Shear”, Proc. of the Int.
Symp. on Fibre Reinforced Concrete, 1987, pp 1.253–1.132.
23. Batson, G. B. and Alguire, C., “Steel Fibres as Shear Reinforce-
ment in Reinforced Concrete T beams”, Proc. of the Int. Symp.
on Fibre Reinforced Concrete, 1987, pp 1.113–1.123.
24. Narayanan, R. and Darwish, I. Y. S., “Use of Steel Fibres as
Shear Reinforcement”. ACI, Structural Journal, Vol. 84, No. 3,
1987, pp 216–227.
25. Balasubramanian, K., Bharatkumar, B. H., Gopalakrishnan, S.,
and Parameswaran, V. S., “Impact Resistance of Steel Fibre Rein-
forced Concrete”, The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 70, No. 5,
May 1996, pp 257–262.
26. Schrader, E. K., “Impact Resistance and Test Procedure for
Concrete”, ACI Journal, Vol. 78, No. 2, March-April 1981, pp
141–146.
130 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

27. Ramakrishnan, V., Brandshaug, T., Coyle, W. V., and Schrader,


E. K., “A Comparative Evaluation of Concrete Reinforced with
Straight Steel Fibres with Deformed Ends Glued Together in
Bundles”, ACI Journal, Vol. 77, No. 3, May-June 1980, PP
135–143.
28. Mangat, P. S. and Azari, M. M., “A Theory for the Creep of
Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Matrices under Compression”,
Journal of Material Science, Vol. 20, 1985, pp 1119–1133.
29. Beaudoin, J. J., “Hand Book of Fibre Reinforced Concrete:
Principles, Properties, Developments and Applications”, Noyes
Publication, New Jersey, USA, 1990.
30. Lankard, D. R., “Slurry infiltrated fibre concrete (SIFCON)”
Concrete International, Vol. 6, No. 12, 1984, pp 44–47.
31. Lloyd, E. Hackman, Mark, B. Farrell and Orville O. Dun-
ham, “Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON)”, Concrete
International, 1992, pp 53–56.
32. Erdem Dogan and Neven Krstulovic-Opara, “Seismic Retrofit
with Continuous Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete Jackets”, ACI
Structural Journal, Vol. 100, No. 6, 2003, pp 713–723.
33. Piti Sukontasukkul, “Hybrid Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Cir-
cular Plates under Bending”, the Journal of KMITNB, 2004, Vol.
14, No. 4.
34. Mazin Burhan Adeen and Alya’a Abbas Al-Attar, “Determi-
nation of Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Steel-Nylon Fiber
Reinforced Concrete”, Modern Applied Science, Vol. 4, No. 12,
2010, pp 97–109.
35. L U Zhean, FAN Xiaochun, CHEN Yingbo, “Mechanical Prop-
erties of Layered Steel Fiber and Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Con-
crete”, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology, Vol. 23, No.
5, 2008, pp 733–737.
36. Mehmet zcan, D., “Experimental and finite element analysis
on the steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams ultimate
behavior”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, Issue
2, February 2009,pp 1064–1077.
37. Wang, Z. L., “A study of constitutive relation and dynamic failure
for SFRC in compression”, Construction and Building Materials.
Vol. 24, Issue 8, August 2010, pp 1358–1363.
38. Sun, M., “Bending Toughness of Zinc Phosphate Steel Fiber Rein-
forced Concrete before and after Corrosion”, Advanced Materials
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Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 131

39. Semsi Yazici, “Effect of aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel
fiber on the mechanical properties of SFRC”, Construction and
Building Materials. Vol. 21, Issue 6, June 2007, pp 1250–1253.
40. Wang, X. W., “Research on Fracture-CMOD Toughness of Steel
Fiber Reinforced Concrete”, Advanced Materials Research, Vol.
168, No. 70, pp 1784–1787.
41. Xu, B. W., “Correlations among mechanical properties of steel
fiber reinforced concrete”, Construction and Building Materials,
Vol. 23, Issue 12, December 2009, pp 3468–3474.
42. Piti Sukontasukkul, “Post-crack (or post-peak) flexural response
and toughness of fiber reinforced concrete after exposure to high
temperature”, Construction and Building Materials Vol. 24, Issue
10, October 2010, pp 1967–1974.
43. Kazuo Watanabe, “Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Flexural
Behaviour of Hybrid Fibre Reinforced High Strength Concrete”,
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2010 pp
17–27.
Table 7.1 Results of Static Flexural Tests on SFRC Beams 14
Load at (kN) Apparent
Fibre % Volume Ave. Cube First Maximum (Ultimate)
Type of Fibre Compressive Crack m Flexural
Strength Strength
(MPa) (MPa)

Crimped 0.5 31.03 12 16.4 4.9


1 29.45 12.5 18.75 5.62
1.5 32.16 15 22.35 6.7
2 28.2 20 31.9 9.57

Trough- 0.5 31.13 13 17.9 5.37


Shaped 1 33.76 14.5 25.5 7.65
1.5 36.25 20 32.75 9.82
2 32.35 20 34.75 10.42

Straight-1 0.5 30 13.7 17.37 5.21


1 28.17 15 19.37 5.81
1.5 29.12 17.5 22 6.6

Straight-2 0.5 32.5 12.5 19.38 5.81


1 32.7 15 26.75 8.02
1.5 31.11 17.5 32.25 9.68

Plain – 28.6 12 12 3.6


132 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Table 7.2 Results of the Tests on the Shotcreted Panels


Specimen Weld Avg. Measured Experimental peak Energy
ID mesh/Fibre specimen thickness load (kN) absorbed up to
(mm) 25 mm
deflection (N-m)
WS WELD MESH 47.5 18.08 331
WS WELD MESH 49.8 19.35 341
WS WELD MESH 94.4 40.94 410
WS WELD MESH 99.4 58.23 502
F1 FIBRE 0.5% 49.7 33.33 504
F1 FIBRE 0.5% 50.8 25.36 511
F1 FIBRE 0.5% 97.5 79.37 1021
F1 FIBRE 0.5% 100.8 67.97 1270
F2 FIBRE 0.75% 47.5 22.92 497
F2 FIBRE 0.75% 49.2 21.04 543
F2 FIBRE 0.75% 91.8 70.90 1289
F2 FIBRE 0.75% 99.4 75.96 1467
F3 FIBRE 1.0% 45.5 18.57 398
F3 FIBRE 1.0% 49.8 25.00 528
F3 FIBRE 1.0% 98.3 83.42 1378
F3 FIBRE 1.0% 94.4 63.60 1072

Table 7.3 Details of Various Sifcon Mixes and the Test Results
Mix Proportion Compressive Split Tensile
(Cement : Sand: Strength (28 days), Strength,
w/c: SP:VMA) MPa MPa
1 : 1: 0.40 : 0.5% 29.375 2.398
SNF : 0.125%
1 : 1: 0.35 : 0.3% 38.945 2.557
PC: 0.125%
1 : 1.5 : 0.40: 0.7% 29.012 2.49
SNF : 0.125%
1 : 1.5: 0.35 : 0.4% 33.648 2.456
PC: 0.125%

Smooth steel fibers


Compressive stress, psi

8000
l/df = 83

6000
Vf = 3%
4000 Vf = 2%

2000 Vf = 1%
Control (1 psi = 0.0068 MPa)
0
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
Axial strain, millionths

Fig. 7.1 Stress strain Curve for steel fiber reinforced concrete
Advances in Fibre Reinforced Concrete and its Applications 133

60.0

50.0

40.0
Load (kN)

30.0

20.0
COM6
10.0 TA1
SA2
CA1
0.0
0 10 20 30 40
Deflection (mm)

Fig. 7.2 Load deflection plot for reinforced concrete beams with
different steel fibers (1% by Volume)

45.00

40.00

35.00

30.00
Stress [MPa]

25.00

20.00

15.00

10.00

5.00

0.00
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
Strain

C_080 peak C_080 mon

Fig. 7.3 Comparison of monotonic loading and peak loading of


OPC based concrete mixtures for a fiber content of 80 kg/m3
134 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

90
80
70

Strass (MPa)
60
50
40 Straight
30 Crimped
Hooked
20
FRC 1%
10
0
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02
Strain (mm/mm)

Fig. 7.4 Stress-Strain plot in compression for 8% fibres


Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 135–158

8 Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil


Engineering Applications

B. H. Bharatkumar and G. Ramesh


Scientist
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: bharat@sercm.org

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Majority of the civil engineering structures in the world are being
built using Reinforced concrete (RC) and Prestressed concrete (PSC).
However, structures constructed in aggressive environments, such as,
structures in marine and coastal regions, chemical industries, water
and waste water treatment facilities and bridges often undergo deteri-
oration in the form of cracking and spalling of concrete due to corrosion
of steel reinforcement. Repair of such structures are always costly and
require much effort and time. Also, after the earthquake in Bhuj,
on 26th January 2001, there has been a concerted effort to address
the seismic vulnerability of existing buildings in India. Large areas of
our country have been reclassified and upgraded to higher zones in
the recent revision of IS codes, which essentially requires undertaking
national programme on evaluation and retrofitting of existing multi-
storied buildings. Common conventional techniques for strengthening
structural elements include, concrete jacketing, shotcreting/guniting
and steel plate bonding. The limitations posed by conventional
strengthening techniques have given an impetus to researchers to
innovate and develop new materials/techniques for structural reha-
bilitation. The quest for new materials to replace the reinforcing steel
and for structural rehabilitation has led to the development and appli-
cation of man-made fibre reinforced plastic (FRP). Until recently, the
uses of FRP were limited to aerospace and defense industries due to
the high cost. With recent developments in the manufacturing process
of FRP, it can now compete with conventional concrete constructions
materials.
136 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

FRPs have excellent corrosion resistance in addition to high tensile


strength and low modulus of elasticity. FRP products were first used
to reinforced concrete structures in the mid 1950s (ACI 440R (1996)).
Today, these FRP products take the form of bars, cables, 2-D and 3-D
grid, sheet materials, plates etc. FRP products may achieve the same
or better reinforcement objective of commonly used metallic products,
such as, steel reinforcing bars, prestressing tendons, bonded plates, and
concrete or steel jacketing.
The common link among all FRP products is the use of contin-
uous fibre (glass, aramid, carbon etc) embedded in a resin matrix,
the glue that allows the fibres to work together as a single element.
Resins used are thermoset (polyester, vinyl ester etc.) or thermoplastic
(nylon, polyethylene terephthalate etc.). The mechanical characteris-
tics of FRPs are much dependent on the type of binding agent and
the manufacturing process. Also, the low modulus of elasticity of FRP
may lead to increase in deflection and cracking, particularly in large
span flexural members. Further characteristics and behaviour of FRP
reinforced structural members under various loading and environmen-
tal condition, viz, flexure, compression, creep, fatigue, impact and
durability are to be evaluated before using FRP in civil engineering
applications. This paper briefly presents the investigations carried out
at Structural Engineering Research Centre(SERC), Chennai on the
performance of FRP wrapping and FRP rebars as reinforcement.

8.2 CONSTITUENT OF FRPS


Different types of fibres, such as, carbon, aramid, glass and polyvinyl
alcohol are being used as an alternative to steel reinforcement in
concrete structures. The fibers are usually bonded together with bind-
ing agents, such as, resins having widely different composition. Steel
reinforcement are likely to have almost identical tensile strength and
other mechanical characteristics, but the mechanical characteristics
of FRPs are much dependent on the type of binding agent and the
manufacturing process.
8.2.1 Fibres
Glass fibres: Glass fibres are the most common of all reinforcing
fibres for FRPs (Majumdar 1985). Two types of glass fibres, namely,
E-glass fibre and alkali-resistant glass fibre are commercially available.
They are low cost and possess high strength and excellent insulation
properties. The disadvantages are low tensile modulus, sensitivity to
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 137

alkaline environment and low resistance to moisture and sustained


and cyclic loads. Even though alkali resistant glass fibres have been
developed specifically to minimize weight and strength loss in alkaline
environment, this problem has not been entirely eliminated to date.
Carbon fibres: Carbon fibre is made from either petroleum or coal
pitch and polyacrylinitril (PAN). Its characteristics depend on the
composition and orientation of the graphite crystals in the fibre. Car-
bon fibres can be classified into four types based on the modulus: low,
intermediate, high and ultra high. In general, low-modulus fibres have
lower density, lower cost, higher tensile strength than higher modulus
fibres. The transverse and shear stiffness and strength of carbon fibres
are typically quite low in comparison with the longitudinal properties.
Water, solvents, bases and weak acids at room temperature do not
affect the carbon fibres much.
Aramid fibres: Aramid fibres are manufactured by extruding poly-
mer solution through a spinnernet resulting in a fibre with thermal
stability, high strength and high stiffness. The aligned polymer chain
results in high strength in the longitudinal direction than in trans-
verse direction. Aramid fibre is fibrillar in macrostructure, which result
in poor flexural and compressive properties. Since ultra-violet radia-
tion degrades aramid fibres, they should be embedded in a protective
matrix.
Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibre: The high strength polyvinyl alcohol fibre
is spun by a wet process using polyvinyl alcohol of high degree of
polymerization and rolled to provide added strength and elasticity to
conventional fibres. The fibre also remains stable in the presence of
alkalis.
8.2.2 Matrices
The primary role of the matrix in FRPs is to provide lateral sup-
port to the fibres and protect fibres from physical and chemical effects
due to the surrounding. Some of the important characteristics to be
considered in selecting a matrix for a structural FRP are: stiffness,
strength fracture toughness, thermal and electrical conductivity, abil-
ity to impregnate and bond of fibres, flame resistant and sensitivity
to ultraviolet radiation. The important factor to be considered in the
selection of a matrix is the relative mismatch in shrinkage or expan-
sion between the fibre and matrix that can occur during processing.
Some of the matrices used in FRP are briefly discussed below.
138 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Polyester resin: Commercial polyester usually consists of an unsat-


urated ester polymer dissolved in a cross-linking monomer such as
styrene etc. An inhibitor is usually added to the styrene to prevent
cross linking until the addition of a catalyst or promoter. The prin-
cipal advantages of polyester for FRPs are low viscosity, fast cure
time, dimensional stability chemical resistance and moderate costs.
The disadvantage is high volumetric shrinkage during processing.
Vinylester Resin: They are produced by the reaction of mono-
functional unsaturated acids such as methacrylic or acrylic acid with
epoxy resin. They have advantages over polyester in terms of chemi-
cal resistance and high temperature resistance and they are easier to
handle during processing. They are well suited for the manufacture
of FRPs due to the low viscosity and short cure time, but they are
at a disadvantage relative to epoxies because of the high volumetric
shrinkage during curing.
Epoxy Resin: Epoxy resins are the most versatile matrices for
FRPs. They have an exceptionally broad range of physical properties,
mechanical capabilities and processing condition. One of the major
advantages of epoxies for the manufacture of FRP laminates is that
the exothermic polymerization process can be slowed by lowering the
temperature of the resin after the fibres have been infiltrated. Epoxy
resins are known for their excellent strength and creep resistance,
strong adhesion to fibres, chemical and solvent resistance, high glass
transition temperature and low shrinkage during cure.
Polyamide Resin: Polyamides are polymers containing cyclic amid
group in the main macromolecular chain. The advantages are their out-
standing resistance to heat, thermal degradation organic solvents and
high energy radiation. They are slightly susceptible to attack by dilute
acids and dissolved by strong mineral acids at high temperatures.
Resin Fillers and Additives: Fillers were first used to reduce the
volume of polymer used in an application and thereby reduce costs
without excessively degrading the properties. A common filler for
reducing cost and shrinkage of polyester and vinyl ester resin is cal-
cium carbonate. Other common fillers are Aluminum silicate, Kaolin,
talc, mica and wollastronite. Numerous resin additives are available
for enhancing the resistance of matrices and FRPs to flames, smoke,
moisture, oxidation, chemical shrinkage and ultraviolet radiation.
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 139

8.2.3 Manufacturing process


Processing of FRP composites (Nanni 1993 and Bakis 1993) requires
the application of specific temperature and pressure to the material
in order to accomplish several goods like correct fiber orientation, cor-
rect fibre to resin ratio, correct fiber compaction, low void content,
and correct degree of cure. Unless these goals are met by proper man-
ufacturing methods, FRP composites can have property variations of
several orders of magnitude. Low void content, optimal resin content,
and good bonding between matrix and reinforcement are desirable
in FRP because they lead to better mechanical properties and bet-
ter resistance to the bond between matrix and fibres. Voids in FRPs
are most effectively eliminated during processing by applying pressure
while raising the temperature of the FRP and applying a vacuum.
Proper resin content or fibre volume of the FRPs is assessed by follow-
ing the manufactures guidelines. There are many widely used methods
for orienting/ curing FRP rebars (Meyer 1985 and KO 1987). Some of
these methods are manual and automated lay-up, FRP moulding, tube
rolling, filament winding, pultrusion, braiding, compression moulding
etc.
Among these methods, pultrusion technique is very much useful
for manufacturing tubes, rods and flat and angle sections (Ramesh
Sundaram 1996). This technique is the reverse of the extrusion process.
Here material is pulled rather than pushed through a die. This is a
process wherein continuous fibre reinforced section of both solid and
hollow cross section can be made. The orientation of the fibres is kept
constant during the entire process. Components produced generally
have 70 to 75 per cent fibre content by volume and have very good
strength and stiffness. The pultrusion process can be clarified under
two categories, namely, pultrusion using resin bath and pultrusion by
resin injection. In the first process, the fibre is drawn through a resin
and then through a heated die. The die removes any excess resin and
also decides the final form of the component. The disadvantage with
this is that the resin should have a long pot life and thus cure time
becomes long. In the second process, a resin system is injected into
the reinforcement as it passes through the die. Here, resin system with
short cure times can be used, thereby, increasing the production rate.
In these processes, the curing is done in adjacently located ovens and
after cooling, it is cut into the required length.
140 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

8.3 INVESTIGATIONS ON FRP WRAPS


In recent years, external application of Fibre Reinforced Polymer
(FRP) wraps are used to increase the performance of reinforced con-
crete structural elements, viz., beams, columns, and beam-column
joints. FRP has been used widely to replace steel jacketing (ICJ 2004,
Udhayakumar et.al. 2006) as they appear efficient and competitive
(Taerwe and Matthys 1999, Swamy and Gual 1996 and Hollay and
Leeming 1999). External application of FRP system provides a par-
ticular solution to improve the overall performance of an RC framed
structure without the necessity of radical alteration to the original
structure. Externally bonded FRP may be used for structures that
have undergone moderate earthquake damage. Use of FRP offers sev-
eral advantages, related to high strength to weight ratio, resistance to
corrosion, fast and relatively simple application. One disadvantage of
FRP is its dependence on bond to the concrete; which is a function
of tensile capacity of the concrete and the type of surface preparation
used. In view of the above, many points need to be clarified on the use
of FRP for application in the retrofitting of structural elements. Hence,
studies were undertaken at SERC to investigate the performance of
the retrofitted structural elements using FRP wrap. The investiga-
tion outlines the experimental investigations conducted on the RC
structural elements like beams and columns to assess the efficiency of
the FRP wraps used for the retrofitting purposes. Glass and Carbon
(GFRP/CFRP) fibre wraps were used in the present investigations.
8.3.1 Procedure for wrapping
In general, the specimen, which has to receive the FRP wrap has to
be prepared. The four corners of the specimen were first chamfered to
a radius of about 15 mm. The surfaces of these corners were ground
mechanically to remove any laitance. Then a two component primer
system was applied on the concrete surface and allowed to cure for 24
hours. A two component epoxy coating was then applied on the primer
coated surface and the FRP mat was immediately wrapped over the
entire surface of the specimen. A roller was then applied gently over
the wrap so that good adhesion was achieved between the concrete
surface and the FRP wrap. Another coat of the two component epoxy
was applied over the fiber mat and allowed to cure for 7 days. In the
case of the specimens wrapped with two layers, the second wrap was
applied following the same procedure as described above, after the
first wrap was applied. The second wrap was also allowed to cure for
a further period of seven days. The orientation of the fibers should be
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 141

kept parallel or perpendicular to the loading direction so as to resist


the load, in the case of single layer FRP wrap, i.e. parallel in case of
resisting the axial load and perpendicular in case of resisting bending
load. However, in the case of specimens wrapped with two layers of
FRP, the fiber orientation can be other than direction in the first layer.
8.3.2 Investigations on Retrofitted RC Beams under Flexure
In order to assess the efficiency of the CFRP/GFRP wraps under
flexural loading, nine numbers of beams of size 100 × 200 × 1500 mm
were cast and tested under four point load test (Balasubramanian
et.al. 2007). The longitudinal reinforcement steel consists of 2 Nos. of
12mm dia HSD rebars and the shear reinforcement consists of 2 legged
vertical stirrups of 6mm φ @ 150mm c/c. Single layer and double layer
CFRP/GFRP wraps were used to strengthen the RC beams. To study
the influence of the number of layers of wrap on the performance of
RC beam specimens, single and double layers of CFRP and GFRP
were wrapped on the test beams.
In general, the strength and ductility of the control RC beams were
improved considerably when the beams were retrofitted with CFRP
and GFRP. Among the two, from the performance and economy point
of view, it is recommended to use one layer of GFRP for retrofitting
of RC structures.
8.3.3 Investigations on Retrofitted RC Beams under Shear
To assess the shear behaviour of the RC beams wrapped with CFRP,
12 numbers of beam specimens were cast with various percentage
of tension reinforcement, which includes five numbers of control
specimen. Testing was done as four point bending. Five different
percentages of longitudinal reinforcement (0.59, 0.92, 1.18, 1.84 and
2.36%) were investigated. The shear span to depth ratio was kept con-
stant at 2.0 for all the twenty four specimens (Balasubramanian et.al.
2007). CFRP wrapping was employed to retrofit the beams.
It was seen that RC beams retrofitted with CFRP on the sides and
bottom showed increased failure load in the case of the lower tension
reinforcement compared to the control specimens. In the case of the
higher tension reinforcement, there was no improvement in the failure
load for the CFRP wrapped RC beams. It was also seen that RC beams
retrofitted with CFRP showed increased failure load in the case of the
beams that were wrapped on the top, bottom and sides than that of
the beams wrapped on the sides and bottom only. It is found that the
RC beams wrapped on top, sides and bottom showed higher ductility
142 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

compared to the control RC beams. In general, the shear strengthening


of the RC beams with CFRP wrap along the entire span was found
to be better among the various methods that were investigated. But,
this increased shear strength is limited by the bond between concrete
- repair material interface. The strength of the repair material has a
limited role to play.

8.4 INVESTIGATIONS ON RETROFITTED RC COLUMNS


The strengthening of existing RC columns using steel or FRP jacket-
ing is based on the well established fact that confinement of concrete
can substantially increase its axial compressive strength (Hamid et.al.
1997, Rane & Rane 2001 and Frieder et.al. 1997). The experimental
program at SERC consisted of testing seventeen square RC columns,
having a cross section of 175 mm × 175 mm with an overall length
of 1400 mm (Fig. 8.1). The following were the main objectives of the
investigation, (i) to study the effectiveness of CFRP and GFRP wraps
and steel jacketing in increasing the axial compressive strength of RC
columns, (ii) to study the effect of spacing of lateral ties in provid-
ing confinement to concrete and (iii) to compare the performance of
the steel jacketed columns with those of the FRP wrapped columns
(Bharatkumar et.al.2006).
Based on the experimental results, it was seen that the stress strain
curve in the post peak region clearly brings out the effect of confine-
ment, as the RC column with closer lateral tie spacing showed a more
ductile behaviour. The ductility index was also more for the RC col-
umn provided with closer lateral tie spacing. There is also an increase
in peak load, maximum strains as well as ductility index in the RC
columns retrofitted with single layer of CFRP/GFRP wrap over con-
trol RC columns for both the lateral tie spacing. Among the three
retrofitting techniques employed in the investigation, steel plate jack-
eting showed an increase in the peak loads as compared to the FRP
wrapping for both the lateral tie spacings studied. However, the duc-
tility indices were much lower for the steel plated RC columns due to
lack of sufficient confinement as in the case of the FRP retrofitted RC
columns.
The investigation goes to prove that in situations, where retrofitting
of structures is encountered, particularly when the lateral ties are not
provided as per design and in situations where the structures have to
be retrofitted to meet recent seismic design provisions, it is possible to
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 143

enhance the performance of the compression members of those struc-


tures by providing them with a single layer of CFRP/GFRP wrap and
steel plate jacketing. In situations, where strength and ductility are of
paramount importance, a single layer of CFRP or GFRP can be used
for retrofitting the RC columns.
8.4.1 Investigations on corroded RC slab
To study the behaviour of corrosion damaged RC slabs retrofitted with
different types of repair methods, a total of 13 Nos. of RC slabs (size
2000 × 2000× 60mm) reinforced with rebars having different levels of
corrosion were proposed (Sundar Kumar et.al 2008). The first series (5
specimens) consists of RC slabs with reinforcement having no corro-
sion. The second (5 specimens) and third series (3 specimens) consists
of RC slabs with reinforcement having 10% and 20% weight loss due
to corrosion respectively. The slabs were provided with 7 nos. of 8 mm
rebars in both directions. All the slabs were tested by applying an
equivalent uniformly distributed load (Fig. 8.2). The slab was simply
supported on all the four sides, dial gauges were placed below the cen-
tre of the slabs and below loading points. Dial gauges were also placed
at the support to measure the uplift of the support. The first of the five
slabs (of first series) was tested to failure and the remaining four RC
slabs were gradually loaded to a deflection of 10mm. These pre-cracked
four slabs were then connected to the electrochemical corrosion cell to
accelerate corrosion (Fig. 8.3). To this end, a pond of 650mm × 650
mm was constructed on the central portion of the slabs and water
containing 3.5% NaCl by weight was stagnated in that area. The rein-
forcement cage of each specimen was connected to the circuit so as to
serve as the anode in the corrosion cell, whereas an external stainless
steel plate of 500mm × 500mm immersed in the pond was used as
cathode. A constant power supply of 5V was applied to accelerate the
corrosion of rebar. The corrosion levels in the slabs are being mon-
itored through half-cell potential measurements. RC slabs subjected
to accelerated corrosion using impressed current were tested after 60
days and 120 days (one each). The remaining two RC slabs (after 120
days of corrosion) were repaired using CFRP wrapping single and dou-
ble layer) over an area of 800 × 800mm at the centre. It was found
that the repair using CFRP wrapping improved the performance of
the corroded slabs.
For casting of second and third series of RC slabs, bare rebars were
exposed to 3.5% NaCl solution in alternate wetting and drying condi-
tions in order to accelerate the corrosion in rebars at the laboratory.
144 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

In the wet cycle, the rebars were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution for
3.5days and in the drying cycle, the rebars were dried at atmospheric
temperature for another 3.5 days. The cycle was continued till a spe-
cific level of corrosion is achieved (10% and 20% for second and third
series respectively). A reduction in weight loss of 10% and 20% were
noticed after 135 and 260 days exposure, respecively.
Five RC slabs were cast using corroded rebars (10% loss in weight).
Out of five slabs in the second series, one slab was tested to failure
and all the remaining slabs were tested up to service load level. One
of the slabs (second series) was repaired afterwards using single layer
of CFRP. The repair methods adopted in the remaining slabs are as
follows: CFRP in the form of 100mm wide strips at 300c/c in both
directions, GFRP bars in orthogonal direction at 300c/c, GFRP bars
parallel to diagonal of the slab.
The reinforcement used for the third series were those which had
lost 20% weight due to corrosion. The slab specimens were cured for
28 days before under taking up the strengthening work. The first slab
(S3-1) was tested without any strengthening (Control Specimen), the
second specimen (S3-2) was strengthened with CFRP sheets along the
diagonals, and third specimen (S3-3) was strengthened with CFRP
sheets in both the directions. All the three slabs were tested by
applying an equivalent uniformly distributed load. The second slab
in the third series which consisted of 20% corroded reinforcement was
strengthened with CFRP sheets of 250 mm width along the diagonals
and tested. The strength and deformation characteristics of repaired
slab using CFRP was found to be better than the control slab (Fig.
8.4). Based on the studies, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the
corroded slab may be restored to its normal strength conditions by
CFRP wrapping techniques.
Based on the experimental investigations on corroded RC slabs, the
following conclusions were made:
• The slabs in which corrosion was induced by the method of
impressed current recorded a greater decrease in the maximum
load. This may be due to the fact that impressed current affects
the strengthened concrete in cover region.
• The behaviour of the slabs in the initial stages does not differ
much with corrosion though the behaviour at later stages differs
considerable. Hence, the failure in the slab will be sudden and
catastrophic.
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 145

• Slabs strengthened with GFRP rebars failed similar to punching


shear failure, due to the fact that the depth of slab is small.
However, this method can perform better in thicker slabs.
• Strengthening of slab with CFRP strips was essentially found to
be most beneficial, economical, easy to apply at site with fewer
disturbances to the surroundings
8.4.2 Investigations on corroded RC columns
In order to study the repair of corrosion damaged RC column, columns
of size 150 × 150 × 700mm were cast (Sundar et.al 2009). Initially ten
numbers of RC column specimens were subjected to impressed cur-
rent under a constant voltage of 5V (Fig. 8.5). The UPV and rebound
hammer readings were taken before the start of the accelerated cor-
rosion test. The corrosion levels in the columns are being monitored
through half-cell potential measurements. After a period of 30 days
of accelerated test, the average half-cell potential observed was in the
range of -430 to -600mV. At the end of 30 days of accelerated corrosion
test, the UPV were found to be in the range of 4.4 to 4.55km/sec when
compared to values in the range of 4.8 to 4.95 km/sec at the beginning
of accelerated corrosion test. The rebound hammer values were found
to be in the range of 23-30 when compared to values in the range
of 30-36 at the beginning of accelerated corrosion test. Crack widths
of the order of 0.08 to 0.3mm were noticed in the specimens. The 4
RC columns each after 30 days and 60 days of accelerated corrosion
test were repaired using CFRP/GFRP wrapping. One RC column each
after 30 days and 60 days of accelerated corrosion test were tested with
out any repair. RC columns were tested in 2500kN servo controlled
UTM. Deformation and strains measurements were taken at specified
load intervals; Control, corroded and repaired columns were tested.
FRP wrapping of the columns is found to be effective in restoring
strength of the corroded column to their original capacity.
Accelerated corrosion test was continued further on some of the
columns. The five RC columns after 120 days accelerated corrosion
test were repaired using CFRP wrapping. The two RC columns after
120 days accelerated corrosion test were tested without repair. Four
numbers of corroded columns were repaired using CFRP and again
subjected to accelerated corrosion process. After a period of 60 days
of accelerated corrosion these columns were also tested in 2500kN servo
controlled UTM. Deformation and strains measurements were taken
at specified load intervals.
146 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Based on the experimental investigations on corroded RC columns,


the following conclusions were made:
• The corroded RC column specimens exhibited considerable
reduction in stiffness due to presence of corrosion cracks and
corrosion of main reinforcement as well as corrosion of stir-
rups. Hence, the corroded column specimens showed higher
deformation for the same load compared to the control specimens.
• The ultimate load carrying capacity of corroded RC column
specimen is about 18% lower than that of control specimens.
• CFRP wrapping enhances the axial load carrying capacity of cor-
roded RC column in the range of 10 to 20%. Thus, the original
strength of RC columns affected by corrosion can be restored
through CFRP wrapping.
• When corroded columns wrapped with CFRP were subjected for
further accelerated corrosion test, there is little or no change in
the capacity of column, thereby indicating the effectiveness of
wrapping in preventing the progress of corrosion.
8.4.3 Investigations on corroded RC Beams
A total of 14 numbers of beams of dimension 100 × 200 × 1500 mm
have been cast with different levels of corrosion (Ramesh et. al.2010).
Out of 14 beams casted, 4 beams are control specimens, 4 beams
with 10% corrosion, 3 beams with 25% corrosion and 3 beams with
30% corrosion. The beams consisted of 3 numbers of 8mm diameter
rebars as tension reinforcement (with different levels of corrosion). Two
uncorroded rebars of 8 mm diameter were used as anchor bars for the
shear reinforcement in the compression zone. The shear reinforcement
consists of 6mm diameter stirrups at a spacing of 150 mm; the spac-
ing of the stirrups has been maintained constant for the entire span.
Concrete of target strength 40 MPa has been adopted. Strengthening
of the beams with single and double layer of CFRP was carried out
(Fig. 8.6). There is drop of about 43% in the load carrying capacity
of the beam with rebars having corrosion of 30% weight loss. In all
the beams with varying corrosion level the maximum load carried by
the beam after strengthening is found to be more than that of con-
trol specimens. It can be concluded that the loss in the load carrying
capacity of RC beams due to corrosion can be resorted back fully by
strengthening with CFRP wraps. However, there is a significant loss
in the ductility of beam specimens when strengthened with CFRP
wrap due to the failure of the strengthened specimens is essentially by
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 147

the rupture of the CFRP wraps which results in the sudden drop in
the load. Hence, one has to be very caution while strengthening the
flexural member using FRP wrapping.

