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2 : Improved Computational Procedure for Determining Helicopter Rotor 3 Blade Nacural Modes

William H Wellcr and Raymond E Mineck . .

AUGUST 1978

relating the s t a t e vn?.torr a t adjacent rtationr, uero changed i n t h e new program wraion and are s u b r t r n t i a t e d by t h e uork described i n reference 4.
The r t t r u l t i n g analyris i 8 eatten6ively d i f f e r e n t from t h e o r i y i n a l verrion and h a r a - g n i t i c a n t improveaents i n program nixe, efficiency, and v w r a t l l l t y . M e purpora of t h i o report is to diacu*o t h e e q u a t i o n 8 and t s c h n i y u e r U 8 d , d e r c r i k t h e f i n a l ptwram, and p r e s e n t a program s o u r c e l i r t i n p . The accuracy of t h ~ program is dmonrtrated by c o r r e l a t i n g predicted r e a u ~ t s with exact r o l u tims for clarsical problems and with experimental data.

Values i n text a r e g i v e n in U.S. ~ u s t o l h p r yu n i t s and S'1 u n i t s . The calcul a t i o n s were made i n U.S. Custnrary Unito. The caaputer program v a l u e s end related roterial are g i v e n In U S e u u t o m r y Units. c'clnversion f a c t o r s for .. t h e s e u n i t s i n t h e ccrnputer o u t p u t are g i v e n i n appendix A. d i s t a n c e s alony A-,
8-,

and C-axcs

blade s o c t i o n m i s t a n t , in6 (cat6!

h o r i z o n t a l f o r c e perpendicular t o %-&xis, lb (N)
Y o ~ n g ' sm d u l u s o e l a s t i c i t y , lb,'in2 (N:d) f

b l a d e d t r u c t u r a l s t i f f n e s s in bcndinq, lb-in2 ( N - d )

centrifugal force, l b

(N)

in-plane force due to c e n t r i f u y a l f o r m a c t i n g through a c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y hor i r o n t a l l y offset t r m p i t c h a x i s , lb ( N ) in-plane murnent due to c e n t r i f u g a l forcw a c t i n g t h t o i r y h d c c n t c r of g r a v i t y h o t i z o n t a l l y o t l s c t frrvn p i t c h a x i s , i n - l b (N-m) out-of-plane m w n t due to c e n t r i f u g a l firice ac*t ith) t h t k w y h a center of g r a v i t y v e r t i c a l l y olfset ftkm 1)iti-h .%xis, in-ltr (N-m)
blade s ; t i i l c t u r a l s t i t t ' n r s s i n t o r s i o n , lb-in:

(N-m2)

acceIt.rat i o n due t o g r a v i t y , in. ser-? (m. s;\.,*2) segment second iiiass m w n t o t i n e r t i a r ~ l a t i v rti\ piti-h a x i s with r o t a i y i n e r t i s e f t t v t s l f i ~ ~ l u d e d in-lb-:%i*t" ( m - N - s r c 2 ) , crws-seL*t i o m l sectwJ matis miuntwt rlt i r w t gi av i t y, 1ti-sec-z ( ~ - s t * t - - \ )
w m t w ut n m t t'dt h e t
inq hiit\ st\jrnrnt
:I

id

r r l a t ive

tt\

crntrl of

tllade p i t ~ ~ h t'i\ntr6\l s y s t e m st i t tntbss, i n - l b

1dr1

(N-nt ia,iI

X,Y,D,A,B,C
RDY.8

txwrdinate axes (ree fig. 1)
dirtanccr along X-,
Y-,

and %-axes

i
8

blade sryrnent lanyt-h, in. (n)
radtcal d i r t a n o to end of h a d e segment, in.

(a)

r;
A

elavt it* t\Canctirg rotat i ~ u r in v t r t ical
dstwminant
tre

(YZ)

plane, rad
matt i x

boundary contiit

ion

weff

icitnt

3

e
0

4t

* l a t i c dmflrction i n Miroction

(#,

f i g , 11, in. tm)

elrrtic tbtlwtion i n ydirwtion (m f i g .

in.

( I )

geemetric pitnh angle betwen blrch principal rtructwal &ai8 and hori8ont.l ( X t ) plam at a rrgwnt end, dog
grolA.tric pitch angle k t w n blade principal rtructwal & x i 8 and hoti8Wtal (xa) plane at a regwnt rid-point, drg
r a t e of change of gecmetric pitch 601.

6

8,
6C

with rprn at a reqmnt mid-

point, rawin. ( r r b h )
blade coot collective p i t c h angle, deg

9,

bl&

l i n e a r twiat, d q
4b88QChtd

x
4
J1
c7
w

auxiliary function

with

8

e l a r t i c torsional rotation in vrrrticrl (XY) plane, tad
e l a r t i c bending rotation i n h e l r i r o n t r l (%a) plane, rad

rotor angular valocity, radfsec
blads natural frequency, r a d / u e (cpm in tablam)

Subscriptat
a.b,c
\

rotating corrrdinata e y a t m fixed t u locrl a t r u c t u t a l axes a t each rtrtim after dsformatign
blade r t r t i o n number

ir'"rN) o t N t 1

The metha1 o r n n l y a i a m n a i d n t s t h Q rotor blade as a discretired rryartam f of f i n i t e s l e m n t r w i t h each sl+ment rcaprsssnting a s q m n t of the hladQ. Thc user-rjmcit i input data p r t a i n r t o d i s c r c t i a s d s t i u c t r r r r I properties which d ate average valuacp over each a s y m n t . The d a t a & r e rcf@r@nc*d to t h e local acgm n t a x i s system and to either t h e rroywnt c c n t c r of g r a v i t y ( i n e r t i a l propert i e s ) w pitch axis (elastic p r c y p r f i s t a ) . Sinoe the p i t c h a x i s is t h o r e f e r e n c e axis i n t h o analysia, t h e inertial p r o p e r t i e 8 are tranlafsrred t o t h o p i t c h axis. A l l propertien ace than t o t a t d into a hub-fiwsel axis system o r i e n t & SO t h a t t h e wrtical a x i s it8 parallel with t h @ axis u Y r o t a t i o n . Details UT t h r data w n w c r i m inre p r s e a n t e d i n appendix 8. Fiyurcr 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e l w n l s q m s n t fixed a x i s system (A,R,C) and the hub-t'ixcd a x i s system ( X , Y , Z ) w i t h s i g n cxnvcrntiona. Tha j t k wgment is ahown i n figure 1 haviny a width fij and an inkward

r t r t i o n 83 a8 mearurd f o t h e writer Or rotation, Figdrr 2 illurtrater t h e rm aheat center and canter-of-gravity oLfrets f r a the pitch axis in t h e (A,B,C) a d (Y,Y,t) rY8L-O and the COnVWbtiO#k8. The POOitiVe d i r w t i a S LOC f b , re, and rx are opporite to tha B-, 0 , and X-axe6, re8pectively.
The blade regmnts a r e converted to a finite-element reprerentation w i t h a l l the inertia luped at the inboard end and a stiffnerr element extending over the mguant length. By uring t h e rign ~mnventionifor t h e displsccrcnts, f o r m s , a d l a r s n t r thOtlCl in figure 3, using tbe frerbody diagram of figure 4, assuming harmic motion, and requiring f a c e and r o l a n t equilibrium and continuity o dirrplacementr rclroar t h e lraped masse8, the following recutaion equations f re8ult t

5

6

*.re

the ca+ffbciants in there rquatlons are brfirwd

i n appendix

8.

