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me

Manual to utilize Online Calculator to


Simulate Run-Length of Fired Heater
Online Calculator : http://runlength.krunalshah.me/

by
Shah Krunal

Note:
Presently, the online calculator is designed to simulate run length of bottom fired,
fired heaters for horizontal tube arrangement only and aimed to simulate run length of
Delayed Coker Fired Heaters. It can be use for simulate run length of fired heaters
used in Crude Unit. We neither provide any kind of warranty nor responsibility for
accuracy of the result obtained.

by,
Krunal Shah
info@krunalshah.me
Data Required to run the online calculator
Parameter required Sample Unit
Values
Average Radiant Section Heat Flux 25000 kcal/hr.m2
Maximum Radiant Section Heat Flux 35000 kcal/hr.m2
Tube Metal Start of Run Temperature 555 ˚C
Tube Metal End of Run Temperature 670 ˚C
Critical Tube Process fluid temperature 480 ˚C
Thermal Conductivity of Coke 4.3 kcal/hr/m/ ˚C
Feed Flow Rate to heater 20 kg/s
Asphaltene Contents 16 %
Average Molar Mass of Asphaltenes 800 u
Factor for Asphalten to Lighter and Coke Conversion inside Heater 0.25 Unit less
Inlet Temperature of Fluid in Radiation Zone 300 ˚C
Coil Out let Temperature 500 ˚C
Average Molar Mass of Coke 500 u
Density of Coke 1600 kg/m3
Inside Diameter of Coil 0.1222 m
Length of Coil 12 m
Total Number of Tubes in radiation section 23 Dimension less
Total Number of Passes in Heater 2 Dimension less

Blank Sheet for Data Collection


Parameter required Sample Unit
Values
Average Radiant Section Heat Flux kcal/hr.m2
Maximum Radiant Section Heat Flux kcal/hr.m2
Tube Metal Start of Run Temperature ˚C
Tube Metal End of Run Temperature ˚C
Critical Tube Process fluid temperature ˚C
Thermal Conductivity of Coke kcal/hr/m/ ˚C
Feed Flow Rate to heater kg/s
Asphaltene Contents %
Average Molar Mass of Asphaltenes u
Factor for Asphalten to Lighter and Coke Conversion inside Heater Unit less
Inlet Temperature of Fluid in Radiation Zone ˚C
Coil Out let Temperature ˚C
Average Molar Mass of Coke u
Density of Coke kg/m3
Inside Diameter of Coil m
Length of Coil m
Total Number of Tubes in radiation section Dimension less
Total Number of Passes in Heater Dimension less
by,
Krunal Shah
info@krunalshah.me
Source for the data required to run the calculator

1. Heater Data Sheet provided by the supplier of heater.


2. Actual Data from obtained from plant

Parameters and their significance in calculation

 Average Radiant Section Heat Flux (kcal/hr.m2)


It is generally determined by the ratio of heat duty in radiation section to total outside
area available for heat transfer in the section, It is recommended to use the value
specified by the supplier of heater. ( Take value From Heater Data Sheet, Make
sure that unit is kcal/hr.m2).

 Maximum Radiant Section Heat Flux (kcal/hr.m2)


Suppose a bank of tubes, with a center-to-center spacing of two tube diameters, is
placed one or two tube diameters away from a refractory wall and is uniformly fired
from the opposite side of the wall then the side of the tube facing the flame will
receive direct radiation and the opposite side will receive radiation reflected from the
wall. The hottest point on the tube will be on the side facing the flame where the
surface is at a right angle to the flux. This is the peak or maximum heat flux and it
will be about 1.8 times the average value.

When the bank of tubes is placed in the center of the firebox and is fired uniformly
from two sides, the ratio of peak to average flux will be 1.2. This illustrates the
advantage of two-sided or double firing. Thus for a given peak flux, the average flux
will be 50% greater than in the case of single or one-sided firing. It is recommended
to use the value specified by the supplier of heater. ( Take value From Heater Data
Sheet, Make sure that unit is kcal/hr.m2).

 Tube Metal Start of Run Temperature (in degree Celsius)


It is the temperature of tube metal, many times termed as tube skin temperature at the
start of run time when there is no coke inside the heater coil. Tube Metal Temperature
at start of run can be obtained from skin thermocouple if the heater is in operation or
it is generally provided in heater data sheet.

 Tube Metal End of Run Temperature (in degree Celsius)


It is the temperature of tube metal / skin temperature, at which we have to stop
operation of heater to clean the coil. Its value is varies with the MOC used for heater
coil and it is recommended to use this value as per heater data sheet or according to
the guideline decided by the technical team based their study on mechanical design of
heater coil.

by,
Krunal Shah
info@krunalshah.me
 Critical Tube Process Fluid Temperature (in degree Celsius)
For this calculation, Critical tube is considered as centre tube of radiation zone, i.e if
there are 10 tubes in radiation zone then the 5th tube from bottom will be critical
tube (for bottom fired heaters). The temperature of Fluid Flowing through that tube
is consider as Critical tube process fluid temperature. This value cannot provided by
supplier. So for Design stage, we can consider it (Coil Outlet Temperature - X)
degree Celsius. where value of X can be taken any thing between 15-25). For heater
in operation, this value can be achieved from thermowell if at all available.

 Thermal Conductivity of Coke ( in kcal/hr/m/ ˚C)


at 500˚C thermal conductivity of coke = 4.3 kcal.m/hr.˚C

 Feed Flow Rate to Heater (in kg/s)


It is the value of feed flow rate to heater, if heater is having multi passes then the
value of Feed Flow Rate to Heater should be combine flow rate of all passes. It is
always specified in Heater Data sheet. If it is for heater in operation then it can be
obtained from the flow meter provided. (Make sure unit is in kg/s)

 Asphaltene Contents (wt %)


Value of Asphaltene Contents depends on the Crude process by the Refinery, It can
be vary from 13% by wt to 18% by wt and it is recommended to use it once we have
confirmed properties of feed because this is one of the most important parameter to
calculate the run length. (If no data available then use 16.5%)

 Average Molar Mass of Asphaltene (u)


Use experimental data from sample if possible or
Average molar mass of asphaltene = 800 u

 Factor for Asphalten to Lighter and Coke Conversion inside Heater


Use any value between 0.20-0.25, Recommended value = 0.25

 Inlet Temperature of fluid in radiation zone (˚C)


Available in heater data sheet / use thermowell reading to obtain it

 Coil Outlet Temperature(˚C)


It is also one of the most important parameter which not only affects the heater but
also affects the whole plant outputs. It is the heater outlet temperature of fluid.

 Average Molar Mass of Coke (u)


Use experimental data from sample if possible or
Average molar mass of Coke = 500 u

by,
Krunal Shah
info@krunalshah.me
 Density of Coke (kg/m3)
Use experimental data from sample if possible or
Density of Coke = 1600 kg/m3

 Inside Diameter of Coil, Number of Tubes in radiation section and total number
of passes are specified and can be obtained from heater data sheet.

 Length of Coil
For Horizontal Box type heaters with horizontal tube arrangement, Length of
coil is the horizontal length of coil. It is specified and can be obtained from
heater data sheet.

"The best preparation for tomorrow is doing your best today"

The End

by,
Krunal Shah
info@krunalshah.me