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Learning Abnormal Behavioural

for Surveillance Systems

By Ahmed Ibrahim
• Introduction
• Key Challenges
• Proposed approaches
• Preliminary experiments
• Discussion and future directions
What is Abnormal Behaviour ?
• Abnormal Behaviour is a pattern in the data
that does not conform to the expected normal
• Also referred to as outliers, exceptions,
suspicion, surprise, etc. F2
1 N 1
• Example: set of data points 3

Feature space.

Video Surveillance Example

A car on pedestrian roadway

A piece of luggage left in a check in-area

Source: Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance dataset (PETS)

Key Challenges
• Defining a representative normal behaviour is
• The boundary between normal and outlying
behaviour is often not precise.
• The exact notion of an outlier is different for
different video surveillance applications.
• Availability of labelled data for
• Data always contain noise.
• Normal behaviour keeps evolving
Abnormal Behavior Detection

Source: PETS

Motion Detection Object Tracking Behavior Behavior Type


• Background • Model • Classification • Label

subtraction • Region (supervised) • Score
• Temporal • Active contour • Clustering
differencing • Feature based (unsupervised)
• Optical flow
Unsupervised Behavior Modeling
•The following trajectory
has been generating by:
•Applying principal
component analysis
on the video stream;
•Selecting the first
three components
•Every point on the
trajectory represents a
frame from the video
Learning Outliers


Gathering Visually
Real Data Resampling

Proposed Statistical Approach
Statistical Resampling Example
trajectory of
waking pedestrian
in outdoor

Irregular segments

PC: for principal components

Proposed Visual Approach
Visual Resampling Example
Time delay
trajectory of
waking pedestrian

trajectory of

PC: for principal components Similar segments

Behavior Model Output
• Label : each test instance is given a normal or
anomaly label
• Score: each test instance is assigned an
anomaly score
• Allows the output to be ranked
• Requires an additional threshold parameter
Research Plan
• To test the feasibility of statistical resampling:
– The Ionosphere dataset from UCI machine learning
Repository will be used.
– This dataset are radar signals sent into the ionosphere and
the class value indicates whether or not the signal
returned information “Good” or “Bad” on the structure of
the ionosphere.
• To test the feasibility of visual resampling: A set of
animated videos with real backgrounds will be
generated for the following events:
– Walk, Run, Jump, Gallop sideways, Bend , One-hand wave,
Two-hands wave, Jump in place, Jumping Jack, Skip.
• [1] Weiming Hu; Tieniu Tan; Liang Wang; S. Maybank; , "A survey on visual
surveillance of object motion and behaviors,"Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part
C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions, 2004
• [2] Monekosso, Remagnino, ”Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity
Monitoring and Behavior Analysis” , Proceedings of the European Conference on
Ambient Intelligence, 2009.
• [3] Garg, Aggarwal, Sofat, ” Vision Based Hand Gesture Recognition”, 2009.
• [4] Poppe, “A survey on vision-based human action recognition”, Image and Vision
Computing Journal, 2010.
• [5] Mitra, Acharya, ”Gesture Recognition: A Survey”, IEEE transactions on systems,
man, and cybernetics, 2007.
• [6] Wang, Suter, “Recognizing Human Activities from Silhouettes: Motion Subspace
and Factorial Discriminative Graphical Model”, IEEE Conference on In Computer
Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007.
• [7] Hua, “Probabilistic Variational Methods for Vision based Complex Motion
Analysis”, PhD dissertation, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006.
• [8] Incertis, Garcia-Bermejo, Casanova, "Hand Gesture Recognition for Deaf People
Interfacing", 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2006.