Equation8 (1) to (10) ate i n general r g r m m n t with the equatianr of tef(brence (41, which prerent8 I detailad &v,lop#ant of theao recurtion formulas. There are two rignificant dilCfetecar, however, betthe .quatien8 i n t h i r r m t and the f i n a l equation8 of tefartncc, 4. m equations giwn i n this e rcrport art bard bn the r;t8Wpt~0#1 that CCo88-mctiOnal principal r t r u c t u r a l 8tiffmS8 and ma88 .e &a ate parallel. 2tteIICfot0, t h e term8 i n t h e equation8 of reference 4 that arim by rrruming they are not parallel are witted In c 9 a tion8 (11 to ( f O ) . Sccandly, the term F j k 4 , j i n aquation ( 1 ) is wt retained in reference 4. Equation8 (1) t o (10) are used t o calculate dstlectiona, rrlopga, fozeea, and nananta a t the inboard end of each segment twcauae o the conditions a t t h e f outboard end of that mqmnt. M e calculation prwoaa w n by assuming a i s unity value fw one of t h e t i p displacemntu and i e r o for a l l others. The correaponding t i p forces and moments are not a l l mm because a lumped mas8 is allowed a t that station ( t i p mass). Thus, f o r a u n i t y value of t h o t i p w t - o f plant slap, t h e forces and morncnts are calculated from r y u c t i o n s (6) to (10) and yield
%+1

-

1

where 6 , M, and 0 reyrcser.t t h e out-of-plane s l q w and mmcnt and in-plane mmt, rcsycctivclp, with s i g n cunvenrlons shown i n f i g u r e 7. A 1 1 o t h e r f a c e 8 and m r n t s et t h e t i p are z e r o . By s u c c p s s i v c l y npplyinq e q u a t i o n s ( 1 ) to ( 5 ) to determine de€llcctic\ne and slopes a t each inass e t a t i o n and e q u a t i o n s (a) t o (10) to calculate t h e forces and m c m n t s acting at the c w t h w r d and of t h e next inboard elastic element, t h e cwnditions a11 along t h e hladcr a r c d e t e r m i n d for specified value8 o f cmilcctiw p i t c h awl@and blade twist, rotcw r o t a t i o n a l speed, and t h e assumed trcquency of v i h r a t i o n . This prwadurc is r e p e a t e d f o r the same vibratory frequency by i n d i v i d u a l l y assunin,; u n i t y v a l u e s f o r t h a o t h a i t i p diwl-M*nts (+N+), bx,N+l , h + 1 , and \‘y,N+l)
+

lb a n a l y s e Q p a r t i c u l a r r n t m bladc, I t is nccpsPsary to s p e c i f y t h e qwm e t r i c and 8 t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s r e l a t i t q t h a manner i n which the blade i s muntcrcl t o t h e huh. The huh confiqurcrtion and support system in;\t.dancc c h a r a c tsristic8 a r e clxprcsscd aa f i v e boundary wnclit ion cquationr? i n terms t?f ttrc displacement v a r i a b l e s , forces, and m c w n t s a t a pat t i r u l a i s t a t ion. 10 sat i s f ) ‘ I n i t t h e prcscr itred I.rxindary w n d i t ion q u a t i n n with t h c ~ ~ v ~od s ~ - a \ c u l f i t e dalrvw the blado by c y u a t i o n s ( 1 ) to (101, t h e unknawn (11 must t a k e kzn only select v.91’

7

%tW8, the eigenvalue p~obleair f o r m where the vibratory frequency i r By8t~tica~l~ varied, and the condition8 along the blade are calculatd C o r wch unity t i p displacc#rsct. Then data are then w e d to aee whether the bounda t y conditions are mtiafied.
u88a

In Ute analyais three basic seta of boundary condition equations are used and the rarulting modal characterlatics are designated as pertaining to colhctive, cyclic, oc rcirrorr type 1110668, depending upon which set of boundary conditionr is irporcrd. The form of tho boundary conditions for each mode type is rumaritad in tabla I and the different spring and m s s teras are shown in f i g ure 5 Reference 5 presents a discussion of the88 made types and how they are . cmbined to descr ib6 rotor mode characteristics.
The collective inode is characterlad by rsyaraetric vertical. or out-of-plane and antiayrrncltric horizontal o in-plane deflections o opposing pairs of blades r f on the rotor. The appropriate boundary conditions for the in-plane direction are elements 2 and I of the first mlum of table I and pertain to a sprinsrestrained Kr pinned joint a t the center of rotation. The first and third eleraants give the conditions far a clamped joint attached to a movable hub, where the hub impedance is represented by a siwle-degree-of-freedom mass-spring syrter. These chrrrcterirtica describe tbe boundary conditions for the aut-ofplane dirsction. T e first four conditions of the first column are applied at h the center-line station. The torsional equation relates the twist and torque at the pitch horn radial attachment point. The term represents the effective rpring ratt8 of the control system.

The cyclic d e s h a w symmetric in-plane and antisymmetric out-of-plane deflection shapes about tht center of rotation. The boundary conditions for the cyclic modes are qivan in the second column o table I. The first and third f elements of that column describe the flapping-spr inq-restrained Kt; pinned eondftions in the out-of-plane direction. Elements 2 aed 4 are fox the in-plane diiection where the representation is a cl.amped j o i n t fixed to a flexible hub havinq lcmprd stiffness and mans charact. ristics described by Kig and Mip, respectively. The torsional boundary condition is the same for t c cyclic and collective modes. For the scissors modes, the in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions at the center line represent clamping of the blades t o an immovahle hub r (ey,] 6x 1 = E l \111 0). For a rotor having three o more blades, the toraional canhitinn is the same as far the collective arid cyclic modes. For twobladed rotors, the torsional deflection is z e r o (clamped) at the pitch horn attachment radial station. Those conditions are shown in the third ivlumn of table I, Fbx the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, an alternate form of the boundary conditions is used whenever it is desirshle t o represent o f f s e t fldpping and lagging hlnqes ds in t h e case of an articulated r o t t j i , (Pee tht* fourth m l u m n of table 1 . ) I f the offset of the flaypiry hinge is not z e r o , the zero slope wndition is r c p l n c w l by an tquat ion relating the out-ot-plane mmnt and slope at thc hinqe s t ; t t i o n u s i n q a f l n y p i n q spriry t e t m 5;. Simil a r l y , for an offset laclninq hinge, the sliyw c-cwdit ion is c-hanritd tt> A i i h d c l of a spring-restrained K4, pinned joint at thr laggirw hinyt- r a d i a l station.