8.5 INVESTIGATIONS ON FRP REBARS


For more than 100 years, steel bars have been used as reinforcement
in structural concrete members. The performance of the steel rein-
forcement was not satisfactory in the case of structures exposed to
aggressive environment. In such cases, deterioration of reinforced con-
crete structures due to corrosion of steel will proceed more rapidly
and become critical. Recently, FRP rebars are used as reinforce-
ment for concrete members in place of traditional steel rebars, or
as additional reinforcement in the rehabilitation or strengthening of
existing reinforced-concrete structures. In both cases, the non cor-
rosive nature of FRPs sensibly improves the durability of concrete
structures. However, FRP rebars exhibit linear behavior up to failure;
this property makes the behaviour of the structures brittle. Besides,
the low elastic modulus of the FRPs result in high deformability, lack
of ductility, and increased crack width; as a consequence, the design
criterion for FRP reinforced-concrete structures shifts to serviceabil-
ity limit state that check the structural behavioral aspects instead of
the strength to ensure functionality and safety during the expected
life of the structures (Teng et.al. 2002, ACI 440.1R, 2003 and Nanni
et.al. 1995). For wide acceptance and implementation in construc-
tion, a full characterization of the mechanical properties of FRP bars
is needed. The performance of reinforced concrete structures mainly
depends on stress strain characteristics of rebars in tension and the
bond strength between the rebar and concrete. Hence, tests were con-
ducted at SERC to study the tension and bond characteristics of the
GFRP rebars before evaluating the flexural behaviour of RC beam
with GFRP rebar.
8.5.1 Tension Test on GFRP Rebars
Tension test on GFRP rebars was more complex than steel bar. In
the case of GFRP rebar, gripping mechanism (end anchorages) plays
a major role. Possibility of premature failure (crushing of rebar) at
anchorage zone of the rebar was a distinct happening in the case of
GFRP rebars, unless it was provided with effective anchorage. When
the diameter of rebar increases, the surface bond resistance required
to hold the bar is also increases. This in turn leads to the bar slipping
148 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

and very less axial deformation takes place (Tighiouart et.al. 1998).
Hence, anchorage and anchor alignment have a significant importance,
as they may cause undesired failure modes. GFRP rebars also did not
exhibit any yielding when tested under tension. The tensile strength
and stiffness of GFRP bar were dependent on several factors, such as,
the ratio of the volume of the fiber to the resin matrix. Different test
methods for determining the tensile strength of the GFRP bars are
available in the literature but not yet established by any standards-
producing organizations (Kocaoz 2005, Canstro and Carino, 1998).
An anchorage system consisting of a steel pipe filled with an expan-
sive cementitious grout (epoxy resin mortar) was used to provide
confinement pressure on the bar. Required length of GFRP specimens
was taken and a length of 300mm at both the ends was encapsulated
using steel pipes for better anchoring. Plastic caps were used to close
the ends of the pipes and to keep the bar in the center of the pipe.
The pipe was filled with expansive grout in this position and it needed
24 hours to harden so that the specimen could be turned and the sec-
ond anchor prepared (Fig. 8.7). The test was conducted on a servo
controlled universal testing machine; the hydraulic grip pressure was
applied at both ends. The axial deformation was measured with the
help of an extensometer (Fig. 8.8).
From the stress strain plot, it was clearly seen that the tensile
stress-strain characteristics of HYSD rebars were different from the
stress-strain behaviour of GFRP rebars. For HYSD rebars, the tensile
stress-strain relationship can be idealized as bi-linear and inelastic
whereas the same for the GFRP rebar is linear and elastic till failure.
It was found that the plain bars exhibited slippage at anchorage and
did not fracture. In the case of 10mm ribbed bar, fracture was observed
when the applied stress was more than 650 MPa. The young’s modulus
of plain GFRP rebar and ribbed GFRP rebar were 55GPa and 38GPa
respectively (Fig. 8.9). The 10mm and 12mm diameter GFRP bars
behaved similarly under direct tension.
8.5.2 Evaluation of Bond Strength using Beam Test
Bond tests using beams were performed in accordance with the
RILEM specifications RC5-1978. Test beams consisted of two rect-
angular blocks of reinforced concrete joined at the top by a steel ball
joint and at the bottom by the reinforcement (GFRP or steel rebar)
to be tested for bonding with the concrete (Fig. 8.10).
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 149

The test was conducted in a 1000kN UTM. The test beam resting
on the two end supports was loaded by two point loads of equal mag-
nitude disposed symmetrically with regard to the mid span as per the
requirement. Two dial gauges of 0.001mm sensitivity were properly
clamped at either end of the rebar in such a way that both the rebar
and dial gauge stem were in the same horizontal level. The load was
applied gradually and the dial gauge readings were noted at regular
intervals. The tests were continued until complete bond failure of the
bars or until the bar fractured. The load slip curves relating to the two
half beams were plotted. The average bond strengths at two levels of
slippage, namely, 0.01, 0.1mm and the maximum bond strength were
evaluated as follows The stress in the rebar was calculated using the
relationship
1.25F
Stress in the bar(σs ) = for specimens having
As
diameter of bars in the 10 − 16 mm range
σs As
Bond stress(τd =
πΦld
where, F is the total load corresponding to required amount of slip,
As is the nominal area of the bar and ld is the bonded length of bar
The bond strength of 12 mm diameter ribbed GFRP rebars was
2.6 and 2.3 times the bond strength of 12mm diameter HYSD rebars
at 0.01mm and 0.1mm slip respectively, whereas the maximum bond
strength was around 1.1 times that of HYSD rebars. The bond strength
of 12mm diameter ribbed GFRP rebars was found to be 1.6 and 1.2
times the bond strength of 12mm diameter TMT rebars at 0.01mm and
0.1mm respectively, whereas the maximum bond strength was almost
equal. This may be due to the fact that the ribbed GFRP rebars had
rough surface in addition to the ribs. Plain GFRP rebars exhibited
very low bond strength when compared to the ribbed GFRP, HYSD
and TMT rebars. The plain GFRP rebars also failed in bond for very
low magnitude of loads.
8.5.3 Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams Reinforced GFRP
Rebars
From a static point of view, the position of steel rebars within the cross
section does not furnish a good contribution in terms of strength, while
its contribution is effective in terms of ductility and rigidity. Besides,
150 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

the use of steel reinforcements allows one to design the beam as under -
reinforced, with a limited amount of FRP reinforcement. The behavior
of a hybrid GFRP-steel reinforced beam was recently analyzed by New
hook, 2000; the yielding of steel ensures the ductility, and the strength
of the GFRP increases the ultimate capacity after steel yielding. Aielo
et al. (2002) showed that steel reinforcement in combination with FRP
reinforcement is advantageous from a deformability point of view. An
adequate amount of steel reinforcement within the cross section, in
fact, allows for the reduction of the deformability of FRP reinforced-
concrete beams under service conditions. (Nehdi et al.2005), made
an effort to investigate the performance of GFRP and hybrid steel-
GFRP reinforced beam column joints. (Krishnamoorthy et al.2006)
studied the performance of RC slabs reinforced with a combination
of both GFRP and steel rebars and found that the load deflection
characteristics are similar to the HYSD rebars.
The experimental studies were carried out to evaluate the flexural
behavior of RC beams reinforced with GFRP rebars in the con-
crete cover region along with steel reinforcement as the main tension
reinforcement (Bharatkumar et.al. 2007). In all, four beams of size
150 × 300 × 3000mm were cast and tested under four point bending,
which included one control beam reinforced with HYSD rebar and
having a 75mm cover. Ribbed type GFRP rebars of 10 mm and 12
mm diameters were used in the investigation. The covers provided
for the steel rebars and the GFRP rebars were 75 mm and 20 mm
respectively. The experimental investigation was carried out on four
reinforced concrete beams, one reinforced with only HYSD rebars, one
reinforced with only GFRP rebars, and two reinforced with a combina-
tion of GFRP and HYSD rebars. The Load deflection plots of beams
reinforced with only GFRP (G1) rebar and the control beam (Control)
are shown in Fig. 8.11. The Load deflection plots of beams reinforced
with a combination of HYSD and GFRP rebars and the control beam
(Control) are shown in Fig. 8.12. It was concluded that the use of steel
reinforcement in combination with FRP reinforcement was advanta-
geous from deformability point of view. An adequate amount of steel
reinforcement within the cross section, in fact, allows for the reduction
of the deformability of GFRP reinforced-concrete beams under service
conditions. The increase of stiffness was more evident for beams rein-
forced with GFRP rebars placed near the outer surface of the tensile
zone and HYSD rebars placed at the inner level of the tensile zone
compared to the RC beams reinforced with only GFRP rebars. The
results of the investigation goes to prove that in situations where larger
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 151

cover is to be provided due to aggressive environment, the GFRP bars


can be successfully used in the cover concrete portion along with the
conventional steel reinforcement in the reinforced concrete structures.

8.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS


The use of advanced composites as external reinforcement of concrete
and other structures has progressed well in the past decade in selec-
tive applications where their cost disadvantage is outweighed by a
number of benefits. There are clear indications that the FRP strength-
ening technique will increasingly continue to be the preferred choice for
many repair and rehabilitation projects involving buildings, bridges,
historic monuments and other structures. The education and training
of engineers, construction workers, inspectors, and owners of struc-
tures on the various relevant aspects of FRP technology and practice
will be crucial in the successful application of FRP materials in civil
engineering construction.

8.7 ACKNOWLDEGEMENT
This lecture note is being published with the kind permission of
the Director, CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai.
Authors wish to thank all the staff member of Advanced Materials
Laboratory for their help.

8.8 REFERENCES
1. ACI Committee 440R-96, “State-of-the-Art Report on Fibre
Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Struc-
tures”, ACI Manual, 1996.
2. Majumdar A. J. “Alkali-Resistant Glass Fibres”, Handbook on
Composites, Vol. 1, Edited by Wall W. and Perov B. V., Elsevier
Publication, Amsterdam, 1993, pp 61–85.
3. Nanni, A, “Fibre Reinforced Plastics Reinforcements for Concrete
Structures”, Elsevier Publication, 1993.
4. Bakis, C. E. “FRP Reinforcements: Materials and Manufac-
turing”, Fibre Reinforced Plastic Reinforcements for Concrete
Edited by A Nanni, 1993, pp 13–58.
5. Meyer, R. W., “Hand Book on Pultrusion Technology”, Chapman
and Hall Publications, New York, 1985.
6. Ko E. K., “Braiding”, Section 8 of Engineering Materials Hand
Book, Vol. 1, Composties, ASM International, 1987, pp 519–528
152 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

7. Ramesh Sundaram, “Fabrication Process for Composite”, Proc.


of a Workshop on FRP Composites, IISc, Bangalore, 1996.
8. Special issue of The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 78, No. 10,
October 2004
9. Udhayakumar V. , Bharatkumar B. H., Balasubramanian K. and
Krishnamoorthy T. S., “Investigations on the Properties of Fibre
Reinforced Plastic Wrap”, Proc. of 5th ASPIC, SERC, Chennai,
2006, pp 577–586.
10. Taerwe L., Matthys S., “FRP for concrete construction: activities
in Europe”, ACI Concrete International 1999;21(10): 33–6.
11. Swami R.N, Gaul R., editors, “Repair and strengthening of
concrete members with adhesive bonded plates”, ACI SP-165.
Michigan: American Concrete Institute; 1996.
12. Hollaway L.C, Leeming M.B, editors, “Strengthening of Rein-
forced Concrete Structures using Externally-bonded FRP Com-
posites in Structural and Civil Engineering”, Cambridge: Wood-
head Publishing; 1999.
13. Krishnamoorthy et.al., “Seismic Retrofit of RC Buildings using
FRP Composites”- A report prepared by SERC, Chennai and
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT, Madras, as a part of DST
sponsored project, July 2003.
14. Balasubramanian K., Krishnamoorthy T. S., Bharatkumar B. H.,
Udhayakumar V., and Lakshmann, N., “Investigations on the RC
Structural Elements Retrofitted using FRP Wraps”, Journal of
Structural Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 1, April-May 2007, pp 63–69.
15. Hamid Saadatmanesh, Mohammad R. Ehsani and Limin Jin,
“Repair of Earthquake Damaged RC Columns with FRP Wraps”
ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 94, No. 2, 1997, pp 206–215
16. Rene Suter and Rene Pinzelli (2001), “Confinement of Concrete
Columns with FRP Sheets”, Proceedings of the Fifth Interna-
tional Conference of Fibre Reinforced Plastics for Reinforced
Concrete Structures (FRPRCS 5), pp 793–802.
17. Frieder Seible, Nigel Priestley, Gilbert A Hegemier Donato
Innamorato, “Seismic Retrofit of RC Columns with Continuous
Carbon Fibre Jackets”, Journal of Composites for Construction,
Vol. 1, No. 2, 1997, pp 52–62.
18. Bharatkumar B. H., Balasubramanian K., Krishnamoorthy T.S.,
and Lakshmanan, N., “Investigations on the Behaviour of
Retrofitted RC Columns under Axial Load”, Proc. Og 5th Asian
Symposium on Polymers in Concrete, September 2006, Chennai,
pp 611–621.
Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 153

19. Teng J.G., Chen J. F., Smith S. T., Lam L., “FRP Strengthened
RC Structures”, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
20. ACI 440.1R-03, “Guide for the Design and Construction of Con-
crete Reinforced with FRP Rebars”, ACI, Farmington, Michigan,
2001.
21. Nanni A, Bakis, C. E and Boothby T. E, “Test Methods for FRP-
Concrete Systems Subjected to Mechanical Loads: State of the
Art Review”, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol.
14, 1995, pp 424–557.
22. Tighiouart B., Benmokrane B., and Gao, D., “Investigation of
bond in concrete member with fibre reinforced polymer (FRP)
bars”, Construction and Building Materials 1998;12;453-462.
23. Ramesh G., Sundar Kumar S., Bharatkumar B. H., Krishnamoor-
thy, T. S., “Experimental Studies on Flexural Behaviour of RC
Beams”, Proc. of International Conference on Advances in Mate-
rials Mechanics and Management 2010 at College of Engineering
Trivandrum, during January 2010, pp 134–141.
24. Sundar Kumar, S., Ramesh, G., Bharatkumar, B. H., and Krish-
namoorthy, T. S., “Performance of FRP Strengthened Reinforced
Concrete Columns at Various Levels of Reinforcement Corrosion
- an Experimental Study” International Journal of 3R; Repair
Restoration and Renewal of Built Environment, Vol. 1, No. 3,
July-September 2010, pp 95–101.
25. Kocaoz S., Samaranayake V. A., and Nanni, A., “Tensile char-
acterization of glass FRP bars”, Composites: Part B 2005;36;
127–134
26. Castro F., and Carino, J., “Tensile and Non Destructive Testing
of FRP bars”, Journal of Composites for Construction 1998;17-27
27. RILEM CEB FIP. Test of the bond strength of reinforcement of
concrete: test by bending. Recommendation RC.5, 1978:5.
28. Newhook, J. P, “Design of under-reinforced concrete T-sections
with GFRP reinforcement”, Proc., 3rd Int. Conf. on Advanced
Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures, 2000, pp 153–
160.
29. Aielo M. A, Ombres L., “Structural Performances of Concrete
Beams with Hybrid (Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Steel) Reinforce-
ments”, Journal of Composites for Construction, 2002, 6(2), pp
133–140.
30. Nehdi M, Said A., “Performance of RC Frames with Hybrid
reinforcement under Reversed Cyclic Loading”, Materials and
Structures, July 2005, 38, pp 627–637.
154 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

31. Krishnamoorthy T. S, Balasubramanian K, Bharatkumar B. H,


Udhayakumar V., Lakshmanan N., “Investigations on the Flex-
ural Behaviour of RC Slabs with GFRP Rebars”, SERC Project
Report No: CCL-OLP 11141-RR-2006-2, May 2006.
32. Bharatkumar B. H., Udhayakumar V., Balasubramanian K.,
Krishnamoorthy T.S, and Lakshmanan N., “Experimental Inves-
tigations on Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams Reinforced With
HYSD and GFRP rebars”, Proc. of Proceedings of the Interna-
tional conference on Recent developments in Structural Engineer-
ing (RDSE 2007), 2007, pp 1078–1085.

Fig. 8.1 Test Set-up of RC Column in a 2500kN Servo-Controlled


UTM

Fig. 8.2 Testing of RC slab in progress


Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 155

Fig. 8.3 Accelerated corrosion of pre-cracked RC slabs


140
120 S3-1
S3-2
100
Load (kN)

S3-3
80
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Defln. (mm)

Fig. 8.4 Load vs deflection plot for strengthened CFRP slab

Fig. 8.5 RC columns subjected to Impressed current technique


156 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 8.6 Corroded rebar RC beams Strengthened with CFRP

Fig. 8.7 GFRP Test specimen

Fig. 8.8 Test set-up


Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) in Civil Engineering Applications 157

Fig. 8.9 Stress Strain Pot for GFRP and HYSD Rebars

Fig. 8.10 RILEM RC-5 Bond strength Beam Details

Fig. 8.11 Comparison of Load Vs Deflection of Control beam and


beam with GFRP
158 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 8.12 Comparison of Load Vs Deflection of Control beam and


beam with HYSD and GFRP (H1 and H2)
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 159–176

9 Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair


Material

J. Annie Peter
Deputy Director
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
annie@sercm.csir.res.in

9.1 INTRODUCTION
Self Compacting Concretes (SCC)s are being used more and more to
build new structures as they have a very high degree of compactabil-
ity. They facilitate the casting of densely reinforced sections that are
difficult to consolidate. Such concretes accelerate the placement rate
and result in superior surface quality and durability. Self compacting
concrete can also be used for repair of damaged/deteriorated elements
presenting difficulties for placement and consolidation and is feasible
to produce high quality concrete with limited degree of surface defects,
in stability and cracking. This can be accomplished by removing the
deteriorated concrete and pouring SCC into the watertight formworks
assembled in-situ so that the geometry of the damaged elements can
be fully restored upon removal. This method is economical when large
volumes of repair are carried out. However, the repair can prove to
be successful only if the repair material i.e., SCC interacts well with
the parent concrete and forms a durable barrier to guard against re-
initiation of problems further arising, since a dimensionally unstable
repair material is placed against a dimensionally stable substrate con-
crete, as no significant drying shrinkage and creep is likely to exist
in the substrate concrete due to its long term exposure to the envi-
ronment and the service loading. Hence, properties such as shrinkage,
creep and elastic modulus are considered important for specification
of repair materials. These properties are largely related to the con-
stituents of the mix. Hence, it is essential to optimize a SCC mix by
considering both the fresh and hardened concrete properties and strike
a balance between the two.
160 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Information on mix proportioning methodology, material char-


acteristics, self-compactability measuring devices are described in
detail.
9.1.1 Mix Proportioning of SCC
The mix proportioning of SCC involves a complex optimisation of var-
ious ingredients to achieve self compactability in the fresh state and
desired properties in the hardened stage. Guidelines for mix propor-
tioning according to JSCE (Table 9.1) EFNARC and ERAMCO are
presented in the following sections.
(i) European Federation of National Trade Association (EFNARC)
Mix Proportioning Method
The guide lines recommended by EFNARC are also based on
Okamura’s method. The difference is that instead of fixing coarse
aggregates limit at 0.5, a higher amount is permitted in the case on
rounded aggregate (up to 0.6). The proportion of sand in the mor-
tar is varied between 40% and 50%, and water to powder ratio and
superplasticizer dosage is determined through mortar slump flow and
V-Funnel test. In this method the relative proportions of the key ingre-
dients of the mix is to be computed by volume rather than by mass.
For quick reference, typical ranges of proportions and quantities of
the ingredients to obtain self compactability are also furnished. Fur-
ther modifications can be made to achieve the required strength and
other durability performances. The sequence of mix proportioning is
given in Table 9.2.
• Coarse aggregates are computed as a percentage of its bulk den-
sity. General ranges are between 50 and 60%. Higher proportions
of coarse aggregate are permitted for smaller sized aggregates as
well as for aggregates rounded in shape. All types of aggregates
are suitable. The normal maximum size is generally 16-20mm;
however particle sizes up to 40mm or more have been used.
• Typically water contents should not exceed 200 litres/m3
• Very fine synthetic fibres may prevent flow and generally the
content should not exceed 1 kg/m3
(ii) ERAMCO Mix Proportioning Method
This is an extension of the EFNARC document. The major change
is in the existing test methods which have been formatted as per EN
test method standards. The typical range of constituents in SCC by
weight and volume is shown in Table 9.3. The fine aggregate content
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 161

balances the volume of the other constituents, typically 48-55% of


total aggregate weight.
9.1.2 Selection of Ingredients
Selection of ingredients/materials plays a very significant role in mix-
ture proportioning of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC). Besides the
materials used in conventional concretes, SCC mixtures have combina-
tions of certain ingredients that enhance flowability significantly while
retaining their stability. This consists of combinations of admixtures
and specific particle size distribution. The quality of the materials
needs to be consistent as well. Thus a good understanding of the
influence of the various ingredients on self compacting properties
is essential prior to designing a SCC mixture. For SCC to be self
compactable it should exhibit three principal characteristics such as
flowability, passing ability and resistance against segregation. This pre-
sentation discusses the materials that are used to make SCC and the
most widely used test methods for evaluating its self compactability.
9.1.3 Materials
SCC consists of cement, aggregates, mineral admixtures, chemical
admixtures and water. Some of the aspects to be considered during
selection of the materials are listed below:
Cement
SCC can be produced with most of Portland cements. Most of the
research on SCC is being done using Ordinary Portland cement.
Though all cements conforming to various IS standards are suitable,
selection of cement should be based on their compressive strength,
fineness and compatibility with other ingredients. Cements of vari-
ous strengths are available. The strength of cement decides the target
strength of concrete. Similarly, finer cements have higher reactivity
with water and hence has a bearing on the progress of hydration and
the rate of strength development. The early age strength and ultimate
strength is also higher with higher specific surface area. However, the
finer the cement the higher the water demand for SCC to achieve
flowability. Care should be taken to determine the water demand for
different batches of cements even of the same type to achieve a paste
of normal consistency.
9.1.4 Mineral Admixtures
Mineral admixtures such as fly ash, GGBS, silica fume, metakaolin
and rice husk ash are always used in developing SCCs to make up the
162 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

demand for higher powder content. They are useful in enhancing the
deformability and stability of the fresh SCC. Their large surface area
gives a corresponding increase in internal forces resulting in an increase
in the cohesiveness of the concrete. Further being spherical they act as
ball bearings to lubricate the mix giving it a greater mobility. Due to
improved packing contributed by the very small size of the particles,
aggregate cement interface is stronger when mineral admixtures are
present. The concretes will be homogeneous and dense and hence is
less susceptible to segregation. This results in improved strength and
impermeability. Concretes incorporating these admixtures develop less
heat due to hydration. The main chemical effects of mineral admixture
addition to concrete are a reduction of calcium, potassium and sodium
hydroxides due to pozzolanic reactivity. They act as nucleation sites
for C-S-H. The main physical effect on the microstructure of hardened
concrete is the refinement of the pore structure. Another important
factor is the improvement in quality of the transition zone between
the aggregate particles and cement pastes.
Due to high surface area and high content of reactive silicon dioxide
in silica fume, metakaoline and rice husk ash, they are more reactive
than fly ash and GGBS. They are usually incorporated into concrete
at 5-15% by weight of total binder. Fly ash and GGBS have less of
SiO2 content, are coarser and hence less reactive. These admixtures
are used in higher dosages of 30 to 50 % of the binder content.
For these admixtures to be effective, uniform distribution in con-
crete is essential. Further due to their high fineness an increased water
demand is likely. Hence these admixtures should always be used in
conjunction with a superplasticiser.
Conformity of these admixtures with the respective codes should be
ensured. As different sources of these mineral admixtures may interact
with different efficiency, trials to establish the optimum dosages of
these materials may often be required.
Inert fillers like limestone powder are frequently used to make
SCCs.
Chemical Admixtures
Superplasticisers
The role of superplasticisers or High range water reducers (HRWRs) is
much more significant in Self Compacting Concretes. To produce SCC
at very low levels of water-cement ratios without needing unacceptably
high cement contents the use of superplasticisers is required. These are
high molecular weight water soluble polymers. These admixtures work
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 163

on the principle of electrostatic repulsion. The superplasticisers get


strongly adsorbed onto cement surfaces with the negative charges build
up resulting in cement particle repulsion. The water thus gets released
from the flocculated cement. Improved dispersion of cement grains
lead to enhanced early age strength. Lignosulphonates, Melamine,
and naphthalene based superplasticisers have been used successfully,
either individually or in combination. Lignosulphonate based plasti-
cizers may be combined with melamine superplasticisers in order to
extend their workability retention. The dosage rates of the superplasti-
cisers can be high in order to achieve the required workability. It should
be noted that there is generally a saturation dosage of superplasticisers
above which no further increase in workability will occur. This can eas-
ily be determined using a marsh cone. The efflux time is measured at
the same free water cement ratio for a series of admixture dose rates.
This will enable the maximum effective level of admixture addition
to be identified. Compatibility between different admixtures used in
combination as well as compatibility between admixtures and different
cement types must be considered when materials are selected. Flow
cone tests may be useful Superplasticisers perform more effectively
with certain cements.. Workability is greatly enhanced by delayed
addition of the superplasticiser rather than adding it with the mixing
water.
Polycarboxylated ether based superplasticisers work on the princi-
ple of steric hindrance and are effective at lower dosages and hence
best suited for use in SCC.
Viscosity Enhancing Agent
Viscosity-enhancing admixtures (VEAs), also known as thickening
agents are useful in enhancing the cohesion and stability of SCCs.
These admixtures can reduce the risk of separation of the heteroge-
neous constituents of SCC during transport, placement, and provide
added stability to the cast concrete while in a plastic state. The incor-
poration of a VEA enables the production of a stable and yet highly
flowable concrete to facilitate filling of congested reinforced elements.
Viscosity enhancing agents produce higher deformability of the fresh
concrete in its flowing state and poorer deformability while in a state
of rest. Addition of a viscosity agent can strongly reduce the signifi-
cant influence that wrongly estimated aggregate moisture content has
on fresh properties. The water content per m3 can be varied by as
much as 10 litres while the concrete still retains the self compacting
properties.
164 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Concrete incorporating a VEA can be sticky and viscous, especially


where there is a high concentration of VEA. The combined action of
VEA and SPs can result in some delay in setting, especially at high
SP concentrations. The use of VEA also increases the Air-entraining
Agent (AEA) demand. The effect of VEA on mechanical properties
show that in some cases, slight reduction of strength up to 10% could
be expected due to additional entrapment of air in the fluid.
Table 9.1 lists the different types of viscosity enhancing agents.
These can be classified into five classes according to their mode of
action in concrete. These classifications are as follows: Class A: Water
soluble synthetic and natural organic polymers that increase the vis-
cosity of the mixing water. They include natural gums, cellulose ethers,
polyethylene oxides, polyacrylamide and polyvinyl alcohol. Class B:
Organic water-soluble flocculants that become adsorbed onto cement
grains and increase viscosity due to enhanced inter-particle attraction
between cement grains. They include styrene co-polymers with car-
boxyl groups, synthetic polyelectrolytes and natural gums. Class C:
Emulsions of various organic materials which enhance inter-particle
attraction and supply additional superfine particles in the cement
paste. They are acrylic emulsions and aqueous clay dispersions. Class
D: Water-swellable inorganic materials of high surface area which
increase the water retaining capacity of the paste, such as bentonites,
silica fume and milled asbestos. Class E: Inorganic materials of high
surface area that increase the content of fine particles in paste and
thereby, the thixotropy. These materials include fly ash, hydrated lime,
kaolin, various rock dusts and diatomaceous earth, etc.
The VEAs could be in liquid or powder form. The commonly avail-
able VEAs include Kelcocrete, a powder based product containing
diutan gum and used in concentrations ranging from 0.05-0.20% of
the water content, Celbex 208 (Fosroc), a cellulose based liquid admix-
ture used at 0.7-1.2% dosage, Rheomac UW 450 and Glenium stream
(Master Builders), a cellulose based liquid admixture used at a dosage
of 0.26-1.3%, and Sikament 100 SC (Sika Qualcrete).
9.1.5 Aggregates
IS 383- lists the standard specifications for use of aggregates in con-
crete. Knowledge of aggregate characteristics such as specific gravity,
bulk density, particle size distribution and moisture content is essen-
tial prior to proportioning of SCC mixtures. Since aggregate grading,
shape and surface texture have a major role in affecting the rheological
properties of SCC, these characteristic may also be considered while
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 165

proportioning. The particle shape should ideally be equidimensional


i.e. not elongated or flaky. Aggregates should be relatively free of flat
and elongated particles. Elongated aggregates should be avoided or
limited to a maximum of 15% by weight of total aggregates. Com-
pared to rough textured angular and elongated particles smooth and
rounded aggregates require less of cement paste to produce flowing
concretes. Crushed rock aggregates are generally preferred to smooth
gravels as there is evidence that the strength of the transition zone is
weakened by smooth aggregates. However smooth rounded aggregates
increases the deformability of fresh concrete.
A maximum size of 10 to 14 mm is usually selected although aggre-
gates up to 20 mm may be used. These restrictions are imposed
by the need for the concrete to be able to flow though narrow
spaces and though the reinforcement without segregation and blocking
.aggregates should be strong and free of internal flaws or fractures.
Aggregates of high intrinsic strength are generally preferred. Gran-
ites, basalt, lime stones and sandstones are being successfully used in
SCC. However aggregate strength is usually not a factor for normal
strength concretes because they are several times stronger than the
matrix and the transition zone.
Fine aggregate shall consist of natural sand or manufactured sand
or a combination. Fine aggregates should be selected so as to reduce
the water demand hence rounded particles are thus preferred to
crushed rock fines where possible. The grading curve of fine aggre-
gate should however be smooth and free of gap grading to optimize
water demand. The finest fractions of fine aggregate are helpful to
prevent segregation.
The silt, clay dust content of both fine and coarse aggregate should
be as low as possible. Presence of deleterious substances either in
coarse or fine aggregate could adversely affect the workability, setting
and hardening and durability characteristics of concrete. In practice
low void contents can be achieved by using smoothly graded coarse
aggregates with suitable proportions of graded sand.
Materials which belong to this category normally contain coarse
aggregates (up to 10mm size) to make the material more economical.
Materials used in high volume repairs are due to the fact that larger
aggregates (quantity and size) are contained within the mix. Conse-
quently, the possibility of cracking in the repair patch is decreased.
The type and quantity of coarse aggregate have an enormous effect on
the free shrinkage of repair materials.
Test Methods for Evaluation of Self Compactability
166 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

This section covers test methods and apparatus used for assessment
of self compactability of fresh SCC so that they can be placed satisfac-
torily without compaction. Most of these methods enable a rapid and
cost effective assessment of SCC and have been accepted universally.
However, a combination of tests is to be carried out systematically to
establish the Flowing Ability, Filling Ability, Passing Ability and Seg-
regation Resistance for the development of SCC mixtures as shown in
Table 9.2. No single test has been proved capable of measuring all the
characteristics. Typical maximum and minimum ranges of test values
for acceptance of SCC are shown in Table 9.3.
9.1.6 Tests Methods for Flowing Ability
Slump flow (including T50 time), V-funnel and Orimet can be used to
determine the flowing ability.

Slump Flow Test


The slump flow test is used to assess filling ability (free deformability
in the absence of obstructions) of SCC. The test measures the extent
of spread of concrete after lifting the cone in terms of the diameter
of the spread. The test is easy to conduct both in the laboratory and
site.
The equipment consists of a traditional slump cone of 300 mm
height, 200 mm base diameter and 100 mm top diameter (Fig. 9.1).
The other requirements for the test are: Base plate of minimum size of
900 mm × 900 mm (which is water tight and with a smooth surface)
with concentric diameter of 500 mm marked on it, a scoop preferably
with a rounded mouth not more than 100 mm wide, scale graduated
in mm and a stop watch.
The slump cone is placed centrally on the base plate and filled with
concrete up to the top. The conical mould requires approximately 5.5
litres of concrete to fill. Lift the cone perpendicular to the base plate
and simultaneously start the stop watch. Record the time taken for
the spreading concrete to reach a diameter of 500 mm (T50 ). When
the concrete stops flowing, measure the diameter of spread in two
perpendicular directions. The test result is the mean value of the con-
crete spread rounded to the nearest 5 mm. The spread concrete is also
assessed visually. Any occurrence of segregation is also recorded.
The higher the slump flow the greater the filling ability.
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 167

Orimet Test
The Orimet test is a practical test method for rapid assessment of fill-
ing ability and uniformity of fresh SCC mixes. The orimet is a simple,
rugged, durable, easily maintained and portable apparatus with good
simulation of movement of fresh SCC during placing in site.
The apparatus consists of a vertical casting pipe of 120 mm internal
diameter fitted with an interchangeable orifice at its lower end. A
quick- release tap door is used to close the orifice. For concretes with
aggregate of 20 mm maximum size the orifice diameter is normally
70 mm to 80 mm. An integral tripod supports the casting pipe (Fig.
9.2). A sample of approximately 7.5 litres of fresh concrete is required.
A bucket having a volume of at least 10 litres to collect the concrete
discharged from the Orimet and a stop watch with accuracy of 0.2 s
to measure the flow time (FT) is required for the test.
The Orimet is set on firm ground and ensured that the trap door
is closed. Concrete is poured into the casting pipe. A bucket is places
under the trap door. Open the trap door within 1 minute of filling the
pipe and simultaneously start the stopwatch. Stop the stopwatch as
soon as all concrete has emptied when viewed from top of the pipe.
High values of flow time indicate mixes of high viscosity. A mix of
low segregation resistance can cause coarse aggregate to settle in the
orifice area, increase greatly the FT or cause a blockage and a partial
/ intermittent flow.

V Funnel Test
The V funnel is used to determine the filling ability (flowability) of
SCC. It is not applicable if the maximum size of aggregate exceeds 25
mm.
The equipment consists of a V-shaped funnel as illustrated in Fig.
9.3. The funnel is of rectangular cross section of 490 mm × 75mm at
top tapering to a bottom opening of 65 mm × 75 mm. The discharge
orifice of the funnel is equipped with a trap door. The funnel is made of
steel or acrylic and placed vertically on a supporting stand. A sample
of fresh concrete of approximately 12 litres is required. A bucket with
a capacity of 15 litres to receive the concrete under the funnel and a
stop watch with an accuracy of 0.1 s is also required.
The trap door of the funnel is closed and concrete filled in the
funnel. Start the stop watch on opening the tap door. The time taken
for the concrete to flow out of the funnel is recorded. A high flow time
168 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

can be associated with a low deformability due to high paste viscosity,


a high interparticle friction or a blockage of flow.
9.1.7 Test methods for Passing Ability (blocking)
Passing ability determines how well a fresh SCC will flow through
constricted spaces and between reinforcement. The aim is to assess the
level of risk that the coarse aggregate in the mix will become wedged
between bars or form arches, which will partially or fully block, or
obstruct flow of the fresh mix. The L- box test, J-Ring test and U-Box
gives an indication as to the filling and passing ability.
L-Box Test
The test assesses the effect of reinforcement on free flow of con-
crete constrained by formwork. Blocking caused by oversized coarse
aggregate o its excessive content can be detected as well as block-
ing generated by moderate /severe segregation. A concrete can be
regarded as possessing a degree o segregation resistance, if the par-
ticles of cease aggregate are seen to be distributed on the concrete
surface all the way to the end of the horizontal part.
The L-Box apparatus comprises of a vertical column section and a
horizontal trough (Fig. 9.4) The vertical column has an inside dimen-
sion of 200 mm × 100 mm × 600 mm and the horizontal trough has
dimensions of 200 mm × 120 mm × 700 mm. A sample of approxi-
mately 12 litres of concrete is required for the test. Concrete is allowed
to flow from the vertical column once a trap door is opened. The con-
crete then passes through reinforcing bars placed in the horizontal
trough immediately beyond the trap door of the apparatus. The hor-
izontal trough has a length of 800 mm. The time taken for a concrete
to flow a distance of 200 mm and 400 mm in the horizontal section is
measured. The height of the concrete at both the ends of the horizon-
tal trough is also measured and expressed as the blocking ratio. It is
the ratio between the height of concrete surface in the vertical column
part (h1) and the height of the concrete surface in the trough at its
far end (h2) after the passage through vertical reinforcing bars.
J-Ring test
The test measures the effect of reinforcing bars on the free movement
of SCC. The J-Ring is used in combination with the slump cone or the
Orimet test. The equipment consists of a ring placed on several rebars
with adaptable gap widths (Fig. 9.5). For 20 mm maximum size of
aggregates the gap between the rebars is 55 mm and for 10 mm size
of aggregates the gap is 35 mm. J-Ring with slump cone requires 5.5
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 169

litres of SCC to fill the mould whereas in combination with Orimet


about 7.5 litres is required.
When used in combination with the slump cone which is placed
concentrically with the J Ring the concrete is allowed to flow through
the bars. The final diameter of the concrete when the flow stops is
measured. The concrete is considered self compacting when the diam-
eter with and without the J- Ring do not differ by more than 50 mm.

U-Box
The test is used to measure the filling ability of SCC.
The apparatus consists of a vessel which is divided by a middle
wall into two compartments (Fig. 9.6). A sliding gate is fitted at the
bottom of the wall. Deformed reinforcing bars with nominal diameters
of 13mm are installed at the gate with centre to centre spacing of 50
mm. This creates clear spacing of 35 mm between the bars. The test
requires a volume of approximately of 20 litres. Stop watch and a
measuring scale are required when performing the test.
Initially close the partition gate in the U-box. Concrete is poured
into the first compartment. The concrete is leveled. After the elapse of
1 minute open the gate by sliding the door upwards to let the concrete
sample flow to the second compartment through the clearance of the
reinforcement bars installed at the gate. Record the time from the
opening of the gate till the completion of flow of the concrete. The
height of concrete in the second compartment is measured.
The concrete is considered to achieve a good filling ability when the
filling height of concrete is approximately 300 mm If the filling height
is significantly less than 300 mm the concrete does not have sufficient
filling ability.

