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INSECT PESTS AND DISEASES OF DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus sp.

AGNES PAJARON NACARIO

SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND


NATURAL RESOURCES, CENTRAL BICOL STATE UNIVERSITY OF
AGRICULTURE, PILI, CAMARINES SUR IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE IN

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE

ENTOMOLOGY

SEPTEMBER 2017
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

AGNES P. NACARIO was born on February 24,1986. She is

the first child among the three siblings of Mr. Jerry B.

Pajaron and Mrs. Agrippina A. Pajaron. At present she is

residing at Zone 3, San Isidro, Naga City with her supportive

husband and two lovely kids.

She took her elementary education at San Isidro

Elementary School and pursued her secondary education at

Camarines Sur National High School.

As she desires to finish her Bachelor degree, by God' s

grace, she continue her studies at Central Bicol State

University of Agriculture with a degree of Bachelor of

Science in Agriculture major in Entomology. She encountered

some difficulties and problems but she believes that this

will help her become a better person whatever trials and

circumstances may come.

AGNES PAJARON NACARIO


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to give thanks to the

Almighty God for his gift of life, blessings, guidance,

kindness, strengths, good health, courage, and strong

determination which serve as shield and instrument toward the

attainment and fulfillment of this study.

The researcher would like to express her profound

thanks and appreciation to the persons who had given her all

the support and encouragement, making this work reality and

treasure.

Grateful appreciation to our adviser, Dr. Maria Dulce

J. Mostoles,Thesis Adviser, for giving her valuable

suggestions towards the success of the study and patiently

editing the manuscript.

To the farm owners, Mrs. Analiza A. Escober and her

technician Mr. Patrick B. Motos of Mikeliz Integrated Farm ,

Mr. Ernesto Mangiyat of Pacol Dragon Fruit Farm and Mr.

Ferdinand Marasigan of Panicuason Dragon fruit Farm for their

support and unselfish sharing of thoughts and experiences

towards the success of this study.


To all members of the thesis advisory committee, Prof.

Maria B. Refereza, Prof. Melchora V. Abonal for their

suggestions and comments for the improvement of this

manuscript.

The author would like to extend his gratitude and

deepest thanks to his loving and supportive husband, Mr.

Zandro V. Nacario, her daugthers, Neszandra France and

Neszyra Noreen P. Nacario, her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jerry

B. Pajaron Sr., her brother, Jerry B. Pajaron Jr., her

sister, Jenna A. Pajaron and relatives for immeasurable

support and their undying financial help and other forms of

assistance, prayers and for inspiring her with their

patience, understanding, genuine acceptance and confidence.


ABSTRACT

NACARIO, AGNES P., Department of Landscape and

Environmental Management, Central Bicol State University of

Agriculture, Pili, Camarines Sur, Philippines, March 2018.

INSECT PEST AND DISEASES OF DRAGON FRUITS ( Hylocereus sp.).

Thesis adviser: Maria Dulce J. Mostoles, Ph. D.

Insects pest and diseases associated with dragon fruit(

Hylocereussp.) was conducted at Calabanga, Panicuason and

Pacol, Naga City, July 2017 to September 2017. Every month,

hand picking, net sweeping and visual collections of these

organisms was done.

Results showed that there were twelve (12) insect

species associated with dragon fruit. Five (5) insect species

are pest of crops and was recorded to attack dragon fruit.

Seven (7) species were either natural enemies or saprophagous

feeders and non- crop pests.

Among these species that insects belonging to the

families Scarabidae, Formicidae, Curculionidae and

Drosophilidae caused damage on the various parts of the

dragon fruit.
Diseases associated with dragon fruit were: brown spot (

Dothiorella sp.), yellow spot, red spot and bacterial soft

rot ( Erwinia sp.) Red spot disease manifested 15% infection

and 30% infection in bacterial soft rot in the month of

September in Calabanga area. In Panicuason, 20% infection of

sunscald disease was noted for the (3) three months of the

study while brown spot disease was noted to 20% infection in

the month of July. Whereas, there was no diseases noted in

Pacol area.
INTRODUCTION

Dragon fruit (Hylocereus sp.) is a night blooming

climbing-vine cactus species. This crop belong to the

Cactaceae family from the subfamily Cactoidea of the tribe

Cactea. It is magnificient to behold with stunning and

beautiful fruit that exhibits vivirant colors and shape. The

dragon fruit is usually dark red in color, although some

types of this fruit is a thin rind, usually covered with

scales and the center of the fruit is made up of red or

white,sweet testing pulp (http//www.squidoo.com.dragonfruit).