-

- -

8

.'-e repratitq t h e r u b r t i t u t i o n O f Condition8 a 8 8 o c i a t d with Unity value8 other t i p mordinrtea, t h e mmplete mefficient matrix i r generated. T I a.dt . . teru rry k thought o a8 p a r t i a l derivatives of each boundary condit ,I swaf As an example, t ~ : .a ?la& tion with re8pct to an individual t i p ditpl-ent. having a pitch horn offret the coefficient matrix [ c ] for ths rciraorr mode would be (see tabla I)r

'phr wlw8 OC c h f l w t i o n , 8lopr. #ra8nt. and 8hear calculated a t t h e 8tatiom far which the boundary condition8 apply and due to a value o unity f o r f one oocrrdinrta a t t h e outboard t i p can be r u b s r t i t u t e d i n t o t?- left-hand aide of the boundary condition equation8 for a particular W e type. These equation8 am then umd to f o r m one colun o the boundary condition coefficient matrix. f

Ccl

-

ae %ip

where t h e subscript 1 refers to t h e station at t h e center o rotation. The f fom of the boundary condition coefficient matrix is dependent on t h e macle t y p e to bo calculatcd. Because t h e boundary condition equctions G C C ho(ncqcne~~u6,h e t following matrix equation can be form&d to determine t h e tip deflections for each Mer

9

(141

r e r u l t i n g vector is usad as t h e new t r i a l vector by the inwrm natrix. ?out iteratiom are performed, mch rerulting vector b i n q normalized by the laryest elslrant. The f i n a l vector oarreapon& to the relative t i p deflections for t h a t Aadcr. By using t h e s e valu.8 md the spnnwisc d i s t r i b u t i o n 8 of d e f l e c t i o n s , slopos, shears, and atanents Lor each unit tip deflection, the mode shapea and associated s h e a r and rament d i r t r i b u t i o n a are calculated. The displacerrentr, are l e f t i n t h e X,Y,E-axis tyrtar. The hear8 and rwrants are resolved b a c k i n t o t h e locr.'. segment axis myatema, however, by wing the t w i s t and collective p i t c h angles.

an i n i t i a l t r i a l vector. . d ir again p r r u l t i p l i e d n

General Descripticm of Program
The analytical metho& have been implemented as a d i g i t a l c a a p u t e r prog r u d a d i n MRTRAN IV language. The program is run on t h e Control Data Corp. cy86R 175 carputat system a t t h e Langley Research C e n t e r , u s i n g a n FTN corpiler and NOS 1.2 operating system. Ey comparing t h e new program w i t h t h e cine de8cribed i n r e f e r e n c e 1, t h e l e n g t h s o the source decks are 1222 and 2398 f mrdr, c o m p i l a t i o n times are 36 and 6 . 6 CPU ( C e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t ) seconds, . and c a r p u l e r care requirements i n octal are 54000 and 112000, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A case w i t h a 20-acgwnt r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was run o . b t h programs. The new r version required 15 CPU seconds for e x e c u t i o n and t h e old v e r s i o n r e q u i r e d '7 CPO rrconds. The new projram can c a l c u l a t e n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s and utde s h a p e s for up to 30 blade segments ( u s e r s p e c i f i e d i n t h e new program), aad up to 18 rotor speeds. All errors i n t h e original program known to t h e a u t h o r s have bean corrected in this program.

The computer program c o n s i s t s of a main program, called BLDANL, and e i g h t S u b r O U t h t s ( W L T D , C W , ClW, INPT, P m , S m S W , and ?4ODScUPl. A T , listing of t h e cunputer program is g i v e n i n appendix C. In - d d i t i o n , a l i b r a r y r u b r o u t i n e , NATINV, is also r e q u i r e d and is documented i n appendix D . The ptogram also u s e s a C a l C a p p l o t t i n g p a c k a g e . A flow chart of t h e program is pres e n t e d i n f i g u r e 7 . The v a r i o u s parts of the program are described i n subseq u e n t nstagraphs.
Program BLDANt
The! main program c o n t r o l s t h e a m p u t a t i o n o f t h e blade n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s f o r a l l ccarbinations of collective p i t c h , rotor s p e d , and mode type. BLDANL i n i t i a l l y c a l l s r u b r o u t i n e INPT to read t h e i n p u t d a t a for each case and t h e n c o n v e r t the i n p u t i n t o the d e s i r e d lunpd-mass r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The e l a s t i c and i n e r t i a l prclperties for each s t a t i o n a r e rotated front the local A,B,C-axis rystaa to the h o t i r o n t a l - v e r t i c a l X,Y,Z-axis system. The program t h e n e-mputes t h e forces due t o r o t a t i o n a t each s t a t i o n for each v a l u e of r o t o r speed.

The c a l c u l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e X , Y , Z - ? x i s system are i n p u t t o rrubroutine C W which then returnr. t h e determinant of t h e k u n d a r y m e f f i c i e n t O matrix (eq. ( 1 2 ) ) fcx each desired e s t i m a t e of t h e n a t u r a l frequency. I n pract i c e , t h e v a l u e s et: t h e determinant a r e used to e x t r a p o l a t e toward t h e p i i n t
11

After 411 desired nrtual fr.qmncirs hwe been determined, the a r ~ c i a t e d .odr rhrp4. m k ealculstenl. A trll to rcbroutine AIIpL'ID C~UIIII the .od. y shapes t he calculated, printed out, plotted, oc punched &pending on t h e i n p u t o options selected, Subroutine Su+LT ir thm called to print aut a @GUY of a l l calculated natural fim~i-. Also, i f requested, 8ubrautine Pfatrp is called t plot the n a t u r a l f r e q m i e a as a f u n c t i o n o rota: r o t a t i o n a l speed fa each o f h collective p i t c h angle and mde type. l pcagrru then proceeds to t h e next input case.
Subroutine
AplpLlp

Subroutine m D is called by BtDANL to cuvpute the rock s h a p e s far: t h e L S ) r E p r e v i o u s l y determined n a t u r a l frequencies. Subroutine a B is f i r s t called to calculate the matrix of t h e roet-boundary condittons f o r i n d i v i d u a l u n i t t i p displ-ts a t the c a l c u l a t e d natural frequency. The matrix is i n v e r t e d by using the l i b r a r y s u b r o u t i n e C U T W and an i n v e r s e m r t r i x iteration scheme is wed to c a l c u l a t e the valuce of the d e f l e c t i o n s and slopcs a t t h e tip. Rdll the transformation term c a p u t e d i n subroutine (?om, e d e f l e c t i o n s , slopes, th m t s , and shears a t each s t a t i o n are c a l c u l a t e d and listed. ThC part of t h e q r n e r a l i t e d mass a s s o c i a t e d with each d e f l e c t i o n at r o t a t i o n c m - ment is c a l c u l a t e d and used to dcterrine t h e principal d e f l e c t i o n d i r e c t i o n ( L b a t having t h e l a r g e s t g e n e r a l i z e d mass): vertical, h o r i z o n t a l , or torsion. The twmbec o f node p o i n t s of t h e axle shape i n t h e p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n is then deterlained.
I f requested, the mode shapes may be plotted or punched o u t through c a l l s to M ) D S W o CARDS. T'he g e n e r a l i z e d mas6 colrponents are also p r i n t e d . F i n a l l y , r a check of convergence f o r both n a t u r a l frequency and mode shape is made by matrix m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of the boundary c o n d i t i o n m a t r i x and t h e m a t r i x of t i p d e f l e c t i o n s and slopes. The reculting matrix, which should be a n u l l matrix, is p r i n t e d o u t f o r each listed mde shape.