9.1.8 Fill- box Test Apparatus


The test is used to measure the filling ability of self compacting con-
crete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm. The apparatus consists
of a transparent container with a flat and smooth surface. In the con-
tainer are 35 obstacles made of PVC with a diameter of 20 mm and
a centre to centre distance of 50 mm (Fig. 9.7). At the top side there
is a filling pipe (diameter 100 mm and height 500 mm) with a funnel
(height 100 mm).About 45 litres of concrete is needed to perform the
test.
The container is filled with concrete through the filling pipe by
adding 1.5 to 2 litres of fresh concrete into the funnel until the concrete
170 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

has just covered the first top obstacle. After the concrete has come to
rest measure the height at the side at which the container is filled
on two places and calculate the average height (h1). Repeat this on
the opposite side (h2). The difference in height between two sides of
the container is a measure of the filling ability. Calculate the average
filling percentage. Average filling %F = [(h1 = h2)/2 h1]*100
9.1.9 Test Methods for Segregation Resistance
Segregation in SCC tends to show as a non-uniform distribution of
aggregates, particularly concerning coarse aggregate, which may settle
at the bottom. The Orimet and V-funnel test can also detect severe
static segregation when coarse aggregate settles and prevents complete
flow of the sample.
Wet Screen Stability Test Method
The test quantitatively measures SCCs resistance to segregation, by
determining how much separation occurs between the coarse aggregate
and the mortar in a sample of concrete .The test consists of taking a
sample of 10 litres of concrete, allowing it to stand static for a period
of 15 minutes to allow any internal segregation to occur. Next pour 2
litres of the concrete on to a 5 mm sieve of 350 mm diameter, from a
height of 500 mm which stands on a sieve pan on a weigh scale. Record
the weight of the sample. Allow 2 minutes for the concrete flow through
the sieve. After 2 minutes, the mortar which passed through the sieve
is weighed and expressed as a percentage of the weight of the original
sample on the sieve.
A concrete where less than 5% of the sample passes the sieve has
a high resistance to segregation. Such a concrete may be too viscous
to be able to fill minute voids, and will almost certainly result in poor
quality finished surface. A concrete where 5-15% of the sample passes
the sieve can possess optimum amount of resistance to segregation
(satisfactory stability). A concrete where 15-30% of the sample passes
the sieve is likely to be susceptible to segregation (critical stability).A
concrete where more than 30% of the sample passes the sieve is likely
to be susceptible to severe segregation (very poor stability).In addition
,it is not acceptable if bleed water is detected during the test. This
induces a risk of settlement, washing out and modified permeability.
9.1.10 Details of typical SCC mix for repair
A SCC mix which contains more coarse aggregate content will exhibit
lower drying shrinkage and creep and higher elastic modulus. Similarly,
the free shrinkage of repair materials decreases when cured in water.
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 171

A typical SCC mix which can be used for repair which comprises of
ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade, 10 mm maximum size gravel,
a medium graded sand, superplasticizers and polypropylene fibres to
control shrinkage cracks is given in Table 9.4.

9.2 REFERENCES
1. Rilem Report 23, Self-compacting Concrete -State -of-the-art
Report, (2000) Ed. by A. Skarendahl and O. Petersson.
2. Rilem Report 24, Workability and Rheology of fresh Concrete:
Compendium of tests, (2002) Ed. by P. J. M Bartos, M. Sonebi
and A. K. Tamimi.
3. EFNARC (2002) Specifications and Guidelines for Self Compact-
ing Concrete.
4. Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (1998), Ed. by Peter
C.Hewlett.
Table 9.1 JSCE 2002 Manual for Mixture Proportioning of SCC
Recommendations
Constituents Powder type VMA type Combination type
Coarse aggregate 0.28 to 0.35 m3 /m3 0.28 to 0.36 m3 /m3 0.28 to 0.35 m3 /m3
Water content 155 to 175 kg/m3 - -
w/p 28-37% by mass of - -
cement or 0.85 to
1.15 by volume of
cement
Powder content 0.16-0.19 m3 /m3 - > 0.13m3 /m3
Air content (for frost 4.5% - -
resistance)
172 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Table 9.2 EFNARC (2002) Specifications and Guidelines for Self


Compacting Concrete

Constituents Ranges
Coarse aggregate 28-35 % by volume of the mix
Water/powder 0.8-1.1 (by volume)
Powder content 400-600 kg/m3 (160-240 litres/m3 )
Cement content 350-450 kg/m3
Air content 20%

Table 9.3 Typical range of SCC mix proportions according to


ERAMCO
CONSTITUENT RANGE BY MASS RANGE BY VOLUME
(kg/m3 ) (litres/m3 )
Coarse aggregate 750-1000 270-360
Water Content 150-210 150-210
Powder content (kg/m3 ) 380-600 -
Cement content (kg/m3 ) - -
Paste content - 300-380
Water/Powder - 0.90-1.10
Table 9.4 List of Viscosity Enhancing Agents
Natural Polymers Inorganic Synthetic / Semi-synthetic
materials Polymers
Natural gums Fly ash Cellulose ether
derivatives
Guar gum Silica fume Hydroxy-propylmethyl
cellulose
Welan gum Hydrated lime Hydroxyl cellulose
Diutan gum GGBS Carboxy methyl
cellulose
Locust bean gum Kaoline Alginate
Agar Bentonites Polyethylene oxide
Gum Arabic Rock dust Polyacrylamide
Xanthan gum Diatomaceous earth Polyacrylate
Rhansan gum Milled asbestos Polyvinylalcohol
Welan gum Aqueous clay Styrene Co-Polymers
dispersions with carboxyl groups
Plant Protein Synthetic
Polyelectrolytes
Decomposed starch
Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 173

Table 9.5 Typical Self Compacting Concrete Mix for Repairs

Constituent Quantity(kg/m3 ) Type/source


Portland 340 OPC (53 grade)
cement Flyash 160 Class F (North Chennai
Thermal Power Plant)
Coarse aggregate 940 10 mm rounded gravel
Fine aggregate 730 River Sand
Water 185 Potable
Viscosity modifying 0.07 —
Agent
Fibres 910g/m3 Polypropylene

Slump cone

mm
00
10

500 mm

1000 mm

Fig. 9.1 Slump Flow Test


980
600
1090
60

Fig. 9.2 Orimet Test


174 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

490 (515) mm

75 mm

425 (450) mm
212.5 (225) mm

65 mm

Fig. 9.3 Funnel Test

100

200 Unit: mm

600
0 Rebars 3 Φ 12mm
Gap 35 mm
200

H1

0-200
H2 150
0-100
800

Fig. 9.4 L-Box Test


Self-Compacting Concrete as a Repair Material 175

Fig. 9.5 J-Ring Test

Middle Wall

2400Pa

45 cm
Concrete Sliding Door
59 cm Reinforcing Bars
R1 (D13 mm)
R2
Filling
14 cm Height

14 cm 14 cm
28 cm 4@5cm = 20cm

Fig. 9.6 U-Box Test


176 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Placement

Guide hopper

φ 16mm

6@50 = 300 mm

h1
h2

150 7@350 = 350


300
500

Fig. 9.7 Fill-Box Test

Fig. 9.8 Wet Screen Stability Test


Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 177–197

10 Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of


Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures

J. PRABAKAR
Scientist
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Tharamani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: Prabakar@sercm.org

10.1 INTRODUCTION
During the past several decades, concrete structures had suffered from
safety and serviceability problems due to deterioration of concrete.
Generally concrete is a very durable material, the environmental fac-
tors such as weathering action, chemical attack, abrasion and other
deterioration process may change the properties of concrete with time
when rebar is embedded into the concrete. The deterioration of Rein-
forced Cement Concrete (RCC) Structures is due to the corrosion of
steel used in concrete. Corrosion of reinforcing steel results in the
build-up of voluminous corrosion products generates internal stresses
which lead to cracking and spalling of the cover concrete. The param-
eters which influences the corrosion process in RCC structures are the
cover thickness, the quality of concrete,, environmental conditions, pH
and chloride levels and presence of cracks etc. The main causes of rebar
corrosion are due to ingress of chloride ions or diffusion of CO2 gas,
from atmosphere. A lowering of the pH by penetration of free chloride
ions through the concrete cover to the steel, or by the carbonation of
the concrete cover due to penetration of atmospheric carbon dioxide,
can cause breakdown of the passive layer.
In general, good quality concrete provides an excellent protection
for steel reinforcement. The steel used in concrete are remains in
passive state due to high alkalinity of concrete. The time to initiate cor-
rosion is determined largely by the amount and the quality of concrete,
cover thickness as well as permeability of concrete. Once de-passivation
occurs, corrosion propagation is governed by anodic, cathodic and/or
electrolytic properties of corrosion cell. The rate of chloride diffusion
178 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

is influence in concrete with water to binder ratio and the proper-


ties of paste such as type of cement, mix ratio and percentage of
supplementary cementing material, temperature and humidity.
The corrosion of steel in concrete leads to repair and rehabilitation
which causes incredible cost. There is an increasing amount of research
being performed to investigate methods of corrosion prevention, or to
minimize corrosion damage where it has already begun. There is an
obvious need to improve the product, but inevitably there will also be
a perpetual need for repair and rehabilitation.
10.1.1 Corrosion Process And Mechanism
Reinforcement corrosion is one of the most common causes for rein-
forced concrete structures deterioration. Corrosion damage to the
reinforcing steel results in the build-up of voluminous corrosion prod-
ucts generating internal stresses and subsequent cracking and spalling
of the concrete. The main causes of rebar corrosion are due to ingress
of chloride ions and CO2 which destroys the natural passivity of
reinforcement located in alkaline concrete condition. In general good
quality concrete provides excellent protection for steel reinforcement.
Due to high alkalinity of concrete pore fluid, steel in concrete initially
and in most cases, for sustained long periods of time, remains in a
passive state. Initiation of corrosion occurs either due to reduction in
alkalinity arising from the breakdown of the passive layer by the attack
of chloride ions. The time to initiate corrosion is determined largely
by the amount and the quality of concrete, cover thickness as well as
permeability of concrete. Once de-passivation occurs, corrosion prop-
agation is governed by anodic, cathodic and/or electrolytic properties
of corrosion cell (Pal et al 2002).
Chloride salts are highly soluble in water. The chloride ions dif-
fuse through concrete pores. The chloride ions present in the pores of
concrete are dissolved in water and penetrate. Then the chloride ions
attack the passive layer due to higher concentration of chloride ions
than hydroxyl ions. The chemical reaction takes place is given below.
The passive layer is destroyed with very less drop of pH value.
Chlorides act as a catalyst to corrosion when there is sufficient con-
centration at the rebar surface to break down the passive layer. They
are not consumed in the process but help to break down the passive
layer of oxide on the steel and allow the corrosion process to proceed
quickly. Then the concrete reinforcement tends to corrosion and leads
to concrete deterioration as shown in Fig.10.1 (Mohammad, 2007).
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 179

The process of concrete structure deterioration due to chloride cor-


rosion can be divided in to two phases. They are initiation period
(Ti ) and propagation period (Tp ) as shown in Fig. 10.2 (Tutti, 1982).
During the initiation period the chloride ions penetrate in to cover
concrete and accumulate around concrete reinforcement. The initia-
tion period is determined mainly by the diffusion rate of chloride ions
in concrete. Propagation period is a process in which reinforcement
begins to corrode due to chloride ions. The corrosion products accu-
mulate around concrete reinforcement and cause cracking along the
reinforcement due to expansion pressure of corrosion product. The
propagation depends on oxygen in dissolved state and the moisture
content in the concrete.
The negative chloride ions promote corrosion of steel in concrete
and accelerate corrosion and the chemical reaction takes place as
shown below.

F e → F e2+ + 2e −
F e2+ + 2Cl− → F eCl2
F ecl2 + 2OH → F e(OH)2 + 2Cl−
2F e(OH)2 + 1/2O2 → F e2 O3 + 2H2 O

Chloride ions can enter into the concrete from de-icing salts that
are applied to the concrete surface or from seawater in marine envi-
ronments. Other sources include admixtures containing chlorides,
contaminated aggregates, mixing water, air born salts, salts in ground
water, and salts in chemicals that are applied to the concrete surface.
If chlorides are present in sufficient quantity, they disrupt the passive
film and subject the reinforcing steel to corrosion (Steven F Daily).
Carbonation Attack : Moisture content in concrete plays an impor-
tant role for chemical process of carbonation. The relative humidity
of concrete around 60 to 75% is favour for the progress of carbonation
(Verbeck, 1958). The chemical reaction takes place as shown below.

CO2 + H2O → H2 CO3


H2 CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + 2H2 O
H2 CO3 + CaCO3 → Ca(HCO3)2
Ca(HCO3 )2 + Ca(OH)2 → 2CaCO3 + 2H2 O
180 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

The carbon dioxide gas dissolves in the presence of moisture content


and forms dilute carbonic acid. Then the carbonic acid reacts with
calcium hydroxide to form calcium carbonates. If the concentration of
the CO2 gas present is high enough, carbonic acid continues to form
and react with the carbonates present to produce bicarbonates. This
reaction continues as long as the bicarbonates present in the solution
and thus more CO2 is required. The reverse reaction takes place when
any of these are lost and calcium carbonate will then be precipitated
until sufficient CO2 gas has been released to stabilize the bicarbonate
remaining in solution (Hewlett, 1998, Taylor, 1997).
The pH value of pore water in the hardened concrete is generally
from 12.5 to 13.5 depends upon the alkali content of cement. The high
alkalinity forms a thin passivating oxide layer around concrete rein-
forcement and it protects from the action of water and oxygen. Due
to carbonation effect the pore fluid being neutralized, the pH drops
to value between 8 and 9. Then the passive layer around concrete
reinforcement is decayed and leads to concrete deterioration. The cor-
rosion of steel in concrete begins by two distinct processes. One is
that the corrosion follows an electrochemical process and the other
is the physical process due to which damage to concrete occurs. The
mechanism and the factors which influence the processes are discussed
below:
10.1.2 Electrochemical Process
In its simplicity, the electrochemical process of corrosion can be con-
sidered as the metallurgy I reverse. Steel is produced from the basic
iron ore which is oxide in nature. Energy is added to make the ore
into steel and during the electrochemical process by corrosion, elec-
trons get liberated dissipating the energy added and thereby the steel
goes back to its oxidized form.
In respect of reinforcing steel, this process can occur under two sit-
uations. Immediately after production in the factory, the rods come
out is light blue colour. During transportation and storage, a thin
oxide film gets formed and this acts as the passive layer. However,
during handling, it is likely that the passive layer may get mechani-
cally destroyed crating locally depassivated spots. Such spots in the
presence of water and oxygen create galvanic cells, forming anodic and
cathodic sites and highly localized corrosion can take place. Such cor-
rosion is known as localized pitting corrosion. The process follows an
electrochemical phenomenon creating a potential gradient and current
flow between the anodic and cathodic locations.
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 181

As there is a chance of corrosion even before placing the steel in


concrete, it is necessary that the reinforcing rods are well protected
during storage. This can be achieved by keeping the rods under covered
sheds, placing them on wooden supports and providing a cement slurry
coating. Another situation is when the rod is embedded in concrete. In
this situation, the electrochemical process progresses by forming the
anodic and cathodic sites, involving chemical reactions as given below:

F e → 2e− + F e + + (Anode)
1/2O2 + H2 O + 2e− → 2(OH −) (Cathode)
4F E(OH)2 + 2H2 O + O2 → 4F e(OH)3 (RedRust)
3F e + 8OH − → F e2 O4 + 8e − +4H2 O (BlackRust)

The electrochemical process is greatly influenced by the pH value of


concrete and the chloride. The state of a metal can be easily assessed
by measuring the electrical potential with respect to a standard elec-
trode. The influence of pH and chloride content on electrode potential
can be understood from the classic pH potential-diagram proposed by
Pourbiax. The diagram gives an idea on the regions of various reactions
that can take place depending on pH, chloride content, and electrode
potential. These regions represent immunity, general and pitting cor-
rosion and passivity. This diagram forms the basis of identifying the
presence of corrosion activity in a rebar embedded in concrete while
doing half cell potential survey on a structure.
The factors which influence the electrochemical process can be
summarized as follows:
• pH value
• Chloride content
• Moisture within the concrete influenced by the humidity of
environment or direct contact with water
• Oxygen supply which controls the rate of corrosion.
In addition to above factors, electrical resistivity of concrete also
influences the electrochemical process. Very dry concrete can have a
high resistivity of ore than 100 kilo ohm.cm. The moisture and other
chemicals can reduce the electrical resistivity, thereby increasing the
conductivity. It is established that when the resistivity of concrete falls
below 5000 ohm.cm, the conductivity of concrete will become high
and under such internal environment the rebar becomes susceptible to
corrosion.
182 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

10.1.3 Physical Process


In reinforced concrete structures, the corrosion of reinforcement is
unique in the sense that the corrosion process causes extensive damage
to the concrete. The physical process mainly consists of the expansive
forces caused by the volume growth of the corrosion product and once
the stress induced by this fore exceeds the tensile strength of con-
crete, cracking occurs. As further corrosion takes lace, spalling occurs.
Generally presence of active corrosion process in the reinforcement of
concrete member becomes known only when the symptom, namely,
corrosion stain and / or cracking is manifested. There is always a time
lag between the corrosion initiation and manifestation of the symptom.
As mentioned earlier, time for corrosion initiation can be estimated
by measuring the diffusion coefficient of concrete with regard to chlo-
ride ion and using this parameter in Fick’s second law of diffusion.
In actual structure, measurement of corrosion rate is required. Based
on the electrochemical understanding, it is established that corrosion
current can be measured using a technique called Linear Polarisation
Resistance method. (For ore details refer L11). The corrosion current
can be correlated to corrosion rate as:

1.0 μA/cm2 = 1.10 × 10−2 mm/year

10.1.4 Approach To Investigation Of Corrosion Damaged Rcc


Structure
The corrosion affected RCC structures can be systematically inves-
tigated as per the following to assess condition of the structures
and based on that a suitable repair materials are indentified for
strengthening.
• Visual observations
• Documentations
• Measurement of geometrical parameters
• Experiments for evaluating material properties and member behav-
ior Non destructive testing
• Concrete Integrity and strength Evaluation
• Electro Chemical parameters Evaluation Partially destructives
testing Load tests
• Interpretation and analysis of test results
• Formulation of repair measures
• Post repair evaluation
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 183

10.1.5 Visual Observation and Documentation


A detailed visual inspection and documentation are most important
in any field investigation. The study mainly consist of the following
activities

Visual Inspection Documentation Measurement


Types of cracks Both by drawing and photographs Column, beam,
(width, depth, Types and pattern of cracking, slab dimensions
length pattern ) spalling, abnormal distress, Vertical
Rust staining discoloration, deformation alignment
Spalling of History of construction Deflections and
concrete Original quality deformations if
Dampness Analysis and design methods with any
Drainage Assumption made
Foundation Types of materials used
Environment
10.1.6 Non Destructive Testing (NDT)
The following Non Destructive Tests are the important tests can be
used for assessing the concrete integrity, strength and corrosion level
etc. The data obtained form the NDT can be considered for qualitative
measurement and can have the confident level of about 80%.
• Rebound Hammer test

• Ultrasonic test

• Corrosion Level Measurement

• Half cell potential test

• GCOR6

• Galva Plus

• Half Cell Potential Meter

• Concrete Resistivity meter

• Permeability test

• Cover meter test

10.1.7 Partially Destructive Test (PDT)


The rebound Hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests can give
indirect evidence of concrete quality and where as a more realistic
assessment on concrete can be made by core sampling and testing.
The PDT can give a quantitative measurement and can give the actual
concrete strength exists in the structure. The PDT method can also
help in assessing the following parameters.
184 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

• Evaluation of Concrete Strength


• Carbonation attack
• pH and Chloride Level

10.2 MEASUREMENT AND IDENTIFICATION OF


CORROSION LEVEL
The corrosion prone areas and locations can be identified in the struc-
ture by interpreting the test data obtained with following methods.
10.2.1 Carbonation and pH Value
The common method for testing the carbonation depth of hardened
concrete is by measuring the change in the concrete pH value (Parrott,
1987). From the Fig. 10.3 it clearly shows that how quickly the pH
drops between carbonated and un-carbonated regions. The carbona-
tion depth for some of the mixes are predicted using parabolic equation
based on the measured carbonation depth result. The parabolic
equation is represented as
X = Ktn
Where,
X = Depth of Carbonation in mm √
K = Rate of Carbonation Depth in mm week
t = Time in weeks
n = 0.5
From the above equation the (K) value is calculated using the mea-
sured carbonation depth value (X) and age in week (t) the result has
taken. By applying the calculated value of (K) the carbonation depth
value (X) can be identified for the age in weeks (t) applied to the
equation.
10.2.2 Chloride Content
Chloride level can be determined by collecting powder samples from
the RCC structure or from concrete core samples. The estimation of
chloride level at cover regions is most important. The chloride deter-
mination can be obtained by titration method and also by Rapid
Chloride Test Kit. The corrosive environment within concrete gets
estabilished once the pH value is lowered to 10 and less or the chloride
level reaches the threshold limit of about 0.40 to 0.60% by weight of
cement. The guide lines for identification of corrosion prone locations
based on chloride level is given in Table-1.
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 185

10.2.3 Half Cell potential Survey


Corrosion being an electrochemical phenomenon, the electrode poten-
tial of steel rebar with reference to a standard electrode undergoes
changes depending on corrosion activity. The common standard elec-
trodes used are (i) Copper-Copper Sulphate Electrode (CSE) (ii)
Silver-Silver Chloride Electrode (SSE) (iii) Standard Calomel Elec-
trode (SCE). The measurement consists of giving an electrical con-
nection to the rebar and observing the voltage difference between
the rebar and a reference electrode in contact with concrete surface.
The test set-up for the the half cell potential is shown in Fig. 10.4.
Generally, the potential values become more and more negative as
the corrosion becomes more and more active. However, less negative
potential values may also indicate the presence of corrosion activity,
if the pH values of concrete are less. The general guidelines for iden-
tifying the probability of corrosion based on half cell potential values
as suggested in ASTM C 876 are given in the following Table.2.
It is important to realize that the potential of any metal in cement
concrete environment is a function of a large number of variables such
as concrete composition, pore liquid, concrete resistivity, cover thick-
ness, degree of polarization, etc. Hence, no quantitative conclusion can
be drawn from it.
10.2.4 Resistivity Test
The corrosion of a specific length of reinforcement is dependent on the
algebraic summation of the electrical currents originating from the
corroding sites on the steel and flowing through the moist surround-
ing concrete to non-corroding sites. Hence the electrical resistance of
concrete plays an important role in determining the magnitude of cor-
rosion at any specific location. This parameter is expressed in terms of
”Resistivity” in ohm centimeter or kilo ohms centimeter. The factors
which govern the resistivity values are:
• Constituents of concrete
• Chemical contents of concrete such as moisture, chloride level, and
other ions regardless of whether or not these were introduced by
formulation, atmospheric or sea water penetration.
• Type of pore structure of concrete.
Table-3 below gives the general guidelines for resistivity values indi-
cating probable corrosion risk in normal concrete structures based on
the work carried out by various researchers.
186 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

For a general monitoring, a resistivity check is important because


long-term corrosion can be anticipated in concrete structures where
accurately measured values are below 10,000 ohm-cm. Further, if resis-
tivity values fall below 5,000 ohm-cm. corrosion must be anticipated
at a much earlier period (possibly within 5 years) in the life of a struc-
ture. The principle of resistivity testing in concrete is similar to that
adopted in soil testing. However, when applied in concrete, a few draw-
backs should be realised. The method essentially consists of using a 4
probe technique in which a known current is applied between two outer
probes and the voltage drop between the inner two elements is read
off allowing for a direct evaluation of resistance R. Using a mathemat-
ical conversion factor, resistivity is calculated as r = 2 p.R.a where ’a’
is the spacing of probes. The principle of four-probe resistivity test-
ing is illustrated in Fig. 10.5 given below. The following drawbacks
are important to note while analyzing and interpreting the resistivity
values.
• The value obtained represents only the average evaluation over
the depth regulated by the chosen probe spacing and not that of
concrete at steel interface.
• Skin effect of concrete with varying drying conditions.
• The instrument should have adequate ’IR’ drop compensation for
measurement.
Following Table-4 gives guidelines for a qualitative identification
of corrosion prone areas based on our experience and also based on
the work carried out by various researchers on normal concrete after
combining the results of half cell potential and resistivity.
Table-4 Corrosion probability based on resistivity and potential
10.2.5 Corrosion Rate Measurement
In reinforcement concrete structures, determination of actual rate at
which the reinforcement is corroding assumes larger importance. One
method is known as ’linear polarization resistance’ (LPR) method for
the on-site study of corrosion rates of steel in concrete (6). The funda-
mental principle of Linear Polarisation is based on the experimentally
observed assumption that for a simple model corroding system, the
polarisation curve for a few mill volts around the corrosion poten-
tial obeys a quasi-linear relationship. The slope of this curve is the
so-called ’Polarisation Resistance(Rp ):

Rp = (Δ/Δl)ΔE → 0
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 187

From this slope, the corrosion rate can nbe determined using Stern-
Geary equation

Icorr = B/Rp

Where B is a constant which is a function of the Tafel Slopes and


a, c are determined from the formula given below.
βaβc
B=
2.3(βa + βc)
The value of B usually lies between 13 and 52 milli volts depending
on the passive and active corrosive system. For onsite measurement,
the testing system consists of a potentiate, counter electrode, reference
electrode, and the reinforcement as a working electrode. It is necessary
that for measurements in concrete, the potential should have electronic
ohmic compensation (IR) drop or otherwise, the value is to be obtained
by calculation or separate experiment. This works on the principle of
LPR technique.

10.3 CORROSION PROTECTION SYSTEM


The steel corrosion in concrete can be protected with suitable meth-
ods that reduce the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, which
reduces the deterioration of concrete. The selection of methods shall
be considered and compatible to environment factors, bond, durability
performance and safety requirements. The following methods can be
followed to protect the steel from corrosion.
• Concrete Quality
• Cover Concrete
• Corrosion Resistance Steel
• Chemical Admixtures
• Mineral Admixtures
• Coating on Steel and Concrete Surface
• Corrosion Inhibitors
• Cathodic Protection
• Electrochemical Chloride Removal

10.4 REPAIR OF CORROSION AFFECTED STRUCTURES


Selection of materials and application methods for the repair, protec-
tion, and strengthening of concrete structures is very important. It
188 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

is necessary to match the properties of the concrete being repaired


as closely as possible and therefore, cementitious compositions using
similar proportions of ingredients are the suitable choice for repair
materials. Types of cementitious compositions materials available for
repair of corrosion affected RCC member are as follows.
• Conventional Concrete
• Conventional mortar
• Dry Pack Mortar
• Proprietary Repair Mortar
• Ferrocement
• Fibre-reinforced Concrete
• Grouts
• Chemical Grouts
• Low Slump Dense Concrete
• Shotcrete
Apart from the cementitious materials, the improvement of prop-
erties of hardened concrete by the addition of polymers is well known
and are as follows.
• Polymer Cement Concrete
• Polymer Mortar
The general repair materials being used in the construction indus-
tries are as follows.
Repair operation Material
Sealing of fine cracks Epoxy resins
Sealing of large cracks Portland cement mortar
and joints Polymer mortar Putties
and caulks
General sealing of surfaces Synthetic polymers and
asphalt coatings
Localized patching of surfaces Concretes or mortars using
portland cement Rapid-setting
cements Polymer resins
Overlays and shotcreting Portland cement concrete Fibre
reinforced concretes
Latex modified concrete
Polymer concretes
Asphaltic concrete
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 189

10.5 REPAIR METHODOLOGY


The repair methodology shall be chosen based on the causes of
concrete deficiencies is essential to perform meaningful evaluation
and repair. In general, any repair works undergoes the following
activities.
• Concrete Removal
• Surface Preparation
• Repair Techniques and Material Installation
• Protective System
• Quality Control
• Performance Objectives
• Quality Control Procedures During the Repair
• Testing or Inspection Agency Qualifications
• Maintenance After Completion of Repairs

10.6 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING REPAIR


Safety is one of the main aspects when designing a concrete repair,
strengthening system. It is very much essential to understand the
basic principles of structural mechanics and have an understanding
of material behaviour to evaluate and design a structural repair and
strengthening procedure. The following design care shall be taken
throughout the repair.
• Current Load Distributions
• Compatibility of Materials
• Creep and Shrinkage
• Vibration
• Water and Vapour Migration
• Safety
• Material Behaviour Characteristics

10.7 REPAIR TECHNIQUES AND METHODS


10.7.1 Small cracks
If the cracks are reasonably small (crack width = 0.75mm - 5.00mm),
the technique to restore the original tensile strength of the cracked
element is by injection of epoxy with pressure .
• The external surfaces shall be cleaned
190 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

• PVC injection ports shall be placed along the surface of the cracks
and are secured in place with an epoxy sealant.
• The centre to centre spacing of these ports may be approximately
equal to the thickness of the member.
• After the sealant has cured, a low viscosity epoxy resin shall be
injected into one port at a time, beginning at the lowest part of
the crack in case it is vertical or at one end of the crack in case
it is horizontal.
• The resin shall be injected till it is seen flowing from the opposite
sides of the member at the corresponding port or from the next
higher port on the same side of the member.
• The injection port should be closed at this stage and injection
equipment moved to the next port and so on.
The smaller the crack, higher is the pressure or more closely spaced
should be the ports so as to obtain complete penetration of the epoxy
material throughout the depth and width of member. Larger cracks
will permit larger port spacing, depending upon width of the member.
This technique is appropriate for all types of structural elements such
as beams and columns. In the case of loss of bond between reinforcing
bar and concrete, if the concrete adjacent to the bar has been pulverizd
to a very fine powder, this powder will dam the epoxy from saturating
the region. So it should be cleaned properly by air or water pressure
prior to injection of epoxy.
10.7.2 Wider Cracks
For cracks wider than 5 mm or for regions in which the concrete has
crushed, a treatment other than injection is indicated. The following
procedure may be adopted.
• Removal of loose material and replaced with any of the materials
i.e., expansive cement mortar, quick setting cement or gypsum
cement mortar
• If found necessary, additional shear or flexural reinforcement is
provided in the region of repairs. This reinforcement could be
covered by mortar to give further strength as well as protection
to the reinforcement
• In areas of very severe damage, replacement of the member or
portion of member can be carried out.
• In the case of damage to walls and floor diaphragms, steel mesh
could be provided on the outside of the surface and nailed or
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 191

bolted to the wall. Then it may be covered with plaster or micro-


concrete .
10.7.3 Repair of Wider Cracks and Spalling in the Concrete
The repair measures generally consist of the following steps.
• Removal of damaged cover concrete in the columns and the extent
of removal will depend on the damage, however, for the purpose
of uniformity and quantity measurements, the concrete up to the
reinforcement needs to be removed.
• After removal of cover concrete, the reinforcements shall be
exposed and thoroughly cleaned both mechanically and chem-
ically to remove all loose rust and other particles, using com-
pressed air or water jetting.
• The exposed rods shall be given a coating of Nitozinc primer for
protecting the existing reinforcement and the coating shall be
allowed to cure for the period specified by the supplier.
• After curing the primer coating, the exposed areas shall be
wrapped with weld mesh of 10G × 10G with opening 100 ×
100 mm to the shape of the chosen member (column/ beam).
The weld mesh shall be tightly secured to the exposed concrete
by using “U” nails.
• After tying the weld mesh, the exposed face shall be rendered
with a bond coat in order to provide bond between the existing
old concrete and the new concrete to be poured. The area for
rendering the bond coat shall be decided based on the setting
time of the bond coat since the new concrete is to be poured
when the bond coat is tacky before setting. Based on the setting
characteristic of bond coat, the quantity of new concrete required
to be poured is estimated prior to concreting.
• The replacement of cover concrete shall be either Polymer Modi-
fied Mortar (PMM). The PMM is a ready to use mortar which will
have high flowing characteristics. After carrying out the works
mentioned from Sl. Nos. (i) to (v) above, the member shall be
provided with a shuttering giving adequate space of at least 50
mm from the chipped faces and reinforcement. The height of
shuttering for columns shall not exceed 1.0 m for a single. The
mortar is mixed with water as per the manufacture specifications
and poured into the form work In place of PMM, shorcrete may
be used for the above repair work as explained.
192 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

10.7.4 Strengthening of RCC Beams Affected Severely due to


Corrosion
The strengthening methods of dis-stressed RC members shall be
selected based on the functional requirement and the different methods
available are as follows.
• Jacketing with Conventional Concrete
• Jacketing with Micro Concreting
• Jacketing with Polymer concrete
• Jacketing with Self Compacting Concrete
• Wrapping with FRP laminates
• Steel Jacketing
The beams are to be supported by props. Remove the damaged
cover concrete in the beams and the thickness of removal will depend
on the extent of damage. However, for the purpose of uniformity and
quantity measurements, the concrete up to the reinforcement can be
removed. After the removal of cover concrete, the loose particles are to
be removed either using compressed air or using water jetting. Apply
anticorrosive coating ( Nitozinc primer) over the existing rods for pro-
tecting the reinforcement from further corrosion and the coating shall
be allowed to cure for the period specified by the supplier. Apply bond
coat over the old concrete to provide bond between the existing old
concrete and the new concrete. Shear connectors have to be provided.
These shear connectors have to be fixed with an epoxy to a minimum
length of 100 mm to the old concrete and the free end has to be bent
as L-shape and tie with new steel reinforcement. Alternatively, ’U’
- hooks may also be provided for anchoring the new reinforcement
to the beam. Provide additional steel reinforcement according to the
weight loss occurred in the original bars by measuring diameter. The
main rods have to be taken into the column as per the design. Curing
shall be done for a minimum period of 15 days. While jacketing the
beam, be ensure about the anchoring of steel coming from the column
members.
One panel of 600 × 600 × 100 mm for each day’s concreting. From
the panels, minimum 6 Nos. of 100 × 100 × 100 mm cubes shall be cut
and tested for compressive strength at 14 days (3 Nos.) and 28 days
(3 Nos.). The panels shall be prepared and cured in the same way as
carried out in the structure
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 193

10.7.5 Typical Repair/Strengthening of Columns


Remove the damaged/ loose cover concrete in the columns by means of
electrical chipper or any other means and the thickness of removal will
depend on the extent of damage (i.e up to the sound concrete depth).
However, for the purpose of uniformity and quantity measurements,
the concrete up to the cover of the reinforcement can be removed. After
the removal of cover concrete, the loose particles are to be removed
using compressed air or water jetting. Apply bond coat over the old
concrete to provide bond between the existing old concrete and the
new concrete. Shear connectors have to be provided as per the details
given in figure enclosed. These shear connectors have to be fixed with
an epoxy to a minimum length of 100 mm to the old concrete and
the free end has to be bend as L-shape and tie with weld mesh to be
provided as shown in Fig.. Jacketing of columns shall be done by using
self compacting concrete by providing suitable shuttering to a height
of 1.0 m as first lift. Give minimum one day interval for each lift for
hardening the concrete. Curing shall be done for a minimum period
of 15 days.
10.7.6 Specification of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC)
Mix details Chemical Admixtures
Cement - 350 kg/m3 Master Builder
Sand - 950 kg/m3 Technologies (MBT)
Fly Ash (Class F/C) - 150 kg/m3 Glenium - 51 (SP)
Coarse aggregate Glenium - Stream (VEA)
(10 mm graded) - 720 kg/m3
Water - 190 kg/m3
Super plasticizer
(S.P.) - 0.45 % of (Cement +
Fly Ash) Viscosity Enhancing
Agent (VEA) - 0.05 % of water

10.7.7 Procedure for preparation of SCC


Initially, aggregate (10mm graded) with one third of water are to be
added to the mixer and allow to mix for 60 seconds. Then fine aggre-
gates (sand), cement and fly ash are added to the mixture and allow
to mix for 60 seconds and add chemical admixtures such as, S.P, VEA
to the two third of water and add to the mixer to mix for another 90
seconds. Now the self compacting concrete is ready for pouring.
194 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

10.8 NOTE
• Leakage of cement slurry through shutter joints should not occur
and ensure perfect shuttering and in case of any gap at bottom
of the shuttering, make the gap sealed.
• Slight tapping can be made on the out side of the shuttering
during pouring of self compacting concrete (SSC) to remove air
voids if any.
• Water Curing must be done immediate after 24 hours by
wrapping gunny bags for a minimum period of fifteen days.

