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You are on page 1of 146

M. B. Patil

mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

* Kirchhoff’s

P current law (KCL):

ik = 0 at each node.

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

* Kirchhoff’s

P current law (KCL):

ik = 0 at each node.

e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

* Kirchhoff’s

P current law (KCL):

ik = 0 at each node.

e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.

(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

* Kirchhoff’s

P current law (KCL):

ik = 0 at each node.

e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.

(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)

* Kirchhoff’s

P voltage law (KVL):

vk = 0 for each loop.

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

* Kirchhoff’s

P current law (KCL):

ik = 0 at each node.

e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.

(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)

* Kirchhoff’s

P voltage law (KVL):

vk = 0 for each loop.

e.g., v3 + v6 − v1 − v2 = 0.

Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4

A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4

i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4

R1

E i1 D

v1

* Kirchhoff’s

P current law (KCL):

ik = 0 at each node.

e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.

(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)

* Kirchhoff’s

P voltage law (KVL):

vk = 0 for each loop.

e.g., v3 + v6 − v1 − v2 = 0.

(We have followed the convention that voltage drop across a branch is positive.)

Circuit elements

v

Resistor v =Ri

i

v di

Inductor v =L

i dt

v dv

Capacitor i =C

i dt

v

Diode to be discussed

i

C

BJT B to be discussed

E

Sources

v

Independent Voltage source v (t) = vs (t)

i

v

Current source i(t) = is (t)

i

v

Dependent VCVS v (t) = α vc (t)

i

v

VCCS i(t) = g vc (t)

i

v

CCVS v (t) = r ic (t)

i

v

CCCS i(t) = β ic (t)

i

* The subscript ‘c’ denotes the controlling voltage or current.

Instantaneous power absorbed by an element

i2

i1

V2 i3

V1

V3 P(t) = V1 (t) i1 (t) + V2 (t) i2 (t) + · · · + VN (t) iN (t) ,

VN where V1 , V2 , etc. are “node voltages” (measured

iN with respect to a reference node).

Instantaneous power absorbed by an element

i2

i1

V2 i3

V1

V3 P(t) = V1 (t) i1 (t) + V2 (t) i2 (t) + · · · + VN (t) iN (t) ,

VN where V1 , V2 , etc. are “node voltages” (measured

iN with respect to a reference node).

* two-terminal element:

P = V1 i 1 + V2 i 2

v

V1 V2 = V1 i1 + V2 (−i1 )

i1 i2

= [V1 − V2 ] i1 = v i1

Instantaneous power absorbed by an element

i2

i1

V2 i3

V1

V3 P(t) = V1 (t) i1 (t) + V2 (t) i2 (t) + · · · + VN (t) iN (t) ,

VN where V1 , V2 , etc. are “node voltages” (measured

iN with respect to a reference node).

* two-terminal element:

P = V1 i 1 + V2 i 2

v

V1 V2 = V1 i1 + V2 (−i1 )

i1 i2

= [V1 − V2 ] i1 = v i1

* three-terminal element:

P = VB iB + VC iC + VE (−iE )

VC

iC = VB iB + VC iC − VE (iB + iC )

VB = (VB − VE ) iB + (VC − VE ) iC

iB

iE

VE = VBE iB + VCE iE

Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same

sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the

resistor and the rest of the world.

Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same

sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the

resistor and the rest of the world.

* Often, a “heat sink” is provided to dissipate the thermal energy effectively so

that the device temperature does not become too high.

Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same

sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the

resistor and the rest of the world.

* Often, a “heat sink” is provided to dissipate the thermal energy effectively so

that the device temperature does not become too high.

* A source (e.g., a DC voltage source) can absorb or deliver power since the signs

of v and i are independent. For example, when a battery is charged, it absorbs

energy which gets stored within.

Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same

sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the

resistor and the rest of the world.

* Often, a “heat sink” is provided to dissipate the thermal energy effectively so

that the device temperature does not become too high.

* A source (e.g., a DC voltage source) can absorb or deliver power since the signs

of v and i are independent. For example, when a battery is charged, it absorbs

energy which gets stored within.