Subroutine CARDS The s u b r o u t i n e CARDS is t h e o n l y s u b r o u t i n e which produces punched o u t p u t for u s e as input d a t a i n t h e f l i g h t s i m u l a t i o n program of r e f e r e n c e s 2 and 3. I t is divided i n t o t h r e e parts t h e f i r s t punches t h e input i n e r t i a d a t a , t h e second punches t h e caaponents o t h e mode shape, and t h e t h i r d punches t h e f c y c l i c detuning c a r d s which are used tr s p e c i f y v a r i a t i o n s of n a t u r a l frequency with c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h and r o t m speed. The f i r s t p a r t , called by s u b r o u t i n e STARP, takes blade mass and i n e r t i a d a t a which a r e divided i n t o an a r h i t r a r y number a€ segments and r e c a s t s i t i n t o 20 equal l e n g t h segments. The second p a r t , c a l l e d t the s u b r o u t i n e AMPLTD, takes t h e mocle shape d a t a and r e c a s t s y i t i n t o 20 equal sclqmects as well. The f i r s t six n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s for each combination of r o t o r c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h , r o t o r r o t a t i o n a l speed, and mode type

-

12

Subroutine

m)Ds;lup

The p c o q r u read8 the i n p u t from f i l e 5. me format for t h e i n p u t dst8 deck is spcsclfiad i n tablo X I and a sample deck l i m t i n g is p r o v i d e d i n table XIX. The p t o g r u input and a u t p u t aota are eyprcssed i n U.S. Custorory Units. Conversion f a c t o r s far o b t a i n i n g SI Units are g i v e n i n appendix A. * n table X I t h e FCogrW name8 arc g i v e n w i t h the symbols uscd i n this report shawn p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , where a p p r o p r i a t e . A data deck conaisis of c a r d t y p e s 1 to 18. Multiple case1 can be run by p l a c i n g the data decks one behind t h e other w i t h no sepatatorn. F a n ~ l t i p l e - c a s cruns, t h e n a m e l i s t format o p t i o n c a n be used for a l l Cat388 a%Capt the f i r s t . The v a r i o u s i n p u t s a r e described i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p.\ragrPphr.

I n t a b l e 11, t h e f i r s t card s p e c i f i e s t h e p r q r a r o p t i o n 8 v i a d e a c r i p t i v e nams which m be i n p u t in any order. The allowed names a r e DECK, NAKElist, y
PU3Ch, m e , IrffY)Es, A W ~ W a a , PtoT, TWIsion, and NLlWist. Only t h e f i r s t f o u r c h a r a c t e r 8 o* each n a n are r e q u i r e d . DECK i n s t r u c t s t h e program to r e a a a new case i n p u t deck. M a NAMGlist o p t i o n allows t h e user to read i n o n l y t h e changes to t h e p r e v i o u s cam by u s i n g a n a m e l i s t format, PUNCh is used t o g e n e r a t e punched c a r d s s u i t a b l e for i n p u t i n t o t h e cmputer program of r e f e r e n c e s 2 and 3. The SHAPe option c a u s e 8 t h e program to g e n e r a t e CalCcmp plots of t h e blade mode shapes f o r t h e case with t h e r e f e r e n c e v a l u e s of r o t o r speed and c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h angle. The W E e input r e s u l t s i n p r i n t o u t s of t h e mode shape data provided by SMPe. AI,I..Modas i s u m d when mode shape p r i n t o u t s f o r a l l c o s b i n a t i o n s o r o t o i sped and c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h angle a r e d e s i r e d . The PLOT o p t i o n qenerf a t e r CalCornp p l o t s of t h e v a r i a t i o n of blade n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c i e s as a f u n c t i o n of r o t o r a p e d fm each collective p i t c h angle. TORSion c a u s e s t h e t o r s i o n a l degree of freedam to he included i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The N L T U i s t o p t i o n i n s t r u c t s

metric, md rtructwal data t h a t uere i n g u t and a s r a r a r y tab1.e o a l l orlcuf lated nrtural frequencie8. Suplei of them output8, obtained f r a the h p t data liited i n table 111, are pre8ented i n table8 1V and V.
The i n p u t data l i 8 t include8 geemetric and r r t r u c t u r a l para~eterai n t h e same u n i t s a8 o r i g i n a l l y read in, as well as 8 e g w n t l e n g t h 8 and valucer of blade t w i 8 t and c e n t r i f u g a l force a t each station. The total blade ma1161 and f l a p p i n g inertia u e calculated by c a n s i d e r i n g a n l y t h e blade ma81 o u t b o r r d of any flapping h i n g e and are listed. The hub and c o n t r o l system inpadance parameters itre also reproduced on the listing. The calculated natural f r e q u e n c i e s are 8-arited f a each appropriate mode type ( t h a t is, collective, c y c l i c , and/or =isrrars) end at each m e b i n a t i o n of root collective p i t c h a n g l e and rotor speed. ThC valuB of n a t u r a l frequency are nondiarensionaliaed by rotor speed prior to being o u t p u t a t h e y are presented i n units o cycles per minute f a t n o n r o t a t f

ing cases. Few each frequency listed, t h e plane c o n t a i n i n g t h e l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the total g e n e r a l i r e d 1~48s t h a t mode is i d e n t i f i e d and t h e number of o node p o i n t s i n the mode shape carpMIent associated with t h a t plane are f listed.
I f e i t h e r t h e WXMb or U o d e s o p t i o n s is selected, spanwise d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the rode s h a p s , moments, and shear f o r c e s a t each s t a t i o n are p r i n t e d o u t a8 shown in table VI. When t h e U o d e s o p t i o n is e x e r c i s e d , t h e s e d a t a are listad for a l l c a r b i n a t i o n s of appropriate mode type, root collective p i t c h angle, and rotat speed. For t h e n a l l k p o p t i o n , d a t a are p r i n t e d f a t each mode type, b u t f o r o n l y one r e f e r e n c e colabination of collective p i t c h and rotor speed. The r e f e r ence mllcctive p i t c h angle is t h e l a s t v a l u e i n p u t i f o n l y one oc two i n p u t values a . e specified. I f t h r e e or more collective p i t c h a n g l e s are r e q u e s t e d , the r e f e r e n c e Value is t h e next to l a s t v a l u e input. The r e f e r e n c e rotor speed is determined i n a similar fashion. The v a l u e s i n t h e mode shape columns correspond to d e f l e c t i o n s i n t.he vertical and h o r i z o n t a l planes. HOYev@r, the associated f a c e s and moments are calculated i n t h e local beam and chord axis system and r e f l e c t blade b u i l t - i n t w i s t and collective p i t c h angles. When TORSion is i n p u t on card type 1, t h e t o r s i o n a l r o t a t i o n s and laaaents for each m d ale also oe listed. The displacements, maaents, and s h e a r s a r e normalized so t h a t t h e maxiraun defl c i i o n along t h e b l a d e i n e i t h e r t h e vertical or h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e is 1 in. (2.54 cm) o t h e maximum t o r s i o n a l r o t a t i o n is 1 radian. r After t h e spanwise m d shape listings, the parts of t h e t o t a l g e n e r a l i z e d mass a t t r i b u t e d to oe each d e f l e c t i o n plane, v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l , o t o r s i o n , a r e p r i n t e d . F i n a l l y , r E\ check is made to see whether t h e boundary c o n d i t i o n s a r e adequately s a t i s f i e d (See previous d i s c u s and tb c a l c u l a t e d boundary c o n d i t i o n values a r e p r i n t e d . sion concerned w i t h imposing boundary c o n d i t i o n s . ) B o t h t h e g e n e r a l i z e d masses and boundary c m d i t i a n v a l u e s reflect t h e normalization p r o c e s s a p p l i e d to t h e m>de shar’s.
C . . of t h e SHAPe o p t i o n c a u s e s CalCmp plots of t h e spanwise d i s t r i b u t i o n : d e shapes to be generated. A sample p l o t is shown i n figure 8. One }>Tot is made f o r each c a l c u l a t e d frequency f o r a l l t h e mode t y p e s but only for ?he one combination of r e f e r e n c e c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h and r o t o r speed. The d i f f e r -

of

+

e n t displacements, v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l , o t o r s i o n , a r e p l o t t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y r ilnd r e f l e c t t h e normalization p r o c e s s a p p l i e d to t h e l i s t e d d a t a (maximum d c f l w -,ions of 1 i r , (2.54 cm) ot 1 r a d i a n ) . The a b s c i s s a r e p r e s e n t s t h e spanwise s t a t i o n s for ‘:he d e f l e c t i o n values normalized by t h e r o t o r r a d i u s . Far i d c n t i f t c n 16

tiom puqa8ur the rodr typr md nrtutal frequency for each plot are given above t figur+. b