Hylocereus sp.is believed to be native to the tropical

forest regions of Mexico and Central and Southern America and

has been brought to Southeast Asian countries including

Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh

and Vietnam. It has adapted to live in dry tropical climates

with a moderate amount of rain. It is also known to have some

health benefits that includes preventing memory loss, anti-

cancer activity, control of blood glucose, level on diabetes,

anti-oxidant properties, aids in healing of wounds and many

other.

The flowers of the dragon fruit plant only bloom at

night and usually only live for one night. It is ornate,


bell- shape, very fragnant, yellowish and about 1 foot long

and 9 inches wide. It opens in early evening and wilt by

daybreak. Pollination happens at this time and at early in

the morning to alllow the fruit to emerge(Reano, Roberto Jr.

C.,2011).

The dragon fruit comes in three types, all with

leathery, slightly leafy skin. The most commonly seen and has

red- skinned fruit with white flesh is Hylocereusundatus

(Pitayablanca or white- fleshed pitaya). Also known as

Hylocereuspolyrhizus, has red- skinned fruit with red flesh

is Hylocereuscostaricensis (Pitayaroja or red- fleshed

pitaya). Hylocereusmegalanthus (Pitayaamarilla or yellow

pitaya, also known as Selenicereusmegalanthus) has yellow-

skinned fruit with white flesh.

Insect pests and diseases of the crop are emerging

problems of the farmers. It contributes significantly to

losses and high cost of production among the growers.

Infestation of the pest is undetermined because of time

changing of environmental condition.

Thus, the objectives of the study are to:

1. Identify the insect pests and its diseases associated

with dragon fruit and its damage


2. Determine the occurence of disease of the dragon

fruit; and

3.Determine the damage of insect pest and diseases of

dragon fruit.

The study was conducted at Calabanga, Panicuason and

Pacol, Naga City from July to September 2017.


REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Dragon fruit (Hylocereus sp.) is a vine, epiphytic cacti

that has fleshy stems that grow up to 20 ft long when

matured. The flower of this crop bloom overnight and usually

wilt by the morning. They rely on nocturnal pollinators such

as bats and moths for fertilization. Self-fertilization will

not produce fruit in some species and while cross-breeding

has resulted in several “self fertile” varieties, cross

pollinating with a second plant species generally increases

fruit set and quality. This limits the capability of home

growers to produce the fruit.

Hylocereus sp. has adapted to live in dry tropical

climates with a moderate amount of rain. The dragon fruit

sets on the cactus- like trees 30-50 days after flowering

and can sometimes have 5-6 cycles of harvest per year. There

are some farms in Vietnam that produce 30 tons of fruit per

hectare every year ( Arifin et.al, 2008).

Over watering or excessive rainfall can cause the

flowers to drop and the fruit to rot. Also, extended over-

watering can cause maturing fruit to split on the branch.

Birds can be a nuisance. The bacteruimXanthomascampestris

causes the stems to rot. Dothiorella fungi can cause brown


spots on the fruit but this is not always common. Other

fungi known to infect pitaya include Botryosphaeriadothidea,

Colletotrichumgloesporioides andBipolariscactivora

(http//www.deleysfruit.com.au/fruitP20%pitaya/pitaya.htp.).

This crop is known for having strong and menacing name

contradicts the plants ability to protect itself from

predators. Scales, mealy bugs and aphids, the sap-sucking

pests, hide under a protective waxy crating and feed by

piercing plant flesh and sucking out the sap. These insects

excrete a sweet liquid, the honeydew which attracts ants.

The sugary honeydew aphids produce is a favorite ant food.

They may not eat the plant directly but they protect aphids

from predators. Reason to have more aphids survive with the

help of their bodyguard ants and further damage the dragon

fruit. Beetle larvae may also feed on plants or fruits.

Arachnids are tiny relatives of spiders that feed on plants.