* A capacitor can absorb or deliver power. When it is absorbing power, its charge

builds up. Similarly, an inductor can store energy (in the form of magnetic flux).

Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v

A B A B

i R1 i R

R2 R3

Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v

A B A B

i R1 i R

R2 R3

v1 = i R1 , v2 = i R2 , v3 = i R3 , ⇒ v = v1 + v2 + v3 = i (R1 + R2 + R3 )

Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v

A B A B

i R1 i R

R2 R3

v1 = i R1 , v2 = i R2 , v3 = i R3 , ⇒ v = v1 + v2 + v3 = i (R1 + R2 + R3 )

Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v

A B A B

i R1 i R

R2 R3

v1 = i R1 , v2 = i R2 , v3 = i R3 , ⇒ v = v1 + v2 + v3 = i (R1 + R2 + R3 )

Rk

* The voltage drop across Rk is v × .

Req

Resistors in parallel

i1 R1

v

A B A B

i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

Resistors in parallel

i1 R1

v

A B A B

i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

Resistors in parallel

i1 R1

v

A B A B

i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

resistance is Req = 1/Geq .

Resistors in parallel

i1 R1

v

A B A B

i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

resistance is Req = 1/Geq .

Gk

* The current through Rk is i × .

Geq

Resistors in parallel

i1 R1

v

A B A B

i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

resistance is Req = 1/Geq .

Gk

* The current through Rk is i × .

Geq

* If N = 2, we have

R1 R2 R2 R1

Req = , i1 = i × , i2 = i × .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 R1 + R2

Resistors in parallel

i1 R1

v

A B A B

i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

resistance is Req = 1/Geq .

Gk

* The current through Rk is i × .

Geq

* If N = 2, we have

R1 R2 R2 R1

Req = , i1 = i × , i2 = i × .

R1 + R2 R1 + R2 R1 + R2

* If Rk = 0, all of the current will go through Rk .

Example

i1 2Ω

4Ω i2

3Ω

6V

5 2.5 2.5

(a) 3Ω

Example

i1 2Ω

4Ω i2

3Ω

6V

5 2.5 2.5

(a) 3Ω

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1

4Ω i2

6

6V

3

(c)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1

4Ω i2

6

6V

3

(c)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1

4Ω i2 4Ω

6 2Ω

6V 6V

3

(c) (d)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1

6V

i2 i1 = = 1A.

4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω

6 2Ω

6V 6V

3

(c) (d)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1

6V

i2 i1 = = 1A.

4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω

6 2Ω 6Ω 2

6V 6V i2 = i1 × = A.

3 6Ω+3Ω 3

(c) (d)

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1

6V

i2 i1 = = 1A.

4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω

6 2Ω 6Ω 2

6V 6V i2 = i1 × = A.

3 6Ω+3Ω 3

(c) (d)

Home work:

* Verify that KCL and KVL are satisfied for each node/loop.

Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω

3Ω 3Ω 1Ω

6V 6V

5 2.5 2.5 3Ω

(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1

6V

i2 i1 = = 1A.

4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω

6 2Ω 6Ω 2

6V 6V i2 = i1 × = A.

3 6Ω+3Ω 3

(c) (d)

Home work:

* Verify that KCL and KVL are satisfied for each node/loop.

* Verify that the total power absorbed by the resistors is equal to the power

supplied by the source.

Nodal analysis

R1

V1 V2

R2

R3 v3

I0

k v3

0 V3

R4

Nodal analysis

the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,

etc.

R1

V1 V2

R2

R3 v3

I0

k v3

0 V3

R4

Nodal analysis

the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,

etc.

* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node

voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current

R1 leaving a node is positive.

V1 V2

R2

R3 v3

I0

k v3

0 V3

R4

Nodal analysis

the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,

etc.

* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node

voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current

R1 leaving a node is positive.

V1 V2

1

(V1 − V2 ) − I0 − k (V2 − V3 ) = 0 ,

R2 R1

R3 v3

I0 1 1 1

k v3

(V2 − V1 ) + (V2 − V3 ) + (V2 ) = 0 ,

R1 R3 R2

0 V3 1 1

R4 k (V2 − V3 ) + (V3 − V2 ) + (V3 ) = 0 .