Uhen t h e PuWch option is wed, punched cards are p n e r a t e d by t h e program c m p c r t l b l e with t h e input r e q u i r a r e n t r o the r o t o r c r a f t 8 l i r u l a t i o n ccmputer f praqrw dacumted i n references 2 and 3. The format for t h e punched deck is Hrrn in t8ble V I 1 and a 8cl.lpIe o u t p u t deck is lirted i n table V I I I . The pundrcrd output coniist6 of four pnrtst a paoblem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c a r d , card. c o n t a i n i n g the blade inertia c h a r a c t e r i r t i c r , t h e modit rhape8 f o r the six low*8t fr.puancie8 a8rociatd w i t h each mode type and cyclic d e t u n i n g i n f o r a a t i o n . W h e n the P U K h option i 8 wed, t h c e e value8 e a c h of collectivlr p i t c h and rotor rprd rrvt ha input, the 8;.cond v a l u r s being the amrags o the law and high f input qurntiticcr.
A l t h o u g h t h e propran h88 the c a p a b i l i t y of t r e a t i n g up to 30 segments of

urwqwl l e n g t h , t h e ri~ulatiocrprogrr of refarencas 2 and 3 requires data for only 20 8hgMntr o aqua1 length. Therefore, the i n p u t rotor inurtia c h a r a c t t r f irticr are converted by U t h g l i n e a t i n t e r p o l a t i o n . The r c r c n t s of i n e r t i a i n both bur and chord direction8 are also changed to r e f l e c t a t r a n s f e r from t h e conter d g r r v i t y to the f e a t h e r i n g axis prior to being punched out. Each set
o f i n e r t i a properties i r punched o u t i n successive field6 on t h r e e cards. The c a l c u l a t e d W e 8haper for the r e f e r e n c e v a l u e s o rotor speed and collectim f p i t c h have a180 been i n t e r p o l a t e d to y i e l d v a l u e s f o r a system with 20 segments of equal length. The u n i t 6 o t h e mode shape ccaponents are changed to f e e t for f t h e vertical and h o r i z o n t a l d e f l e c t i o n 8 and degrees f o r t h e t o r s i o n a l a a p l i t u d e s . For each of t h e f i r r t collective, cyclic, and scissor nodes (up to six each), oe 11 c a r d s are output. The f i r s t 10 card8 d e f i n e t h e t h r e e m d shape components &, b y , and 4) f o r a d j a c e n t s t a t i o n pairs s t a r t i n g a t t h e c e n t e r of r o t a t i o n . The t i p d i s p l a c e r e n t s arc punched i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e fields o t h e 1 1 t h c a r d f with t h e next t h r e e field8 c o n t a i n i n g t h e n a t u r a l frequency, normalired by the rotor speed, stode type d e s i g n a t i o n , and an a s s m e d modal damping r a t i o of 0.02. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n d a t a a r e punched i n t h e r e n a i n i n g f i e l d s of a l l mode shapes c a r d s for ( ~ 8 e handling. The stode type d e s i g n a t i o n s arc 1 (collective), -1 ( c y c l i c ) , of and 0 ( 8 C i S B o t 8 ) . One cyclic detuning c a r d 18 generated f o r each punched mode shape. The purpose o the c y c l i c dctuning c a r d i b t o s p e c i f y the v a r i a t i o n of mode fref quency w i t h r o t o r speed and wllective p i t c h angle. The f i r s t four f i e l d s of each cyclic detuning c a r d list t h e normalired frequency a? a p a r t i c u l a r mode f o r c o n d i t i o n 8 of l a s e a t v a l r n s of rotor speed and p i t c h a r y l e , lowest r o t o r speed and h i g h e s t p i t c h angle, h i g h e s t r o t o r speed and law p l t c h a n g l e and, f f i n a l l y , t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e s o p i t c h a n g l e ar;d rotor speed. The r e f e r e n c e val17

uea o rotor tpwd and pitch arqle are alro punch& on each c y c l i c &tuning f card, u w a l l aa the c a m nam, rdk number, and typr indicatot.

Tbr .ccUtrCy Of thr a M 4 S i S i 8 wtithd thtOU@ r o t r O h t $ U i Of m t h d rerultr for wlected pcoblarr, having either clowb-for. solutions oc rccutate molutionr availrble in the l i t e r a t u r e . The correlation is b a d on corprrironr of natur8l freqWtCies 8nd rode shape characteristicrr. 14re first. cam conridered is that of a nonrotating, uncoupled, uniform &em with pure bending in one plane md torsion a U W . haa-€5- and e l m - f r e e ronditione are examined and t h ~ lcmm5t f i v e #de8 i n each direction and for each sat of boundary conditionr u e determined. ?he ClCrcMd cam exprnda on the f i r r t by adding a t i p -88 h a manner which a f f e c t s the bendi- vibrations only. The third c8m is for a s i r p l y crupportad, nonrotatinq beam having uncoupled torsion and one bend-

ing degree of frrcrdar. Tha fourth case add8 e l a s t i c coupling between the bending and torsion vibrations for the simply supported beam. The f i f t h correlation ca9c deals with a rotating propeller for: which experimntal data were available. Unfortunstely, suitable data pertaining t o helicopter rotor could not be found by the authors. The analytical r ~ p r t s t n t r t i m nfor tach o theat case8 ate sumf narited i n table8 I X and X.

Case 1

- mrotating Uncwpled Uniform

€beam

The program input data for the nonrotating, uncaupled, uniform b a a in bending and t o t a i m a r e presented as case number 1 i n table I X . Although the exact solution does not include the effects of rotary i n e r t i a , the computer program does. Therefore, negative values of the tsectional mass acnent o i n e r t i a f (determined by eq. ( B l ) ) are input to the prograa 80 that the net segment rotary i n e r t i a effects i n the program are eliminated. Ccxipariaons of c a a p u t e d and exact results (refs. 8 and 9 ) for the f i r s t case are tabulated fn table8 X I to The d i f f e r e m e s between the corputed and exact natural frequencies for XIV. both sets of boundary conditions a r e always less than 0.8 and 1 . 7 percent for bending and torsion, respectively. The discrepancies increase! w i t h lrode nurbcr and the caPputed frequencies are always smaller. The trends of bending ude shape correlation ate similar to those for natural frequency. The caaputed and exact torsion W e shapes match f r a l l nodes and both sets of boundary o cond it ions.
Case 2