Silk webbing on the plant along with speckled damage to the

stems. Thrips with four fringed wings and short antennae is

difficult to see on the plant as they are less than 1/20

inch long. Their feeding behavior leaves a stippled pattern

on the plants that can kill a dragon

fruit.(www.fromdoctopdf.com)
Heavy rainfall events or poor crop management practices

such as over- watering can cause flowers to drop, and fruit

to split or rot. Anthracnose, stem canker, brown stem spots

and fruit rot are diseases prevalent in major growing areas

in the Asian- Pacific region. And the emerging infectious

stem canker has recently caused collapses of many dragon

fruit in Southeast Asia. (Taiwan Agricultural Research

Institute and Southern Horticultural Research Institute).

Tepora et al (2010), developed the bags made from

mosquito net as an alternative control measure in terms of

effectiveness and environmental sustainability to reduce the

pest damage and the incidence of disease infection. Pruning

damaged parts with disinfected materials and further

disinfection were practiced to avoid further spread of

damage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Collection Area

The study was conducted at Calabanga, Panicuason and

Pacol, Naga City as shown in Figure 1. The description of the

area, variety planted and surrounding plants is shown in

Table 1. The Calabanga area practices pure organic

agriculture. The two (2) areas, Panicuason and Pacol used

chemical fertilizer and insecticide.

Collection of Insect Pests

Data collection was done for (3) three consecutive

months. Insect nets, hand picking and other appropriate

collecting methods were used. Populations of the major

insects were monitored and damages on the dragon fruits were

assessed.

Preservation and Identification of Collected Insect Pests

The collected insect pests were placed in killing bottle

with 70% alcohol. Insects collected were properly preserved,

sorted and identified. The preserved insects were labeled,

arranged and organized according to the area of collection

and functional guild. The common insects were identified up

to the family level. Available references such as laboratory

drawings and illustrations were used.


Disease Assessment

Visual observation of signs and symptoms of diseases

were conducted in order to assess the extent of damage.

Stems, leaf fruit and flower inspection were done to rate the

percentge of infection. Percentage occurrence of the diseases

was computed.

% infestation =No. of plant infected diseases by row interval


Total no. of plant x100

Damage Assessment

The study used a standard rating scale to assess the

damages of both chewing insects ( Table 2) and sucking

insects (Table 3). Individual plants visually examined and

recorded for the presence of damage done by either the

chewing and sucking insects.

Rating Scale

0 – no damage

1 – 0-10% damage

2 – 11-25% damage

3 – 26-50% damage

4 – 51-75% damage

5 – 76-100% damage
Table 1.The description of Dragon Fruit Plantation, Types of
area, planted variety and surrounding plants
LOCATION TYPE OF AREA VARIETY SORROUNDING
PLANTED PLANTS
CALABANGA upland Red pitaya Grasses,

herbs,

flowering

plants,

coconut,

mangga, pili

PANICUASON upland White pitaya Grasses,

papaya,

coconut,

cacao,

jackfruit,

okra, sweet

potato,

flowering

plants

PACOL upland Red pitaya Coconut,

mangga,

santol, pili
Table 2.Rating scale for damage of chewing insect On Dragon
fruit

SCALE DESCRIPTION GENERAL APPRAISAL


1 0-10% with hole resistant
larval/adult
feeding
2 11-25% with hole Moderate resistant
larval/adult
feeding
3 26-50% with hole intermediate
larval/adult
feeding
4 51-75% with hole Moderate
larval/adult susceptible
feeding
5 76-100% with hole Susceptible
larval/adult
feeding

Table 3. Rating scale for damage of sucking insects


On Dragon fruit

SCALE DESCRIPTION GENERAL APPRAISAL

1 0-10% With speckled Resistant

stem

2 11-25% with shoots Moderate resistant

or flower buds

3 26-50% with shoots Intermediate

4 51-75% with shoots Moderate

susceptible

5 76-100% with shoots susceptible


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Insects associated with dragon fruit

There were thirteen (13) individuals were associated

with dragon fruit. The dragon fruit insects collected from

different areas were identified according to their taxonomic

levels and functional guilds and presented in Table 4.

Plantation, dragon fruit variety and plant surrounding in the

area and insects population were discussed below.

CALABANGA

The farm was located at Bigaas, Calabanga, Camarines

Sur, owned by Mrs. Analiza A. Escober. The type of area is

upland. The planting distance is 2 meter – 2.75 meter and 4-6

feet for post’s height. Hylocereus undatos (red dragon fruit

has red flesh or red pulp) is the variety that was

planted.Grass, herbs, flowering plants, coconut, mangga and

pili were the surrounding plants in the area.