R3 R4

Nodal analysis

the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,

etc.

* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node

voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current

R1 leaving a node is positive.

V1 V2

1

(V1 − V2 ) − I0 − k (V2 − V3 ) = 0 ,

R2 R1

R3 v3

I0 1 1 1

k v3

(V2 − V1 ) + (V2 − V3 ) + (V2 ) = 0 ,

R1 R3 R2

0 V3 1 1

R4 k (V2 − V3 ) + (V3 − V2 ) + (V3 ) = 0 .

R3 R4

* Solve for the node voltages → branch voltages and

currents.

Nodal analysis

the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,

etc.

* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node

voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current

R1 leaving a node is positive.

V1 V2

1

(V1 − V2 ) − I0 − k (V2 − V3 ) = 0 ,

R2 R1

R3 v3

I0 1 1 1

k v3

(V2 − V1 ) + (V2 − V3 ) + (V2 ) = 0 ,

R1 R3 R2

0 V3 1 1

R4 k (V2 − V3 ) + (V3 − V2 ) + (V3 ) = 0 .

R3 R4

* Solve for the node voltages → branch voltages and

currents.

* Remark: Nodal analysis needs to be modified if there

are voltage sources.

Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is

i1 i2

is

Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is

i1 i2

is

* Write KVL for each loop in terms of the “mesh currents” i1 and i2 . Use a fixed

convention, e.g., voltage drop is positive. (Note that is = i1 − i2 .)

Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is

i1 i2

is

* Write KVL for each loop in terms of the “mesh currents” i1 and i2 . Use a fixed

convention, e.g., voltage drop is positive. (Note that is = i1 − i2 .)

−Vs + i1 R1 + (i1 − i2 ) R3 = 0 ,

R2 i2 + r1 (i1 − i2 ) + (i2 − i1 ) R3 = 0 .

Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is

i1 i2

is

* Write KVL for each loop in terms of the “mesh currents” i1 and i2 . Use a fixed

convention, e.g., voltage drop is positive. (Note that is = i1 − i2 .)

−Vs + i1 R1 + (i1 − i2 ) R3 = 0 ,

R2 i2 + r1 (i1 − i2 ) + (i2 − i1 ) R3 = 0 .

* Solve for i1 and i2 → compute other quantities of interest (branch currents and

branch voltages).

Linearity and superposition

linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.

Linearity and superposition

linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.

* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with

v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.

Linearity and superposition

linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.

* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with

v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.

* For a linear system, we can apply the principle of superposition.

Linearity and superposition

linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.

* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with

v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.

* For a linear system, we can apply the principle of superposition.

* In the context of circuits, superposition enables us to consider the independent

sources one at a time, compute the desired quantity of interest in each case, and

get the net result by adding the individual contributions.

Linearity and superposition

linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.

* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with

v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.

* For a linear system, we can apply the principle of superposition.

* In the context of circuits, superposition enables us to consider the independent

sources one at a time, compute the desired quantity of interest in each case, and

get the net result by adding the individual contributions.

* Caution: Superposition cannot be applied to dependent sources.

Superposition

Superposition

* We can consider one independent source at a time, deactivate all other

independent sources.

Superposition

* We can consider one independent source at a time, deactivate all other

independent sources.

* Deactivating a current source ⇒ is = 0, i.e., replace the current source with an

open circuit.

Superposition

* We can consider one independent source at a time, deactivate all other

independent sources.

* Deactivating a current source ⇒ is = 0, i.e., replace the current source with an

open circuit.

* Deactivating a voltage source ⇒ vs = 0, i.e., replace the voltage source with a

short circuit.

Example

2Ω

i1

18 V 4Ω

3A

Example

2Ω

2Ω i1

4Ω

i1

18 V

18 V 4Ω

3A

Example

2Ω

2Ω i1

4Ω (1)

i1 i1 = 3 A

18 V

18 V 4Ω

3A

Example

2Ω

2Ω i1

4Ω (1)

i1 i1 = 3 A

18 V

18 V 4Ω

3A

Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .

2Ω

i1

4Ω

3A

Example

2Ω

2Ω i1

4Ω (1)

i1 i1 = 3 A

18 V

18 V 4Ω

3A

Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .

2Ω

i1

4Ω (2) 2Ω

i1 = 3 A × = 1A

2Ω+4Ω

3A

Example

2Ω

2Ω i1

4Ω (1)

i1 i1 = 3 A

18 V

18 V 4Ω

3A

Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .

2Ω

(1) (2) i1

inet

1 = i1 + i1 = 3 + 1 = 4 A 2Ω

4Ω (2)

i1 = 3 A × = 1A

2Ω+4Ω

3A

Example

i 12 V

v 3Ω

1Ω

6A

2i

Example

i 12 V

v 3Ω

1Ω

i 12 V

v 3Ω

2i

1Ω

6A

2i

Example

i 12 V

v 3Ω

KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0

1Ω

i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .

v 3Ω

2i

1Ω

6A

2i

Example

i 12 V

v 3Ω

KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0

1Ω

i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .

v 3Ω

2i

1Ω

6A

2i

i

v 3Ω

1Ω

6A

2i

Example

i 12 V

v 3Ω

KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0

1Ω

i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .

v 3Ω

2i

1Ω

6A

2i

i

v 3Ω

KVL: i + (6 + i) 3 + 2 i = 0

1Ω

⇒ i = −3 A , v(2) = (−3 + 6) × 3 = 9 V .

6A

2i

Example

i 12 V

v 3Ω

KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0

1Ω

i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .

v 3Ω

2i

1Ω

6A

2i

i

vnet = v(1) + v(2) = 6 + 9 = 15 V v 3Ω

KVL: i + (6 + i) 3 + 2 i = 0

1Ω

⇒ i = −3 A , v(2) = (−3 + 6) × 3 = 9 V .

6A

2i

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

1 1 1

(V1 − Vs ) + V1 + (V1 − V2 ) = 0 ,

R1 R2 R3

1

−Is + (V2 − V1 ) = 0 .

R3

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

1 1 1

(V1 − Vs ) + V1 + (V1 − V2 ) = 0 ,

R1 R2 R3

1

−Is + (V2 − V1 ) = 0 .

R3

» –» – » –

G1 + G2 + G3 −G3 V1 G1 Vs

=

−G3 G3 V2 Is

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

1 1 1

(V1 − Vs ) + V1 + (V1 − V2 ) = 0 ,

R1 R2 R3

1

−Is + (V2 − V1 ) = 0 .

R3

» –» – » –

G1 + G2 + G3 −G3 V1 G1 Vs

=

−G3 G3 V2 Is

» – » – » – » –

V1 G1 Vs V1 −1 G1 Vs

i.e., A = → =A .

V2 Is V2 Is

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –

V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs

=A ≡ .

V2 Is m21 m22 Is

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –

V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs

=A ≡ .

V2 Is m21 m22 Is

" (1) # " (2) #

V1 V1

» – » –» – » –» –

V1 m11 G1 m12 Vs m11 G1 m12 0

= + ≡ + .

V2 m21 G1 m22 0 m21 G1 m22 Is V2

(1) (2)

V2

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –

V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs

=A ≡ .

V2 Is m21 m22 Is

" (1) # " (2) #

V1 V1

» – » –» – » –» –

V1 m11 G1 m12 Vs m11 G1 m12 0

= + ≡ + .

V2 m21 G1 m22 0 m21 G1 m22 Is V2

(1) (2)

V2

The second vector is the response due to Is alone (and Vs deactivated).

Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2

R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –

V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs

=A ≡ .

V2 Is m21 m22 Is

" (1) # " (2) #

V1 V1

» – » –» – » –» –

V1 m11 G1 m12 Vs m11 G1 m12 0

= + ≡ + .

V2 m21 G1 m22 0 m21 G1 m22 Is V2

(1) (2)

V2

The second vector is the response due to Is alone (and Vs deactivated).

All other currents and voltages are linearly related to V1 and V2

⇒ Any voltage (node voltage or branch voltage) or current can also be computed using

superposition.