- Nonrotatfng

Uncoupled Uniform Beam With T i p Mass

Tabla XV i l l u s t r a t e s the effect of adding a t i p mass on t h e clamped-free bending frequencies. The analytical model is shown in table I X as case number two. The torsion frequencies are unchanged fran t h e values indicated i n table XIV. The calculated bending frequencies vary by up to 1.5 percent relat i v e to the values obtained fran reference 10 (for the f i r s t vertical bending node). m e trend of increasing discrepancy w i t h d e order observed f r the o previous examples is not present i n t h i s case. I n fact, t h e smallest difference

-&rat bonding-komion vibcatianr ate enrlyt.6 i n retor*rm, 11, &err ~QMtDanr are given fw oalculrting exwt natural f r v n c i e r and uod. rhqp.0. Tho -10 prablu in that d a uniform, r 4 l y arr#rartod @ittnod-pinmd v e r t i c a l kodfng a d clam@-clrSrpd torrion) ku w i t h a horirontal o f f a e t batwen tho cmtw of Qrwity and &ear contee we8 to induce c l i n g . % e n bound.ry amb i t ionr emnot be rrchievrd a t the outborrd t i p by the a r r l y r i r d o c w n t d i n tkir rapoct without r l i g h t modifications, Th. r.puir.4 changer to the carputer pmqru includr roplacamnt of the cob. g.notating the unity valuer of v o r t i c a l MQ tz~l8i-l d r f h c t i o n r and a 1 term prtaining to .heare and momenta a t the outboatd t i p , cod. ropreoenting unity valuer of the v*rtical ohwr and torsional # u n t are then rubrtitutad i n t o tho program. Thew chanqer wore rrd, and the emlytical t.prc*#ntation, given aa cama 3 and 4 i n table I X , u8ed for correlation purpomr. T a b l a XVI and W l I p r e r m t carypllrilonr for calculated and exact t8wltr with and w i t h a a t tho coupling added. Without the caupling t h e l u g e a t bi8c?r:cpancier i n fr.quclncy aro le88 than 0.02 and 1.7 percont tor tho highert knding and t o r i i o n IDder, r e r p c t i v e l y , thus verifying the reprc~aontatim. For the roueplod problem (tab10 XWI) tho d i f f o r e m r b o t m n - u t d and oxact frequencios aro always l e r c than 0.7 porcent w i t h t h difference genorally incroas~ i r q with nodr ardor. Th. r e l a t i v e knding-torsion amplitudes for tho rod. rhaper rhcnr goad agreeuiont k t m o n m u t e d and exact results.
Cam 5

- Node1 Propeller

Experimental vibration data, pertaining to model propeller blades, a r e given i n reforence 12 and were used i n reference 13 f a r correlation w i t h the analyri8 prerented i n t h a t report. The s t r u c t u r a l Ch8taCteri8tiCr presentt-: i n tho00 two references were used to obtain the representation shown i n table X by interpolating t o intermediate rtationr. The e f f e c t i v e torrional stiffness which war u8.d included both t h e narrinal value of GJ and t h e contribution of another term dependent on UIe aquare of the t w i s t r a t e a8 shown i n table X. The second term is included i n t h e tOr8iOnal equation o motion i n reference 13 b u t not i n f the equation8 given i n t h h report (necessitating it8 inclurion w i t h the OJ valuor). The e f f e c t of t h i s term i8 to increase a l l frequencies a l i k e w i t h o u t regard to the values of collective pitch or rotor s p e d . I t a aniasion i n t h e preaent equations i a b n s d on its insignificance for t h e t w i s t . r a t e s used on convent iona 1 r o t or des igna

.

Gxperimental and calculated variations of natural frequency w i t h collective pitch angle and rctor rotational speed a t e i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 10 far t h e f i r r t and second bending and the f i r s t torsion natural frequencies. Excellent agrecmnt between experimental and calculated r e s u l t s a t e achieved for t h e two boding frequencies. (See f i g s . lO(a) and l O ( b ) . ) A discrepancy e x i d t s between calculated and masured variations of torsional frequency w i t h collective p i t c h , aa shown i n figure lO(c). As diaeussed i n reference 13, the angle between local r t r u c t u t a l axes on the blade and the plane oE rotation 1s a function of b u i l t - i n
19

#e rerulting prrag~cuill: d0Currpnt.d by prerrnting in thie roport the oquetionr and twhniqure ttx dotetrining natural &.qurncier and node shaper, input data r q u k w r n t r . , and desctiptiona of tho variouo program outputr. A 8mrce lirting M #a wagram ir alro pcewntrd. Th. accuracy nf the program is indieat& by conprrinq ccuptwl terultr with exact lalutians and s x p o r i w n t a l data. Far unifem, Mwurototing M u p r ~ b ~ ~ t s ,c a l ~ u freguoncy prsdictionr are within 2 pmcant ~ l exact s o l u t i o n s Zcx the firrt f i v e b ding and torrisn W e 8 and ! ( top (L varioty O f boundary cu#lditionr. The ptsd4ctQd ncdr .haper closely match exact rrnneri. t&perilaenta1,data raaorwed on a rotating, highly twisted propellor WPCI al.o, us& fw carrelation. M e calculated bndinq frequencies a h 0 4 eweellant ylreemnt with m a a u r d data.

2Q

.wptnlred i n u.8, Curtamrry tmitr. Connrrion factor8 fat obtaining data tn 81 ~ n i t r glwn in khe following table brad on reference 1 4 t are

Th. input a d output data rrrociated w i t h the corputer pcqrun are

I

hDcMt, Waight

Fl’equrncy.

mqth

............ ..............

...........

Linear spring.

..........
in-lb
0.11 298

CIonant

.............. Rotational a p e d . . . . . . . . .
b
b
0

RotrtiOM1 8pring
SCIcOnd
M68

0

e

b

b

writ O f

inertia
b b

Structural rtiffnear

--

. .
CUI~O~RICY h

I * l i - C . I - l . _ .

--i t by convetsion factor to

Wultiply valuer given i n & S b obtain equivalent value i n SI Unit.

21

Po drtenrirn tk. natwrl fteqaecie8 and mode 8h-s irwciatcrd w i t h a tube b l a h , the Urd. ir rrgnntod, and avervaluer of the rtructutal propl 0rti.r af each Oi the 1s #gJwmt8 are determined. Thms p r o p r t i n are mrocirted wlth the nirpoint ol! each m n t by the p m g c u and the c r ~ a ; - ~ r r c t i o n r l llgond R U 8 M n t S Of hWtir 8 f O rQ1ak.d to the 6UCtiM 111.8 mntroid. IZC+ 1 illurtrater the local A,$& m n t - f i x e d ami8 ayrtem urb o v e r a l l & Y e t a x i r s y a t m with rim conwntionr. Fhe reference axis i s the wdeforrcrd t pitch . x i 8 of the blade. Tim j t h Mgrnant is 8hown i n figure 1 having a width ‘1 and an inboard s t a t i o n 8 j a8 meamred f r a the center of rotation.