Since the farm is implementing the Good Agricultural

Practices (GAP), they used green label brand and organic for

environmental friendly spray. The method of application is

direct spray from the root base up to young shoots. Early

morning and late afternoon was the time of application.

Diseases of crops were determined during rainy season,


flowering stage and fruiting stage. Loss of investment is the

mainly impact of diseases to farmer unless taking actions to

prevent spread of diseases and strict maintenance of the

fruit trees.

There were seven (7) insect species associated with

dragon fruit. Five (5) of these are pest of crops. Two (2)

species were predator and saprophagous feeders. The insect

associated with dragon fruit were identified namely: scarab

beetle (Family: Scarabidae), dragonfly (Order: Odonata), red

ants (Family: Formicidae), black ants (Family: Formicidae),

weevil (Family:Curculionidae), housefly (Family: Muscidae)

and fruitfly (Family: Drosophilidae).

PANICUASON

The farm was located at Panicuason, Naga City, owned by

Mr. Ferdinand Marasigan. The type of area was upland; white

flesh is the variety that was planted. The planting distance

is 2.5 meter and 5.5 feet is the height of the post. Papaya,

coconut, jackfruit, okra, sweet potato, grasses, cacao and

flowering plants were the surrounding plants in the said

area. The farmer was used manure as organic fertilizer and

complete as chemical fertilizer. Insecticides like Triple

crop giant, mower, yield booster for fruits, cymbus and


bugbuster for ants were used and mixed in 16 liters of water

before spraying on stems and fruits of the crop. During rainy

season and fruit stage, pests and diseases was determined.

There were eight (8) insect species associated with

dragon fruit. Five (5) of these species are pests of crops.

Two (2) species were predator and one (1) specie were

saprophagous feeder. The insects associated with dragon fruit

were identified namely: housefly (Family: Muscidae), red ants

(Family: Formicidae), black ants (Family: Formicidae), mirid

bug (Family: Miridae), weevil (Family: curculionidae),

cranefly (Family:Tipulidae), dragonfly (Family:Libellulidae)

and ladybird beetle (Family: Coccinelidae.

PACOL

The farm was located atPacol, Naga City owned by

Mr. Ernesto Mangiyat. The type of area was upland, measures

2.5 meter for distance and 6.5 feet for post’s height. Red

flesh or red pulp is the variety that was planted in the

area. Coconut, mangga, pili, and grasses were the sorrounding

plants in the farm. The farmer preferred manure and complete

fertilizer. Spraying using insecticides like cymbus, yield

booster, triple crop giant and mower were used to prevent

spread of diseases of the crops.

There were seven (7) insects species associated with

dragon fruit. Four (4) of these were identified as pests of


the crops and three (3) species were identified as

saprophagous feeder and predator. The insect associated with

dragon fruit were identified namely: housefly (

Family:Muscidae), red ants (Family: Formicidae), black ants

(Family: Formicidae), wasp (Family:Braconidae) and flower fly

(Family:Syrphidae),blow fly (Family: Calliphoridae) and scarb

beetle(Family: Scarabidae).

In three (3) months duration of the study, it was

observed that insect pests belong to the families Formicidae,

Scarabidae, Drosophilidae and Curculionidae caused damage on

the various parts of the dragon fruit. The red ants

(Formicidae) attracted on the sweet fruit and stem of both

young and mature which damaged on the crops. Shown in Figure

2 were the red ants and its damage on the dragon fruit. These

insects chew the parts of the stem which caused discoloration

as shown in Figure 3. Infestation by these insects was found

to be high in Calabanga area in the month of September while

lower in Panicuason area as presented in Table 5 .