Thevenin’s theorem

Circuit A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B

Thevenin’s theorem

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

VTh

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

Thevenin’s theorem

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

VTh

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

* VTh is simply VAB when nothing is connected on the other side, i.e., VTh = Voc .

Thevenin’s theorem

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

VTh

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

* VTh is simply VAB when nothing is connected on the other side, i.e., VTh = Voc .

* RTh can be found by different methods.

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

VTh

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

VTh

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

VTh

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

* RTh can often be found by inspection.

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:

RTh

A Is

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

VTh

CCVS, CCCS, Vs

VCVS, VCCS) B B

B

RTh

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS) B B

* RTh can often be found by inspection.

* RTh may be found by connecting a test source.

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:

RTh

A Is

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

VTh

CCVS, CCCS, Vs

VCVS, VCCS) B B

B

RTh

A

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources, Vs

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

Is

VCVS, VCCS) B B

B

* RTh can often be found by inspection.

* RTh may be found by connecting a test source.

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:

RTh

A Is

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources,

current sources,

VTh

CCVS, CCCS, Vs

VCVS, VCCS) B B

B

RTh

A

Circuit A A

(resistors,

voltage sources, Vs

current sources,

CCVS, CCCS,

Is

VCVS, VCCS) B B

B

* RTh can often be found by inspection.

* RTh may be found by connecting a test source.

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:

A

Voc

* Find Voc .

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:

A A

Voc Isc

B B

* Find Voc .

* Find Isc .

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:

A A

Voc Isc

B B

* Find Voc .

* Find Isc .

Voc

* RTh = .

Isc

Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:

A A

Voc Isc

B B

* Find Voc .

* Find Isc .

Voc

* RTh = .

Isc

* Note: Sources are not deactivated.

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL

9V

R2

B

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh

A

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL

9V

R2

B

B

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh

A

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL

9V

R2

B

B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω

A

3Ω Voc

9V

B

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh

A

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL

9V

R2

B

B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω

A

3Ω Voc

9V

B

3Ω

Voc = 9 V ×

6Ω+3Ω

1

= 9V × = 3V

3

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh

A

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL

9V

R2

B

B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω RTh : 6Ω 2Ω

A A

3Ω Voc 3Ω

9V

B B

3Ω

Voc = 9 V ×

6Ω+3Ω

1

= 9V × = 3V

3

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh

A

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL

9V

R2

B

B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω RTh : 6Ω 2Ω

A A

3Ω Voc 3Ω

9V

B B

3Ω

Voc = 9 V × RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2

6Ω+3Ω

1 1×2

= 9V × = 3V =3× +2 = 4Ω

3 1+2

Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh 4Ω

A A

A

R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL

R ≡ 3V RL

9V L

R2

B

B B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω RTh : 6Ω 2Ω

A A

3Ω Voc 3Ω

9V

B B

3Ω

Voc = 9 V × RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2

6Ω+3Ω

1 1×2

= 9V × = 3V =3× +2 = 4Ω

3 1+2

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

(resistors,

iL

voltage sources,

current sources, RL

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

B

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

* For a given black box, what is the

B value of RL for which PL is

maximum?

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

* For a given black box, what is the

B value of RL for which PL is

maximum?

* Replace the black box with its

Thevenin equivalent.

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

* For a given black box, what is the

B value of RL for which PL is

RTh maximum?

A

iL * Replace the black box with its

Thevenin equivalent.

VTh RL

B

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

* For a given black box, what is the

B value of RL for which PL is

RTh maximum?

A

iL * Replace the black box with its

Thevenin equivalent.

VTh RL

VTh

* iL = ,

RTh + RL

B RL

2 ×

PL = VTh .

(RTh + RL )2

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

* For a given black box, what is the

B value of RL for which PL is

RTh maximum?

A

iL * Replace the black box with its

Thevenin equivalent.

VTh RL

VTh

* iL = ,

RTh + RL

B RL

2 ×

PL = VTh .