The mer rarenp of i n e r t i a of the segment c10.i s e c t i o n for tho baa and Chord direction8 I& and I& ate transfartad to the reference (blade pitch) arir and the rotary i n e r t i a for the segment is added. The polar moment OL inertia is a180 determined by the program. T e r r l a t i m r h i p s are; h

(i

-

1, Z 8

.

b

.#

N)

(82)

where w i and ‘ C # i

is the weight p e r unit length for the ith segment. The terms rb,i are the center-of-gravity offsets from the reference axis and the apign wnvsntion for these terms is g i v e n in f i g u r e 2 ( a ) .
Because the analysis represents each segment as
LL

weightless stiffness ele-

ment with the inertial proprties 1 m p d at its inboard end, the inertias for

22

:;luatian ( 8 5 ) represents the lumped mass stations including the t i p w i g h t U

mj a t the j t h station.

For the end

(B?2 a )

23

-

%gNtboN
29

t

Wb,N+l
9

(E1 3b)

(914a)

(El 4b)

(B: 6h)

24

(31 7a)

(E17b)

(Bl ea)

Bpuationa (851 to (Bldbl apply to t h e local axis system a t each station.

Because the equations of motion are written tot the horirontal-vertical or x,Yaxas, the blade inertial pzcprticts m u s t be rotated i n t o the l a t t e r system using
the pitch angle angle Be.
at

each station defined ftm the twist 8,

and c o l l e c t i v e pitch

ej

=

o

C j

-

1, 2,

..

*,

JHUB)

(€519a)

where JHUB is an input quantity representing t h e number of nonfeathering hub aegarents. For g w e r a l t w i s t distributions, input values of twist are used, and the collective pitch angle i s added to those values. The inexti& representation i n the X,Y,Z-axis system is given by the following relationships:

25

(j

-

1, 2,

. ., st+))
0

where the l a s t term pertains to the su-called -tennis racquet. effect i n the equation for torsional maent.
The elastic proprties are rotated i n t c the X,Y,Z-axis system, using the total pitch angle -t the m i m i n t of each segment o b t a i n e d fram averaging the walues o pitch at tbe segment endpoints, The shear center (elastic axis) offf S ' ' S f r a the reference axis (see fig. 2(b)) are found by

The structoral stiffness representation in the X,Y,Z-axis

system is

( f = 1, 2,

. . ., N)

26

-% 1

8

T!te tOrSiOna1 8 t i f f m s S S

(GJ)i is unchanged.

M each station the centrifugal f o r a and associated rmantej created by the offset of the center of gravity from the reference axis are calculated by using tbe forrulu

k- j+l

k-jtl

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46

APPrcNDIX D
LIBRARY

SUBROUTING HATINY LISTING

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A S C A L E CACTOO COMPUTED B Y T H E S U R Q O U T I N E TO A V O 1 0 OVERFLOW OU UNDfRIFLOW I N THE C O M P U T A T I O N OF THE W A N T IT Y I M T E Q M o A ON€ D I M E N S I O N A L 1 N T E G L R A d R A Y USE0 B Y THE bUt)PROGRAM TO S'ORE P I VOTOL I NFWMAT I O . N I T SHOULD e t D I M E N S I O N E D AT L E A S T N o I N GENEWAL T H E USER OO€S N O T NEED T O MAKE USE OF T n t s ARRAY. A T W O - O I M E t 4 S ~ O N A L I N T E G E R ARRAY OF TEMPORAf?Y STORAGE USED t)V THE R O U T I N E . IUK SHOULD H A V E I T S FIWST D I W N S I O N WAX. A N 0 I T S SECOND 2.

C C C
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STORAGE L A NCUAGE

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A N I ) u T R O W C T I O N TO N U M E R I C A L LI NLAW ALGEBWA

-

542 O C T A L L O C A T I O N S

-FORT R A N

FORTRAN L I B R A R Y F V N C T l O N S -AfjS LATEST MEVISION
JULV

1973 -CMPC)

M A T U I X I N V E R S l O k W I T H A C C O W A N V I N G SOLbTlON OF L l N t A C l L Q U b T l O N S OfMENSION I P I V O T ( N ) s d ( M P X r N ) r ~ ( M A % . N ) r l U ~ ~ M A X r ~ ) E Q U I V A L E N C E tl40YrJWON)r ( I C C k L W * J C O L U ; f l ) r 14MAX. T I S W A P )

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00 550 1 - 1 . N
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200
210

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1- Iknncrtt, I. t . r t emir8 and 897q.
1,
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Digital Cagutvr P r q r u DF1756 Fully Coupled Natural FroSh-8 & a Helicopter Rotor Wade. & ! CR-132661,

3ohn N, 8 k n n e t t , Richard t .; and Blankmahip, Barney L. t Rotorcraft Fliqht Simulation With AIrQIlrrtiC Rotor and Improved Aerodynamic Ripre8.ntrtion. Volum I Enqirtew'r M u a l . WAANRDL-TR-74-1OA, 0.8. &my, # &me 1974, (Available trm G : a8 AD 762 654.)

-

3. Ikvir, J a r , N ; Rotorcraft Flight Simulation With A e r w l a r t i c Ratnr . and hprovd Aerodynamic Repteswttrtim, Volume IX U a w ' r h n u r l . US~AMUPTR-~~-~OB, U,S. &my, June 1974. (Available from L a8 W

-

AD 782 756.)

4. Nctrrty, T b t Ratcarcraft F l i g h t Simulation With C0,plsd Roc% Aeroelaatic Stability A n & 1 \ ' 3 h Volunn '1 Bnginoarr hnue2. i..sAA!4#L-TR-76-41Ae U.S. A m y , Nay 1977, (Available fron llbc a AD A042462.) 5. Bennott, Richard t . 8 Rata Sy8t.r. De8ign and Livaluation Using a General Purpae NelicQptsi Flight Simrr~rtionFrqram. Specialists meting on Helicapt+r Rot= toads P r e d i c t i o n Wethoas. AGARD-cP-I~~, Nar. 1973, f"~. 5-1 S-15.

-

-

6. Sadler, S, Gena8 Inlornal Final Report on Blade Frequency Proyram for Nonuniform Heli,x?pter Rotwcs, With Automatad F r e q u e n c y Search. NRSA
CR-11%071, [1972].

1, Gould, R, J . ; barkina, R. F + ; N i l n e r , J. A.1 and r r a t t , N. J.: Corrgutntlsnel NsthQda in tinaar Algebra. John Wilay & Sons, Inc., c.1974.
8 . Ycunp, Dana; and h l g a r , Robert P , Jr. t Tables of Characterlatic F u n c t i o n s . Representing Normal b l e s of Vibration of a Beam. Publ. No. 4913, Sng. Reo, Ser, No, 44, M u r . Brig. Res., Univ, of !hxab, July 1 , 1949,

9, Nutty, Ual**r C , t ann Ruhinstein, b s h e F.; Prentic+-HalI, lnc., e . 1964.

@ynaraicsof Structures.

1 1 . Timshenko, 8.8 and Young, D. H.: Vihration Problems i n E n y i n c e r i n q . d. 0. Van No*trancl Co., l n c , , 1955.

Third

12. Carpenter, Jmcn 6 . 8 and S u l l i v a n , Edward M. t S t r u c t u r a l and V i b r a t i m a l Charactcriotlca of M& A' S-5 Mala1 P r o p e l l e r Blades. PJALV Tach. Rep, 36-298, t1.S. Air lrcvc*b, June 195:. (Available from rrrC a8
M)

130 787.)

13. White, William

r., Jr.t and Malatino, Raymond 6.8 A Nurrricrri Neth ? sot Prsterrinlng the Natural Vibration Charrcterirtico of Rotuting Won .torr Cantilevat 8lrd.s. NASA TU X-72,751 , 1975.
The International Systea of Units Phyaical Constants and Cbnverdon Factors (Second Revision). NkSA SP-7012, 1973.