10.9 CONCLUSIONS
The reinforcement corrosion in concrete needs serious consideration by
the designers and constructors. The information discussed in this notes
on corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete shall bring awareness
and understanding of the mechanism certainly help to take appropri-
ate precaution at the design and construction stage itself. The use of
proper materials and repair methods for strengthening the structure
is highlighted.

10.10 REFERENCES
1. Advanced Course on ’High Performance Materials and Method-
ologies for Construction and Rehabilitation of Concrete Struc-
tures’ , Organized by Structural Engineering Research Centre
(SERC), during January 19-21, 2000.
2. ACI manual of Concrete Practice, 2009, Part-6, ACI 506R-05 to
ACIITG-5.1-07.
3. Allan P. Crane, Editor “Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
construction”, Ellishorwood Ltd., Chichester, 1983.
4. Hewlett, Arnold, “Lea’s chemistry of cement and concrete”, pp
1053 - 1087, 1998.
5. Mohammad A. El-Reedy, “Steel reinforcement concrete struc-
tures”, Assessment and Repair of Corrosion, available on internet,
http://hotfile.com/dl/57030679/6450a06/1420054309.zip.htmlpp,
2007.
6. Steven F. “Daily Understanding Corrosion and Cathodic Protec-
tion of Reinforced Concrete Structures” (http://www.estig.ipbeja.pt/
pdnl/ Sub-paginas/Conservacao%20de%20edificios files/Documentos/
Material%20de%20apoio/Betao/corrosao.pdf).
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 195

7. Tutti K, “Corrosion of steel in concrete”, CBI - Forskning 4.82,


Cement Och Betonginstitutet, Stockholm, 1982
8. Taylor, H F W, “Cement chemistry”, 2nd Edition, Thomas
Telford Publishing, London, 1997.
9. Verbeck G. J, “Field and laboratory studies of the sulfate
resistance of concrete In Performance of concrete resistance of
concrete to sulfate and other environmental conditions”, Thor-
valdson symposium, University of Toronto Press, pp.113-24,
1968.
10. Revision of IS 456-1999 code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced
Concrete- overview of modifications.
Table 10.1 Interpretation of Chloride and pH values for corrosion
prone areas
Sl.No Test Results Interpretation
1 High pH values greater than 11.5 and No Corrosion
very low chloride content
2 High pH values and high chloride content greater Corrosion prone
than threshold values (0.4 - 0.6 5 by weight of cement)
3 Low pH values and high chloride content Corrosion prone
(0.4 - 0.6 5 by weight of cement)
4 Low pH values and high chloride content Corrosion prone

Table 10.2 Corrosion risk by half cell potential


Corrosion Potential
More than 95 % More negative than - 350 mV
50 % -200 mV to -350 mV
Less than 5% More positive than -200 mV

Table 10.3 Corrosion risk from resistivity


Resistivity Corrosion probability
(ohm - cm)
Greater than 20,000 Negligible
10,000 - 20,000 Low
5,000 - 10,000 High
Less than 5,000 Very high
196 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Table 10.4 Corrosion probability based on resistivity and potential


Sl.No Test results Interpretations
1 High resistivity greater than 10,000 ohm cm and No active corrosion - relatively
low potentials - more positive than -200 mV (CSE) cathodic
2 Low resistivity below 10,000 ohm cm and Initiation of corrosion activity
potentials between -200 mV to -250 mV (CSE) - relatively anodic
3 Low resistivity about 5,000 ohm cm and potentials - Presence of corrosion activity
200 mV to - anodic
-350 mV (CSE)
4 Low resistivity below 5,000 ohm cm and potential High intensity of corrosion -
more negative than -350 mV (CSE) fully anodic
5 Higher potential gradient and high conductivity High rate of corrosion

O2 H2O
OH¯ OH¯
Fe2+
Cement Matrix

O2 + H2O Cl¯ Cl¯ O2 + H2O


Passive Film
Cathode 2e¯ Cathode Reinforcement
Anode

Fig. 10.1 Corrosion of steel in Concrete by Chloride Attack

t p depends on:
• availability of O2
• availability of H2 O
Significant Level of Damage • OH - concentration
Degree of Corrosion

t i depends on:
• cover depth
• w/c ratio Rate of
• curing regime Corrosion
• cement type
• environment temperature

Propagation
Initiation Period ( ti) Period (t p)

Design Life = t i + t p

Fig. 10.2 Service Life model for design life (Tutti, 1982)
Mechanism of Corrosion and Repair of Corrosion Damaged Concrete Structures 197

12
Neutralised Normal
Concrete Concrete

11

10
pH indicated
pH
by phenolpthalein
9
Depth at which
passivationis lost

7
0 10 20 30 40 50
Depth from Surface, mm

Fig. 10.3 Change in pH with depth of carbonated concrete

V
Corrosion
Potential
Reference
Electrode Cu/CuSO4
Sponge

Steel Rod

Concrete

Fig. 10.4 Set up for half cell potential survey

a
I

V P = 2πa V/I

Current
flow Equipotential
line

Fig. 10.5 Principle of Resistivity measurement


.
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 199–210

11 Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures -


Case Studies

K. Balasubramanian and V. Rajendran


Hitech Concrete Solutions, Chennai Pvt. Ltd.,
Chennai-600 077, India.
Email: bluserc@yahoo.com

11.1 INTRODUCTION
Construction activities account for a major component of the budget
in developing countries, including India. Cement concrete is the most
extensively used material for the construction of large infra-structural
facilities world-wide. Significant distress or deterioration is being
observed in Reinforced Concrete(RC) structures, such as bridges,
multi-storeyed buildings, hyperboloid cooling towers and chimneys,
particularly in coastal regions even well within their expected life
span. Concrete despite its inherent deficiencies, is the most extensively
used material for the construction of large infrastructure facilities.
In the foreseeable future, there seems to be no alternative to con-
crete as a construction material. Ensuring durability of concrete is
one of the important issues to be addressed in evolving strategies to
bring about sustainable development. Maintenance and repair of con-
structed facilities is presently a growing problem globally, involving
significant expenditure. Strengthening, upgrading and retrofitting of
existing structures are among the major challenges that modern civil
engineering field is facing these days. The building deficiencies can be
broadly classified as Local Deficiencies and Global Deficiencies.
Local deficiencies are element deficiencies that lead to the failure
of individual elements of the buildings, such as, crushing of columns,
flexural and shear failure of beams etc. Unaccounted loads, inadequate
confinement, unauthorized alterations, poor quality of construction,
poor detailing, lack of anchorage of reinforcement, inadequate shear
reinforcement, insufficient cover, inadequate compaction and curing,
etc., and environmental deterioration are reasons for local deficiencies.
200 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Global deficiencies refer to the deficiencies of the building as a


whole. Certain structural design concepts that may work adequately
in non-seismic areas perform poorly when subjected to earthquake
motions. Examples are framed structures with strong beams and weak
columns, or framed structures employing open ground storeys. For
either case, a single storey sway mechanism can develop under lat-
eral loading. Global deficiencies can broadly be classified as plan
irregularities and vertical irregularities, as per IS 1893 (Part I):2002.
This lecture notes presents two case studies, in which a corrosion
affected wharf at Chennai and a hydel power station at Srinagar have
been rehabilitated successfully.

11.2 CASE STUDIES


11.2.1 Performance of sacrificial anodes in the rehabilitation of
corrosion affected finger jetty
The increase in the number of structures affected by corrosion has
created more awareness in the minds of the researchers to investigate
the various corrosion protection methodologies to be adopted during
and after the completion of construction of reinforced concrete struc-
tures. Usage of different types of surface coating on rebars for the
corrosion protection has some limitations on account of many factors,
like reduction in bond stress between the concrete & rebar and so on.
The attempts of the various rehabilitation organizations in restoring
the corrosion affected structural elements back to their original load
carrying capacity has proved to be a very complicated process and
a short lived one. Such rehabilitation methods involve exorbitantly
high costs, besides causing a lot of disturbance to the occupants.
Hence, recourse is being made by researchers as well as repair and
rehabilitation experts to identify newer and cost effective corrosion
control techniques that will give long term satisfactory performance.
One such method that is being widely and successfully employed all
over the world is the self regulating sacrificial galvanic protection sys-
tem. The case study describes in detail investigations conducted on a
corrosion damaged Finger jetty, the repair methodology suggested for
the rehabilitation of the structure and executed. The repair method-
ology proposed included the provision of galvanic anodes. The case
study also describes in detail the monitoring of the repaired Finger
jetty through half cell potential and ultrasonic pulse velocity mea-
surements conducted over a period of one and a half years from the
time of completion of the repair to assess the effectiveness of the repair
Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures - Case Studies 201

methodology. The investigations have clearly demonstrated that gal-


vanic anodes have proved to be an effective corrosion control technique
for reinforced concrete structures.
11.2.2 Galvanic Anode Protection System
Many new systems and materials have been developed to delay the
onset of corrosion and to increase the durability of reinforced concrete
structures situated in marine environment. However, most of the sys-
tems and materials that have been developed only delay the initiation
time of corrosion. Once the corrosion is initiated, the damage to the
reinforced concrete structures is very extensive. Hence, the need of
the hour is the development of corrosion control systems that will not
only be economical, but perform well over a period of time in adverse
environmental conditions.
Galvanic corrosion protection methods were originally developed in
the 1820s. Over the years, self regulating galvanic corrosion protection
systems have been widely used to protect underground steel structures,
such as, pipelines and tanks. Self regulating galvanic protection sys-
tems were first used on reinforced concrete structures around 1960.
Recent technological advancements in the development of self regulat-
ing galvanic anodes have led to a significant increase in their use for
protecting reinforcing steel in concrete structures.
Galvanic anodes used for galvanic protection are typically con-
structed using aluminum, magnesium or zinc. For reinforced concrete
applications, zinc has become the most common sacrificial anode used
presently. There are several reasons for the usage of zinc namely.
(a) Zinc has high corrosion efficiency i.e. higher percentage of elec-
trons are discharged from the zinc as it corrodes. These electrons
are available to protect the steel.
(b) As zinc corrodes, it has a relatively low rate of expansion
compared to other metals, including steel. This makes zinc
anodes particularly suitable for application where the anodes are
embedded into the concrete structure.
(c) Zinc anodes are suitable for use in prestressed and/or post-
tensioned concrete because their native potential is generally not
sufficient to generate atoms or cause hydrogen embitterment in
a concrete environment.
Galvanic anodes are covered with a precast mortar matrix saturated
with lithium hydroxide (LiOH). These anodes are designed to be tied
202 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

directly to the reinforcing steel to extend the life of concrete patch


repairs. Fig. 11. 1 gives a view of a sacrificial zinc anode system that
was used in the present study.
Because of its simplicity in installation, the galvanic anodes have
proved to be a better corrosion protection system in the case of
repair/rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. They have also
proved to be extremely successful during the maintenance of the struc-
tural members the world over. However, their use in the repair and
rehabilitation of corrosion damaged structures is still in its infancy
in India. Fig. 11.2 shows the ease with which a sacrificial zinc anode
system is being installed during the rehabilitation of a structure.
11.2.3 Description of Structure
The main components of the Finger jetty (Fig.11.3) situated at
Chennai are as follows:
• The Finger jetty was built on 95 piles arranged in four rows,
intermediate rows having 22 piles in each row and eastern row
having 23 piles and western row having 28 piles.
• The spacing between two piles was observed as 3.330m in
transverse directions and varying between 10.00m to 11.30m in
longitudinal direction, except at twin pile locations.
• The modified pile muffs, where fenders are fixed are of size 1.85m
to 1.9m in longitudinal direction and 2m to 2.25m in transverse
direction and extend to a height of about 3.4m up to the bottom
of deck slab.
• The following are the beam sizes on the Finger jetty:
• Longitudinal beams 1000mm × 400mm (excluding deck slab)
• Transverse beams 1000mm × 750mm (excluding deck slab)
• Slab thickness 400mm with wearing coat
• Top level of the deck Varies between +4.5m to +4.15m
11.2.4 Investigations at Site
The following tests were conducted to assess the quality of concrete
and extent of corrosion in the various structural elements of the Finger
jetty:
1. Ultrasonic pulse velocity test
2. Half cell potential test
Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures - Case Studies 203

The following structural elements were investigated:


1. Piles
2. Pile caps
The half cell potential and UPV values obtained during the inves-
tigations prove that the corrosion is active and that the integrity
of concrete is doubtful and that the structure requires immediate
rehabilitation(Figs. 11.4 & 11.5)
11.2.5 Repair Methodology
Based on the analysis of the test results, a repair methodology was
proposed to be adopted for the piles, pile caps and beams. It was
decided to rehabilitate the berthing wall also with reinforced concrete
element to take care of the berthing load vibrations. In view of the
fact that the Finger jetty has to accommodate higher capacity vessels,
the pile size was increased to the size of the pile cap so that it will act
as a fender column to take care of higher berthing loads.
A proper support system was designed and placed in position before
taking up the repair and rehabilitation. After the support system was
installed, the spalled/loose concrete were chipped from face of the
piles.
The heavily corroded pile liners were cut and removed from -0.20 m
from the low tide level using under water cutting gear. All the spalled,
cracked concrete and pre-applied mortars were removed by chipping to
expose the reinforcing steel. The concrete was removed about 20mm
behind the rebars. The repair sequence was so chosen that no two
adjacent piles were chipped off at a time. In fact, the sequence adopted
was such that every 4th pile was chipped, rehabilitated before the other
piles were taken up.
As the concrete was contaminated with chlorides, the chipped of
surfaces of the concrete were repeatedly cleaned with potable water
using high pressure water jet equipments during the low tide level.
The exposed rebars were also cleaned with high pressure water jet
and mechanical cleaning where ever required. The existing corroded
rebars were coated with zinc based protective coating.
Since the repair methodology involved provision of a micro concrete
jacket from the design point of view, shear connectors were provided
at every 500mm c/c on the faces of piles and pile caps in a staggered
manner. The shear connectors were anchored using polyester resin.
The additional reinforcement was tied and also welded at a few places
204 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

to the shear connectors so that the connectivity to the core concrete


of the structure is ensured.
The galvanic anode used in the rehabilitation of the structure was
an amphoteric zinc block embedded within a specially formulated
cementitious mortar having a pore solution pH, which is sufficiently
high for corrosion of the anode to occur and for passive film for-
mation on the anode to be avoided as described in patent number
PCT/GB94/01224. Galvanic anode was positioned in such a way to
ensure all round contact with the jacketed micro concrete and was
attached to the existing/ additional reinforcement using the wire ties.
Galvanic anode fixing tool was used to tighten the wire ties, so that
no free movement was possible, thus ensuring electrical continuity.
Fig. 11.6 shows a view of the fixing of Galvanic anode to the pile.
To check the electrical continuity between wire ties and reinforcement
bar, a voltmeter was used.
11.2.6 Post repair investigation
After the Finger jetty was rehabilitated, half cell potential measure-
ments were conducted on the piles and pile caps at intervals of 6
months and up to a period of 2 years to check the performance of
the repair methodology adopted, especially the provision of the self
regulating galvanic anode. Half cell potential survey was conducted
using the prefixed corrosion monitoring junction box. Care was taken
to ensure that the same locations before repair were again subjected
to half cell potential test to assess the efficiency of the self regulating
galvanic anodes.
The UPV tests were conducted immediately after repair to assess
the integrity of the structural members, viz, piles, pile muff, pile caps
and deck beams to assess the performance of the repair methodology
as well as the execution of the rehabilitation. Care was taken to ensure
that the same locations before repair were again subjected to UPV test
to assess the efficiency of the repair methodology. The UPV tests were
conducted on the above structural members at every 6 months interval
up to a period of 2 years.
The half cell readings taken before and after completion of the
rehabilitation and at intervals of 6 months till the end of the 2nd year
period from the date of completion of the rehabilitation are listed in
Table. 11.3. The half cell potential reading values show values, which
are more positive than -200 mV at the end of 2 years and as per
the recommendations of ASTM C-876, the rehabilitated structural
members have high probability of no corrosion. Hence, it is clearly
Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures - Case Studies 205

evident that the self regulating galvanic anode system is performing


well in the rehabilitated jetty in terms of corrosion protection.

11.3 REHABILITATION OF A HYDEL PROJECT NEAR


SRINAGAR
The Upper Sind Hydel Project (USHP)-Stage II, Kangan consists of
three power stations with 3 x 35 MW generators. The power generating
machinery was not able to generate power in the units II and III
of the station almost from the inception from the early 2000. Hence
Vibration studies along with NDT investigations were undertaken by
SERC, Chennai.
Based on the results of the investigations carried out on the rein-
forced concrete columns of the USHP, the following recommendations
were made by SERC, Chennai.
• The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity values and Rebound Hammer read-
ings indicate that, in general, the integrity of concrete in the RC
columns may be considered as satisfactory.
• The results of the tests for chloride content, sulphate content and
pH levels indicate that, in general, these salts are within their
respective permissible limits and do not indicate the presence
of any corrosive environment within the concrete at the time of
investigation.
• The results of the UPV tests clearly indicate that the eight con-
crete pedestals supporting the stator support pads at the LGB
floor level in units II and III have undergone severe damage.
Fig. 11.7 shows the typical view of RC pedestals of upper brack-
ets in unit III. Considering the long term safety and to ensure
the trouble free performance of the machinery, and to keep the
vibrations within the permissible limit, it is necessary that the
above eight concrete pedestals in Units II and III may be disman-
tled and recast, as per the design requirements of the machinery
installed.
• The exact extent of damage in the concrete slab diaphragm sup-
porting the rotor radial thrust pads (4 numbers) in units II and
III can be assessed only after the removal of the machinery and
with closer inspection. A retrofitting methodology can be formu-
lated after a closer and thorough inspection after the removal of
the entire machinery.
206 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

The repair work consisted of dismantling the 8 eight concrete


pedestals supporting the stator support pads at the LGB floor level
in units II and III and then recasting them with Microconcrete after
making the necessary arrangement to support the machinery by means
of hydraulic jacks. Grouting was also carried out in the concrete slab
diaphragm supporting the rotor radial thrust pads (4 numbers) in
units II and III. Fig. 11.8 shows the view of pedestal supporting the
upper bracket.
After the successful completion of the repair work, NDT inves-
tigations were again conducted by SERC, Chennai to evaluate the
efficiency of the repair methodology suggested and executed. The UPV
tests were conducted on the accessible locations on the eight concrete
pedestals supporting the stator support pads (upper bracket). The
UPV values were found to be stable and the average values are above
4.00 km/sec, which indicates that the integrity of concrete is very good.
Further, no visible distress could be noticed in the concrete pedestals.

11.4 SUMMARY
In order to rehabilitate and improve the corrosion resistance of Finger
jetty, half cell potential and UPV measurements were conducted on
the various structural elements. Based on the analysis of the half cell
potential readings and UPV values, a repair methodology was designed
which included micro concrete jacketing and provision of Galvanic
anodes. The following are the conclusions drawn based on the post
repair investigations:
The UPV measurements clearly reveal that the integrity of the
concrete in the rehabilitated structural elements of the Finger jetty
is good, indicating the efficiency of the micro concrete jacketing tech-
nique designed and executed. The Finger jetty has not shown any
distress on account of corrosion even after a period of nearly 2 years
as evident from the half cell potential readings taken at every 6 month
interval. The provision of galvanic anodes i.e. the galvanic protection
system is performing well in the Finger jetty and from the pattern of
the half cell potential readings observed over a period of 2 years, it
may be concluded that this may continue to perform well for a few
more years without causing any problem. In addition to that, even if
the corrosion were to reoccur after probably 5 years, it is required only
to cut open the particular place to install another piece of Galvanic
anode, instead of resorting to a expensive large scale rehabilitation
Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures - Case Studies 207

measure resulting in closing down of the operation of the Finger jetty


during the period of rehabilitation.
It can be concluded that the galvanic protection system using the
galvanic anodes are techno commercially viable system to be adopted
for the rehabilitation of the corrosion damaged marine structures and
they can be a useful tool to be installed even during the construc-
tion of the marine structures resulting in considerable savings to the
government agencies.
In the case of the Hydel Project at Srinagar, it can be seen that
proper identification of the cause of the distress through field studies
and suggestion of the appropriated repair methodology and its exe-
cution will go a long way in solving many issues associated with the
functioning of vibrating structures.

Fig. 11.1 A view of the Galvanic anode

Fig. 11.2 Typical view of installation of galvanic anode in any


structure
208 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 11.3 A view of the corrosion affected Finger jetty before


rehabilitation

Fig. 11.4 A view of the half cell potential test in progress on the
pile cap

Fig. 11.5 A view of the UPV test in progress on the pile


Repair and Retrofitting of RC Structures - Case Studies 209

Fig. 11.6 View of the positioning of Galvanic anode, form work &
jointing compound

Cylindrical barrel
structure

Concrete pedestal
supporting upper bracket

Stator support pad


(Upper bracket) - 8 Nos

Rotor support pad


(Lower bracket) - 4 Nos.

Concrete slab diaphragm


supporting lower bracket

Fig. 11.7 Typical plan view showing the details of recast RC


pedestals of upper brackets in unit III
210 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 11.8 A view of the recast pedestal supporting the upper


bracket
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 211–221

12 Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its


Rehabilitation

P. Srinivasan,
Assistant Director
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
E-mail: sriniv@sercm.orgs

12.1 INTRODUCTION
Concrete as a versatile material has high adaptability to satisfy
many aspects in civil engineering structures such as functional needs,
economy, maintenance, aesthetic acceptability, and protection against
corrosive environment and fire. When a fire has occurred, the require-
ments are generally for an immediate and thorough appraisal carried
out with clear objectives. Such an appraisal must begin as soon as the
building can be inspected and generally before the removal of debris.
The fire resistance of a concrete structure is frequently well above its
minimum requirements, and hence rehabilitation by repair will, there-
fore, be preferable to demolition and rebuilding. Rehabilitation may
require less capital expenditure than demolition and rebuilding and
may also provide a direct saving as a result of earlier re-occupation.
The compressive strength of concrete is reduced to 25% of its
unfired value when heated to 300◦ C and 75% at 600◦ C and the elastic
modulus also gets reduced in the same manner (The Concrete Society,
1990). The temperature estimation based on the color change seems to
be the traditional practice for fire-damaged concrete members. When
concrete is heated above 300◦C, the color of concrete changes from
normal to pink or red (300-600◦C), to whitish grey (600-900◦C) and
buff (400-1000◦ C).
The idea of making an assessment of the fire-damaged concrete
structure is to arrive at the estimation of temperature, extent of
damage to concrete and reduction in the strength of concrete and rein-
forcement The stiffness damage test (SDT) has been used to study the
change in strength of concrete affected by fire (Nassif, 1995). The study
212 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

of microstructure of the fire damaged concrete samples using scanning


electron microscope and stereo microscope will give the estimation
of temperature. (Wei-Ming Lin, 1996). Color image analysis has been
applied on concrete core samples to estimate the temperature and also
the depth of damage (Short, 2001). Optical microscopy has been used
to determine the depth of damage based on the crack density measure-
ments (Georgali, 2004). The methods mentioned above are conducted
in the laboratory on samples collected from the structure.
Ultrasonic pulse velocity test, which is a non-destructive test
method, is widely practiced for the evaluation of the quality of a con-
crete structure. This is a very simple test and can be carried out on a
structure at a faster rate. The ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements
made on a structure will provide a qualitative estimation of the dam-
aged members with the undamaged one (Hung-Wan Chung, 1985 and
Andrea Benedetti, 1998). The depth of concrete affected by fire can
be calculated using the ultrasonic pulse velocity values (Mani, 1986).
The application of the ultrasonic scanning, tests on concrete core and
reinforcement samples have been applied to two case studies along
with the load test carried out after repair are discussed in this paper.

12.2 APPROACH FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE FIRE


AFECTED REINFOCREMENT OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
A general approach for carrying out a scientific investigation of a fire
affected reinforced concrete structure and the parameters that are to
be evaluated from these tests are given below.
Stage I : Preliminary inspection (inspection before removal
of debris)
Visual inspection and documentation include:
• Source of fire and its location in the building
• Locations of portions with extensive, moderate and no-damage
• Color of concrete
• Areas showing cracks, spalling of concrete and exposure of
reinforcement
• Damage of structural steel sections and their locations
• Collection of damaged samples such as steel, aluminum, glass,
etc.
Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its Rehabilitation 213

Stage II: Detailed investigation


• Estimation of temperature : Based on the collected samples such
as melted metals, broken glass pieces, color of concrete, etc.
• Duration of fire by collecting data from eyewitnesses or fire
fighting personnel
• List out the damage and categories, i.e., severe, fair, moderate,
and no-damage.
• Insitu tests
• Ultrasonic scanning on RC members
• Rebound hammer test
• Load test if required
• Laboratory tests
On concrete core samples from affected and unaffected areas and
carry out the following
– Observe the change in color due to heat
– Observe the texture of concrete
– Conduct UPV scanning after dressing
– Determine the depth of concrete affected by fire.
– Determine the Compressive strength and Modulus of elasticity
of core samples
On Steel samples from affected and unaffected areas
– Carry out tests to determine tensile strength, modulus of
elasticity and percentage elongation
Stage III: Assessment and classification of damage
Based on the UPV values, the members may be classified as
(a) Unaffected - members with hair cracks and UPV values greater
than 3.5 km/sec
(b) Moderately affected - members with wide cracks and UPV values
between 2.5 and 3.5 km/sec
(c) Fairly affected - members with major cracks, spalling of concrete,
and UPV values below 2.5 km/sec
(d) Severely affected - major cracks, spalling of concrete, exposure
and debonding of Reinforcement and finally the load carrying
capacity can be calculated based on the parameters evaluated
using the various test results.
214 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

12.3 INTERPRETATION OF INSITU AND LABORATORY


TEST RESULTS
Visual Inspection The visual inspection of the fire affected struc-
ture and the status of some of the components of the structure such as
aluminum, glass panes, etc. after the fire do suggest the approximate
temperature to which the structure was subjected. The temperature
can be further confirmed by conducting ultrasonic scanning on con-
crete, tension test on structural steel and reinforcing steel and tests
on concrete core samples.
Ultrasonic Scanning Results
Taking the UPV values for the un-affected members as the basis the
velocity values of the members affected by fire can be compared and
probable temperatures to which the portions of members were sub-
jected to can also be estimated. The depth of concrete affected by fire
can be calculated using the relationship between the velocity profiles
with temperature (Mani, 1986)
Core Sampling and Testing
Tests on core samples give direct evidence on residual compressive
strength and temperature to which the concrete member is subjected
during fire. The pulse velocity values of these core samples can be
compared to confirm the estimated temperature and the correctness
of estimation of the depth of damaged concrete Study of core samples,
their density and compressive strength bear a relation which helps to
confirm the estimated temperature.
Residual Strength of Steel
To assess the residual properties of the reinforcement, samples from
different locations are to be collected and tested for yield and ultimate
strength, percentage elongation and modulus of elasticity. The reduc-
tion in the strength and modulus of elasticity will give an idea of the
temperature to which the member has been subjected to fire.
Based on the above test results, parameters such as probable tem-
perature, depth of concrete removal, average ultrasonic pulse velocity
in the core concrete, the residual strength of concrete etc., can be
evaluated. Once the classification of damage has been worked out, the
repair measures can be formulated.
Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its Rehabilitation 215

12.4 REPAIR OF FIRE DAMAGED CONCRETE


STRUCTURES
Repair of fire-damaged concrete structures requires restoration of any
loss in strength, durability, and fire resistance of concrete and steel.
Generally repair of fire affected structures shall consist of the following
types depending on the extent of damage.
(i) Type I for unaffected members
(a) Remove loose particles if any and clean the surface
(b) Replaster the area if required

(ii) Type II for moderately affected members


(a) Remove loose particles
(b) Clean the surface with high pressure water jet or sand blasting
(c) Inject cement grout followed by low viscosity epoxy
(d) Replaster the surface with cement mortar, if required

(iii) Type III for fairly affected members


(a) Remove loose particles
(b) Clean the surface with high pressure water jet or sand blasting
(c) Inject cement grout followed by low viscosity epoxy
(d) Gunite with high strength gunite in layers (not exceeding 20
mm) over a layer of welded mesh of 10 G × 10 G - 100 mm
× 100 mm in each layer of gunite or replace the fire-affected
concrete by polymer modified mortar or Jacketing with micro-
concrete.

(iv) Type IV for severely affected members


(a) Remove loose particles
(b) Clean the surface with high pressure water jet or sand blasting
(c) Inject cement grout followed by epoxy
(d) Provide additional reinforcement, if required
(e) Gunite with high strength gunite in layers (not exceeding 20
mm) over a layer of welded mesh of 10 G × 10 G - 100 mm
× 100 mm in each layer of gunite or replace the fire-affected
concrete by polymer modified mortar or jacketing with micro-
concrete.
216 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

12.5 CASE STUDIES


In the following section two case studies on fire damaged concrete
structures are reported, one on RC framed structure of an industrial
building and the other on cooling tower.
12.5.1 Investigation of fire damaged RC framed structure of an
industrial building
The building is a reinforced concrete framed structure having columns
and beams running in perpendicular directions and is covered by
R.C.C. slab. Fig. 12.1a shows a portion of the RC frame (with grease
markings made for UPV measurements) and Fig. 12.1b shows a typical
beam affected by fire.
Visual inspection
The visual inspection of the fire affected structure, and the status
of some of the components after the fire did suggest the approximate
temperature to which the structure was subjected. It can be seen from
the Table. 12.1, that the temperature to which the concrete structure
was subjected can be estimated approximately between 300◦ C and
600◦ C. The temperature was further confirmed by conducting ultra-
sonic scanning, tension test on reinforcement samples and tests on core
samples.
Assessment from ultrasonic scanning and tests on core
samples
The ultrasonic scanning was carried out on 36 columns and 32 beams
with a grid spacing of 150 mm × 200 mm. A typical UPV data for a
beam is shown in Fig. 12.2 A good quality concrete of M20 grade will
have a velocity of 4.0 km/sec. The lower velocity values at grid lines
B and C indicate that the bottom portion of beam was affected more
compare to grid line - A i.e., top portion of beam. The temperature
was estimated to be 300◦ C to 400◦ C and the depth of correction as
40 to 50 mm.
Core samples around 20 numbers were collected on both affected
and unaffected areas. The typical core sample details are given in
Table. 12.2 with the velocity values and compressive strength, and
also the depth of correction.
Assessment of residual strength of steel
The reinforcements in several locations were exposed and some of the
reinforcements were in deflected condition especially in the roof slab
portions. In order to assess the residual properties of the reinforcement,
Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its Rehabilitation 217

samples from different locations were collected and tested mainly


for yield and ultimate strength, percentage elongation and modulus
of elasticity. Table. 12.3 shows the test results including estimation
of temperature on steel samples taken from portions unaffected and
affected by fire.
After repair, the load test was conducted as per standard practice.
The deflection and the recovery were found to be within allowable
limits.
12.5.2 Assessment of a fire-affected RC cooling tower
Condition assessment was made on a fire-affected cooling tower as per
the procedure mentioned above. Fig. 12.3 shows the cooling tower and
Fig. 12.4 shows the core sampling on the structure. The UPV data for
the shell portion is given in Fig. 12.5. It can be seen that the maximum
damage has occurred in grid lines 10to 25 whereas the portion in grid
lines 1 to 5 have undergone less damage. The test results on core
samples indicate the depth of correction to be 40 to 50 mm.

12.6 CONCLUSION
A systematic investigation using visual observation and in-situ testing
by ultrasonic scanning together with the tests on core samples and on
reinforcement samples will adequately help to assess the condition of
a fire-affected reinforced concrete structure in a more appropriate and
economical way. Depending upon the damage caused, the structure
can be restored.

12.7 REFERENCES
1. The Concrete Society, “Assessment and Repair of fire-damaged
concrete structures”, Technical Report 33, The Concrete Society
London., 1990.
2. Nassif A. Y., et al., “A new quantitative method of assessing fire
damage to concrete structures” ,Magazine of Concrete Research,
47, No.172, 1990 pp 271–278.
3. Wei-Ming Lin T. D., Lin ., and Powers-Couche L. J., “Microstruc-
tures of Fire-Damaged Concrete” ACI Materials Journal, V.03,
No.3, 1996, pp 199–205.
4. Short N. R., Purkiss J. A., and Guise S. E., “Assessment of fire
damaged concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.15,
2001 pp 9–15.
218 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

5. Georgali B., Tsakiridis P. E., “Microstructure of fire-damaged


concrete. A Case Study” Cement and Concrete Composites, 2004
pp 1–5.
6. Andrea Benedetti “Ultrasonic Pulse Propagation into Fire-
Damaged Concrete” ACI Structural Journal, V.05,No.5, 1998 pp
259–270.
7. Hung-Wan Chung and Kwok Sang Low., “Assessing fire damage
of concrete by the ultrasonic pulse technique”, American Society
of Testing and Materials, 1985, pp 84–88.
8. Mani K., and Lakshmanan N., “Determining the extent of dam-
age due to fire in concrete structures by ultrasonic pulse velocity
measurements”, Indian concrete Journal, Vol.60, No.7, 1986, pp
187–191.

Table 12.1 - Estimation of temperature


Criteria Material Approximate Remarks
adopted temp. ◦ C
Color Concrete 300 - 600 Greenish grey to
pink
Behaviour of Aluminum More than Verge of meltings
material 600
Degree of Steel-concrete More than Debonding of steel
damage 800 from concrete after
fire (observation)
Core sample Concrete More than Pink color upto
600 fire from surface
and whitish grey
and collapsed
concrete

Table 12.2 - Tests on Core Samples (typical)


Estimated Depth of UPV Estimated UPV Cube
temperature correction at location velocity of dressed compressive
◦C mm km/sec km/sec core Strength
km/sec N/mm2
300 50 3.57 3.99 3.94 19.15
500 90 3.10 3.40 3.85 18.50
Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its Rehabilitation 219

Table 12.3 - Test on Reinforcement Samples (typical)


Status of Ultimate Yield % Young’s % Estimat
damage stress stress elongat modulus decrease in temp.
N/mm2 N/mm2 ion N/mm2 x ultimate ◦

105 stress
Undamaged 561.5 465.00 8 12.13 - -
Slightly 510.0 430.00 9.0 1.97 7.53 300
Severe 400.0 265.0 30.0 1.86 28.8 500

Fig. 12.1a Fire Affected RC Frame


220 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 12.1b Damage in Beam due to Fire (Exposure of


Reinforcement)

3.23 2.15 3.15 2.90 2.67 2.15 2.82 3.36 3.23 3.00 2.95 3.53 A
2.62 1.97 2.24 2.14 1.99 2.19 2.29 2.75 2.95 2.20 1.85 2.67 B
2.13 1.59 1.87 1.37 1.49 1.49 1.57 1.48 1.32 1.08 1.39 1.45 C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Grid
Note: 1.Size of beam - 400 × 400 × 4500 mm 2. Estimated Temperature - 300 to 400◦ C 3.
Depth of correction - 40 to 50 mm

Fig. 12.2 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Values for Beam


Affected by Fire

Fig. 12.3 Fire Affected RCC Cooling


Fire-Affected Concrete Structures and its Rehabilitation 221

Fig. 12.4 Core Sampling from the Tower

Fig. 12.5 UPV Values for the Shell of Cooling Tower


.
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 223–239

13 Condition Assessment of Concrete


Structures Subjected to Vibration

K. Muthumani
Head-Advanced Seismic Testing and Research Laboratory,
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: Kmm@sercm.org

13.1 INTRODUCTION
The interest in the ability to monitor a structure and detect dam-
age at the earliest possible stage is pervasive throughout the civil,
mechanical, and aerospace engineering communities. For the purposes
of this discussion, damage is defined as changes introduced into a sys-
tem which adversely affects the current or future performance of that
system. These systems can be either natural or man-made. However,
depending on the levels of exposure, these systems may not show the
adverse effects of this damaging event for many years or even future
generations. Implicit in this definition of damage is that the concept of
damage is not meaningful without a comparison between two different
states of the system, one of which is assumed to represent the initial,
and often undamaged, state. The need for quantitative global damage
detection methods that can be applied to complex structures has led
to the development and continued research of methods that examine
changes in the vibration characteristics of the structure. The current
state of aging infrastructure and the economics associated with its
repair have also been motivating factors for the development of meth-
ods that can be used to detect the onset of damage or deterioration at
the earliest possible stage. Finally, technological advancements includ-
ing increases in cost-effective computing memory and speed, advances
in sensors including non-contact and remotely monitored sensors and
adaptation and advancements of the finite element method represent
technical developments that have contributed to recent improvements
in vibration-based damage detection. Additional factors that have con-
tributed to these improvements are the adaptation and advancements
224 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

in experimental techniques such as modal testing, and development of


linear and nonlinear system identification methods.

