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The 5th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2011), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia : 6-7 June


Measurement of Overall Power Loss for

Different Three Phase 100kVA Transformer
Core Material
N.Ashbahani, Ismail Daut and N.H Halim

power loss. From the result also, better selection of material to

Abstract--This paper discussed result of an investigation be used in 100kVA three phase distribution transformer can be
towards the effect of using two different Cold Rolled Grain- identified.
Oriented (CRGO) Silicon Iron material to the 100kVA three
phase distribution transformer. This experiment used M4 and II. METHOD OF RESEARCH
M5 material with 5mm different overlap length, configured with
yoke and limb arrangement. Power loss has been measured using A. Experimental Apparatus
no-load test with 15 layer of lamination. The power loss of the
transformer model core of M4 material at the operation mode There are several tools that have been used in order to
flux density, 1.5T is 0.976W/Kg. This shows that M4 material accomplish this research. Three phase 100kVA distribution
have lower overall power loss compare to M5 material where M5 transformer are assembled with 45o T-joint, mitred overlap
material have 1.060W/Kg overall power loss during operation corner joints length of 5mm. Reference [4] illustrated diagram
mode. as fig.1 showing mitred overlap corner joints, indicated as
letter a. Fig. 2 shows real steel with mitred overlap corner
Index Terms-- Grain-Oriented Silicon Iron; M4 and M5
material; power loss; transformer core

The transformer is designed to transfer electrical energy
from one alternating current (ac) system voltage to another
with a high efficiency. This performance characteristic is
achieved through a combination of the special dimensions of
the transformer and the material that been used in fabrication,
the clamping arrangement also influences the dynamic
behavior of a core. Accurate mechanical modeling of the core
structure is important for a proper description of its dynamic
Figure 1. Arrangement of the sheets in a mitred overlap corner joint (only two
behavior [1]. layers considered).
For reducing the loss of transformer cores, low loss
silicon steels are increasingly demanded. The improvement of
the magnetic properties of silicon steels have been achieved
mainly by better orientation, such as high-permeability
oriented steel [2]. CRGO is most important soft magnetic
material in use today. This material are iron-silicon alloys with
usually has a silicon level of 3% that provides low core loss
and high permeability needed for more efficient and
economical electrical transformer. The physical properties of
CRGO include resistivity, saturation induction, significance in
order to find which material of the core that produces high

Nor Ashbahani Md. Kajaan is with School of Electrical System,

Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia (email:
Ismail Daut is with School of Electrical System, Universiti Malaysia Figure 2. Arrangement of the real steel in a mitred overlap corner joint (only
Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia (email: two layers considered).
Nasrul Helmei B. Halim is with School of Electrical System, Universiti
Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia (email:

978-1-4577-0354-6/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE

978-1-4577-0353-9/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE 208
Grained-oriented is a term used to designate electrical
steels that possess magnetic properties which are strongly
oriented with respect to the direction of rolling [5]. Material
with silicon has been used to increase the volume resistivity of
the steel as it is the primary alloying element in the electrical
steels. Hence, M4 and M5 grade material has been used in this
research where both fall under this grain-oriented group.
The layout and dimensions of this test platform is shown in
fig.3 where each core is 550 mm x 580 mm with the limbs and
yokes 100 mm. The main apparatus consisted of three phase
cores, two yoke cores and three limbed cores. This core is
assembled by using 15 layers of grain oriented silicon iron
laminations, M4 and M5. Figure 5. Power analyzer (PM 300).

B. Measuring Techniques
The diagram of the measuring circuit including the
equipment used to energize the three phase transformer cores
is shown in Fig. 6. The input voltage of the transformer can be
obtained by the calculation of the input voltage as shown in

Vinp = 4.44 × Ν × Α × f × B (1)

Where 4.44 is a constant value, N is number of turn of the

coil, A is the cross sectional area, f is the frequency and B is
the flux density. The induced or input voltage is increased if
the B is increased.
Figure. 3. Dimension (mm) of 45ٚ T-joint 100kVA transformer core model. In this research, the power analyzer will be used on order to
replace the wattmeter. It measures the scalar produces of the
The actual 100kVA distribution transformer test frame as magnetizing field which is equivalent to the induced voltage
shown in fig. 4 is the main framework used to determine total and forms an exact expression of the power loss. With the
power loss in the laminations within the transformer core. The equal turn ratios on the primary and secondary windings and
T-joint that can be seen in the figure below is 45o. The three the correct connection of the voltages and currents, the power
phase transformer has power rating 100kVA which needs analyzer will give the total power loss.
three phase input from the power supply range from 0V to
415V. Actual loss has been obtained using this actual
transformer from actual transformer model test.