Base on the collection and identification of insects for

three (3) months, different result appeared from the study

conducted by Reano (2011) where there is no one specie is a

pollinator. Shown in Figure 8 were the insects pests

associated with dragon fruit which caused damage and diseases

on the crops.
Table 4. Insects associated with Dragon fruit in Calabanga,
Panicuason and Pacol

Insect associated with dragon fruit in July, 2017

AREA COMMON SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY FUNCTIONAL


NAME GUILD
CALABANG Black Lasuis Niger Formicidae Pest
A ants
Red Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
ants
Scarab Scarabidae Pest
beetle
Fruitfl Drosophila Tephritida Pest
y e
Dragonf Libellula sp. Libellulid Predator
ly ae
Housefl M. domestica Muscidae Saprophago
y us feeders
PANICUAS House M. domestica Muscidae Saprophago
ON fly us
Feeder
Weevil Sitophilus sp. Curculioni Pest
dae
Lady Chilomenessexmacul Coccinelid Predator
bird atus ae
beetle
Red Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
ants
Black Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
ants
PACOL House M. domestica Muscidae Saprophago
fly us Feeder
Blow Calliphori Saprophago
fly dae us feeder
Red ant Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
Black Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
ant
Scarab Scarabidae Pest
Beetle
Insects associated with dragon fruit in August, 2017

AREA COMMON SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY FUNCTI


NAME ONAL
GUILD
CALABANG Black ants Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
A
Red ants Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
Fruitfly Bactrocera Pest
dorsalis
Dragonfly Libellula sp. Libellulidae Predat
or
Scarab Scarabidae Pest
beetle
Housefly M. domestica Muscidae Saprop
hagous
feeder
PANICUAS Mirid bug Campyloneuravirg Miridae Pest
ON ule
Weevil Sitophilus sp. Curculionidae Pest
Black ants Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
Red ants Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
House fly M. domestica Muscidae Saprop
hagous
feeder
Crane fly Latreille Tipulidae Predat
or
Dragon fly Libellula sp. Libellulidae Predat
or
PACOL House fly M. domestica Muscidae Saprop
hagous
feeder
Black
soldier
Flower fly Syrphidae
Wasp
Black ants Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
Red ants Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
Blow fly Calliphoridae Saprop
hagous
feeder
Scarab Scarabidae Pest
Beetle
Insects associated with dragon fruit in September, 2017

AREA COMMON SCIENTIFIC FAMILY FUNCTIONAL


NAME NAME GUILD
CALABANGA Weevil Sitophilus Curculionidae Pest
sp.
Red Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
ants
Black Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
ants
Scarab Scarabidae Pest
Beetle
Dragon Libellula Libellulidae Predator
fly sp.
PANICUASON Crane Latreille Tipulidae Predator
fly

Mirid Campyloneura Miridae Pest


bug virgule
Weevil Sitophilus Curculionidae Pest
sp.
Red Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
ants
Black Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
ants
House M. domestica Muscidea Saprophagous
fly Feeder
PACOL House M. domestica Muscidae Saprophagous
fly feeder
Blow Calliphoridae Saprophagous
fly
Red Solenopsis Formicidae Pest
ants
Black Lasuisniger Formicidae Pest
ants
Population dynamics of insects

Occurrence of the different insects was recorded at

three (3) months consecutive months. Shown in (Figure 4) in

Calabanga area, red ants was abundant in the month of

September followed by fruitfly and black ants. While in

Panicuason area (Figure 5), black ants was abundant in July

and August. The black and red ants were observed both

abundant in the month of July and September. In (Figure 6),

the Pacol area was noted that more saprophagous feeder were

associated with dragon fruit. Followed by black ants where

have the same trends of observation in three (3) consecutive

months.

The result of this study was the same from the study

conducted by Tepora, et al (2008) wherein insect pests were

found to be at its peak of abundance during the month of

August to September. The same study where ants found to be

harmful destructive to the fruit and stem of the dragon

fruit.

Damage Assessment of Chewing and Sucking Insects

The damage assessment of chewing and sucking insects of

the areas was carried out as shown in Figure 9 and 10 using

the percentage damage of chewing and sucking insects. The


damage assessment shows that the sucking insects are

relatively high compared to chewing insect. It was noted that

Calabanga area has the highest percentage of damage for

sucking insects with 16.68% in the month of August due to the

red and black ants and damage for chewing insects with 2.37%

in the month of September. It is shown also in Figure 7 that

the population of the pest is considerably high in the area

carried by the destructive major pest.

Diseases of Dragon Fruit

There were four (4) diseases recorded which associated

with dragon fruit. The brown spot caused by Dothiorella

sp.,Sanscald, Red spot and Bacterial soft rot caused by

Erwinia sp.Was shown in (Figure 11-14). The percentage

infestation of diseases of dragon fruit in Calabanga was

presented in (Table 6). Bacterial soft rot was observed to

have the highest percentage infection due to heavy rains.