13.2 MODAL TESTING


Experimental modal analysis is basically a procedure of experimen-
tal dynamic testing, modeling and inverse computation. The primary
purpose is to develop a dynamic model for a structural system using
experimental data. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) produces a
modal model that consists of
1. Natural Frequencies
2. Modal damping Ratios
3. Mode shape vectors.
Once a modal model is known, standard results of modal analysis
can be used to extract an inertia matrix (Mass), a damping matrix
and a stiffness matrix, which constitute a complete dynamic model for
the experimental system.
In particular EMA is useful in design, diagnosis and control of
structural systems primarily with regard to vibration. In component
modification, one can modify inertia, stiffness and damping param-
eters in a structural system and determine the resulting effect on
the modal response (Natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode
shapes) of the system. In modal response specification, one can estab-
lish the best changes, from the design point of view, in system
parameters (inertia, stiffness and damping values and their degrees
of freedom), in order to give a specified change in the modal response.
In sub-structuring, two or more sub-system models are combined using
dynamic interfacing components, and the over-all model is determined.
Diagnosis of problems like mechanical faults, performance degrada-
tion, component deterioration, impending failure etc. of a structural
system requires condition monitoring of the system, and analysis, eval-
uation of the monitored information from time to time. Diagnosis
may involve the establishment of changes, both gradual and sudden,
patterns and trends in these system parameters.
The standard steps of experimental modal analysis are
• Obtain a suitable (admissible) set of test data, consisting of
forcing excitations and motion responses, for various degrees of
freedom of the test object.
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 225

• Compute the frequency transfer functions (Frequency Response


Functions) of the pairs of test data using Fourier analysis. Digital
Fourier analysis using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is the stan-
dard way of accomplishing this. Either software based (computer)
or hardware based instrumentation can be used.
• Curve fit analytical transfer functions to the computed trans-
fer functions. determine natural frequencies, damping ratios and
residues for various modes in each transfer function.
• Compute mode shape vector.
• Compute inertia (mass) matrix, M, stiffness Matrix, K and
damping matrix, C.

13.3 STEADY STATE HARMONIC TESTS


The instrumentation for steady state harmonic tests consists of a
mechanical exciter, speed control unit, a vibration pick-up, a vibra-
tion meter and an instrumentation tape recorder. The mechanical
exciter gives a sinusoidal force given by F = A0 f 2 (sin 2πf t) where
f is the operating frequency, and A is a constant depending on the
eccentric moment. Using the speed control unit, the frequency is var-
ied. The mechanical exciter-speed control system can be replaced
using an electro dynamic shaker-power amplifier -signal generator
system. In this case the existing force has constant amplitude and
does not vary with frequency-Accelerometers, velocity pick-ups, dis-
placement pick-ups, etc., is used to measure the response. The latest
instrumentation system consists of data acquisition card, computer,
and associated software. When the frequencies are well separated the
damping associated
 with individual mode can be obtained using the

f1 −f2
relation ξ = 2fn
where f1 , f2 are frequencies corresponding to
half power points, on either side of the resonant frequency. The ampli-
tudes of half power points are equal to 0.707 times the amplitude at
resonance.

13.4 FREE VIBRATION TESTS


Free vibration tests are extremely useful to determine the fundamental
frequency and associated damping in a structural system. Dropping
of a weight, snapping of a tensioned wire attached to the structural
system, etc., can set-up free vibrations in a beam which can be mea-
sured. The frequency is determined by counting the number of cycles
in a given time interval, and the damping factor determined using
226 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

 
1 x0
the relation ξ = 2πn loge xn
x is the initial amplitude and x is the
amplitude after n cycles.

13.5 AMBIENT VIBRATION TESTING


Vibration levels are measured on buildings and structures under wind
loading, due to traffic inducted excitation, pile driving and other
construction activities, and in an industrial environment. The data
collected can be used for system identification that is to determine
the overall stiffness and damping parameters. The random response
measured at number of salient locations simultaneously is analyzed
using FFT to obtain the dominant frequencies, and mode shapes. The
plot of amplitude of vibration against frequency then can be com-
pared with standards to estimate the level of human comfort, safety to
structures and so on. In an industrial environment a pronounced level
of amplitude at a particular frequency may indicate the undesirable
performance of a machine or its foundation.

13.6 DEVICES FOR MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC


RESPONSE SIGNALS
A Comprehensive range of transducers and the associated signal pro-
cessing equipment are available for the measurement of dynamic
parameters like acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain, load and
pressure.
13.6.1 Acceleration Transducers
Acceleration is the natural choice for the measurement of seismic
ground movement, condition monitoring of machinery vibration and
high frequency application like blast and impact. The advantage of
acceleration transducers is that they do not require any non-vibrating
static reference. The simplest accelerometer can be thought of as a
single degree of freedom system and the acceleration to be measured
is applied to the base of the SDOF system. The relative displacement
suffered by the spring is proportional to the absolute acceleration at
the base and some how this relative displacement is to be converted to
an electrical voltage for measurement and recording. A peizo-electrical
material is typically used as the spring in the SDOF system and it is
mounted either in a shear set up or in the compression set up (Fig.
13.1). The peizo-electric crystal is characterized by its ability to pro-
duce electric charge proportional to the applied stress. The applied
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 227

stress is proportional to the relative displacement of the spring mate-


rial, which in turn is proportional to the base acceleration. The natural
peizo-electric materials are quartz and Rochelle salt but the modern
transducers use the man made ceramics like barium titonate, lead
Zirconate-titonate and lead metaniobate. The natural frequencies of
such a system are very high, typically in the order of 20-50 kHz and the
useful frequency range of such accelerometers is in the range of zero
to 0.2 of their natural frequency. The peizo-electric accelerometers are
very rugged and can sustain very high shock loads in the order of thou-
sands of ’g’. The distinct draw back of such accelerometers is in signal
conditioning and in transmitting the signal. Being self generating pick-
ups they have very little energy available and the charge generated (q)
is typically in the order of pico Coulombs in a capacitance-(c) of a few
thousand pico Farads. Hence the voltage generated is v = q/c is in
the order of few milli-volts.The output impedance of the device is
z = 1/(2πfc ) is very large at low frequencies. Hence connection to an
amplifier give rise to low frequency attenuation and possible instabil-
ity at low frequencies. Towards eliminating some of the problems a
charge amplifier is used as the conditioner and the typical minimum
frequency of the peizo-electric accelerometer is around 1.0 Hz
Care is required in the choice of connecting cables between the
pickup and the amplifier, which is normally a co-axial cable. Standard
co-axial cables suffer from tribo-electric effects, whereby spurious elec-
tric charge is generated due to friction between the di-electric and the
outer braid covering. The manufacturers to counteract these effects
supply special low-noise cable and care should be taken to ensure that
connectors do not become contaminated with dirt and swarf, other-
wise poor low frequency performance and noise will result. Instead of
a separate charge amplifier, peizo-electric accelerometers are available
with built-in micro-electronic amplifier with an advantage of low out-
put impedance such that conventional lengthy coaxial cables can be
used to conduct the output voltage.
The attempt towards extending the range of accelerometers for low
frequencies (fraction of a Hertz) as experienced in the case of wind
and ocean wave responses saw the emergence of un-bonded strain
gauge accelerometers where a pre-tensioned strain gauge wire is used
in the place of the piezo-electric crystal. The voltage generated is
proportional to the strain change of the wire, which in turn is pro-
portional to its base acceleration. However the maximum sustainable
shock acceleration is in the order of 100s of g and the natural fre-
quency of the system is also low. The more common type of strain
228 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

gauge accelerometers are based on the peizo resistive effect and make
use of semi-conductive strain gauges where change in resistance is
proportional to the applied stress. Unlike a metallic strain gauge, the
peizo resistor has a resistance change, which is large compared to
its change in length due to applied stress. Unfortunately it tends to
be highly temperature sensitive and an elaborate temperature com-
pensation effect is required. The frequency response of peizo-resistive
accelerometers extends to zero frequency and they can be calibrated
by rotation in the earth’s gravitational field.
Servo accelerometer (Force Balanced Accelerometer) is the most
precise and costly transducer. It employs an inertial mass which is
free to move in one axis by means of a pivot or hinge. The displace-
ment of the mass is sensed by some form of inductive or capacitive
non-contacting displacement transducer and the resulting signal is
amplified and applied to a torque or force generator in such a sense
as to tend to restore the mass to its original position. Phase shift
is normally introduced in the feed-back loop and this electrically
controls the damping, The loop gain controls the spring constant elec-
trically. The moving element and the hinge are made of quartz and
have stable mechanical properties. Such accelerometers are capable of
resolving micro-g and find application as sensing elements in complex
aeronautical and marine inertial navigational systems.
13.6.2 Velocity Transducers
The velocity transducers employ the principle of emf generation by a
moving flux system in a coil. They are constructed such that the mag-
net is supported within the coil by means of springs (Fig. 13.1). The
arrangement is similar to an accelerometer, but unlike an accelerome-
ter, which is used below its natural frequency, the velocity transducer
is used above its natural frequency. Their useful frequency range is
10-1000 Hz The main application of these transducers is for machine
monitoring. Their inherent ruggedness, reliability and self-generating
characteristics make them ideally suitable as in-built pickups on the
bearing of high frequency machines. They do not require elaborate
amplifiers and the simple voltage amplifiers are sufficient and the
cost of the pickup and the amplifiers is very small compared to the
acceleration measuring systems.
13.6.3 Displacement Transducers
The linearly variable differential transformer (LVDT) type consists of
a three winding transformer with a moveable core attached to the
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 229

input shaft(Fig. 13.1). The central primary winding is energized by


an alternating current at a frequency between 2-10kHz. Since the two
outer windings are connected in opposite phase, when the core is cen-
trally located, the induced emf in the secondary windings add up to
zero. However if the core is displaced,, the flux linkages become unbal-
anced and a net emf proportional to the displacement appears on the
secondary output. In order to provide a useable signal, the AC volt-
age is to be demodulated and this is carried out in a special unit.
An LVDT is often used in the actuator of the servo hydraulic sys-
tem as a displacement sensor and is incorporated in the center of the
actuator. Another similar transducer uses a core to create a differen-
tial change in the inductance in the two halves of a centrally tapped
coil. The transducer is normally used in a bridge arrangement ener-
gized at high frequency which enables the inductance unbalance to
be detected. Care is necessary to ensure that capacitance changes in
connecting cables are not large enough to affect the bridge balance
significantly.

13.7 VIBRATION INDUCING DEVICES (SHAKERS)


Three types of vibration generators (exciters or shakers) as they are
also called are commonly used.
Mechanical exciters are used in dynamic testing of prototype struc-
tures including heavy machine foundations. Two eccentric masses
located on two shafts which are internally connected through a gear
are made to rotate in the same plane at the same speed but in oppo-
site directions. Their relative positions are such that the resultant of
their centrifugal forces add up in one direction while it becomes zero
in the normal direction. The dynamic force in this kind of shaker is
proportional to square of the exciting frequency.
One of the shafts is connected to the shaft of a DC motor which
is driven by a variable thyristor based speed drive. Upper frequency
limit of shaking is governed by the rotating speed of motor (usually
50 Hz). Shakers of this type with a dynamic capacity of say 2t and 30
Hz are indigenously available.
Electro dynamic shakers are based on the induction principle
involving the interaction of magnetic field and electric current. The
associated power amplifier - which drives the shaker limit the low
frequency range to 5 Hz but it, can excite the structure at high frequen-
cies giving a wide range of frequencies of operation. Large static loads
cannot be sustained directly on this kind of shakers. These types of
230 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

exciters are normally expensive especially with large dynamic capabil-


ities. They are used to test small sized models of prototype structures
in order to identify structural resonance which is associated with very
high frequencies.
Electro hydraulic shakers are, however, the most ideal ones for low
frequency structural testing. The main element in this shaker system
is the double acting jack with an electronically controlled servo-valve
fitted on it. The system is externally controlled by an electrical signal
amplified by a servo amplifier which feeds the required current to the
servo valve which, in turn, checks the flow of hydraulic fluid into and
out of the actuator. These shakers provide very high force levels (of
the order of even 1000t) and large displacement (upto 200 mm). The
frequency range of the shaker is usually zero upto 100 Hz.
Both electro-dynamic and electro-hydraulic actuators can be used
to generate random signals consisting of digital data in the form of
displacement or acceleration time history. Normally, they are used for
wave form like sine, sweep sine, and periodic pulses.

13.8 FREQUENCY ANALYSIS


Any time domain signal can be converted to frequency domain and
vice-versa. Periodicity of the signal is assumed for the time duration
of the acquired signal. The sine, cosine and the constant terms to
which the signal is broken down are orthogonal functions and the
mathematical process by which the conversion is carried out is called
as Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis for the digitized values is the
discrete Fourier transform and the algorithm to speed up the numerical
integration is due to Cooley and Tuckey. This algorithm is easy to
program and is also available as a firmware into the EPROM of the
main processor that constitutes the core of a fast-Fourier transform
(FFT) analyzer. Mathematically, Fourier transform of the time signal
can be written as,
∞
x(f ) = x(t)e−i2πf t .dt
−∞
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 231

Similarly converting from frequency domain to time domain can be


achieved by an inverse FFT and this can be defined as,
∞
x(t) = x(f )ei2πf t .df
−∞

The analog to digital conversion (ADC) process of the time signal


involves two important considerations. One is the sampling time or the
time interval between the two consecutive pieces of the digital time
history and the second is the minimum amplitude that can be cap-
tured. The minimum amplitude of resolution depends on the number
of bits that constitute the ADC processor. For example a 14 bit pro-
cessor can store a minimum voltage of 10.0V/213 . (with a 10.0 V full
scale). The sampling rate is determined by the maximum frequency
of interest and the Shannons’ theorem (or Nyquist’s frequency) states
that the sampling time is such that
1.0
Δt =
2.0fmax
The resolution in the time domain is dictated by the maximum
frequency of interest and the resolution in the frequency domain is
dictated by the number points acquired. If ’N’ number of points are
acquired then the frequency resolution is
1.0
Δf =
N.Δt

13.9 CASE STUDY


13.9.1 Evaluation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Turbo
Generator Supporting Structure
The turbo generator foundation for the 500 MW super thermal power
station is one of the few structures in India supported on spring-
damper assembly. The weight of the foundation is around 1500 tonnes
and it is meant to support the turbo-generator machine and the piping
system weighing 2500 tonnes. The plan dimensions of the foundation
are 33.0m * 15.0 m. The structure has five bearing points through
which the dynamic load of the machine is transferred to the founda-
tion. There was an interruption during the casting of the foundation,
which should have been done as a single pour and the machine man-
ufacturer insisted on establishing the quality of the concrete and the
232 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

structure before erecting the machine. The ultra-sonic pulse velocity


measurements had been taken and were found to be consistently more
than 4000m/sec. Dynamic characteristics of the structure were also
evaluated in a frequency range of 5.0 to 55.0 Hz by in-situ excitation
through contra-rotating eccentric shakers. The mechanical shakers
could attain a maximum dynamic load of 3600 kg at the maximum
frequency of 60.0 Hz and at lower frequencies, the force falls propor-
tionately as the square of the frequency. This meant a very small
excitation force at low frequencies and hence the measuring system
was required to be extremely sensitive to pick up these small vibration
levels.
The structure was excited by fixing the mechanical shaker at each
of the machine bearing. The resulting steady state accelerations at all
the bearing points including the excited bearing were measured and
recorded through a five channel charge amplifier and instrumentation
tape recorder system. The recorded analog data was played onto a dual
channel fast Fourier transform analyzer and the amplitude component
corresponding to the excitation frequency was synthesized and noted.
The amplitude at each frequency was also normalised to a unit force
and the resulting compliance in terms of micrometer per kN (similar
to flexibility in the dynamic sense) is plotted against the frequency.
A typical plot showing the variation of the compliance at bearing-
4 when the excitation was at bearing-1 is shown in Fig. 13.2. The
figure also shows in dotted lines the compliance of bearing-1 when the
bearing-4 was excited. The coincidence of the two curves establishes
the Maxwell’s reciprocity in the dynamic domain and also proves the
validity of the experimental data.
The compliance curves thus generated were later on used to numeri-
cally evaluate the dynamic response of the foundation after accounting
for the mass of the machine.
13.9.2 Excessive Vibrations of a Bearing in A T G Pedestal
Turbo generator foundations support high speed machinery. The speed
of the rotor corresponds to the frequency of power supply which is
50Hz in India. TG foundations are reinforced concrete structures with
columns and beams. Individual beams carry bearing pedestals. The
axis of the shaft is parallel to the longer dimension of the framed
structure. The beams that support the bearing pedestals run perpen-
dicular to the longitudinal axis of the shaft, here afterwards referred
to as transverse axis. Due to the rotation of the turbine shaft dynamic
forces in the vertical and transverse directions are produced. These are
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 233

transmitted to the bearing pedestals through the bearings which have


certain stiffness and damping properties. The bearing - shaft inter-
action itself is a complex problem. However no dynamic force in the
axial direction is envisaged or designed.
One of the 210 MW unit about to be commissioned, exhibited large
amplitude vibration in the axial direction. This was to be investigated
and corrected. The discussion with the authorities revealed that the
machine has been fully checked for its balancing and is in good condi-
tion. The commissioning of the equipment has been postponed for over
a year because of the excessive axial vibration when the equipment was
working at trial runs. A number of experts have suspected that the
problem is due to the local resonance of the supporting beam in the
horizontal mode. They have suggested additional mass to be added
to the beam, which was done. However the problem of axial vibration
persisted. The quality of construction was stated to be good.
To ensure that the quality of construction particularly in the
concerned beam was acceptable, non-destructive testing using ultra-
sonic pulse velocity measurements were carried out, and the results
indicated good to very good quality concrete.
A detailed scheme of dynamic measurements was carried out on the
beam supporting the bearing pedestal. Fig. 13.3. gives the side eleva-
tion and plan view of the beam. Vibration levels were measured along
vertical lines 1 to 7, and along horizontal lines a to g at intersection
points. Three directional sensors were used to measure the vibration
levels. Vibrations levels were also measured at bearing levels in three
directions at locations 1 to 10 indicated in Fig. 13.3. The T.G. itself
was used as the exciter, and vibration levels were measured at four
frequencies namely 10.125,47.5,50, and 51.75 Hz at no load condition
and at 48.5Hz after synchoranisation at an output level of 165 MW.
The peak response at locations 1 to 10 at bearing level indicated val-
ues between 50 to 80 microns in the axial direction, 25 to 30 microns in
the vertical direction and 10 to 20 microns in the transverse direction.
A close study of the data clearly revels that the beam is undergoing
torsional vibrations. Since the lever arm to the added mass in an earlier
exercise has been very less from the axis of rotation lying between hor-
izontal lines b and c, it has not produced the desired result. An FEM
modeling was made of the beam together with the bearing housing
rigidly bolted to the beam. The modulus of elasticity was chosen as
to reproduce the torsional frequency corresponding to 47.5Hz
It is clearly recognized that the problem of excessive axial vibration
is due to the local resonance under torsional mode of the beam which
234 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

is lying close to the operating speed, and this has to be moved away.
Stiffening of the girder is infeasible. Adding dampers also poses con-
siderable problem. Added to this, the installation is frequently visited
by VIPS, and the repair measure envisaged shall not be an eye sore.
Adding mass at a distance from the centre of rotation and below the
beam level is not possible due to the piping systems and other auxiliary
equipment in place. An out of the box thinking led to the suggestion
that the hood covering the equipment in the segment around the bear-
ing location can be used. It was suggested that about a tonne of mass
can be shaped in the form of hood and rigidly bolted to the beam.
The centre of mass of the hood is at a large distance from the centre
of rotation, and can significantly contribute to the mass moment of
inertia. The above thought was implemented in the FEM model and
found to be feasible. The suggestion has since been implemented, and
has avoided the problem of excessive axial amplitude at the bearing
location.
13.9.3 Integrity Evaluation of Bridge Structures
Bridges in coastal areas are corrosion prone and the alternating cycles
of stress imposed on the bridges by the moving loads accentuate the
corrosion process. The bridges are subjected to vibration by the mov-
ing loads, which are chaotic in space and time. The vibration signals
of the bridge at significant points are composed of the mixed mode
response of the bridge. The frequency synthesis of the response signal is
likely to show the frequency components at the first few flexural modes
of the bridge and also at its torsional mode. The continuous monitor-
ing of the averaged response signal over a period is likely to show the
decrease in natural frequencies of the bridge due to degradation in the
sectional properties of the bridge.
13.9.4 Integrity Evaluation of Pile Foundations through Stress
Wave Propagation Method
The wave propagation is the mechanism by which a transiently excited
pulse travels through an elastic medium. A steady state vibration can
also be characterized as standing wave pattern with the superposition
of the incoming and outgoing waves. The stress waves can be classi-
fied as uniform and dispersive waves. The wave velocity of a uniform
wave is a material property and independent of the frequency of exci-
tation whereas a dispersive wave has wave velocity dependent on the
frequency of excitation. For example the axial stress wave travelling
through a prismatic rod is of uniform type whereas the flexural or
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 235

shear wave travelling through the same rod is of dispersive type. For
example a square shaped flexural pulse generated through a lateral
impact on a rod will have its time base elongated as the wave travels
as the high frequency component travels fast. However if the impact
is an axial one, the shape of the square pulse is retained and there will
be amplitude decay.
If a small impact is given to a rod and the response is sampled
at a high rate (in terms of micro seconds) the observed response will
be as in fig. with the reflected wave arriving at the impacted point
for every 2l/c time interval. (’c’ is the wave velocity of the axially
propagating wave and is equal to E/ρ. In the case of a deformity in
the pile due to necking or enlargement at a depth of ’a’ from the pile
head, the propagating wave has a momentum and energy imbalance
at the suddenly changing cross section and to preserve the original
energy and momentum a reflection takes place. The total wave energy
is forked and is transformed as reflected and and refracted forms. This
principle is made use of in the geotechnical application, towards non-
destructive testing of pile foundations. The magnitude of the reflected
wave from the pile deformity is proportional to the reduction in the
area and its length. (Fig. 13.4)

13.10 REFERENCES
1. Bendat, J., Piersol, S., Random Data: Analysis and Measurement
Procedures, John Wiley NY, 1986, USA.
2. Gatti, P., Ferrari V., Applied Structural and Mechanical Vibra-
tions Theory, Methods and Measuring Instrumentations, E & FN
Spon, 1999, London.
3. Norton M. P, Fundamentals of Noise and Vibration Analysis for
Engineers.
4. Lyon R. H, DeJong R. G, “Design of a High Level Diagnostic Sys-
tem”, Jl. of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design,
1984.
5. Stewart, R. M, “Application of Signal Processing Techniques to
Machinery Health Monitoring”, Chapter-23 Noise and Vibration
edited by R. G. White and J. G Walker, 1982, Ellis Horwood.
6. Cooley, J. W., Tuckey, J. W., “An algorithm for machine cal-
culation of Complex Fourier Series”, Jl. of Mathematics of
Computaion, Vol-19, 1965.
7. Bloch, H. P, Geitnet F. K., Machinery Failure Analysis and
Trouble-shooting, Gulf Publishing, Houston, USA, 1986.
236 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

8. Tavner P. J, Gayden B. G, Ward D. M, “Monitoring of Generators


and Large Motors”, IEE Proc., B 133(3), 1986.
9. Collacott, R. A., Mechanical Fault Diagnosis, Chapman and Hall,
1977, London.
10. Collacott, R. A., Vibration Monitoring and Diagnosis, George
Godwin ltd, London, 1979.
11. B & K Application Notes 14-227, Notes on the use of Vibration
Measurement for Machine Condition Monitoring
12. Srinivasulu, P., Lakshmanan, N., Muthumani, K., Gopalakrish-
nan, N., In-situ evaluation of the Dynamic Characteristics of a
500 MW Turbo-Generator Foundation, SERC Project - 454, 1992.
13. IEEE-344, Guide for the Seismic Qualification of Class-I elec-
trical equipment for nuclear power plant generating station, The
Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), NY,
USA, 1971.
14. USNRC, Standard Review plan 3-7-2, Seismic System Analysis,
USA.
15. Srinivasulu P., Muthumani K., Gopalakrishnan N., Sathishkumar
S., Seismic Qualification Tests on Control Valves, SERC Report,
Project - CNP- 478, 1998.
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 237

Piezo-electric
effect
Magnet as mass
Seismic Mass Electric coil

Outer casing Outer casing

Output
Excitation

Secondary
Primary

Core

Fig. 13.1 Construction of Transducers

0.7
0.6 Excitation :# 1 -Response: # 4
Excitation :# 4 -Response: # 1
0.5
0.4

0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
10 20 30 40 50
Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 13.2 Forced Variation of Response in Tested


Foundation
238 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

4 3 2 1 5 6 7

g
25cm
f
35cm
e
40cm

60cm

c
45cm
b

45cm

26.5cm 30cm 55cm 65cm 65cm 55cm 30cm 26.5cm


Side Elevation

+ + 10 5 + +
7 2
Control Bearing
Room + 8 IV 4 +

6 1
+ + 9 3 + +

Generator End

Fig. 13.3 Layout of Measurement Points for Vibration


Levels on the Transverse Beam of Bearing
Condition Assessment of Concrete Structures Subjected to Vibration 239

Displacement
l
t = 2 l/c t = 2 l/c

Reflected pulses
from tip

time
a) Transient response of a pile without defects

Displacement a
l
t = 2 l/c t = 2 l/c

Reflected pulses
from tip
t = 2 a/c
Reflected pulses
from constriction

time
b) Transient response of a pile with defect

Fig. 13.4 Integrity Monitoring of Piles through Stress wave


.
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 241–258

14 Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for


Performance Assessment of Concrete
Structures

K.Ravisankar
Scientist - G,
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: kravi@sercm.org

14.1 INTRODUCTION
Structural monitoring is used as a diagnostic tool for detecting or infer-
ring the presence of defects/damages and for scheduling maintenance
operations. The information obtained from monitoring is generally
used to plan and design maintenance activities, increase the safety,
verify hypotheses, reduce uncertainty, and to widen the knowledge
concerning the structure being monitored. Structural monitoring has
found applications in two types of structures in particular: innovative
new structures and problematic ageing structures. In the case of newly
built constructions, it has become common practice to instrument
those that present innovative aspects in terms of the types of materi-
als used, structural design or geometry. Old structures with problems
have benefited from structural monitoring to extend their useful life
span safely, making full use of the available structural reserves. Moni-
toring is linked with safety. Unusual structural behaviours are detected
in monitored structures at an early stage; therefore, the risk of sud-
den collapse is minimized and human lives, nature and goods are
preserved. Early detection of structural malfunction allows for an
in-time refurbishment intervention that involves limited maintenance
costs. Well-maintained structures are more durable and an increase in
durability decreases the direct economic losses (repair, maintenance,
reconstruction) and also helps to avoid losses for users that may suf-
fer due to a structural malfunction. New materials, new construction
technologies and new structural systems are increasingly being used
242 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

and it is necessary to increase knowledge about their on-site perfor-


mance, to control the design, to verify performance, and to create and
calibrate numerical models.
The service phase is the most important period in the life of a
structure. During this phase, construction materials are subjected to
degradation by ageing. Concrete cracks and creeps, and steel oxidizes
and may crack due to fatigue loading. The degradation of materials is
caused by mechanical (loads higher than theoretically assumed) and
physico-chemical factors (corrosion of steel, penetration of slats and
chlorides in concrete, freezing of concrete, etc.). As a consequence of
material degradation, the capacity, durability and safety of a structure
decreases. Monitoring during service provides information on struc-
tural behaviour under predicted loads, and also registers the effects
of unpredicted overloading. Data obtained by monitoring is useful
for damage detection, evaluation of safety and determination of the
residual capacity of structures.
Structures have different life periods: construction, testing, service,
repair and refurbishment, and so on. During each of these periods,
monitoring can be performed with an appropriate schedule of mea-
surements. The schedule of measurements depends on the expected
rate of change of the monitoring parameters, but it also depends on
safety issues. Structures that may collapse shortly after a malfunction
occurs must be monitored continuously, with maximum frequency of
measurements. However, the common structures are designed in such
a manner that collapse occurs only after a significant malfunction that
develops over a long period. Therefore, in order to decrease the cost
of monitoring, the measurements can be performed less frequently,
depending on the expected structural behaviour.
It is desirable to determine the safety of the critical structures by
the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for evaluation of their strength
and integrity. Fiber optic sensors are attractive sensing devices as an
NDT tool, given their small size, light weight, and dielectric glass con-
struction that renders them immune to electrical noise and electro
magnetic interference. Optical fibers offer the possibility to be embed-
ded within cement or concrete without affecting their performance
and used as sensitive, but rugged, transducers of mechanical pertur-
bations. Fiber optic sensors have the capability to be embedded prior
to curing, into the concrete structural elements for non-destructive
evaluation of structural integrity and the measurement of the internal
state of stress. Sensors can also be surface mounted on concrete or steel
members. There are challenging problems and issues while applying
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 243

fiber optic sensing technology for monitoring of concrete structures.


Systematic studies on the new sensors have been carried out in the
laboratory to solve the issues/problems. In this lecture, the potential
of fiber optic sensors for performance monitoring of concrete struc-
tures has been highlighted. Details of the laboratory studies carried
out in solving some of the technical challenges and issues for imple-
menting the fiber optic sensing technology to the field problems are
also covered.
14.1.1 Fiber Optic Sensors
Fiber optic sensors are fabricated using high strength silica, which
possesses an inherent immunity to corrosion and Electro-Magnetic
Interference (Eric Udd 1995). The properties of optical fibers allow
innovative approaches for the design of optical sensors. Due to this rea-
son, a number of fiber optic sensor types have been developed. Fiber
optic sensors can be classified under different categories. Localized,
distributed and multiplexed sensors are based on sensing methods.
Intensity, interferometric, polarimetric and spectrometric sensors are
based on transduction mechanism. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interfero-
metric (EFPI) sensors and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors both
are being used for long-term/performance monitoring of concrete
structures.
14.1.2 EFPI Fiber Optic Sensors
EFPI sensors, which are of interferometric type, reported to be good
for strain sensing in civil engineering applications (Ravisankar, K
2002). In EFPI type sensor, a cavity comprising of two mirrors (reflec-
tion) which are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of
the optical fiber form the localized sensing region. Here the reference
and sensing optical fiber are one and the same up to the first mirror,
which constitutes the start of the sensing region. Fabry-Perot cavity is
formed between the air - glass interface of two fiber end faces aligned
in a hollow core fiber. Changes in the separation between the two
fiber end faces, known as change in cavity length, cause interferomet-
ric fringe variations. The interference pattern generated is sinusoidal
in shape and directly related to the intensity of the applied strain. The
period of the wave form constitutes a fringe and by proper calibration,
the magnitude of the strain can be determined.
244 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

14.1.3 Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors


Fiber Bragg Grating sensors are the most promising optical fiber
sensors based on the state-of-the-art technologies (Raymond, M. Mea-
sures, 2001). FBG fiber optic sensors have initially begun to be used
extensively in the telecommunication industry for dense wavelength
division de-multiplexing, laser stabilization and erbium amplifier gain
flattening at 1550nm wavelength range. In addition, the characteristics
that an FBG reflects a specific wavelength that shifts slightly depend-
ing on the strain applied are ideal for mechanical sensing. Hill and
coworkers first observed fiber photosensitivity in germanium-doped
silica fiber in 1978 (Kathy K., 2006). Since then and entire class of
in-fiber components, called the Fiber Bragg Grating, have been intro-
duced. Fiber Bragg Gratings are periodic structures that are imprinted
directly into the core of glass optical fiber by powerful ultraviolet radi-
ation. Such structure consists of a periodically varying refractive index
over typically several millimeters of the fiber core. The specific charac-
teristic of FBG for sensing applications is that their periodicity causes
them to act as wavelength sensitive reflectors. During imprinting pro-
cess, the intensity of the ultraviolet illumination is made to occur in
a periodic fashion along the fiber core. At a sufficiently high power
level, local defects are created with in the core, which then give rise to
a periodic change in the local refractive index. This change in refrac-
tive index created is permanent and sensitive to a number of physical
parameters, such as pressure, temperature, strain and vibration. Thus
by monitoring the resultant changes in reflected wavelength FBG can
be used for sensing applications to measure various physical quantities.