(RTh + RL )2

dPL

* For = 0 , we need

dRL

(RTh + RL )2 − RL × 2 (RTh + RL )

= 0,

(RTh + RL )4

i.e., RTh + RL = 2 RL ⇒ RL = RTh .

Maximum power transfer

A

Circuit

iL

(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,

voltage sources,

current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .

CCVS, CCCS,

VCVS, VCCS)

* For a given black box, what is the

B value of RL for which PL is

RTh maximum?

A

iL * Replace the black box with its

Thevenin equivalent.

VTh RL

VTh

* iL = ,

RTh + RL

B RL

2 ×

PL = VTh .

PL

(RTh + RL )2

Pmax

L

dPL

* For = 0 , we need

dRL

(RTh + RL )2 − RL × 2 (RTh + RL )

= 0,

(RTh + RL )4

i.e., RTh + RL = 2 RL ⇒ RL = RTh .

RL

RL = RTh

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

6Ω RL

12 V R2 2A

B

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

6Ω RL

12 V R2 2A

B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

6Ω

R2

B

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

6Ω RL

12 V R2 2A

B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

6Ω

R2

B

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2

1×2

=3× +2 = 4Ω

1+2

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω

A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω RL 6Ω

12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A

B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω

A

R1 R3

6Ω

R2

B

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2

1×2

=3× +2 = 4Ω

1+2

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω

A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω RL 6Ω

12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A

B B

A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω

R1 R3 A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω

6Ω 6Ω

R2

B

12 V R2 R2 2A

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B

1×2

=3× +2 = 4Ω

1+2

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω

A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω RL 6Ω

12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A

B B

A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω

R1 R3 A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω

6Ω 6Ω

R2

B

12 V R2 R2 2A

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B

(1) 6

Voc = 12 × = 8 V

1×2

9

=3× +2 = 4Ω

1+2

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω

A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω RL 6Ω

12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A

B B

A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω

R1 R3 A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω

6Ω 6Ω

R2

B

12 V R2 R2 2A

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B

(1) 6 (2)

Voc = 12 × = 8 V Voc = 4 Ω × 2 A = 8 V

1×2

9

=3× +2 = 4Ω

1+2

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω

A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω RL 6Ω

12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A

B B

A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω

R1 R3 A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω

6Ω 6Ω

R2

B

12 V R2 R2 2A

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B

(1) 6 (2)

Voc = 12 × = 8 V Voc = 4 Ω × 2 A = 8 V

1×2

9

=3× +2 = 4Ω (1) (2)

1+2 Voc = Voc + Voc = 8 + 8 = 16 V

Maximum power transfer: example

3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω

A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω RL 6Ω

12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A

B B

A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω

R1 R3 A A

R1 R3 R1 R3

6Ω

6Ω 6Ω

R2

B

12 V R2 R2 2A

RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B

(1) 6 (2)

Voc = 12 × = 8 V Voc = 4 Ω × 2 A = 8 V

1×2

9

=3× +2 = 4Ω (1) (2)

1+2 Voc = Voc + Voc = 8 + 8 = 16 V

RTh A

PL is maximum when RL = RTh = 4 Ω

iL

Pmax 2

L = 2 × 4 = 16 W .

B

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

C

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

C

A B

3Ω

≡

4Ω

C

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

C

A B

3Ω

≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω

4Ω

C

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

Voc :

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

Voc

12 Ω 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

2Ω 6A 12 Ω

C i

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

C

A B

3Ω

≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω

4Ω

C

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

Voc :

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

Voc

12 Ω 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

2Ω 6A 12 Ω

C i

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω Note: i = 0 (since there is no return path).

VAB = VA − VB

= (VA − VC ) + (VC − VB )

12 Ω = VAC + VCB

2Ω 12 Ω

C = 24 V + 36 V = 60 V

A B

3Ω

≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω

4Ω

C

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

Voc :

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

Voc

12 Ω 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

2Ω 6A 12 Ω

C i

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω Note: i = 0 (since there is no return path).

