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This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth search
done by the researchers. This will also present the theoretical and conceptual framework to fully
understand the research to be done.


According to Seal, M., (2002), long term users of marijuana may potentially lead to
permanent detrimental effects on thinking and memory. It was also noted that the younger the
cannabis habit begins, the worse the damage to the brain. Given the association between
cannabis-related harms and age of onset of regular use, delaying use may minimize such harmful
effects. Disturbed brain connectivity in cannabis users may underlie cognitive impairment and
vulnerability to psychosis, depression and anxiety disorders, all of which are significant public
health concerns.

According to Cummings, Hockenberry, and Wen (2014), 21 states and the District of Columbia
currently have laws that permit marijuana use for medical purposes, often termed medical
marijuana laws (MMLs). They tested the effects of MMLs adopted in seven states between 2004
and 2011 on adolescent and adult marijuana, alcohol, and hard drug use. They employed a
restricted-access version of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) micro-level
data with geographic identifiers. For those 21 and older, they found that MMLs led to a relative
increase in the probability of marijuana use of 16 percent, an increase in marijuana use frequency
of 12-17 percent and an increase in the probability of marijuana abuse/dependence of 15-27
percent. For those 12-20 years old, they found a relative increase in marijuana use initiation of 5-
6 percent. Among those aged 21 or above, MMLs increased the frequency of binge drinking by
6-9 percent, but MMLs did not affect drinking behavior among those 12-20 years old. MMLs
had no discernible impact on hard drug use in either age group. Taken together, MML
implementation increases marijuana use mainly among those over 21, where there is also a
spillover effect of increased binge drinking, but there is no evidence of spillovers to other
substance use.


Marijuana has long been considered the most accessible of gateway drugs. The belief was that
marijuana would lead users to “graduate” to dangerous drugs such as heroin and cocaine. Its
users have long been demonized as “stoners” and pejoratively described as lost souls who do
nothing but smoke “weed” throughout the day. This remains its stereotypical portrayal in popular

The argument of the people who are for the legalization of marijuana, regardless if medical or
not, is that helps treat a variety of diseases. According to Earleywine (2005), the earliest trace of
marijuana use dated as far back as 2737 B.C., when China’s emperor, Shen Neng, used cannabis
tea to treat gout, rheumatism, malaria and even poor memory. The following are some of the
most notable conditions and diseases that have been proven to be modulated by marijuana:
cancer, HIV/ AIDS and chemotherapy, alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Arthritis,
glaucoma, depression, schizophrenia, morning sickness, and hepatitis c.

According to Representative Rodolfo Albano III (2014), House Bill 4477 also known as the
Compassionate Use of Medical Marijuana Bill, seeks to legalized and regulated the medical use
of cannabis in the Philippines. It provides a policy of the State to provide measures to achieve a
balance in the national drug control program so that patients with debilitating medical condition
may receive adequate amount of treatment and appropriate medications from the regulated use of
dangerous drugs. The bill states that cannabis has been confirmed to have beneficial and
therapeutic uses to treat chronic or debilitating disease or condition that produces one or more of
the following: cachexia, chronic pain, nausea, seizures, epilepsy, aids/HIV, cancer and persistent
muscle spams. The House Bill 4477 aim is to provide a means in which marijuana maybe used in
controllable way that would possible prove to be beneficial and non-hazardous to the community.

The proposed House Bill 4477 would enable “medical cannabis compassionate centers” under
license by the Department of Health to sell, supply and dispense the psychoactive drug to
qualified patients or their designated caregivers by a pharmacist licensed by the Philippine Drug
Enforcement Agency (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2017).

Albano, R., III. (2014). Medical Cannabis Bill. Retrieved December 9, 2017, from

Cummings, J.R., Hockenberry, J., Wen, H. (2014). The effect of medical marijuana laws on
marijuana, alcohol, and hard drug use. National Bureau of Economic Research, 20085, p. 2.

Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.

Philippine Daily Inquirer. (2017). Legalize use of medical marijuana. Retrieved December 9,
2017, from

Seal, M., (2002). Effect of long-term cannabis use on axonal fibre connectivity. Brain: A
Journal of Neurology, 135(7), pp. 2245-2255.