14.2 LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS


There are challenging problems and issues while applying fiber optic
sensing technology for performance monitoring of concrete structures.
Systematic studies on the new sensors have been carried out in the
laboratory to solve the following issues/problems:
(i) Safe embedment of fiber optic sensors in concrete structures
(ii) Elimination of errors due to temperature induced apparent strain
(iii) Assessment of performance of the sensors under static and cyclic
loading
(iv) Assessment of the long term stability of the fiber optic sensors
(v) Instrumentation for measurement of interfacial strains in FRP
strengthened concrete elements
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 245

14.3 INSTALLATION OF FIBER OPTIC SENSOR


Installation of fiber optic sensor in concrete structures is a challenging
task and it is preferable to go for embedment type sensors. Embedding
bare fiber optic sensor in concrete structures is not advisable because
of their fragility. The sensor may get damaged during concreting or
compacting time, and hence they must be properly protected. Another
important aspect of sensor embedding is the ingress/egress of the sen-
sor lead to/from the host structure. The optical lead wires, which are
very fragile, also need to be protected from damage at ingress/egress
locations. One method of safeguarding the sensor is by providing a
protective layer called encapsulation between the optical fiber and the
surrounding concrete. The properties of this encapsulation can have a
major influence on the life and functionality of the sensor. The encap-
sulation should be compatible to the surrounding concrete material to
ensure complete strain transfer. Hence selecting a suitable material as
encapsulation is very important.
14.3.1 Sensor Protection Systems for EFPI Fiber Optic Sensor
A method of protection system using a pair of epoxy sheets has been
developed (Kesavan K., 2004). Here, one 50mm long EFPI fiber optic
strain sensor was packaged using two cast epoxy sheets of 100 × 10 ×
2mm size. A groove was cut in one of the epoxy sheets and a 50mm
long fiber optic strain sensor was bonded using epoxy cement. Then
another epoxy sheet was placed over and sealed using liquid epoxy.
Another method of encapsulation using rod assembly has been devel-
oped to embed the EFPI fiber optic sensor in concrete (Kesavan, K.,
2010). In this technique, one 10mm long EFPI fiber optic sensor was
bonded to a steel rod of 5mm diameter and 60mm long with welded
end flanges. The sensor with the signal carrier was suitably protected
against damages (Figs. 14.1 & 14.2). In this method, the steel rod is
covered in such a way that the strain transfer takes place only through
the end flanges
14.3.2 Sensor Protection Systems for FBG Fiber Optic Sensor
Stainless steel housing based package was designed (Biswas.P., 2010)
and two samples of packaged FBG sensors was prepared as shown in
Fig. 14.3. The length between two flanges, flange diameter and flange
thickness are of 70 mm, 12 mm and 5 mm respectively. The inner
diameter of the tube is 3.5mm with a wall thickness of 0.5mm.
246 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

14.3.3 Performance Evaluation of Packaged Sensor


Experiments were carried out to assess the level of strain transfer
through the packaged EFPI fiber optic sensor and FBG fiber optic
sensor by embedding these packaged fiber optic sensors inside the
two concrete cylinders separately (Fig. 14.4). After sufficient cur-
ing, the cylinders were additionally instrumented with four surface
mounting electrical resistance strain gages to compare the response of
the embedded sensor. The instrumented cylinders were tested under
compressive loading and the responses of the embedded fiber optic
sensor, and electrical resistance strain gages were recorded. The strain
response obtained from embedded fiber optic sensor was compared
with the average of the four conventional electrical resistance strain
gage responses (Figs. 14.5 & 14.6). To check the reliability, experiments
were repeated on an another specimen and agreement was found to
be good.
When structures are subjected to high stresses due to over loading,
accidents and natural calamities like earthquake etc., the embedded
sensors should withstand this high stresses and record the response
of the structure accurately. In order to study the performance of the
packaged fiber optic sensors under such loading conditions, experimen-
tal investigation was carried out. For this study, packaged EFPI fiber
optic sensors was embedded inside the concrete cylinder of size 150
mm diameters and 300 mm long during casting of the cylinder and
the cylinder was tested under compressive load using an UTM. The
response from embedded fiber optic sensor was recorded up to the fail-
ure of the cylinder. From the observations, it is found that embedded
fiber optic sensor response and the strain gage response is close up
to elastic limit (with in 1% variation), it is also found that embedded
fiber sensors continued to work without any damage or degradation
even after attaining a strain range of around 2000 με .
Experiments were carried out to study the performance of the pack-
aged EFPI fiber optic sensor under flexural loading. For this study,
two RCC beams (150 × 200 × 1500mm size) were cast and packaged
EFPI fiber optic sensor was embedded in concrete at 30mm below the
top surface of each beam. Electrical resistance strain gages were also
bonded on the surface of each beam to compare the strain response of
fiber optic sensors (Fig. 14.7).
The instrumented beams were loaded by applying four-point bend-
ing load. Load was applied in steps up to the failure of the beam and
responses from all the sensors were recorded. The strain responses from
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 247

fiber optic sensor and electrical resistance strain gages were found to
be good.
Bridges and other critical civil engineering structures operate in
a dynamic environment subjected to repeated cyclic loading. The
integrity of structures under such load conditions can not be pre-
dicted from their responses under static loads. Predicting fatigue life
of structures subjected to repeated load cycles during their service is
an important issue. The life of structural components is significantly
influenced by fatigue. Reliable performance of packaged fiber optic sen-
sors under cyclic/fatigue load is to be ascertained while using them
for health monitoring (Parivallal, S., 2004).
Experiments were carried out to study the performance of pack-
aged fiber optic sensors (both EFPI and FBG) under fatigue load.
For this study, concrete cylinders of size 150mm dia and 300mm long
were embedded with packaged fiber optic sensors (both EFPI and
FBG) were prepared. The cylinders were instrumented with surface
mounting electrical resistance strain gages on the surface after cur-
ing. A sinusoidal loading, ranging from a minimum of 8.49MPa to
a maximum of 14.1MPa, at a frequency of 10Hz was applied to the
instrumented concrete cylinders using servo-controlled UTM. The per-
formance of the embedded fiber optic sensors was evaluated up to 2
million cycles of loading. The fiber optic sensor measurements were
consistent with the load amplitudes during fatigue test. The responses
from the embedded packaged FBG sensors and surface mounted
electrical resistance strain gages were found to be matching well.
Fig. 14.8 shows the responses from strain gages and packaged FBG sen-
sor around 2 million cycles. Experiments were also carried out to assess
the performance of packaged fiber optic sensor under high-stress, low-
cycle loading. For this study, the instrumented concrete cylinders were
subjected to high-stress, low-cycle loading using an UTM. Eight cycles
of loading-unloading were applied to the instrumented cylinders. In
each cycle, the minimum stress was kept constant at 2.83MPa and
the maximum stress was varied from 14.15MPa to 53.79MPa. Stress
versus strain for each of the cylinder was plotted. During the test, a
maximum of around 1500 με was measured from the embedded sensor
and the sensor was found to be working well even after attaining the
high strain range.
14.3.4 Temperature Studies
In cases while making strain measurements at variable temperature
environment, the indicated strain is equal to the sum of stress-induced
248 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

strain in the test specimen and the temperature induced apparent


strain of the sensor bonded to the test specimen. With the thermal out-
put expressed in strain units, correction for this effect can be made by
simply subtracting (algebraically) the apparent strain from indicated
strain. To study the performance of EFPI and FBG sensor for the
measurement of thermal strain and temperature, experimental studies
were carried out for EFPI and FBG sensors independently.
14.3.5 Apparent Strain Calibration for EFPI Fiber Optic Sensor
In order to correct the temperature effects, temperature calibration
was carried out for EFPI fiber optic sensors from laboratory experi-
ments on two structural materials, namely, steel and concrete, using
commercially available EFPI fiber optic strain sensors. A steel speci-
men of size 300 × 20× 3mm was prepared and two fiber optic strain
sensors, one temperature compensated for steel and the other without
any temperature compensation, were bonded adjacent to each other.
A temperature sensor (electrical resistance type) was also bonded
(adjacent to fiber optic strain sensors) using suitable adhesive to mea-
sure the surface temperature of the specimen. The instrumented test
specimen was placed inside a temperature controlled oven and the tem-
perature was raised in steps from ambient temperature to a maximum
of 80◦ C. The temperature of the test specimen was allowed to stabilize
at each stage, before measurements were carried out. Strain from fiber
optic strain sensor and temperature from temperature sensor were
recorded for each temperature setting. While conducting temperature
calibration studies for concrete, a temperature controlled water bath
was used instead of a temperature controlled oven to eliminate the dry-
ing shrinkage effect. Also the concrete specimen was soaked in water
for sufficient period to obtain saturated condition. A concrete cylin-
der of 150mm diameter and 300mm long was chosen as test specimen
for conducting temperature calibration study. The concrete cylinder
was instrumented with two surface mounted fiber optic sensors, one
temperature compensated for steel and the other without any temper-
ature compensation. A temperature sensor (electrical resistance type)
was also bonded (adjacent to fiber optic strain sensors) using suit-
able adhesive to measure the surface temperature of the specimen.
Fig. 14.9 shows the temperature Vs strain plots, from which appro-
priate temperature correction coefficients can be obtained
The average value of slope of the above plots gives the apparent
strain per degree Celsius for the particular sensor bonded to the partic-
ular structural material. From the experiments using non temperature
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 249

compensated fiber optic strain sensors, it is seen that the apparent


strain per degree Celsius is very close to the thermal expansion coeffi-
cient of the host materials used in the experiments. Hence using a non
compensated EFPI fiber optic strain sensor in a test specimen, one can
directly measure the thermal expansion coefficient of any material.

14.4 APPARENT STRAIN CALIBRATION FOR FBG FIBER


OPTIC SENSOR
For this experiment, a dual FBG Sensor, each with grating length of
15 mm and one FBG sensor was bonded with the adhesive on the
surface of a mild steel specimen and the second FBG sensor was kept
free ended on the surface of specimen for sensing temperature alone.
Conventional resistance based temperature sensor was also fixed to
measure temperature. To study the behaviour of FBG fiber optic sen-
sor under temperature, the instrumented specimen was placed inside a
oven and temperature initialization was done at ambient temperature
of 26.4◦ C and recorded the initial values of FBG sensors and strain
gage based temperature sensor. Then the temperature was increased
up to 65◦ C at 5◦ C interval, corresponding wavelength shifts in both
FBG sensors & strain values from temperature sensor (resistance
based) were recorded.
The Bragg wavelength shifts in both the FBGs are same due to
change in temperature, while additional effect of strain results in larger
wavelength shifts for the FBG which is bonded. Wavelength shift due
to temperature is subtracted from total shift of the first FBG to get
the thermal strain alone due to temperature.

14.5 STUDIES ON LONG-TERM STABILITY ASSESSMENT


OF FIBER OPTIC STRAIN SENSORS
Long -term stability assessment of EFPI fiber optic sensors, subjected
to a sustained loading was carried out. For this study, two special
self straining frame (Fig. 14.10) was designed and fabricated. Two
7mm diameter high strength prestressing wires were instrumented
with EFPI fiber optic sensors and a temperature sensor. The instru-
mented prestressing wires were tensioned by means of a hydraulic
jack. After locking the prestressing force on the instrumented wires
suitably, the strains from the two fiber optic sensors were measured.
The measurements from the fiber optic sensor and temperature sensor
were carried out periodically. The measured strain data for a duration
250 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

of 400days was corrected for temperature effect and strain vs. time
was plotted (Fig. 14.11). The strain output is almost constant during
this period, indicating that fiber optic strain sensors are stable and
suitable for long-term monitoring of structures.

14.6 INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF


INTERFACIAL STRAINS IN FRP STRENGTHENED
CONCRETE ELEMENTS
Reinforced concrete structures strengthened with Fiber Reinforced
Plastics (FRP) have been widely accepted since they have the promi-
nent characteristics that the structures strengthened with conven-
tional materials cannot compare with. FRP composites exhibit high
strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and convenient to use
in repair/strengthening applications. Some methods that have been
adopted for repair of concrete structures with FRP include wrapping
of the cracked members, adhesion of FRP plates/sheets to the tension
face of the members, etc. A common cause of failure in such strength-
ened members is associated with debonding of FRP substrate from
the concrete in an abrupt manner. This may be due to stress concen-
tration at the fiber cutoff point and existing of transverse cracks along
the member span. In order to understand the mechanism of debonding
and also for evaluating the long-term performance of strengthened con-
crete structures, it is essential to embed strain sensors at the interface
between the damaged concrete and the FRP fabric.
The requirement for any embedded sensor for monitoring differ-
ential strain in FRP strengthened concrete structures is that the
sensor should not be detrimental to the operational requirement of the
strengthened structure. Due to the compatibility with FRP materials,
fiber optic sensor is a good choice for embedding at the interface of the
FRP strengthened concrete structures. Surface preparation, bonding
technique, thickness of adhesive layer, compatible protective coating,
embedment length of the sensor etc are some of the issues in fiber optic
sensor instrumentation for FRP strengthened concrete structures.
Experimental investigations were carried out for understanding the
issues in placing FBG sensor at the interface of concrete and FRP
and to measure the interfacial strain. The experimental program con-
sists of testing small concrete prisms connected with Carbon Fiber
Reinforced Polymer composite (CFRP) and subjected to axial load
conditions. The specimens consist of two concrete prisms with dimen-
sions of 100 × 100 × 250 mm. Two prisms were connected through two
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 251

CFRP sheets strips 200×50 mm wide externally bonded to the oppo-


site sides of the concrete surface by a wet lay-up process. Steel bars
of 20 mm diameter were inserted in the cast exiting 15 cm from one
end of each prism in the way to apply the pull from hydraulic machine
during testing. At first the concrete surface was cleaned with an iron
brush and then the surface was coated with a layer of primer and
air cured for 24 hours. Once the surface was ready, the FBG sensors
were bonded on to the concrete surface. Polymide coated FBG sen-
sors were used for the instrumentation since polymide is compatible
for both concrete and the FRP. Two different types of FBG sensors;
single and dual gages were bonded at the interface. The advantage of
using dual gage is: the initiation and propagation of debonding of the
wrap is identified whereas with single gage the strain at a particular
point only can be measured with out any idea of mode of debonding.
On the left side of face 1, a dual gage with two gratings of size 3mm
spaced by 20mm was bonded. On the right side of the face 1, a single
gage of 25mm long was bonded. Similarly on the left side of face 2,
a 25mm long grating was bonded and on the right side of face 2 a
dual gage was bonded. The instrumentation scheme is as shown in
Fig. 14.12. The FBG sensors were placed very near to the face of the
concrete prisms. The FRP sheets were bonded to the concrete prisms
using epoxy adhesive. There is no contact between the two concrete
prisms except through the FRP sheets. In the middle of the speci-
mens, where the two concrete prisms are in contact, a paper surface is
inserted to create a no bond area. Specimens were prepared in labora-
tory condition of ambient humidity and temperature. After bonding
the sensors properly, a coat of saturant was applied to the concrete
surface over the wrapping area. Over the saturant, the CFRP fiber
mat was placed and subjected to pressure by gentle rolling. The sec-
ond coat of saturant is then applied over the fiber mat gently. Then
it was allowed to cure for 24 hrs. Four conventional strain gages were
bonded to the outer surface of the CFRP at locations exactly above
the FBG sensors bonded at the interface of concrete and FRP sheets
to compare with the strains measured by the embedded FBG sensors.
The specimen was tested in the Universal Testing Machine (UTM), a
load controlled machine under tension. All the FBG’s were connected
to the FBG interrogator and the strain gages were connected to the
strain gage data logger and all the gages were initialized at zero load.
Axial tensile load was applied to the specimen by pulling the two bars
fixed in the machine. The strain response from all the sensors was
252 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

measured continuously. The load was applied gradually until there is


complete failure of the specimen.
The specimen was loaded up to failure and the response from the
sensors were recorded continuously. The specimen failed at a load of
15.4 kN by complete debonding of the FRP fabric from concrete. The
fiber optic sensor embedded at the interface of concrete and FRP had
registered higher level of strain than the strains measured by conven-
tional electrical resistance strain gages on the surface of the FRP. The
dual FBG sensor in face 2 at the interface had linear response upto 4
kN and the behaviour changed to non linear indicating the initiation
of debonding at that location. On further loading, the response from
the FBG sensor near the edge of the prism (FBG Face 2 RS Dual 2)
increases as there was debonding of the FRP from concrete. After the
first FBG sensor near the edge (FBG Face 2 RS Dual 2) reaches peak
value, the response from the second FBG sensor on the same fiber
starts increasing (FBG Face 2 RS Dual 1). This shows the propaga-
tion of debonding of the FRP fabric from the location of the first FBG
sensor to the next one in the same fiber. When the load was further
increased, the strain sensed by the second FBG increases at higher
rate and there was complete separation of the FRP from the concrete
at side 2 for a load of 15.4kN showing a sudden drop. Hence with mul-
tiple FBG sensors the initiation and propagation of debonding can be
very well monitored in the FRP strengthened concrete structures. It is
also seen that debonding was not detected directly by the externally
bonded strain gages. Since these strain gages were bonded to the outer
face of the FRP, they stop sensing the strain after debonding, as the
fabric gets detached from the concrete surface.

14.7 SUMMARY
Fiber optic sensors are a practical and real sensing technology alterna-
tive to conventional NDT techniques. Among the primary benefits for
using fiber optic sensors are their immunity to electro magnetic noise
coupled with their small size that allows for direct embedment into the
concrete and composite materials. Technology on sensors, interroga-
tion instruments, installation methods etc are improving, but need to
continue to improve for widespread applications. Concrete construc-
tion would benefit greatly from in-situ structural monitoring using
fiber optic sensors that could detect a decrease in performance or
imminent failure. In this lecture, the potential of fiber optic sensors
for integrated sensing and monitoring of concrete structures has been
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 253

brought out. Details of the laboratory studies carried out in solving


some of the technical challenges and issues for implementing the fiber
optic sensing technology to the field problems are covered.

14.8 REFERENCES
1. Eric Udd (1995), ’Fiber Optic Smart Structures’, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York.
2. Raymond, M. Measures. (2001). ’Structural Monitoring with
Fiber Optic Technology’, Academic Press, California.
3. Ravisanakar, K., et.al (2002), “Experimental Studies on Fiber
Optic Sensors for Smart Structure Applications”, SERC Research
Report, SERC, EML-RR-2001-3, 2002.
4. Parivallal, S., Ravisankar, K., Kesavan, K., Sreeshylam, P. and
Sridhar, S, (2004), “Performance evaluation of fiber optic sensors
under fatigue loading”, SERC Research Report , SERC, EML-
RR-2004 - 3, May 2004
5. Kesavan.K, Ravisankar.K, Parivallal.P and Narayanan.T (2004).
’A Technique for Embedding EFPI Fibre Optic Strain Sensors in
Concrete’. Experimental Techniques, pp31-33.
6. Kathy K. (2006). Optoelectronic Applications: Fiberoptic Sens-
ing - Fiber sensors lay groundwork for structural health monitor-
ing. Laser Focus World, 42 (2), 63-67.
7. Kesavan.K, Ravisankar.K, Parivallal.S, Sreeshylam.P and Srid-
har.S (2010), ’Experimental studies on fiber optic sensors embed-
ded in concrete’, Measurement, vol. 43, pp 157-163.
8. Biswas.P, Bandyopadhyay.S, Kesavan.K, Parivallal.S, Arun Sun-
daram.B, Ravisankar.K, Dasgupta.K (2010) ’Investigation on
packages of fibre Bragg grating for use as embeddable strain sen-
sor in concrete structure’. Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical,
Vol.157, Issue 1, Jan.2010, pp77-83.
254 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 14.1 Cast epoxy sheet encapsulated EFPI fiber optic


sensor

Fig. 14.2 Details of steel rod packaged EFPI fiber optic


sensor

Fig. 14.3 Details of packaged FBG fiber optic sensor


Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 255

Packaged FBG Sensor Packaged EFPI Sensor

Fig. 14.4 During embedding packaged fiber optic sensors


inside the concrete cylinders
250

200
Load in kN

150

100

Fiber optic sensor encapsulated


with epoxy sheets
50
Average of four electrical resistance
strain gages

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
Microstrain (compression)

Fig. 14.5 Comparison of Strain response-epoxy


encapsulated EFPI fiber optic sensor vs electrical resistance
strain gage
300

250
Packaged FBG sensor
Load in kN

Strain Gage (Average)


200

150

100

50

0
0 -50 -100 -150 -200 -250 -300 -350 -400 -450 -500
Micro strain
Fig. 14.6 Comparison of packaged FBG fiber optic sensor
vs electrical resistance strain gage
256 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Epoxy encapsulated
fiber optic sensor

Fig. 14.7 Instrumentation details of RCC beam

10
Packaged FBG Sensor
Strain Gage (Average)
0

-10
Micro strain

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
Time in Seconds

Fig. 14.8 Typical response from embedded packaged FBG


fiber optic sensor and Strain gage during fatigue test
Application of Fiber Optic Sensors for Performance Assessment of Concrete Structures 257

450
Fiber optic sensor temperature
400 compensated for steel
350 Fiber optic sensor without any
temperature compensation
300
Microstrain

Slope = 8.1 µε/°C


250

200

150

100

50
Slope = 0.8 µε/°C
0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90
o
Temperature in C

Fig. 14.9 Temperature calibration curves for apparent


strain correction- concrete specimen

Self straining frame

Instrumented
Prestressed wire

Fig. 14.10 Experimental set-up for long-term stability


assessment of fiber optic sensor
258 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

3000

2500

2000
Microstrain

1500

1000
Specimen 1 (Stress=418 MPa)
Specimen 2 (Stress=360 MPa)
500

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

No. of Days

Fig. 14.11 Plot of strain vs. time(days) for long-term


performance assessment fiber optic sensor

Face 1 FBG Interrogator Face 2

LS LS

Dual Gage 3mm


grating spaced at Single Gage with
20mm 25mm grating
FBG face 2 RS Dual 2

Single Gage with Dual Gage 3mm


25mm grating grating spaced at
20mm
FBG face 2 RS Dual 1
RS RS

FBG Interrogator

Fig. 14.12 Instrumentation scheme for interfacial strain


measurement in concrete elements
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 259–273

15 Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in


Concrete Structures

S. Parivallal and K. Kesavan


Assistant Director
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Tharamani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: paris@sercm.org, kesav@sercm.org

15.1 INTRODUCTION
Most of the critical civil engineering structures, in particular bridges,
are constructed using reinforced / prestressed concrete as structural
material. These structures undergo distress with time due to environ-
mental and other unfavorable operating conditions. It is well known
that the time dependant phenomenon such as creep and shrinkage
of concrete also reduces prestressing force over time. Thousands of
concrete bridges presently in operation worldwide are in need of
rehabilitation through major works of repairs. In the future, the reha-
bilitation of existing structures will constitute an exceptionally large
field of operation that will extend for many years. Timely retrofitting
measures help to reduce damages and improve service life. In order
to assess the safety and serviceability and to take a decision about
the possible repair measures to rehabilitate the distressed concrete
structures, it is necessary to reliably estimate the existing level of
stress.
Assessing the existing stress of prestressed concrete structures in
service is fairly a difficult task and the researcher is often faced
with lack of actual design/construction information and environmen-
tal service conditions. It is first necessary to generate scientifically
and systematically the required data relating to the existing level of
prestress, in order to take a decision about the residual strength and
possible repair measures to rehabilitate the distressed prestressed con-
crete members. Determination of in-situ stress in the concrete surface
is one way to assess the prestress available in the prestressing steel.
260 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

15.2 CONCRETE CORE TREPANNING TECHNIQUE


(SERC,1998)
Concrete core trepanning technique has been developed for assessing
the existing stress in prestressed concrete structures in-service. This
technique is based on the measurement of strain release due to local
elastic stress relief, caused by core drilling and creation of normal
stress-free boundaries.
In this technique, a strain gage is fixed at the center of the
intended core aligned in the direction of maximum stress (for uniaxial
stress condition). On drilling the annular hole around core, the strain
gage measures the complete elastic strain relief due to core drilling.
Arrangement of strain gage in the core is shown in Fig. 15.1. An annu-
lar hole of 50mm dia. is formed by diamond core drilling and the strain
release is recorded till the cutting depth reaches to the required depth.
Special instrumentation procedures, water proofing of gages and lead
wire connections are developed to minimize errors during measure-
ments. This technique has the advantage of measuring the full strain
release and the data reduction is also simpler. The released strain is
of the opposite polarity to the in-situ stress. After a sign change, the
strain is multiplied by the elastic modulus of concrete to determine
the in-situ stress. The core samples taken from the measured locations
can be used, to determine the elastic modulus of concrete.

15.3 LABORATORY STUDIES USING CORE TREPANNING


TECHNIQUE (KESAVAN,2000)
Laboratory studies were carried out to formulate proper procedure to
measure and assess the reliability of the concrete core trepanning tech-
nique for the determination of existing stress in prestressed concrete
structures.
Experiments were carried out to assess the depth of the cutting
required to get maximum strain release in core trepanning technique.
For this purpose, two reinforced concrete beams (150 × 100 × 1500
mm) were cast. On each beam at 10 locations, 30 mm size linear
strain gages were bonded (five each at top and bottom) along the
longitudinal direction, with distance between gages being around 150
mm. A special test set-up was designed and fabricated to apply axial
compression to the beam, by means of a hydraulic jack (Fig. 15.2).
A core of 50 mm diameter was formed by diamond core drilling, till
Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 261

the depth equals to diameter of the hole. For every 10 mm depth of


cutting, the released strains were noted.
From these studies, it is observed that for 50 mm diameter core
drilling using 30 mm gage size, the maximum release occurs at a cut-
ting depth of 20 to 30 mm and there is no need to cut deeper, nor it is
required to remove the core (Fig. 15.3). Also it was observed from the
studies conducted on beams that the average of released strain due to
core cutting are around 80-90% of the existing strain.

15.4 EXISTING STRESS MEASUREMENT IN


PRESTENSIONED PSC BEAM - EXAMPLE
(PARIVALLAL, 2001)
In order to carry out further reliability studies on core trepanning
technique, a seven year old pretensioned concrete beam (T-section)
was chosen. Instrumentation details of the beam are given in Fig. 15.4.
The beam was prestressed with 18 number of 5mm dia. high tensile
steel wires with an initial prestressing force of 360kN. Seven sections
were identified for instrumentation and measurement.
The easiest way to calculate the existing prestress is by finding the
stress at the neutral axis of the beam, where all the bending stresses
due to prestress as well as gravity loads vanish. The calculated neutral
axis of the T-beam in consideration is found to fall very close to the
top flange and hence it was not possible to cut a core at the neutral
axis and hence to be interpolated by cutting at least two cores in the
same cross section. One core at top of the flange (normal to the top
surface) and two cores below the neutral axis on either side of the
beam (Fig. 15.4) were cut out at every section and from the released
strain values, the strain at the neutral axis was calculated.
Fig. 15.5 shows the released strain for a typical core of a seven year
old concrete beam. It is seen that the released strains at web left and
web right are identical, which show the reliability of the measurements
and absence of significant lateral bending. From the measurement of
strain at top and bottom, the strain released at the neutral axis posi-
tion is calculated. The existing prestressing force at various sections
is evaluated using the appropriate material properties. The average
prestress calculated is 283.8kN, which is in good agreement with the
applied prestress, after taking into account the losses due to shrinkage,
creep etc.
262 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

15.5 CASE STUDIES


Developed concrete core trepanning technique was used in assessing
the existing level of stress / prestress in various prestressed con-
crete structures. Case studies of assessment of residual prestress in
prestressed concrete structures using core trepanning technique are
presented here.
15.5.1 Determination of Existing Level of Prestress in Bridge
Girders(SERC, 1997)
A two-lane fly-over bridge was investigated to assess the existing con-
dition of the bridge (Fig. 15.6). The bridge consists of 9 suspended
spans each 30.48m length, supported on cantilever box type ham-
mer heads monolithic with the solid piers. The cross section of the
bridge shows two single cell rectangular boxes, the top slab of which is
monolithically connected together. There are 8 diaphragms, all spaced
equally. The box girders are prestressed with internal tendons origi-
nally and are subsequently strengthened with external tendons also.
Two spans of the fly-over bridge, which are highly deteriorated, were
investigated for assessing their conditions. Three locations on each
girder were instrumented for determining the existing level of prestress
(Fig. 15.6). Concrete core trepanning technique was applied to deter-
mine the existing level of pre-compression in the prestressed concrete
girders.
15.5.2 Existing Stress Determination in Vierendeel Girder of
the Roof Truss System(SERC, 1998)
An experimental investigation was carried out by SERC, to assess the
safety and serviceability of the roof system of a Workshop building
( Fig. 15.7). The scope of the project includes assessing the existing
level of prestress in the Vierendeel girders of the roof truss system
from the knowledge of existing stress levels in the bottom chords of
the Vierendeel girder. Concrete core trepanning technique was used for
the measurement of existing stresses. In all, nineteen locations (four
locations on the top surface and the remaining in the centroidal line
of the sides) of the bottom chord were instrumented on 10 different
trusses (out of total 36 trusses). From this investigation, it was possible
to estimate the level of prestress in the bottom chords of the girders.
Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 263

15.5.3 Existing Stress Measurement in Ribs of Concrete


Horizontal Silo (SERC, 1999)
The concrete silo structure measures 276m30m in plan. The structures
has a parabolic profile arch ring made up of seven corrugated pro-
filed precast concrete elements of varying lengths, that are connected
together by in-situ concrete beams running longitudinally along the
length of the building. The arch rings are designed as two hinged
arches. Each precast element has a trapezoidal profile with ridge and
valley portions as shown in Fig. 15.8. In order to balance the stresses
of the composite structure if necessary, prestressing cables have been
provided longitudinally and along the profile of the arch rings. In all,
fifteen locations (seven locations on the side surface and eight loca-
tions on the ridge) were selected in nine different ribs and instrumented
along the rib axis. From the investigation, the existing stresses were
computed.
15.5.4 Determination of Existing Level of Prestress in PSC
Girders of the Iron Ore Berth(SERC, 2001)
This is a 37 years old iron ore berth structure consisting of an approach
deck having a length of about 143m of steel gratings supported by RC
beam on either sides. These beams rest on the RC pile cap supported
by two RC piles. The iron ore berth deck has seven spans (vary-
ing from 16.44m to 17.69m). The width of the berth is about 22m.
The structural system for this consists of 20nos. of post tensioned
beams arranged side by side @ 1m c/c. The group of girders are also
prestressed laterally through diaphragms, after laying the deck con-
crete(Fig. 15.9). The entire deck including PSC girders is supported
over pier cap formed over prestressed concrete crip that rests on the
ballast bed found over the sea bed available at -22m approximately
from MSL. In order to obtain the prestress in the identified PSC gird-
ers , the position of the neutral axis was determined from the geometry
of the girder in order to avoid the bending stress contribution. The
trepanning technique was carried out at three selected spans. The
instrumented locations in PSC girder is as shown in Fig. 15.9. The
stress in the beam was calculated from the measured strain.
15.5.5 Assessment of Residual Prestress in a Prestressed
Concrete Bridge at Srisailam(SERC, 2002)
The bridge is a balanced cantilever prestressed bridge comprising ten
spans and supported on cylindrical piers with the end spans on abut-
ments. The overall length of the bridge is 530.36m and the span length
264 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

is 48.77m. The piers are hammerhead type with articulations support-


ing the suspended spans. Each of the piers was constructed integral
with prestressed cantilever girders on either side of the pier head,
extending for 9.14m length from centre of pier to serve as hammer
heads. The gaps between the cantilever arms having a span of 30.48m
were bridged with suspended girders resting on the cantilever ends.
Based on the request made by the sponsor, an experimental investi-
gation to assess the loss of prestress was carried out on the hammer
head supported by pier P7 , which is highly deteriorated. The hammer
head is a cast - in - situ multi - cell box section, consisting of five gird-
ers with top and bottom flanges to form an integral box section (Fig.
15.10). Due to inacceability, only the outer surfaces of the extreme
girders of the hammer head were available for instrumentation. Four
locations on each of these extreme girders of the hammer head were
selected for instrumentation. Out of these four locations, two were on
the cantilever portion on pier P7 projecting towards Hyderabad side
and the other two on Srisailam side. In all, eight locations were instru-
mented at the centroidal axis of the hammer head (Fig. 15.10). The
residual prestress forces were obtained from the investigation.
15.5.6 Determination of Existing Level of Prestress in PSC
Girders of the Approach Jetty to Intake Well(SERC,
2005)
An experimental investigation was carried out to assess the condition
and formulating recommendations for remedial measures of approach
jetty and intake structure. This approach jetty and intake well were
constructed around 30 years back. The approach jetty consists of pre-
stressed concrete girders with cast-in-situ deck slab. It has 26 spans
of 15.24m consisting of precast prestressed concrete girders supported
1.22m diameter piles with capping beams. The first eleven spans are
supported on single pier and the remaining on two piers. The width
of the jetty is 3.66m. Fig. 15.11 shows the typical cross section of
jetty structure and instrumented locations. Concrete core trepanning
technique was used for the measurement of existing stresses. The exist-
ing stress measurement was carried out on outer girders of the three
spans (worst affected, moderately affected and unaffected) only. From
the measurements, the prestressing force available was calculated, and
based on this, the safe load carrying capacity of the jetty structure was
evaluated.
Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 265

15.5.7 Experimental investigations on super-structure of the


Mahatma Gandhi Bridge at Patna(SERC, 2009)
An experimental investigation was carried out to assess the residual
prestressing force of the Mahatma Gandhi Bridge at Patna. The bridge
is a balanced cantilever bridge having 59m span on each side of the pier
as shown in Fig. 15.12. In order to evaluate the residual prestress, two
different pier spans, namely, span P23 at upstream side and span P26
at down stream side were identified for the investigation. Out of the
two selected, span P23 of U/S side is older and distressed compared
to the span P26 of D/S side. In each span, both cantilever girders
were instrumented at the inner surface of the box girder. In each arm,
three sections were identified and at each section four locations were
instrumented at two locations on the centre of gravity of the cross
section and the other two are at the top and bottom of the web. From
the measured strains at CG of the section, the residual prestressing
force in each girder is obtained.
Investigations of railway bridge girder near Villupuram(SERC,
2010)
Studies were carried out to measure the existing level of stress due to
the self weight, prestress and super imposed dead loads (wearing coat,
parapet, ballast, permanent way, etc.) in the identified span of the
bridge. The prestressed concrete bridge is located between Villupuram
and Mayavaram section (Fig. 15.13). Existing stress measurement was
done by concrete core trepanning technique at the selected locations
(Fig. 15.13). Twelve locations were identified for measuring the exist-
ing stresses by concrete core trepanning technique. These locations
include mid span, quarter span and near support. From this study,
existing stress condition of the girder was evaluated for its strength
evaluation.

15.6 SUMMARY
For assessing the existing stresses on distressed prestressed concrete
structures concrete core trepanning technique can be used. Laboratory
studies were conducted to evaluate the reliability of the concrete core
trepanning technique. Case studies of assessment of residual prestress
in prestressed concrete structures using core trepanning technique are
presented here. The details of the case studies will be presented in the
lecture. Using this concrete core trepanning technique, it is possible
to estimate the probable value of existing prestress with a high degree
266 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

of reliability in prestressed concrete members. This will go a long way


for the designer to design suitable rehabilitation measures.

15.7 REFERENCES
1. SERC Report, “Experimental Techniques for Existing Stress
Determination in Prestressed Concrete Structures”, 1998.
2. Kesavan K., Parivallal S., Ravisankar K., Narayanan T., and
Narayanan R.,“Non-Destructive Evaluation of Existing stress
in Prestressed Concrete Members”, Proceeding of the National
Seminar NDE-2000, pp 39–45., 2000
3. Parivallal S., Kesavan K., Ravisankar K., Narayanan T., and
Narayanan R., “Assessment of Existing Prestress in Prestressed
Concrete Structures” Proceeding of the National Seminar on
Trends in prestressed Concrete, 2001 pp 271–279.
4. SERC Consultancy Report, “Determination of Existing Prestress
Level in Girders of Old Fly Over Bridge of Visakhapatnam Port
trust”., 1997
5. SERC Consultancy Report, “Existing Stress Measurement of
Prestressed Concrete Vierendeel Girders, Chennai Port Trust”.,
1998
6. SERC Consultancy Report, “Report on the investigation to assess
the condition of horizontal silo and suphala plant structures in
RCF factory at Chembur ”., 1999
7. SERC Consultancy Report, “Report on the safety audit of pre-
stressed concrete members of the iron ore berth of Visakhapatnam
port trust”., 2001
8. SERC Consultancy Report, “Assessment of residual prestress in
a prestressed concrete bridge at Srisailam”., 2002
9. SERC Consultancy Report, “Determination of Existing Level of
Prestress in PSC Girders of the Approach Jetty to Intake Well”,
2005
10. SERC Consultancy Report, “Residual prestress evaluation in the
Mahatma Gandhi bridge at Patna”, 2008
11. SERC Consultancy Report, “Structural Assessment of a Pre-
stressed Concrete Girder in Railway Bridge No. 493 in Service
between Villupuram and Mayavaram”., 2010
Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 267

50mm φ
30mm Concrete core
Strain gage
50mm φ
Concrete core 50mm φ
Concrete core

1 1 50 mm φ
50 mm

50mm φ

Plan Section 1-1

Fig. 15.1 Concrete core trepanning technique

Pedestal Core locations


Pedestal
Jac Load cell1 2 3 4 5

Test floor
100

6 7 8 9 10 500
500
RCC Beam 1500 mm
long.