Figure. 4. Actual transformer base of 45ٚ T-joint 100kVA transformer core

model. Figure 6. Associated system for measuring power loss.

Fig. 5 shows power analyzer that has been used to obtain III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
the power loss. The total power loss is the algebraic sum of the Electrical steels are marked in terms of power loss
channel power analyzer readings. performance. Within a power loss grade, the permeability of

the steel is next importance. Electrical steel are critically [3], Jan 2010.
assessed not only on their electromagnetic properties, but on [4] H. Pfutzner and P. Schonhuber, “On the Optimization of Mitred
Overlaps in Transformers Cores,”Physica Scripta, vol. 39, pp 629-632,
their mechanical properties also. 1989.
The overall power loss was measured over a flux density [5] AK Steel Corporation, “Selection of Electrical Steels for Magnetic
range between 1T and 1.8T with 5mm overlap length Cores,” Product Data Bulletin, West Chester, OH, 2007.
staggered yoke and limb. Fig. 7 shows the alteration of overall [6] Daut, I and Moses, A.J., “Some Effects Of Core Building On Localised
power loss in the range of flux density. The overall power loss Losses And Flux Distribution In A Three-Phase Transformer Core
Assembled From Powercore Strip”, IEEE Trans. On Mag., Vol. MAG-
of the transformer model core for both material M4 and M5 26, No 5, pp. 2002, Sept 1990
during operation mode flux density, 1.5T is 0.976 W/Kg and [7] Beckley P., Electrical Steels for rotating machines, The Institution of
1.060W/Kg. Electrical Engineers, 2002.


Nor Ashbahani Md. Kajaan was born in

Taiping, Perak, Malaysia on December 14, 1986.
She is a postgraduate student in Electrical
System Engineering at University of Malaysia
Perlis (UniMap). She received her B.Sc. (Hons)
in Industrial Electronic Engineering at UniMap in
Her master research is about transformer
design and her research interest is in electrical
machine design and power quality.

Ismail Daut received his B. App Sc. (Hons) from

University of Science Malaysia in 1980 and
MSc in Electrical and Electromagnetic
Figure 7. Graph of the power loss for M4 and M5 from the measurement. Engineering from University of Wales, College
of Cardiff, United Kingdom in 1984 and PhD in
The graph also shows that increasing in flux density will Energy Conservation and Power Engineering
from University of Wales, College of Cardiff,
also increased the power loss as well. This is due to the United Kingdom in 1991.
increasing of the current in the hysteresis loop areas. Another His research interest includes energy
factor which effects the overall power loss in the core and can conversion, electrical machine design and high
easily arise is when the core is assembled with air gaps, voltage. He has authored and co-authored more
than 185 technical papers in the national,
caused by the tolerance to which laminations are cut. international journal and conferences.
From the experiment, result shows that transformer core that
Nasrul Helmei bin Halim received his B. Eng.
has been assembled with M4 steel is better than lamination of (Hons) in Electrical System Engineering from
transformer core using material M5 steel. By using M4 steel, University of Malaysia Perlis in 2007 and M.
efficiency of the transformer can be optimized hence, this Eng (Electrical–Power) from University of
grade of material is recommended for transformer core design. Technology Malaysia in 2009. Currently he
serves as a lecturer in School of Electrical System
Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis.
His research interest includes high voltage
V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT engineering and renewable energy.

The authors would like to express their gratitude to the

Malaysian Transformer Manufacturing (MTM) for the supply
of transformer core material.
The authors also would like to express appreciation to
lecturers and staff for their willing to help with this work.

[1] A.M.A Haidar, S. Taib, I. Daut and S. Uthman, “Evaluation of
Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss,”Journal of Applied Science, pp
2579-2585, 2006.
[2] S. Wada, T. Yagisawa and N. Asai, “Building Factors of Transformer
Cores Made From Low Loss Si-Steel Sheets,”Physica Scripta, vol. 39,
pp 403-405, 1989.