VAB = VA − VB

= (VA − VC ) + (VC − VB )

12 Ω = VAC + VCB

2Ω 12 Ω

C = 24 V + 36 V = 60 V

A B

3Ω VTh = 60 V

≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω RTh = 7 Ω

4Ω

C

Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

Voc :

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

Voc

12 Ω 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

2Ω 6A 12 Ω

C i

RTh :

4Ω A B 4Ω Note: i = 0 (since there is no return path).

VAB = VA − VB

= (VA − VC ) + (VC − VB )

12 Ω = VAC + VCB

2Ω 12 Ω

C = 24 V + 36 V = 60 V

A B

A B

3Ω VTh = 60 V

7Ω

≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω RTh = 7 Ω

60 V

4Ω

C

Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh

SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh

SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Plot i versus v.

4Ω A B 4Ω

i

6A v 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Isc = intercept on the i-axis.

Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh

SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

10

6A 48 V 8

i (Amp)

6

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω 4

2

0

Connect a voltage source between A and B.

0 20 40 60

Plot i versus v. v (Volt)

4Ω A B 4Ω

i

6A v 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Isc = intercept on the i-axis.

Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh

SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

10

6A 48 V 8

i (Amp)

6

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω 4

2

0

Connect a voltage source between A and B.

0 20 40 60

Plot i versus v. v (Volt)

i RTh = Vsc /Isc = 7 Ω

6A v 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Isc = intercept on the i-axis.

Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh

SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

10

6A 48 V 8

i (Amp)

6

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω 4

2

0

Connect a voltage source between A and B.

0 20 40 60

Plot i versus v. v (Volt)

i RTh = Vsc /Isc = 7 Ω

6A v 48 V

A B

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

VTh = 60 V

7Ω

RTh = 7 Ω

Voc = intercept on the v-axis. 60 V

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh

A

VTh

B

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh

A A

VTh RN

IN

B B

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh

A A

VTh RN

IN

B B

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh

A A

VTh RN

IN

B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh

A A

VTh RN

IN

B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh

A A

VTh RN

IN

B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .

⇒ VTh = IN RN .

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh

A A A A

RN

VTh RN VTh Isc Isc

IN IN

B B B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .

⇒ VTh = IN RN .

* Consider the short circuit case.

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh

A A A A

RN

VTh RN VTh Isc Isc

IN IN

B B B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .

⇒ VTh = IN RN .

* Consider the short circuit case.

Thevenin circuit: Isc = VTh /RTh .

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh

A A A A

RN

VTh RN VTh Isc Isc

IN IN

B B B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .

⇒ VTh = IN RN .

* Consider the short circuit case.

Thevenin circuit: Isc = VTh /RTh .

Norton circuit: Isc = IN .

Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh

A A A A

RN

VTh RN VTh Isc Isc

IN IN

B B B B

Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .

Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .

⇒ VTh = IN RN .

* Consider the short circuit case.

Thevenin circuit: Isc = VTh /RTh .

Norton circuit: Isc = IN .

⇒ RTh = RN .

Example

5Ω i 1A

20 V 10 Ω

Example

A

5Ω i 1A

20 V 10 Ω

B

Example

A

5Ω i 1A RN = 5 Ω

20 V

20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A

5Ω

B

Example

A

5Ω i 1A RN = 5 Ω

20 V

20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A

5Ω

B

A

4A i 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

B

Example

A

5Ω i 1A i

RN = 5 Ω 3A

20 V

20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω

5Ω

B

A

4A i 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

B

Example

A

5Ω i 1A i

RN = 5 Ω 3A

20 V

20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω

5Ω

B

A

5

i = 3A ×

4A i 1A 5 + 10

= 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

Example

A

5Ω i 1A i

RN = 5 Ω 3A

20 V

20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω

5Ω

B

A

5

i = 3A ×

4A i 1A 5 + 10

= 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

Home work:

* Find i by superposition and compare.

Example

A

5Ω i 1A i

RN = 5 Ω 3A

20 V

20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω

5Ω

B

A

5

i = 3A ×

4A i 1A 5 + 10

= 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

Home work:

* Find i by superposition and compare.

P

* Compute the power absorbed by each element and verify that Pi = 0 .

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