Elevation

1 2 3 4 5
1000

150

Plan All dimensions in mm

Fig. 15.2 Experimental setup for existing strain


measurement in axially loaded RCC beam
268 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

MICROSTRAIN
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
0

10
DEPTH (mm)

20

30
Location 1
Location 2
Location 3
40 Location 4
Location 5

50

Fig. 15. 3 Released strain in axially compressed RCC


beam

Instrumented Section

1 2 3 1 4 5 6 7
Section

Section

Section
6 Section

Section

Section
5

800 300 730 11 170 150 360 950 740

5200
402
Elevation
5mm Prestressing wire,
Flange 3×6 nos
37 112

Neutral Axis
162

Web All dimensions in mm


Right
50 Left

162

254

View 1-1

Fig. 15.4 Instrumentation Details of the Pretensioned


Prestressed Concrete Beam
Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 269

Micro strain
0 50 100 150 200

10

20

30

40
Location 2 Top
Location 2 Bottom left
Location 2 Bottom right
50

Fig. 15.5 Trepanning Technique Applied to Prestressed


Concrete Beam

29718
1
L
1

L1 L2 L3

N O T E:
A LL D IM E N SIO N S A R E IN m m
L1 – L3 IN DIC A T ES INS T R U M E N T E D LO C AT IO N S

1 L1-L3 Indicates instrumented locations Section 1-1


Plan

Centre Line of the Bridge

1499 mm

2743 mm

7772 mm

Fig. 15.6 Details of fly over bridge girder


270 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Elevation
A

Plan A

Cross section A-A

Fig. 15.7 Vierendeel girder truss roof system of a


workshop building

1500 1500
3000

18500 170
430
G.L
170
30000 Side
400
Ridge
Elevation Cross section at A
(showing instrumented locations)

30000

6000 2,64,000 6000

Top view
All dimensions are in mm

Fig. 15.8 Typical horizontal silo


Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 271

3800 22000
Rail

Precast prestressed beams

Galvanised ladder Fender wall

• All dimensions are mm


• B1 To B5, B3T & B3B Indicates location of Instrumentation

B3T

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5

B3B

Elevation of typical PSC girder

Fig. 15.9 Instrumentation details of typical PSC girder of


Iron Ore Berth
P7HU1
Srisailam side P7SU2 P7HU2 Hyderabad side
P7SU1 Upstream
A

Pier
P7

A
4953 Downstream 6858
5893
P7HD2 P7HD1
P7SD1 P7SD2
Plan

165

P7SU 1 P7S D1
1981
922
170 292
1372

P7SU 3 Section A-A

Fig. 15.10 Instrumentation details of prestressed hammer


head
272 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 15.11a A View during investigation on Approach


Jetty to Intake Well

Instrumented Instrumented
location location
b) Typical cross section of approach jetty at mid span

Fig. 15.11b Determination of Existing Level of Prestress


in PSC Girders of the Approach Jetty to Intake Well
Evaluation of Residual Pre-stress in Concrete Structures 273

Fig. 15.12 Experimental investigations on super structure


of the Mahatma Gandhi Bridge at Patna

VILLUPURAM END MAYAVARAM END


QVMWTC MWTC MVWTC

QVMWBC
MWBC MVWBC
250

17700

Web 19700
CL
VMWTC VMETC
350

600 500
VMEBC
500

VMWBC CL Slab Thk.


5700
C o re C u ttin g L o ca tio n
(Q u a rte r S p a n - V M E n d )

Fig. 15.13 Locations of Existing Stress Measurement


Using Trepanning Technique
.
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 275–292

16 Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC


Structures

K. Balaji Rao and M. B. Anoop,


Scientists, Risk and Reliability of Structures Group,
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
e-mail: balaji@sercm.org; anoop@sercm.org

16.1 INTRODUCTION
The problem of condition assessment of existing structures based on
field investigation data is gaining importance as many infrastructural
facilities are becoming aged. Typically, an engineer is called upon to
address issues regarding the condition assessment, re-qualification/life
extension of existing structure, remaining life assessment with respect
to its future usage (see Fig. 16.1). A common feature of any assessment
problem is the observation, observer and the inference. While, gener-
ally, physical, statistical and modelling uncertainties are addressed in
engineering problems, there are certain characteristics unique to the
assessment problems (Fig. 16.2):
1. The available structure is only one and better defined than a struc-
ture construed at the design stage (but yet to be constructed). Also,
the environment in which the structure located is better defined
than normally assumed at the design stage. However, it is possible
that the uncertainties in defining the live loads may still be prevail-
ing unless more structure/site specific live load surveys have been
carried out.
2. While the uncertainties arising out of environment/mechanical
loading and structural system properties are small, the maximum
uncertainty arises out of the judgments made by the experts regard-
ing the state of health or the condition of the structure based on
the in-service inspection data.
Some advanced but more subtle differences in uncertainty mod-
elling stems from the following observations:
276 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

1. Classical physics represents that striving to learn about the nature


in which we essentially seek to draw conclusions about objective
processes from observations and so ignore the consideration of the
influences which every observation has on the object to be observed.
Conversely quantum mechanics makes possible the treatment of
atomic processes by partially foregoing their space-time description
and objectification.
2. The concept of statistical ensemble may not hold good since we are
dealing with a single structure/system. The non-determinism of the
system and about the loading is minimal as discussed earlier.
The lecture presents the details of research carried out at CSIR-
SERC in this area (see Fig. 16.3) and also covers some practical
applications related to the assessment of remaining life of reinforced
concrete structures subjected to chloride induced corrosion of rein-
forcement. Specifically, the application of Brunswikian theory for
condition assessment and the use of quantum statistical probability
(QSP) distributions for handling uncertainties are presented.

16.2 BRUNSWIKIAN THEORY FOR CONDITION


ASSESSMENT
An important aspect in remaining life estimation is the interpretation
of the data from field inspections and making expert judgement about
condition state of the structural member. Subjective and inaccurate
condition assessment has been identified as the most critical technical
barrier to highway bridge management (Aktan et al., 1996). Therefore,
due consideration needs to be given to the quality of the data and the
expert interpreting the data. Human judgement plays an important
role in the condition assessment and decision making. A promising the-
ory is the Brunswikian theory, the application of which is researched
upon by various investigators (viz., Gigerenzer et al., 1991; Adelman
et al., 2003). For instance, using the concepts of Brunswikian theory,
Gigerenzer et al. (1991) proposed probabilistic mental models (PMM)
for modelling the human mental process in making decisions. The
salient details of Brunswikian theory for corrosion damage assessment
as presented by Balaji Rao et al. (2004) are given below.
16.2.1 Brunswikian theory
Brunswik (1952) pointed out that one’s knowledge of a distal ’initial
focal variable’ is mediated by more proximal ’cues’ (or information)
that one has about it. The lens model proposed by Brunswik (1952)
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 277

conceptually represented the situation wherein one individual has to


make a judgement about the true state of the distal variable using
multiple pieces of information. A simple lens model is shown in Fig.
16.4. The lens model provides the means for measuring certain char-
acteristics descriptive of judgment behavior. This can be achieved by
constructing statistical models of expert judgments using regression
techniques. The most commonly used model is the generalised lin-
ear model. In the generalised linear model, the actual criterion value
and the judged criterion value are modelled as linear combinations
of the cue values. Using the generalised linear model, the correlation
between the judgement and the actual environment (represented as
the achievement of the expert, ra ) can be determined (Balaji Rao et
al., 2004). The achievement index, ra , can be regarded as a measure
of the accuracy of the judgements made by the expert.
Based on the assumption that people are good judges of the
reliability of their knowledge, Gigerenzer et al. (1991) proposed prob-
abilistic mental models (PMM) for cognitive processes in judgement.
Two important aspects of PMM are that probabilistic inference is
part of the cognitive process and that uncertainty is part of the
outcome. Using the PMM models, the over- or under-confidence
limits associated with an expert for the different confidence levels
can be determined based on the judgements made on a number of
baseline cases. This treatment would enable to characterise the think-
ing process with respect to various confidence levels. The over- or
under-confidence takes into account the relative bias of the expert.
Brehmer and Hagafors (1981) expanded the Brunwikian lens model
to a multilevel lens model to study the use of experts in complex
judgement making. Such a multilevel lens model is used in the present
study to model the condition state assessment of reinforced concrete
(RC) bridge girders. The procedure for condition assessment using
Brunswikian theory is given below.
16.2.2 Condition assessment using Brunswikian theory
The distal stimuli of the multilevel lens model, used in condition
assessment of RC bridge girders, is the corrosion of reinforcement,
which gives rise to the proximal stimuli to the observer/instrument
in the form of appearance and corrosion current/potential. The
information on proximal stimuli (such as rust stains, amount of
cracking and spalling, corrosion current density) are recorded by the
observer/instrument (cues). These cues, together with corrosion state
of reinforcement are the distal stimuli for the expert, who is making
278 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

a decision regarding the condition state. The information recorded by


the observer/instrument (cues) are corrected for the evaluation abil-
ity/human error (in the case of human observer) and for the detection
capability and correctness of detection (in the case of instrument).
The corrected data is the proximal stimuli for the expert who makes
a judgement regarding the distal stimuli, namely, the corrosion state
of the reinforcement.
By integrating the information required for condition assessment,
and supplying the same along with cues, the aim would be to rationally
capture the thinking process of an expert in arriving at the judgement
regarding the condition state. It is known that the mental process can
best be described in the probabilistic basis. A number of experts are
asked to make judgement regarding the condition state independently
using the same set of cues. The expert is asked to identify the condition
state(s) in which he believes the member is in, and to attach confi-
dence level(s) for his judgement from a confidence scale. Consistent
with probabilistic mental thinking, the experts would judge the proba-
ble condition states of corrosion affected RC bridge girders, along with
respective confidence levels. The judgements of all the experts are com-
bined on the basis of achievement index for each expert. Thus, instead
of classifying judges as experts or non-experts, they are considered as
rational to different degrees (Reid, 1999).
16.2.3 Remaining life estimation
The proposed multi-layer Brunswikian lens model is integrated with
Markov chain (MC) model for remaining life assessment of corrosion-
affected reinforced concrete structural members. In this study, the
degradation in the resistance of the RC flexural member due to
chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement is modelled by calculat-
ing the ’capacity ratio’, ν(t), of the member at time t as the ratio of
the load carrying capacity of the member at any time t to the required
capacity for the structural member according to relevant design stan-
dards. ν(t) is considered as the measure of corrosion damage to the
structural member at time t. In this case, the state space is the corro-
sion damage state of the member and the index space is the time. The
stochastic evolution of the system, modelled by homogeneous MC can
be completely described by the Transition Probability Matrix (TPM),
P. By computing the values of ν(t) for two consecutive years, the
1-step TPM, P, can be computed. The n-step TPM, P n , can be com-
puted for determining the corrosion damage state of the structural
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 279

member at the end of n years. The corrosion damage state probabil-


ities at any time can be determined from the n-step TPM for that
time period, using the methodology given by Balaji Rao and Appa
Rao (2004). By comparing the capacity ratio at any time with a tar-
get value, the service life of the structure with respect to safety can
be determined.

16.3 EXAMPLE
The remaining service life of a reinforced concrete T-beam for a bridge
is estimated using the proposed methodology. The random variables
considered along with their statistical properties are given in Table 1.
The probabilitycapacity ratio ≤ 0.5 with age of the structural member
before inspection is shown in Fig. 16.5. From Fig. 16. 5, it is noted that
at 19 years of age, the probability of capacity ratio being less than or
equal to 0.5 becomes 0.01. An inspection is carried out at this time.
The information (cues) obtained from the inspection (see Table 2) are
passed on to five experts, who have been asked to make judgements
regarding the corrosion damage state and to assign confidence levels
for their judgements. Using these values, the corrosion damage state
probabilities are determined (see Table 3), and the state vector for the
corrosion damage state combining the judgements of all the experts is
obtained. The probabilitycapacity ratio ≤ 0.5 with age of the struc-
tural member including the effect of inspection is shown in Fig. 16.5.
It can be noted from Fig. 16.5 that the probabilitycapacity ratio ≤
0.5 = 0.01 when the structural member is 22 years of age, and hence,
the remaining life of the structural member can be considered to be 3
years from the time of inspection against the limit state of probabil-
itycapacity ratio ≤ 0.5 = 0.01. Thus, by carrying out an inspection,
the engineer has now the option to postpone the repair activities up
to a period of three years for the problem considered. This type of
information can be generated using the proposed methodology, which
will be useful for making decisions regarding repair.

16.4 PROCEDURE FOR INCLUDING IN-SERVICE


INSPECTION RESULTS
16.4.1 Effect of In-Service Inspection (Balaji Rao et. al, 2004)
An inspection was carried out at t = t1 and the remaining pipe wall
thickness was determined. Let d be the original wall thickness, and dl
be the loss in wall thickness over a period of time t1 .
280 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Assuming a uniform loss of thickness, rate of loss = dt11 = r


P(Detection of loss of a given thickness) = P oD(d1).
Typical PoD curves are shown in Fig. 16.6. The probability of non-
detection, according to draft NUREG-1661, Chapter 6 is given by
1   
PN D = ε + (1 − ε) erf c υln A/A∗
2
where
A = area of the crack
A∗ = area of the crack at 50% PN D
ε = best possible PN D for very large cracks
υ = slope of the PN D curve.
The values for the parameters of the PoD curves for different levels
of inspection performance are given in Table 16.4. Vibration fatigue
and thermal fatigue are two degradation mechanisms due to which
cracks can develop suddenly between two ISI intervals. In such cases,
it is prudent to use monitoring.
16.4.2 Modification to Markov Chain
Modification to the original Markov Chain is as follows:
a. Based on ISI write down initial state vector using PoD
b. Get modified gradation rate and introduce as correction factor
for the rate predicted earlier. Use this modified equation in the
computation of TPM.
c. The virtual time would start from the time of ISI.

16.5 CORROSION INITIATION IN REINFORCED


CONCRETE BRIDGE GIRDERS USING BAYESIAN
TECHNIQUE
Development of reliability-based service life models require that the
models can incorporate the information generated during in-service
inspection; that is, the models/model parameters can be updated
based on in-service inspection data. Use of Bayesian methods for
incorporation of information obtained during in-service inspection in
condition assessment and thus in realistic service life estimation of
existing structures is well established (viz., Mori & Ellingwood 1994a,
b). However, in most of the above investigations, conjugate distribu-
tions are used in decision making. While the use conjugate distribution
helps in making the problem more mathematically tractable, it may
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 281

not be possible to include the greater degree of engineering judgment


in decision making regarding expected service life.
A methodology for the assessment of time of corrosion initiation
in reinforced concrete bridge girders using Bayesian techniques is pro-
posed (Balaji Rao et al., 2003). The methodology will be useful for
realistic service life assessment based on data from field inspection.
Attempt has been made to show how engineering judgment can be
used in formulating the likelihood function used in Bayesian decision
making. The form of likelihood function is generally not known. Deter-
mination of the form requires engineering and statistical judgment or
background. The form of likelihood function should be so chosen that
it will in-crease the likelihood of observations made based on data
obtained from field investigations. Likelihood functions were formu-
lated for two different cases, which will arise in practice: i) in more
number of cases the chloride concentration obtained from field inves-
tigation is less than the mean chloride concentration estimated earlier
by the designer, and, ii) in more number of cases the chloride con-
centration obtained from field investigation is more than the mean
chloride concentration estimated earlier by the designer. Effectiveness
of the proposed methodology was demonstrated by applying it to the
chloride concentration data obtained from field investigations on Gim-
systraumen Bridge, Norway (Fluge, 2001). From the measured chloride
profiles at the end of 11 years, surface chloride concentration and dif-
fusion coefficient values for 236 locations were determined and were
reported in Fluge (2001). It is noted that out of the 236 observations,
in 163 cases, the chloride concentration at the level of reinforcement
determined based on field investigations exceeds the mean predicted by
the designer, i.e., in more number of cases, the chloride concentration
from field investigations is more than the mean chloride concentra-
tion estimated by the designer (case ii). From the three values of
probability of corrosion initiation obtained, namely, 0.805 (based on
the prediction at the design stage), 0.912 (based on the point esti-
mate -computed using relative frequency approach- from information
obtained from field investigations), 0.960 (based on updated chloride
concentration using the proposed methodology), it is noted that the
value obtained using the proposed methodology corroborates with the
engineering decision taken to repair the bridge girder at the end of
11 years (Fluge, 2001). This also suggests that the forms of the prior
distribution and the likelihood function used in this investigation are
appropriate. Thus, the prediction made using the Bayes techniques is
282 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

more realistic, and the use of proposed methodology helps in making


better decisions (Fig. 16.7).

16.6 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING FOR


CORROSION-AFFECTED RC STRUCTURAL
ELEMENTS
The design of structure should take into account the possible degra-
dation that may occur during its service life, thus facilitating the
scheduling of maintenance activities (which can be optimised) and
avoiding costly repairs/replacements. A methodology for maintenance
scheduling, based on estimation of the reliability of corrosion affected
reinforced concrete structural members taking into consideration the
time and degree of repairs, is proposed (Balaji Rao et al., 2002). The
methodology uses the concepts of virtual aging, failure rate and time-
variant reliability analysis. Due to the repair, a part of the degraded
resistance of the member is restored. The amount of restoration of
resistance depends upon the degree of repair, z, defined as the ratio of
restored resistance to the degraded resistance. The concept of virtual
resistance ratio is used to take into account the effect of repair on the
resistance of the member (see Fig. 16.8). The virtual resistance ratio
at any time is considered as a random variable to take into account
the stochasticity in the material properties, cross sectional dimensions
and level of degradation. Since the virtual resistance ratio is bounded
between zero and one, a truncated distribution is used for representing
the variations in this quantity. The reliabilities of a 6m span simply
supported beam subjected to chloride-induced corrosion of reinforce-
ment was determined using the proposed methodology. The beam has
been designed according to IS 456-2000 for moderate exposure con-
ditions. However, in practice the beam was found to be exposed to
severe exposure conditions. The reliabilities of the beam against dif-
ferent damage levels (see Balaji Rao et al. (2002) for definitions of
damage levels) at different time intervals are computed. The reliabil-
ities of the beam against damage state 3 (corresponding to 25% loss
in area) are shown in Fig. 16.9. The methodology is general and can
be used to estimate the reliability against any specified damage level.
Knowing the required reliability levels against specified damage, it is
possible to select the optimal time and degree of repair.
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 283

16.7 QSP DISTRIBUTIONS FOR HANDLING


UNCERTAINTIES (BALAJI RAO, 2007)
While application of MC for stochastic modelling is well accepted in
engineering for systems which are described using classical statisti-
cal mechanics, its usefulness in modelling systems at various scales is
still an issue receiving recent attention. In Balaji Rao (2007), this
issue is addressed by defining a metric and through identification
of isometries associated with space-time symmetries and the use of
these concepts for reversible systems. As mentioned earlier, in the
case of assessment problems (see Fig. 16.1), the concept of statistical
ensemble may not hold good since we are dealing with a single struc-
ture/system. Also, the non-determinism of the system and about the
loading is minimal. To address the problem of non-existence of ensem-
ble in a real world, Wallace (2001) suggested ’Quantum Interpretation
of Statistical Probability (QISP)’, which is explained below.
16.7.1 Description of states at equilibrium in classical
statistical mechanics (CSM)
1. The possible states of a classical statistical system are given by the
points in some phase P .
2. At any given time t, the specific system under consideration has a
determinate state given by a specific point in P - though this point
is assumed not to be exactly known.
3. At time t, the probability that this determinate state is in a given
region of P is given by some probability distribution over P .
4. The time - evolution of the system is deterministic (given by Hamil-
ton’s equations) and so knowing the probability distribution at one
time tell us what it is at all other times.
5. A system is said to be at equilibrium when the probability
distribution does not vary in time.
On conceptual side, there is a problem of defining the probability
distribution over phase space, though interpreted in a relative fre-
quency terms. Because, the observed system is only one!. With the
above problem of non-existence of ensemble in a real world, Wal-
lace (2001) suggests ’Quantum Interpretation of Statistical Probability
(QISP)’.
284 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

16.7.2 Quantum Interpretation of Statistical Probability


(QISP)
’Ignorance’ probability in the sense of a probability distribution over
a space of many possible states of a system, one of which is actual,
has to be looked at critically in statistical mechanics. As such, the use
of ’probability’ density operator in statistical mechanics needs further
examination. When a density operator, is used to describe a statisti-
cal system, it is to be understood as the determinate-though highly
non-pure-’entanglement’ density operator which describes that specific
system (Fig. 16.10). The map is of from

p (ρ) → Dρ p(ρ)ρ

where p(ρ) is the given probability distribution over entanglement den-


sity operators ρ and the map in (3) is many-to-one. While map (3)
is for a realistic quantum systems, to get a feel for ρ the form for an
isolated quantum system is presented below.

ρ= p(i) |i > < i|
i

where p(i) is a given probability distribution p(i) over some (not


necessarily orthogonal) states |i >.
The following six reasons for proposing the above conjecture were
given in Wallace (2001). Out of these six, the first three reasons are
conceptual and the other three are more dynamical and probably more
important.
1. In classical statistical mechanics, the main problem is under deter-
mination of probability distribution by the statistical facts. This
problem would be automatically solved in QISP.
2. It would make the concept of ’ensemble’ rather less problematic.
By defining the density operator to be describing the system (single
system under consideration) totally avoids the confusion of ensem-
ble of classical statistical mechanics (which is more of a theoretical
abstraction than a reality). In particular, concepts like entropy are
defined, in CSM, to apply to an ensemble rather than an individual
system, as in QISP. In quantum mechanics, if QISP holds, then it
makes sense to describe a single system as being in a macrostate
(i.e., described by an entanglement density operator), and we should
be able to assign macrostate properties such as entropy to that
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 285

single system. This may make at more coherent to describe a


unique system as having ascertain probability distribution. This
redescription of single systems has relevance for the reduction of
thermodynamics to statistical mechanics.
3. If QISP holds, then the (highly problematic) probabilities of statis-
tical mechanics are to a large extent removed from consideration,
to be replaced with the probability intrinsic to quantum mechanics.
However, this problem needs more research.
4. QISP allows us to construct ’transcendental’ account of
equilibrium-that is, a justification of the equilibrium state indepen-
dent of any causal story as to how systems get into equilibrium in
the first place- for quantum mechanics which in some way is similar
to classical statistical mechanics. In the case of classical statistical
mechanics the system equilibrium is decided in such way that the
possible realizations of microstates are combined in such way that
it is consistent with observed or to be modeled macrostate. Since we
are considering equilibrium system behaviour we are talking about
steady state modeling. The invariant quantity, assuming no dissi-
pation, is energy. Hence, the candidate distributions proposed for
microstates should be based on conservation of energy or should
have energy as time invariant quantity. The microcanonical distri-
bution hypothesized should satisfy the law of conservation of energy
(it may be quickly recalled that the microcanonical distribution
may be Boltzmann’s distribution or equipartition distribution). In
quantum mechanics also the concept of transcendental equilibrium
is some what similar, except that in addition to above points (1)-
(3), wherein we have density operator defined on states of quantum
system (mostly entangled) are definite states of the system. Hence,
some kind of eigen value analysis seems to help define the density
operators on states of system. But all the studies from decoherence
suggests that (in the absence of dissipation) the only density oper-
ators which are invariant under decoherence are projections (and
sums of projections) onto eigenspaces of the conserved quantities.
For a system with energy as the only conserved quantity, those
invariant density operators are microcanonical operators and their
sums.
5. One of the important concepts, generally invoked in classical sta-
tistical mechanics, for describing the system in equilibrium is
the concept of stationarity and much stronger property being
ergodicity. Ergodicity is generally assumed to have mathemati-
cal simplicity/tractability and in engineering due to limitations
286 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

imposed by experimentation (assuming that the process can be well


approximated by a stationary process). The assumption of ergodic-
ity is not required or it is natural to a quantum mechanical system
since we neither have ensembles nor we have pdf evolving in time or
constant defined over state space. We are handling a single system
(dynamical) which is in equilibrium with environment (taken care
of by decoherence of pure states of system).
6. If the plausibility of observation (4), dealing with equilibrium
behaviour, is accepted, then the microcanonical density operator
(interpreted as an entanglement density operator) is the only state
of the system (at given energy) which is a valid equilibrium state-all
other states evolve towards that state, so any probability distribu-
tion over any other states will not be an equilibrium distribution
at all. In other words, QISP holds at equilibrium, because the
dynamics of the system force it upon us.
Demonstration of the use of QSP distributions in determining the ele-
ments of Transition Probability Matrix and the effect of consideration
of QSP as against the classical statistical probability distributions will
be presented during the lecture.

16.8 SUMMARY
The studies at CSIR-SERC on handling uncertainties in condition
assessment of structures, with emphasis on application of Brunswikian
theory for handling human judgemental aspects and the use of quan-
tum statistical probability distributions for handling uncertainties, are
presented. The emphasis has been on the use of Markov chain for mod-
elling the response of systems at various scales. It is to be mentioned
that, at present, both classical statistical and quantum mechanics are
to be applied depending upon the scales of phenomenon being mod-
elled. The concept of quantum interpretation of statistical probability
seems to play a major role in future developments in experimental
mechanics.

16.9 REFERENCES
1. Adelman, L., Miller, S.L., Henderson, D.V. and Scholles, M. (2003),
“Using Brunswikian theory and a longitudinal design to study how
hierarchical teams adapt to increasing levels of time pressure”, Acto
Psychologica, 112, 181-206.
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 287

2. Aktan, A.E., Farhey, D.N., Brown, D.L., Dalal, V., Helmicki, A.J.,
Hunt, V. and Shelley, S.J. (1996). “Condition assessment for bridge
management”. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, ASCE, 2(3), 108-
117
3. Balaji Rao, K. and Appa Rao, T.V.S.R. (2004), “Stochastic mod-
elling of crackwidth in reinforced concrete beams subjected to
fatigue loading”, Engineering Structures, 26(5), 665-673.
4. Balaji Rao, K., Anoop, M.B., Lakshmanan, N., Gopalakrishnan, S.
and Appa Rao, T.V.S.R. (2004), “Risk-based remaining life assess-
ment of corrosion affected reinforced concrete structural members”,
Journal of Structural Engineering, 31(1), 51-64.
5. Balaji Rao, K., Anoop, M. B. and Appa Rao, T. V. S. R. (2002),
“Reliability analysis of stochastic degrading and maintained sys-
tems”, Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Probabilistic
Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM6), San Juan, Puerto
Rico, USA, June 23-28, 2002.
6. Balaji Rao, K., Satish, B., Anoop, M. B., Gopalakrishnan, S. and
Appa Rao, T. V. S. R. (2003), “Application of Bayesian technique
for corrosion state assessment of reinforced concrete bridge girders”,
in Safety and Reliability, Ed. T. Bedford, P.H.A.J.M. van Gelder,
Proceedings of ESREL 2003, 15-18 June, 2003, Maastricht, The
Netherlands, A. A. Balkema Publishers, pp 73–80.
7. Balaji Rao, K., Anoop, M. B., Lakshmanan, N., Gopika Vinod,
Saraf, R. K. and Kushwaha, H. S., “A methodology for risk
informed in-service inspection for safety related systems - Final
report”, Report No. SS-GAP01241-RR-04-3, March 2004.
8. Balaji Rao, K. (2007), “Markov-Chain modelling for reliability
estimation of engineering systems at different scales - some consider-
ations”, Proceedings of International Conference on Civil Engineer-
ing in the New Millennium: Opportunities and Challenges, Bengal
engineering and science university, Kolkata, 11-14 January 2007,
(in CD-ROM). (also available at http://arxiv.org/abs/0708.1566)
9. Brehmer, B. and Hagafors, R. (1986), “Use of experts in complex
judgment decision making: A paradigm for the study of staff work”,
Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 38, pp
181–195.
10. Brunswik, E. (1952), The conceptual framework of psychology,
University of Chicago.
11. Enright, M.P. and Frangopol, D.M. (1998), “Probabilistic analysis
of resistance degradation of reinforced concrete bridge beams under
corrosion”, Engineering Structures, 20(11), pp 960–971.
288 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

12. Fluge, F. (2001), “Marine chlorides: A probabilistic approach to


derive provisions for EN 206-1”, In Service life design of concrete
structures - from theory to standardization: 63-83. 3rd Duranet
Workshop, Troms, Norway.
13. Gigerenzer, G., Hoffrage, U. and Kleinbolting, H. (1991), “Prob-
abilistic mental models: A Brunswikian theory of confidence”,
Psychological Review, 98(4), pp 506–528.
14. Mori, Y. and Ellingwood, R. (1994a), “Maintaining reliability
of concrete structures. I: Role of inspection/repair”, Journal of
Structural Engineering (ASCE), 120(3), pp 824–845.
15. Mori, Y. and Ellingwood, R. (1994b), “Maintaining reliability of
concrete structures. II: Optimum inspection/repair”, Journal of
Structural Engineering (ASCE), 120(3), pp 846–862.
16. Reid, S.G. (1999), “Perception and communication of risk and the
importance of dependability”, Structural Safety, 21(4), pp 373–384.
17. Wallace, D. (2001), “Implications of quantum theory in the foun-
dations of statistical Mechanics”, http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu
18. Wong, F. S. and Yao, J. T. P. (2001), “Health monitoring and
structural reliability as a value chain”, Computer-Aided Civil and
Infrastructure Engineering, 16(1), pp 71–78.
Table 16.1 - Random variables considered in the example
problem
Variable Mean COV*

Diffusion coefficient, D 5 × 10−8 cm2 /s 0.10


Surface chloride concentration, cs 0.30 % by wt. of concrete 0.10
Critical chloride concentration, cc r 0.125 % by wt. of concrete 0.05
Cover thickness, d 40 mm 0.05
Rate of corrosion, rcorr 0.58 mm/year 0.30
Compressive strength of concrete, fck 30 MPa 0.18
Yield strength of steel, fy 415 Mpa 0.12

Table 16.2 - Data from inspection for the example problem


From Visual Rust stains Highly noticeable rust stains
Inspection Cracking Several longitudinal cracks;
some cracks in stirrup direction
Spalling Clearly noticeable spalling
From Field Icorr (3LP) = 6.0 A/cm2; Ecorr = -450 mV
Measurements Cover depth = 38 mm;
Remaining diameter of reinforcement = 32.0 mm
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 289

Table 16.3 - Corrosion damage state probabilities based on


experts’judgement
Corrosion Damage state probabilities
Damage state Expert 1 Expert 2 Expert 3 Expert 4 Expert 5 Combined
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0.25 0.357 0.563 0.30 0.58 0.407
4 0.75 0.643 0.437 0.70 0.42 0.593
5 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 16.4 - Parameters of PoD curves


Inspection Performance a*(% of a/t) ε ν
Level 1 40 0.1 1.6
Level 2 15 0.2 1.6
Level 3 5 0.05 1.6

-Conceptual design
-Analysis - Experimental studies
- Design
Assessment - Field performance evaluation Assessment
Assessment
- Construction problem
problem
problem --Safety
Safety auditing of existing
- Maintenance
structures
- Disposal

Fig. 16.1 The real engineering problem


ASSESSMENT PROBLEM
non-determinism

Classical Classical
Mechanics Statistical
deterministic Mechanics

here also influence of


observation on the object
to be observed is ignored

Bayesian decision theory

How many observations are necessary


to construct informative posterior

BUT THE SYSTEM IS ONLY ONE!

Fig. 16.2 Assessment Problem


290 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Probabilistic
Models Corrosion Initiation
Reliability Analysis Development
of Learning
Models
Bayesian updation based
on inspection data

Corrosion Propagation Life Prediction &


Time -varying Reliability Analysis Remaining Life Assessment
Effect of Repairs (concept Human Judgemental model +
of virtual aging) Reliability analysis model

Condition Assessment––
Markov Chain approach
Judgemental Models

Fig. 16.3 Studies at CSIR-SERC on condition assessment

Achievement, ra

X1
rE,1 rs,1
rE,2 X rs,2
2
YE rE,3 rs,3 YS
X Cue Utilization, rs,i
Ecological rE,4 3 r
Validity, r E,i s,4
X4
Cues Xj

Fig. 16.4 Schematic Representation of Brunswik Lens


Model

1.E-02 2.6 m
2.6m
Pr{capacity ratio <0.5}

19cm
1.E-06 8 Nos 35.8mm Φ
0.6m
0.6 m

1.E-10 6.9cm
0.4m
Before
Beforeinspection
inspection
1.E-14 After inspection
After Inspection

1.E-18

1.E-22
0 5 10 15 20
age (years)

Fig. 16.5 Probability of the structural member being in a


state requiring immediate repair action according to CEB
Risk Informed Inspection Planning for RC Structures 291

1.0

Oustanding Very good Marginal


PoD (d1)

0.0
0 0 d1/d 1.0

S 1 S2
. . . Sk
State of System

Fig. 16.6 Schematic representation of typical PoD curves

Proposed methodology
Proposed methodology

Point
Point estimate
estimate

Prediction
Prediction atatdesign
design stage
stage

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0


Probability of corrosion initiation

Fig. 16.7 Probability of corrosion initiation at the end of


11 years for the Gimsystraumen bridge girder

V 1=(1-z1)*{1-V 1[x(t 1)]}


V 0[x(t)] = x(t)
V 1[x(t)] = x[t-(t 1-t 1*)]
1.0
V 2=(1-z2)*{1-V 2[x(t 2)]}

V 2[x(t)] = x[t-(t 2-t 2*)]

V 2[x(t 2)]
x(t)
V 1[x(t 1)]

0.0
tt11* tt2* tt11 tt22
tt

Fig. 16.8 Renewal process with perfect/imperfect repair


292 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

1
z = 0.95 z = 0.90

0.8

0.6
reliability

300 mm
Simply supported
beam

0.4 clear span = 6.0 m


Width of supporting
8 mm Φ , 2L, walls = 200 mm Truncated
Truncatednormal
normal
150 mm c/c Load from the slab =
500 mm 22.5 kN /m Truncated
Truncatedlog
log-normal
-normal
0.2 3, 25 mm Φ
fck = 25 N/mm
fy = 415 N/mm 2
2

Clear cover = 30 mm Damage state 3 : 25% loss in area of reinforcement


Effective depth = z - degree of repair
449.50 mm
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
age (years)

Fig. 16.9 Reliabilities for the beam against damage state 3

By defining the density operator to be describing the system


- avoids confusion of ensemble
- concepts like entropy can be applied to this system
which is considered to be in macro state of equilibrium
- ensures reduction of thermodynamics to CSM

Stationarity (S) and Ergodicity (E) invoked in CSM are


automatically satisfied in QS since we are handling a
single system which is in equilibrium with environment
(taken care of by de -coherence of pure states)
• System is one + Environment is varying => System is
changing => Automatic satisfaction of S & E??

