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# Introduction to Electromagnetic

Field
Chapter 4.2: Uniform plane wave

## Pham Quang Thai – pqthai.hcmut@gmail.com

Wave equation in free space:

 B H
  E   t    t   H  2E
      E    (E)   E    2
2

  H  J  D   E t t
 t t
In free space
D  E    0
J0
 2E
  E   2
2

t
Simplest case: E is constant in 3 dimensions
 2E  2E
 2   E  0  2  0
2 Static field: wrong
t t
More complicate case: E is constant in 2 dimensions
Assuming that E is varies in x-dimension
and moving in x-direction
ax ay az
H    H
  E     
t x y z t
Ex Ey Ez
ax ay az
 H H Static magnetic
 0 0     0
x t t field: wrong
E ( x) 0 0
More complicate case: E is constant in 2 dimensions
Assuming that E is varies in x-dimension
and moving in z direction
ax ay az
H    H
  E     
t x y z t
Ex Ey Ez
ax ay az
 H E ( z ) H y Transverse
 0 0    a y   ay
z t z t wave: correct
E( z) 0 0

## The simplest type of EM wave: uniform plane wave

E  Ex ( z, t )a x 
  2
E  2
Ex
 E 
2 x
 0 0 2
 E   2 
2
z 2
t
t 
Solution to the Wave Equation:

  
Ex  z , t   Af t  z 0 0  Bg t  z 0 0 
Ex
 A      f  t  z   
z
0 0 0 0

 B   g t  z   
0 0 0 0

2 Ex
    Af   t  z     g   t  z    
z 2
0 0
 0 0 0 0

2 Ex
 0 0 2
t
 z   z 
Ex  z, t   Af  t    Bg  t  
 v   v 
 p   p 
1
Where vp   3  108 m/s = c, velocity of light
00

f t  z vp  represents a traveling wave propagating in the

+z-direction.

g t  z vp  represents a traveling wave propagating in the

–z-direction.
Example: wave travelling along the +z direction

f  t  z vp    t  z 5 
2

1
t0 t
5

1
25

z
1 0 1 2

1
vp   5 m/s
15
Example: wave travelling along the -z direction

g  t  z vp   e
 2t  z 2 t  z 2
e
g

1
1
t
2
t0

z
3 2 1 0 1 2

1
vp   2 m/s
12
Ex H y
From   ,
z 0 t
H y 1 Ex

t 0 z
1   z   z 
  Af   t    Bg   t   
0 vp   vp   vp  

1   z   z 
H y  z , t    Af  t    Bg  t   
0   vp   vp  

## where 0  0  0  Intrinsic impedance

 120  377 ohms
  z   z 
 Ex  z, t   Af  t    Bg  t  
Thus, the general   vp   vp 
solution is 
 1   z   z 
 H y  z, t     Af  t  v   Bg  t  v  
 0 
  p   p 

For the particular case of the infinite plane current sheet in the
z = 0 plane, there can only be a () wave for z > 0 and a ()
wave for z < 0. Therefore,

y z

E  z, t   Bg  t  z vp  ax for z  0 E  z, t   Af  t  z vp  ax for z  0

f  t  z vp  a y for z  0
A
H  z, t   
B
g  t  z vp  a y for z  0 H  z, t  
0 0

JS  t 

z=0
Uniform plane wave: at any instant t both E and H are uniform over any plane
perpendicular to the direction of propagation z
Applyi g Faraday’s law i i tegral for
to the rectangular closed path abcda is
the limit that the sides bc and da0,

Lim
 b E d l  d E d l  Lim d
 a c 
bc 0 bc 0  B dS
da 0  da 0 dt abcda
 ab   Ex z 0   dc   Ex z 0 0

 z 
E  z, t   F  t  ax for z 0
 vp
Af t   Bgt   say, F t   
 1 z 
H  z, t    F  t  a y for z 0
0  vp 
Applyi g A pere’s circuital law i
integral form to the rectangular closed
path efgha is the limit that the sides fg
and
he0,
Lim
 f h

 e g
fg 0 H d l  H d l
he 0  

Lim  d 
 fg 0
he 0
 efghe J d S  dt efghe D d S 

## ef H y z 0  hg H y z 0  ef  JS t 

1  1 
F t    F t   J S t 
0  0 
0
F t   J S t 
2
Thus, the solution is
0  z  1  z 
E  z, t   JS  t  ax for z 0 H  z, t    JS  t  a y for z 0
2  vp 2  vp 

0  z  0  z 
E  z, t   J S  t   ax E  z, t   J S  t   ax
2  vp  2  vp 

1  z  1  z 
H  z, t    J S  t   a y H  z, t   J S  t   a y
2  vp  2  vp 

x JS  t 

y z
z=0
Example: find E-H waves at a point / a moment in time

z<0 z>0 x

JS  t  y z

z
z = 0
a Ex t  for z  300 m

## b H y t  for z  450 m

c Ex  z for t  1s