While in (Table 7) in Panicuason area, the percentage

infection of sanscald was observed to have the highest

percent of infection. In Pacol area, it was observed that

there was no damage occurred during the conduct of the study

due to insecticide was used in the farm.


Table 5.Insect Population obtained for three (3) months
Duration of the study.
Population of insect collected in Calabanga

Name of collected insects Number of collected insects

COMMON NAME ORDER JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

Black ants Hymenoptera 7 6 8

Red ants Hymenoptera 10 10 11

Scarab beetle Coleoptera 2 4 4


Weevil Coleoptera 2 1

Dragon fly Odonata 2 2 1

House fly Diptera 2 3 2

Fruit fly Diptera 5 7 8

Population of insects collected in Panicuason

NAME OF COLLECTED INSECTS NUMBER OF COLLECTED INSECTS


COMMON NAME ORDER JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

Black ants Hymenoptera 6 5 4

Red ants Hymenoptera 4 2 2

Weevil Coleoptera 1 1

House fly Diptera 3 2 2

Crane fly Diptera 1 1

Dragon fly Odonata 1

Lady bird Coleoptera 1


beetle
Mirid bug 1 2
Population of insects collected in Pacol

NAME OF COLLECTED INSECTS NUMBER OF COLLECTED INSECTS

COMMON NAME ORDER JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

Black ant Hymenoptera 9 9 9

Red ant Hymenoptera 7 8 8

Housefly Diptera 12 11 13

Blow fly Diptera 5 5 4

Beetle Coleoptera 3 2

Flower fly Diptera 1

Wasp Hymenoptera 1

Black soldier Diptera 1


DYNAMICS OF INSECTS OF DRAGON FRUIT IN
PACOL
BS 0
1
0
WS 0
1
0
FF 0
1
0
B 0
2
3
BF 4
5
5
HF 12
11
12
RA 8
8
7
BA 9
9
9
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

SEPTEMBER AUGUST JULY

Figure 2. Dynamics of insects of dragon fruit in Pacol

Legend:

BS – Black soldier
WS – Wasp
FF – Flower fly
B - Beetle
BF – Blow fly
HF – House fly
RA – Red ant
BA – Black ant
0
DF
0
1
1
DYNAMICS OF INSECTS OF DRAGON FRUIT IN
CF 1
MB
0
1
2 PANICUASON
0
W 0
1
1
HF 2
2
2
B 0
0
1
BA 4
5
6
RA 2
2
4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SEPTEMBER AUGUST JULY

Figure 3. Dynamics of insect of Dragon Fruit in Panicuason

Legend:

DF – Dragon fly
CF – Cranefly
MB – Mirid bug
W - Weevil
HF – Housefly
B - Beetle
BA – Black ant
RA – Red ant
DYNAMIC OF INSECTS OF DRAGON FRUIT IN
CALABANGA
1
W 1
0
4
B 4
2
8
FF 0
5
2
HF 7
2
1
DF 2
2
11
RA 10
10
8
BA 6
7
0 2 4 SEPTEMBER 6 AUGUST JULY8 10 12

Figure 4. Dynamics of insects of Dragon fruit in Calabanga

Legend:

W – Weevil
B – Beetle
FF- Fruit fly
HF- Housefly
DF- Dragonfly
RA- Red ant
BA- Black ant
CHEWING INSECTS ASSOCIATED IN DRAGON
FRUIT
2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0
PACOL PANICUASON CALABANGA

JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

Figure 5. Chewing insects associated in dragon Fruit


SUCKING INSECTS ASSOCIATED IN DRAGON
FRUIT
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
PACOL PANICUASON CALABANGA

JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER

Figure 6. Sucking insects associated in Dragon Fruit


Table 6. Disease Assessment of Dragon fruit in Calabanga

Diseases of Total no. of plant % infection of plant


dragon fruit in diseases diseases
July
Red spot 2 10%
Bacterial soft 5 25%
rot
Brown spot 1 5%

Diseases of Total no. of plant % infection of plant


dragon fruit in diseases diseases
August
Red spot 2 10%
Bacterial soft 4 20%
rot
Brown spot 1 5%

Diseases of Total no. of plant % infection of plant


dragon fruit in diseases diseases
September
Red spot 2 10%
Bacterial soft 6 30%
rot
Brown spot 1 5%