Fig. 16.10 Quantum interpretation of statistical


probability
Recent Developments in Condition Assessment, Repair Materials and
Repair / Retrofitting Techniques for Concrete Structures
9-11, February 2011, CSIR-SERC, Chennai-113, India. pp 293–314

17 Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members


and their Rehabilitation

K. Ramanjaneyulu
Deputy Director
CSIR-SERC, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai-600 113, India.
Email: rams@serc.org

17.1 INTRODUCTION
Concrete is one of the most versatile and widely used of all construc-
tion materials in India. If properly prepared and placed in position, it
has adequate durability under normal conditions of exposure. In the
early years of concrete construction, it was thought that the concrete
structures would last forever, without any maintenance. However, a
number of structures built during the last 50 years, have suffered dura-
bility problems resulting with different degrees of deterioration, with
even a few cases of total collapse. This has triggered off the necessity
for developments for distress assessment and evolving necessary repair
methodology of these structures. The deterioration has been partic-
ularly noticed in structures located in the regions of severe exposure
conditions such as coastal areas.
Many prestressed concrete (PSC) bridges constructed in India dur-
ing the last 3 decades and located in the coastal areas have shown
signs of distress in the form of development of cracks in the gird-
ers, potholes in the deck, malfunctioning of bearings, and corrosion
of HTS wires/stands. In prestressed concrete bridges, the corrosion of
prestressing cables can lead to substantial loss in prestress and ulti-
mately sudden collapse of spans as seen in Mandovi bridge in Goa in
1986. Considerable distress was also noticed in Thane - Creek bridge
in Maharashtra, Sharavati bridge in karnataka constructed in 1970,
Zuari Bridge in Goa constructed in 1983, Narmada bridge in Gujarat
constructed in 1977, to name a few.
One must keep in mind that any compound produced from a nat-
urally available stable material will try to revert back to the original
294 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

constituent material from which it is made of, with the passage of


time. For example, we know cement is manufactured from the natu-
rally available lime-stone. The man made compound concrete contain
alkaline calcium hydroxide which combines with atmospheric carbon-
dioxide to revert back again into a stable calcium carbonate (i.e.),
lime-stone. This process is called Carbonation. Similarly, the steel is
made from more stable Iron-oxide. In the presence of atmospheric
oxygen and water, the steel reverts back again into stable iron-oxide.
This process is called Corrosion. The three C’s i.e., Carbonation, Cor-
rosion and Construction practices are the main mechanisms that cause
retrogression to concrete structures.
Evaluation of damage is essential in selecting a suitable repair
method. To evaluate the damage, it is necessary to determine the
extent, cause of damage and whether or not the cause is still active.
Selection of a repair material must be based on the evaluation of
the damage, characteristics of repair material, and local conditions.
If detailed evaluation of a damaged structure reveals that the orig-
inal construction was of poor quality concrete, a lasting repair can
probably be achieved with a high quality concrete or other patching
material. If a high quality concrete has deteriorated, a lasting repair
can only be achieved by protecting it from the exposure conditions
through the use of high quality impermeable material. Repair materi-
als must be compatible with the concrete that is being repaired. They
should respond in same way to changes in temperature and loads as
that of original structure and they should blend well with structure
and its appearance.
This lecture presentation deals with some of the more common
retrogression mechanisms of PSC structures. It also covers some of
the common repair techniques used to retrofit the retrogressed pre-
stressed concrete structures. In the end, some of the case studies are
also presented.

17.2 DISTRESS CAUSING MECHANISMS


Deterioration of PSC structures may arise from a number of inde-
pendent causes. The source of these causes may be grouped into
three general categories, viz., design and construction deficiencies,
environmental effects and changes in use.
Designs that do not follow specifications and good con-
struction practices can lead to structural deterioration. Insufficient
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 295

concrete cover for reinforcements, inadequate spacing between ten-


dons, grouping of tendons, incomplete grouting of tendons, improper
compaction of concrete, bad drainage system, improper joints and bad
detailing are some of the common design and construction deficiencies.
Environmental effects include material quality, environmental
aggression (chloride), freeze-thaw deterioration, alkali-silica reaction,
support movement, carbonation, shrinkage and thermal strains. There
is also a possibility of some or many of these effects may be acting
simultaneously aggravating the condition of state of deterioration or
distress These actions are acting continuously to the structures and
their effects are cumulative with time.
Changes in use are a significant factor affecting the deterioration. It
may include increase in traffic volume, increase in maximum permitted
vehicle size or increase in the number and frequency of large sized
vehicles on the bridge. Wear and fatigue are two other mechanisms
that directly lead to deterioration of the PSC bridges.

17.3 ENVIRONMENT
The environmental factors may be classified as (1) Natural and (2)
Manmade. The natural factors include variations in ambient temper-
ature and relative humidity of the air, presence of chlorides, sulphates
etc. Manmade factors include resultant of pollutants such as carbon
dioxide, sulphur dioxide etc. from effluents let out in the surrounding
environment by nearby industries. The environmental factors influence
the quality of concrete as well as reinforcements to a greater extent in
India, being a hot weather country. High temperature and alternating
high and low humidity have the greatest adverse affect on the qual-
ity and integrity of concrete. The durability of a concrete structure
will be determined by the rate at which the concrete deteriorates as
a result of chemical reaction. The most important chemical reactions
are acid attack, sulphate attack, alkali attack, effect of carbonation
and chloride penetration.
17.3.1 Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR)
While choosing the aggregates, the major factor to be considered is
alkali-aggregate reaction which may lead to destructive expansion of
concrete. This relates to action between the reactive silica present
in the aggregate and the alkalis added in concrete including those
present in mixing water and cement. Due to this reaction, a swelling
gel is generated. This gel causes expansion and cracking of concrete
296 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

in both micro and the macro level. Among the various geological for-
mations relevant to aggregates in India, perhaps quartzite, basalt are
most vulnerable minerals in this context. Destructive alkali-aggregate
reaction can take place only in the presence of moisture. Thus struc-
tures exposed to high humidity and contact with water/moisture are
more vulnerable.
The degree of expansion due to alkali-aggregate reaction is also
dependent on temperature. As such, structures in hot countries like
India are more vulnerable. The following preventive methods are
appropriate:
• Choosing non-reactive aggregates

• Limiting alkali content in cement to 0.6% expressed as Na2 O


equivalent
• Neutralising any higher value of alkali by using blended cement

• Preventing contact between concrete and any source of moisture.

17.3.2 Sulphate Attack


Sulphate attack is characterised by the chemical reaction of sul-
phate ions with the aluminate component and sulphate, calcium and
hydroxyl ions of hardened cement. The reaction between these sub-
stances, if enough water is present, causes expansion of the concrete,
leading to cracking with an irregular pattern. Concrete may to some
extent be protected against sulphate attack either by choosing the
type of cement that is impervious to sulphate attack or by ensuring a
sufficient degree of impermeability using suitable admixtures.
17.3.3 Corrosion
In prestressed concrete structures, the untensioned reinforcement and
prestressing steel are normally protected against corrosion by passi-
vation due to the alkalinity of the surrounding concrete (pH values of
concrete is generally greater than 12.5). Corrosion would not occur as
long as there are no breaks in the passive layer over the steel. The
layers may be broken by two mechanisms. One involves carbonation,
the other chloride ions.
(a) Carbonation
The ambient air contains 0.03% carbondioxide. Rapid industrial-
isation and pollution due to automobiles increases the CO2 level
in atmosphere. The combustion of 1 Kg of petrol or diesel pro-
duces about 3.1 Kg of CO2 increasing the CO2 level in ambient
air. CO2 combines with the soluble calcium to form an insoluble
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 297

calcium carbonate, a process known as carbonation. Carbonation


is very rapid on the surface, but diminishes rapidly with depth.
One may expect a depth of carbonation of 1 mm in 3 months, 10
mm in 10 years and 20 mm in 30 years. In the carbonated con-
crete the alkalinity diminishes appreciably and below a pH of 9.5,
the reinforcement is no longer protected against corrosion. The
rate of carbonation is affected by variations in (1) strength, (2)
density, (3) aggregate size and distribution, (4) moisture content,
(5) cement content, (6) humidity of the air, and (7) CO2 content
of the air.
Carbonation can work its way in from the surface of the con-
crete to the reinforcing steel, reducing the pH of the concrete
surrounding the steel and allow corrosion to start. The interface
between carbonated and non-carbonated concrete is abrupt but
fairly uniform. Consequently, corrosion due to carbonation is gen-
erally characterised by a widespread surface rusting, even though
it may occur in patches of different intensity, reflecting local vari-
ations in steel and concrete characteristics. Fortunately, for sound
concrete with a low water-cement ratio, carbonation is seldom a
concern.
(b) Chloride Penetration
Most corrosion problems are related to chloride - either in areas
where deicing salts are used or in marine areas. When the con-
centration of chloride gets higher than a threshold level, corrosion
starts. The presence of chloride ions in concrete, can cause depas-
sivation of steel even if the associated pore solution is highly
alkaline. The surface of the steel, therefore, becomes activated
locally forming an anode, while the rest of the passive surface
serves as the cathode. Since the latter is much larger, the dis-
solution of the ions in the anode is highly localised and a pit is
formed which is most dangerous corrosion for prestressing steel.
This localised pitting corrosion, with non-expansive corrosion
products, can quite possibly develop without visible signs on the
surface of the concrete.
Effective controls should be endorsed on the total permissible
chloride content in concrete. This should be limited to 0.1% of
the weight of cement for prestressed concrete and 0.15% for rein-
forced concrete. Chloride may be present in cement, aggregates,
water and /or admixtures. Frequent onsite checks of materials
can effectively control the chloride content in concrete.
298 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

(c) Inadequate Grouting of Cable Ducts


Inadequate or delayed grouting of prestressed cable ducts have
also contributed to corrosion of steel in quite a few cases. Proper
specification for materials, equipment and workmanship as per
standard practices for grouting should be adhered in prestressed
concrete structures.
17.3.4 Hydrogen Embrittlement
When steel is pickled (dissolved) in acids, the hydrogen atoms evolved
at the surface of the steel penetrates into the latter with the result
steel becomes so brittle that it fractures on being subjected to tensile
stress. The brittleness is greater according to the level of hydrogen is
absorbed, i.e., according as the acid acts upon the iron, for a greater
length of time. Even quite small amounts of hydrogen are, however,
sufficient to cause considerable deterioration of the tensile strength and
ductility of the wire. Prestressing steel must therefore, on no account,
be exposed to the action of acids. Acids occurring in crude oil, humic
acid, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydro cynic
acid, gases like sulphur dioxide etc., are highly dangerous. One bridge
in Brazil, the prestressing cables, each comprising 182 heat-treated
wires fractured within a few days after being tensioned. The cause
was traced to a grouting compound with high sulphur content. In
another case, slight traces of sulphur in a lorry on which prestressing
wire was being conveyed were enough to cause fracture of the wire
when it was subsequently tensioned.
17.3.5 Stress Corrosion
Stress corrosion occurs when steel is subjected to tensile stress and at
the same time exposed to corrosive environment. As a result of this
corrosion, sudden brittle fracture of material occurs. The following
three conditions must exist: (1) Stress corrosion susceptibility of the
steel, (2) Action of a corroding agent (chemical, moisture and electric
potential difference), (3) The presence of tensile stresses in the steel.
If one of these three conditions is not satisfied, no stress corrosion will
occur.

17.4 CORROSION PROTECTION


The basic ways of providing corrosion protection for steel in concrete
are by changing the environmental exposure conditions, the electro-
chemical nature of the exposed surface of the steel. Some of the ways
of preventing/delaying the corrosion damage are:
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 299

(i) Use post-tensioning


(ii) Use air-entraining agent
(iii) Use pozzolonas
(iv) Provide adequate cover
(v) Maintain low water-cement ratio
(vi) Consolidate the concrete thoroughly
(vii) Provide adequate curing
(viii) Include Provisions for repairing cracks.
FHWA in USA, research demonstrated the benefits of epoxy coat-
ing of reinforcement, along with a silane sealer for the concrete and use
of silica fume pozzolonic admixture for the concrete. The finer poz-
zolona improves the imperviousness of resulting concrete. Comparative
fineness of cementitious materials is given in Table 17.1

17.5 MANIFESTATION OF DISTRESS IN PSC


STRUCTURES
Manifestation of distress in PSC structures is through:
(i) Cracking, (ii) scaling, (iii) delamination, (iv) spalling, (v) leach-
ing, (vi) rust stains, (vii) deformations, (viii) hollow or dead sound,
and (ix) excessive deflections/ movements.

DELAMINATION
Delaminations occur when layers of concrete separate from bridge
decks or beams at or near the level of the outer most layer of reinforc-
ing steel. Such areas give off a hollow sound when tapped with a rod
or hammer. The major cause of delaminations is the expansion result-
ing from corrosion of reinforcing steel. It occurs with either repeated
chloride deicer applications or continued exposure to a marine environ-
ment. Inadequate cover over reinforcing steel will reduce the initiation
time of corrosion. Vehicular exhaust and emission on bridges may also
cause delaminations. When sufficient moisture and oxygen are present
with a chloride ion content above 0.77 kg /m3 , corrosion of reinforce-
ment will occur in most bridge deck concrete. At the beginning stage of
delamination, the repair can be carried out with epoxy resin injection
at the delaminated section. If delamination is in an advanced stage,
delaminated concrete has to be removed and special repair procedures
are to be followed.
The horizontal cracking (delamination planes) is not visible until
spalling occurs. In the absence of structural cracking, the chloride ion
300 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

should diffuse through the porous medium (concrete) according to


Fick’s law. Some of the other sources that contribute to the formation
of horizontal cracking (delamination planes) are:
1. Poisson’s effects due to high prestress levels.
2. Transverse shrinkage and restraint due to end block
3. Temperature effects
4. Torsion due to differential camber
5. Temperature rises due to heat of hydration, etc.

17.6 SPALLING
A spalling is defined as the depression resulting when a fragment of
surface concrete gets detached from a larger mass by any impact, by
action of weather, by pressure, or by expansions within the larger
mass. The major cause of spalls is the same as that for delaminations.
Spalling that occurs at joints may be caused by corrosion of steel at
the expansion joints, or from impact of traffic. Usually the area of
active steel corrosion and chloride contaminated concrete is consider-
ably larger than the area of spalled or delaminated concrete. If only
the area of spalled or delaminated concrete is removed and repaired,
a continuing repair program may be required. However, if the chlo-
ride contaminant is removed and repaired and the deck is properly
water proofed to avoid further chloride contamination, either through
a bonded topping or overlay, a more durable repair will be obtained.

17.7 SCALING
Scaling of concrete surface is defined as local flaking or peeling away
of the near surface portion of concrete. Scaling may be classified as
light if there is only loss of surface mortar with no exposure of course
aggregate, medium or severe if there is loss of mortar with increasing
exposure of coarse aggregate and very severe if there is loss of coarse
aggregate with the mortar.
The most generally accepted explanation of scaling involves the
generation of internal pressure during freezing of solution contained
in saturated voids. Scaling also occurs when concrete is subjected to
alternate wetting and drying or to concentrated solutions of chloride
deicers. Although the extent of scaling may be easily determined, mea-
surement of the chloride ion content of the concrete is advisable to
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 301

evaluate future spalling potential. Impervious and high strength sur-


face coating of less than 6mm thick have been used, when scaling is
in its early stages1 .

17.8 CRACKING
Cracking that potentially endanger the structural adequacy of the
member should be immediately considered for repair. Many cracks
do not require detailed repair procedure. If the cracks are active, i.e.,
the crack width is increasing due to continuing over loads or due to
structural settlement, complete replacement of the member or detailed
repair procedures are necessary. It may be necessary to measure or
estimate crack widths. This can be done with measuring microscopes
or feeler gauges. If necessary, the extent of cracking can be evaluated by
pulse velocity by impact echo techniques. Epoxy resins generally can
be used to repair cracks. It may be convenient to widen the cracks and
then fill them with latex mortar. Cracks in prestressed members should
not be repaired without consultation with an engineer to determine
the reason for the cracks.

17.9 EVALUATION OF DAMAGE


Before designing repair scheme in damaged prestressed concrete struc-
ture, assessment of the extent of damage is needed. In particular, in the
cases where concrete is damaged extensively and/or some prestressing
wires / strands are severed, the stress levels remaining in non-severed
tendons are difficult to determine. If the extent of damage or strand
stress levels can be determined inexpensively and reliably, repairs to
a girder can then be designed to restore its original strength. Timely
inspection and rectification will improve the service life of the structure
considerably.
Strength evaluation of existing structure is necessary due to the
following reasons:
• To decide whether the damaged structure can be replaced or
repaired. During the process of rectification, need arises to
identify which components have to be rehabilitated or replaced.
• Selection of rectification measures depend on the type and extent
of damage or deterioration. Strength evaluation will provide a
clear idea for economical selection of rectification measures at
optimized cost.
302 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

• When a calculation has shown that the structure is not capa-


ble of meeting the present standards, due to change in loading
regulations, loading models in the codes or strength models
• When inspection has revealed loss of section/capacity such that
the strength may have fallen below the level needed for meeting
the load Criteria.
• When there is reason to believe that the boundary conditions,
load distribution or section resistance are different from that
assumed in the analysis model.
• To measure directly the stress spectra and to evaluate possible
fracture or estimate remaining service life.
Residual strength assessment is essential for deciding and design-
ing different rectification techniques. With different Non-Destructive
Testing (NDT) methods, localized behavior of the deteriorated struc-
ture can be predicted. Different analytical/experimental approaches
are developed and reported in recent past for global strength assess-
ment of existing structures. Adaptation of any particular method or
methods mainly depends on the extent of damage that the struc-
ture had undergone, cost of assessment, rectification and life period
extension.
17.9.1 Nondestructive Methods for Condition Assessment of
Existing Bridge
Diagnostic process is the first stage of strength evaluation of any struc-
ture, which include techniques to identify the critical parts or elements
of the structure, identify the causes of distress, monitor the structural
performance, warn against failure, and provide statistical data for the
development of design and evaluation criteria. Before conducting an
assessment on existing bridge, different data are required which shall
suitably be incorporated to analytical or experimental data for overall
strength evaluation procedure. The data required are collected from
nondestructive tests. The data are,
• Actual state of structure which include evaluation of stresses,
strains, deflections, cracks and any permanent deformation of
existing bridge
• Accumulated damage, corrosion of steel reinforcement, changes
in material properties, loss of geometrical section etc.,
• Loss of prestress in case of prestressed girders due to time
dependent effects,
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 303

• Extreme load events like earth quake and disasters due to cyclone
etc.,
Recent advances in nondestructive testing methods are quite sat-
isfactory for evaluation of material strength of damaged structures.
Different diagnostic procedures and available non-destructive tests are
summarised by Nowak2 . In any method, defects are detected by obser-
vation of changing response of the interrogating medium. Interrogating
medium in non-destructive test include electromagnetic waves, stress
wave, electrical resistance/potential, magnetism and charged particles,
etc.
17.9.2 Visual Inspection
Visual inspection by an experienced engineer often provides a good
overview of the condition of the structure. It allows identification
of presence of cracks, delaminations, spalling, corrosion or surface
deposits. Visual inspection may reveal severe damage to exposed
strands, such as nicks, severed wires, kinks, extensive yielding. Gen-
erally, it is assumed that if cracks around a strand do not close after
impact, the strand has lost a significant portion of its prestress force.
Indeed, it is quite possible that a strand and the surrounding concrete
could exhibit none of these physical attributes, but still be signifi-
cantly damaged. For instance, with spalling of large areas of concrete,
it is possible that undamaged strands could lose some of their preten-
sioning force through shortening of the stressed strand, which may be
reflected by camber of the damaged girder.
If the damage is severe, visual inspection is insufficient. Different
techniques adopted for non-destructive test are summarised below.
IRC SP 40- 19933 gives different non- destructive tests to be conducted
before the overall assessment test for damage detection.
Besides visual inspection of concrete surface the surface, of main
reinforcement can also be inspected for any corrosion using Endoscopy,
by drilling holes at regular intervals carefully following cable profile .
However care is required not to affect the cable itself during drilling
and on completion they have to be filled with epoxy modified mortar.
17.9.3 Tests on Concrete
Different non-destructive tests on concrete are summarized by Mallet
in state of the art review on repair of concrete bridges10 .
304 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Depth of concrete cover is measured by cover-meter. Wide range


of cover-meters are available which measures concrete cover to an
accuracy of 5mm.
Hardness of concrete and strength can be measured by rebound
hammer. The main limitation of this instrument is that it relates the
strength only to a very limited depth, and is governed by surface
texture and carbonation. (Nowak-2 )
Quality of concrete is measured by sonic and ultrasonic pulse veloc-
ity methods. These methods are based on measurement of travel time
of acoustic waves.
Flaws in concrete are measured by impact echo method. This
method was developed by Carino and Sansalone4 in 1990s. The
mechanical impact generates a short duration stress pulse, which
travel as p and s waves. These are reflected by discontinuities. Later,
Bungley5 developed spectral peak plotting for finding flaws in concrete.
In 1993, Krause, Wiggenhauser and Wilsch presented an advanced
pulse echo method for ultrasonic testing of concrete.
Different methods are established for determination of surface per-
meability of concrete structures. In that initial surface absorption test
(ISAT) is the method standardised in BS 18816.
Chemical methods are used to evaluate depth of carbonation and
chloride ion content. The IRC -SP 403 , has given phenolphthalein test
for detection of carbonation of concrete. Bungley carried out more
detailed analyses from the microscopic examination of the section
taken from a small drilled core sample.
The chloride content is measured in laboratory by Mohr’s method
using potassium chloride as indicator in a neutral medium or by
volumetric titration method in acidic medium (IRC SP 40-1993).
Concrete delamination due to corrosion of reinforcement in bridge
decks is detected by Thermography7 , which measures the difference in
surface temperature of sound and unsound concrete, to detect areas
of delaminations due to corrosion.
Radar techniques are used to detect voids, position and continu-
ity of reinforcements, ducts, delaminations or other anomalies. The
method was first used by Pocock and Hartley in 1990. Flohrer and
Brenhardt8 described the application of radar technique to detect the
location of prestressing tendons.
For the measurement of existing stress in concrete, slot-cutting
method was developed by Abdunner9 . In this method, a 4mm wide
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 305

slot was cut in 10mm increments to a depth of 80mm. After each incre-
ment, a special jack was inserted into the segmental slot and pressure
required for restoring the former strain distribution was noted.
Gifford and partners described precision coring a strain gauged area
of concrete to estimate the principal stresses present. Elastic constants
are obtained by in-situ jacking test in the core-hole.
17.9.4 Tests on Steel
Corrosion of steel in concrete is the main reason for strength loss with
age of reinforced/prestressed concrete bridge girders. Corrosion is an
electrochemical process. The probability of corrosion is proportional to
the corrosion current which is controlled by the resistivity of the con-
crete. Different methods for corrosion detection of reinforced concrete
bridge girders are reported and summarised by Mallett10 .
Measurement of total resistance of a wire can be a preliminary
method of estimation of corrosion of cables as the cross sectional area
of wire reduces with corrosion, thus increasing the electrical resistance
of the wire.
Radiography is used to give picture showing the position and size
of bars. This is based on the principle that loss of energy of gamma
rays passing through a heterogeneous medium is greater in zones of
higher density material. The main disadvantage of this method is that
it will not show the extent of corrosion.
Ultrasonic methods are used to detect distress or fracture in pre-
stressing tendon if length of the tendons are small.

17.10 IN-SITU STRESS DETERMINATION TECHNIQUES


IN PRESTRESSED CONCRETE GIRDERS AND
BRIDGE DECKS
The ability of any prestressed concrete structure to support all present
and anticipated loads depends on the amount and distribution of
residual prestress. Condition assessment of the existing structures also
requires determination of prestress.
The present day trend is that during construction, the bridge is
instrumented with sensors to determine the loss of prestress. This will
provide a correct index to the health of a bridge from its inception, i.e.
from the construction stage onwards. Presently instrumentation such
as concrete strain gages, vibrating wire gages, etc. are being used for
instrumenting critical structures such as Nuclear Power Plants. The
306 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

current developments in Fibre Optic sensors hold promise for reli-


able measurements at reasonable cost in future. This has also been
extended to some selected bridge applications. Such instrumented
structures can be classified as Intelligent structures. If the prestressed
concrete girders are instrumented during construction, they are called
priori instrumented girders. Most of the old bridges are not instru-
mented during construction, the girders of such bridges are known as
priori uninstrumented girders.
The following methods are available for determining the residual
prestress in priori uninstrumented prestressed concrete girders.
(a) Steel stress relief hole method
(b) Concrete stress relief core method
(c) Decompression moment method
(d) Special methods
17.10.1 Steel Stress Relief Hole Method
Steel stress relief hole method is an experimental method of determin-
ing prestress in a prestressed concrete member by drilling a relatively
small hole either in prestressed or non-prestressed steel existing in the
beam. The stress relief is caused by this drilling. The hole diameter
and depth are equal. The hole diameter can be anywhere from 0.8
mm to 3.0 mm (standard size 1.6mm) depending upon the diameter
of prestressed wires or non-prestressed reinforcement bars. As the hole
is drilled into a stress field, the stress field around the hole is affected
and the radial stress at the edge of the hole experiences a total stress
relief. This stress relief is measured using electrical resistance foil strain
gages fixed on the wire prior to drilling, which are aligned radially to
the hole.
17.10.2 Concrete Stress Relief Core Method
Concrete stress relief core method is an experimental method of deter-
mining the precompression in a prestressed concrete member by taking
out a concrete core and measuring the stress relief caused by the hole
formed by removing the core with electrical strain gages pasted earlier.
17.10.3 Decompression Moment Method
In decompression moment method, residual prestressing force in a
member is determined by carefully observing the reopening of a flexu-
ral crack in the member during flexural load test. After the first crack
had developed, the beam will be unloaded as a result of which crack
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 307

may get closed. Load is slowly reapplied, and the reopening of the
crack on the bottom face is carefully monitored. at the instant of crack
opening, the stress at the bottom fiber is zero. Since the beam section
properties, weight and the applied loads are known, the residual pre-
stress existing in the member can be calculated by the well-known
flexural formula.
17.10.4 Special Methods
In the special methods, the existing prestress in a girder is measured
by nullifying the strain release caused by a free boundary with external
pressure. Strain sensors are affixed at a location where the prestress
is to be determined. When a slot or hole is made at that location a
free boundary occurs and the resulting strain release is measured by
the prefixed sensors. Uniform pressure is then applied by means of
jack or any other device along the free boundary to such an extent
that the strain release is nullified. This pressure gives the residual
precompression in the member at that location.

17.11 REHABILITATION TECHNIQUES -CASE STUD


17.11.1 Retrofitting of a Typical PSC Girder Bridge using
External prestressing
Structural Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Chennai, had carried
out condition assessment of a distressed prestressed concrete girder
bridge in which heavy prestress loss has been observed. External pre-
stressing was suggested for retrofitting of the bridge to carry the rated
loading. It was decided to measure strain, deflection responses dur-
ing external prestressing with a view to know the state of stresses
in the structural elements and to ensure that the state of stresses is
well within the permissible limits so that the whole operation of the
external prestressing could be carried out without any distress being
caused to the concrete due to increase in stresses. It was also sug-
gested to carrying out load testing of the retrofitted span with a view
to check the rating of the bridge and to verify/ensure safety of the
bridge during vehicular movement. The details of the instrumentation
and measurements carried out for strain and deflection responses of
the retrofitted span during external prestressing and load testing are
presented in the following sections.
17.11.2 Instrumentation for Strain Measurement
Linear precision foil strain gages, 90mm long with 120 ohm resis-
tance, with preattached lead wires (1m long), were used for strain
308 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

measurements. Strain gages were bonded using compatible adhesive


and standard procedure was followed for strain gage installation. The
leads from the strain gages were connected to the strain measuring
equipment (data logger) by using shielded, low resistant instrumen-
tation cables. All the strain gages were connected to the instrument
with quarter bridge-3 lead wire configuration and the stability of the
strain gages were monitored and checked before the actual tests.
For installing electrical resistance strain gages on the bridge deck,
pits of 300 × 300mm size to the required depth (to remove the bitu-
minous overlay upto the top surface of the deck) were made at the
identified locations. The gages installed on the top of the deck and
at bottom flange of girders were used to estimate the extreme fibre
stresses developed due to external prestressing operations. The strain
gages were installed before commencement of external prestressing
operations. It may be noted that these gages would give the stress
changes due to prestressing operations alone.
17.11.3 Instrumentation for Deflection Measurement
A precision theodolite/total station (Fig. 17.1) was used for mea-
surement of deflections during prestressing operations as well as
during the load testing. The theodolite station was kept on the top
deck of the span adjacent to the instrumented span, where external
prestressing/load test was carried out.
Using the proposed scheme of instrumentation, deflections of the
individual girders, as well as the deflections at the mid-span of the deck
during external prestressing operations/load testing were measured.
Five theodolite targets were installed at mid span on the top surface of
the deck (after removing bituminous overlay). Further, theodolite tar-
gets at one-quarter and three-quarters of the span were also installed
along central line of the deck. For installing theodolite targets on the
bridge deck, pits of 200 × 200mm size, to the required depth (till
it touched the top surface of the deck) were made at the identified
theodolite target locations. For installing reflection target sheet, a steel
stand at each location was fixed in each pit, using plaster of paris. Fig.
17.2. shows the arrangement of seven theodolite targets in the span.
17.11.4 Sequence of External Prestressing Operation
The external prestressing was carried out by M/s FPCCL, Mumbai,
for all the four PSC girders in each span. Each girder was stressed
using two Nos. of 8T13 prestressing cables, with a total prestressing
force of 1000 kN (2×500 kN). The stressing pressure for each cable
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 309

(for 500 kN) has been worked out to be 160 kg/cm2 . The elongation
for the above prestressing force has been worked out to be 126mm. To
account for anchorage slip of about 8mm, each 8T13 cable was stressed
upto 165-170 kg/cm2 . The stressing operation was carried out using
two stressing jacks. The stressing sequence is shown schematically in
Fig. 17.3.
External prestressing was applied as per the sequence specified
above. The interior girder ’G2’ was stressed first. Out of the two
cables used for prestressing for each PSC girder, one cable was stressed
from one side and the second cable was stressed from the other side.
Tensioning of each cable was done in seven stages. The tensioning
pressures (in kg/cm2 ) at different stages were: 50, 75, 100, 120, 140,
160 and 165-170 kg/cm2 respectively. Strain gage measurements were
recorded at each stage of stressing. Deflection measurements were also
taken at seven theodolite target locations of span using high precision
theodolite/total station at different stages of prestressing, as in the
case of strain measurements. The deflections which occurred during
the different stages of external prestressing compared reasonably well
with the theoretical deflections computed. Then the stressing of sec-
ond interior girder ”G3” was taken up followed by outer girder “G4”.
Stressing of outer girder ’G1’ was done after the stressing of G4 on
the same day. The method adopted for stressing, stages of stressing
and method of measurement of strains and deflections for girders G3,
G4 and G1 were the same as those adopted for girder G2. The details
of progressive (cumulative) deflection of girders G1, G2, G3 and G4
after completion of external prestressing of each girder are arrived.
Deflection of bridge, at mid span, at girder locations, during exter-
nal prestressing is shown in Fig. 17.4. It has been observed that the
deflections of PSC girders and strain values measured during external
prestressing operations compared reasonably well with the theoretical
values computed. The external prestressing operation was completed
successfully.
17.11.5 Load Testing and Measurement of Response
After the completion of the external prestressing of the four girders in
each span, load testing of span was taken up. A TATA 2515C (Cum-
mins) vehicle was used for load testing of the bridge span. The gross
unladen weight of the vehicle, front axle weight, rear axle weights of
unladen vehicle were determined using a weigh bridge. Gross Laden
Weight (GLW) of the test vehicle was computed as 25.0t (W) to sim-
ulate bending moment at mid span due to Class B loading as per
310 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

IRC: 6 [2000]. The test load was applied in stages of 0.5W (12.5t),
0.75W(18.75t), 0.9W(22.5t), and 1.0W(25.0t), where “W” is the Gross
Laden Weight of the test vehicle. For each stage of load application,
test vehicle was placed on the bridge deck so as to induce maximum
moment. The additional weights were loaded/added on to the test
vehicle by placing pre-weighed sand bags, each weighing 40 Kg, on
the test vehicle. Fig. 17.5 shows the test vehicle at centre of span
during particular stage of loading. During all stages of load applica-
tion, deflections were measured at selected theodolite target locations
and strains were measured using electrical resistance strain gages. For
each stage of load application, the loaded test vehicle was brought to
the intended/marked position (at centre of span) and deflections and
strains were recorded instantaneously and after a period of five min-
utes. The test vehicle was then taken off the bridge and instantaneous
recovery of deflections and strains were recorded. Further, recovery of
deflections and strains 5 minutes after the removal of the load were
also recorded. Maximum deflection due to Gross Laden Weight (W
= 25.0t) was found to be 3.1mm which is less than maximum per-
mitted deflection of 28.65mm (1/1500 of span = 28.65mm). It was
also noticed that the recovery of deflections after the removal of loads
was within the stipulated values given in IRC: 6. The strain values
recorded during the various stages of loading were also found to be
well within limits and on lower side compared to the strains induced
during external prestressing.

17.12 CONCLUDING REMARKS


In the past and during the present, the final acceptance of poured
concrete is by strength measured through a test sample (cube) that
may or may not represent the quality of the in- place concrete. This
situation has to change with emphasis on design for durability. Deci-
sions on durability require detailed testing to assess durability based
characteristics of concrete, technical knowledge and judgement. Reg-
ular inspection, proper maintenance and timely repair / restoration
will go a long way in reducing damage to concrete structures. With
the present advances in sensor technology and automation, continuous
monitoring of structures leading to intelligent structures will, in the
near future, ensure timely warning for changes in state of structure.
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 311

17.13 REFERENCES
1. ACI Committee 546, “Guide for repair of concrete bridge super-
structure”, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part2 , 1995.
2. Nowak A., “Diagnostic Procedures for Bridges”, Proceedings of
the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Bridge Evaluation,
Repair and Rehabilitation, Maryland, USA, 1990 pp 73–84.
3. IRC SP- 40,“Guidelines on techniques for strengthening and
rehabilitation of Bridges”, New Delhi 1993.
4. Carino N. J., and Sansalone M., “Flaw detection in concrete
using the impact-echo method”, proc. of NATO advanced work-
shop on Bridge evaluation, repair and rehabilitation, Baltimore,
Maryland, USA, 1990 pp. 101–118.
5. Bungley J. H., “Testing concrete in structures: A guide to equip-
ment for testing concrete in structures”, CIRIA Technical Note
143, 87., 1992
6. BS:1881, “Testing concrete: Part207-Near to surface strength
tests; Part 208:Initial Surface Absorption”, 1992
7. Clemina G. G., and Mckeel W. T.jr., “Detection of delamina-
tion in bridge decks with infrared thermography”, Transportation
research record, No. 664, Vol.1, pp. 180–182
8. Flohrer, and Brenhardt, B., “Detection of prestressed steel ten-
dons behind reinforcing bars, detection of voids in concrete
structures - a suitable application for radar systems”, Proc. 2nd
Int. Conf. On bridge management, pp. 18–21 Apr, 1993.
9. Abdunur C., Duchene J. L., “Structural assessment of bridge with
transversal cracks”. First International Conference on Bridge
Management held at University of Surrey Guildford, 1990,
pp.489–500.
10. Mallett G. P., “State of the Art Review on Repair of Concrete
Bridges”, Published by Thomas Telford Services Ltd., London,
1994.
11. Manjure P. Y., Rao P. S., and Rohra M. R., “ Strengthening of
PSC deck of flyover bridge at Vizag”
12. Thomas B., Ramakrishna Rao M.N., Khare P. S., “Condition
Assessment of a Prestressed Concrete Bridge Deck under Dis-
tress”, Proc. of the Int. Seminar on Failures, Rehabilitation and
Retrofitting of Bridges and Aqueducts, Nov. 1994, Bombay, Vol.
1, pp 255–259.
13. Mohindra O. D., Deepak N., Anant Ram ., Gupta, V. D.,
“Rehabilitation plan of Nizamuddin bridge”, Proc. of the Int.
312 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Seminar on Failures, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting of Bridges


and Aqueducts, Nov. 1994, Bombay, Vol. 1, pp 97–127.
Table 17.1 Comparative fineness of cement materials
Sl. No. Material Fineness
1 Silica fume 20000 m2 /kg(0.20 to 0.1 micron)
2 Fly ash 400 to 700 m2 /kg (5 to 3 micron)
3 Blast furnace slag 350 to 600 m2 /kg (6 to 3.5 micron)
4 Ordinary portland cement 300 to 400 m2 /kg (7 to 3 micron)

Fig. 17.1 A View of Theodolite Set Up

Fig. 17.2 View of Theodilite Targets for the Measurement


of Deflections
Distress in Prestressed Concrete Members and their Rehabilitation 313

Fig. 17.3 Stressing Sequence During External Prestressing

Fig. 17.4 Deflected Profile of the Bridge at Mid-span


during Prestressing
314 Recent Developments in Condition Assesment, Repair Materials and Repair...

Fig. 17.5 Test Vehicle at the Centre of Span