Table 7. Disease Assessment of Dragon fruit in Panicuason

Diseases of Total no. of plant % infection of plant


dragon fruit in diseases diseases
July
Sanscald 2 20%
Brown spot 2 20%

Diseases of Total no. of plant % infection of plant


dragon fruit in diseases diseases
August
Sanscald 2 20%
Brown spot 1 10%

Diseases of Total no. of plant % infection of plant


dragon fruit in diseases diseases
September
Sanscald 2 20%
Brown spot 1 10%
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Insect pests and diseases of dragon fruit (Hylocereus

sp.) was conducted at Calabanga, Panicuason and Pacol, Naga

City from July to September, 2017. Three (3) months duration

of the study was done to determine the possible insects and

diseases associated with dragon fruit and to determine the

occurrence of diseases of dragon fruit. Rating scale for

damage of chewing insects or sucking insects, population

dynamics of insects and its functional guild and the

percentage damage of pest diseases associated with dragon

fruit were done. The extent of damage of diseases was

assessed through visual observation of signs and symptoms. To

rate the percentage of infection, stem, leaf fruit and flower

inspection were done.

There were thirteen (13) insects species associated with

dragon fruit which were classified either as pest, predator

and saprophagous feeder. The Families belong to Formicidae,

Scarabidae, Curculionidae and Drosophilidae were found as

destructive insect pests of the dragon fruit. The red ants

attracted to the sweet fruit and to the stem both young and

mature. The black ants were also observed which damage the

dragon fruit. Scarabidae and Curculionidae also attacked the

stem and scrape the tissues of the stem of the dragon fruit.
Four (4) diseases were associated with dragon fruit namely;

brown spot, bacterial soft rot, red spot and sanscald. The

percentage infection of diseases in Calabanga, for the red

spot, it was noted to 15% infection in the month of September

and 30% infection for bacterial soft rot while brown spot was

noted to have the same result in three (3) months. The

percentage infection of diseases in Panicuason, for the

sanscald was noted to 20% infection in the three (3) months

of the study while brown spot was noted to 20% infection in

the month of July. While in Pacol area, there was no damage

noted and recorded.

Based on the result of the study, it is recommended that

with the existing population of insect pests in dragon fruit,

full attention is needed to control the insect pest of the

crop. It showed that insecticide application was effective to

one area that resulted in the absence of diseases on the

dragon fruit. Hence, control methods must be developed to

decrease the population of insect pest and infestation of

diseases.
LITERATURE CITED

TEPORA, TEDDY F. et al (2010) “ Evaluation of different


Cultural
Management Practices as IPM Strategy Against Insect
Pests
Of Dragon Fruit”. Cavite State University

REANO, ROBERTO JR. C. (2011) Insect Pests and Diseases of


Dragon fruit.

ARIFIN et al, (2008). Essential fatty acid of pitaya/ dragon


fruit seed oil. Food Chemistry.

TEPORA, T., RINT, J. SINGSON 2008. Incidence of Insect pest


associated with night blooming cactus, hylocereus undatus
Britton and Rose Indang, Cavite. Proceedings of the PMCP
Conference, Puerto Prinsesa Palawan.

Gazing Fruits. 2008. Nutrition and facts about Pitaya


Retrieved 2007-June 16.

Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute and Southern


Horticultural Research Institute (2015), Fengshan
Tropical horticultural Experiment Branch, Kaohsuing,
Taiwan

www.fromdoctopdf.com

http://www.rarefruit.com/pitayabook.html

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pitayaFruit/

http://www.squiidoo.com.dragonfruit

http://www.deleysfruit.com.au/fruitP20%pitaya.htp.
Figure 2. Red Ants Feeding on the stem and fruits of Dragon

Fruit
Figure 3.Damage of the red ants causing drying and
discoloration of the stem of dragon fruit.
FIGURE 8. Insect pests associated with dragon fruit

A. black ants B.mirid bug C. red ants D. housefly

E.wasp F. blowfly

G. scarab beetle H. flower fly I. crane fly J.

ladybird beetle k. dragon fly L. weevil


Figure 11. Brown spot on the stem of Dragon Fruit
Figure 12.Sanscald infecting the stem of Dragon Fruit
Figure 13. Red Spot Infecting the stem of
dragon fruit
Figure 14.Bacterial soft rot infecting the stem of
dragon fruit.
Figure 1. The areas where the study conducted

A.Calabanga B. Panicuason C. Pacol