14. Nrchtly, E A , t .

-

TABLE I- S W P Y OF BOtlNDlr”.Y CWDITICH EQL’ATIONSa .

Cyclic mode
t

-

(Rop

- &p!u2)6y

0

6v-0
D

-

(Xip
M

-

MipU2)6x 0

0

6 ,

= 0

8 - 0

-

Xg8

8 - 0
Jl-0

$ - 0

dtT

K&

= 3)

d(T

- K&

0)

--

e - ( @* 0)

53

'i
3
4

16, 4%, 1O 6 A

8F10.0

!X5,4?S. O,F10.

a

I
in.
in.

I

54

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Units
----

Darcr i p t ion
-. .-

---

-

o frequency calculat.bns f

tf,lOlS.O

Nwbcr

Of rotor 6pwd8

tS~IOFf.0
deg

nu art!^^

of rotor collective p i t c h anglss

Rotor c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h a n g l e s
Outbcvrd end a t a t i o n s of segments

8F1O.O
6F10.0
BFlO.0 8f10.0

in.

Chordwise bending s t i f f n e s s
Weight per u n i t l e n g t h and t i p w i g h t
Nonlinear t w i s t d i s t r i b u t i o n a t station Beamwise ~econdmass moment of inertia
Ib-eQc2 Chcrdwise 6pcond mass moment of inet t i a

IF10.0

8FlO.O
13

4

j
I

8F10.0

i
i

14
1s

liF10.0

8F10.0 8F10.0 8FlO . O
in.

1 6

Chordwise ehear c e n t e r offset
BQIIIMIS~ f f s e t of c e n t e r of grav!ty o

17
18

in.
in.

8FlO.O

Chordwise offset of c e n t e r of g r a v i t y

v a l u e s are inpuk, one for each segment. a t e input and t h e t i p weight is l i s t e d i.r f i e l d N + 1 . CN t 1 v a l u e s a l e i n p u t , @ne for e a c h s t a t i m . % v a l u e s are input and t h e offsets p r t a i r ? i n g to t h e t i p w l y h t a r e input i n f i e l d N t 1 .

aN

bN v a l u e s

55

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Description
16,

ldentiflolrtidn card containing case n u r k r and ti tlr 3 i a t r i k r t i o n of might p r u n i t length and t i p w i g h t , lb/in. and l b

a,10 h6
7F10.5 7Fl0.5

2-1

5-7
6-1 0 11-76 77-1 42

W i s e second mass moment o inertia, lb-sec2 f
:hor&iae second i a i s m n t of inertia, l b s a c 2
2ollective mode d e f l e c t i o n 8hap@S, case nmbec, mode nmhx, rodc type

7P10.5
6F10.6,
lox, 16, 212 lox, 16, 2x2 lox, 16, 212

*lit mode deflctrtion shapes,
n u k t , and
rob.,

case n u b a r , d

e

6F10.6, 6F10.6.

type

143-208 Scissor8 mode d e f l e c t i o n shapes, case n u n k r , mode n m k r , and .oQc type 209-21 4 Collective .ode c y c l i c &tutti. : ~nfcrrscion,reference values of collective PA+.. and rotor speed, cas4 numbr , ande number, and mode type 21 5-220 a c l i c aode c y c l i c detuniry information, refer-

iF10.2, 2FS.0, 16, 212

ence values of c o l l e c t i v e b i t c h and rotor s p e d , case nuaber, mode nmber, and node type

L---.
i

221-226 Scissors node cyclic detuning information, reference values o collective p i t c h and rotor f apecd, case number, mode nmher, and mode type
-. ...

iF10.2, 2FS.0, 16, 212

.-.. .

___

.

~~

..

~

-

.. -

I

- .-

~ _ I . _ . ( _ I . -

60

Card col-

1 2
3

4
5 6 7 0
9

10 143 144 145 146 147

1 4
1 4 1 9 151 152 153 154 155 1% 157 158

1 s
l(0 161 162 163 164 165 166 1L? 160 169 170
11 7

-

1.2 173 174 1 75 176 177

61

Qrd 1 . 0
178

ITS
10

1I 1

1 U
183

184 185
186 107 1W 9I 9 190

191
192 lB3 194

19s
1% 197
198
199

rn

201 w1

103 101
a 5

101 207
208

221

aaa

223

-- i 3 .

124 22s

62

M R CORRELATION STUDIES

____ --.Roprr t Y
r

Caae 1

. . . . . . . .. .. .. in. ....... Sb, in. .... & in. . . . . . . . ,. rb, in. . . . . . . . re, in. . . . . . . . 0, t m . . . . . . . . 8c, dag . . . . . . . et, d.q . . . . . . . q inJb/r.d . . . . . , U i p , lb/in, ..... %, lb/in. . . . . . UT, in-lb/rad .... .... KB, in-lb/rad IC*, in-lb/rad .... ib-8ec2/in, . . . Ebp, lb-sec2/in. . . .
N %,
Nip,
--.

.... ... .... ..... ...... .. U,Ib . . . I&, l b - s ~ d . . . . . I&, lb-ared . . . . .
( B I ) ~ , lb-in2 (&I),., I b i n 2 GJ, 1 b - d . w, lblin,

- ---32

Cars 4.
1

32

-0.5176 0.1087

. .

8000 109 8717 0.024 0

b

109

32

-0.5176 0.1087
25

. .

0.024

0.1087 25 1.0

. .

8000 109 8717 0.024

32

0 10-5 -6.5176

1.0

I

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0' 01
0,

0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

25 1.0 I 0; 0' 0 0 0 0 0
p .

1 0.1387

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8000 109 871 7 0.024
z

0

10-5 10-3 75 1.0
0

-0.7454
0 0 0 0 0
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0 0 0 O!
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0

63

TABLE X.-

m A T I N G PROPELLER ANALYTICAL REPRESENTATION USSD

FQR CORRELATION STUDIES (CASE 5 )

2,

; J

in.
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
10.0

+ EB 6 @ 2 WI lb-in Lb/in.

--

1

P )

_----I. 5000
.3993 .3100 .2761 2600 .2437 .2408 .2379 .2294 .2209 .2166 .2123 .2081 .2039 .2018 .1997 .1955 .1912 .1912 ,1912 .1912

11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21 .o 22.0 23.0 23.5 24.0

--

800 180 140 110 92 72 63 53 42 37 32 29 27 26 26 25 25 24 24 24

000 100 000 000 000 51 000 000 000 47 900 000 000 46 800 000 000 45 800 000 000 45 100 000 000 44 400 000 000 44 100 000 000 43 800 000 000 43 800 000 000 43 800 000 500 44 100 000 000 44 400 000 500 45 800 000 000 47 200 000 500 49 300 000 000 51 400 000 500 53 700 000 000 54 900 000 000 56 000 000

-_

-

1 000 000 700 GOO 575 000 480 000 420 000 383 000 348 000 320 000 295 000 275 000 261 000 251 000 241 000 230 000 214 000 196 000 173 000 1 5 3 000 125 000 100 000 78 000
- 1 _ _ _ 1

-~

0 -2.55 -5.10 -7.65 -10.20 -1 2.75 -1 5.50 -18.25 -21.00 -23.55 -26.05 -28.45 -31.05 -33.45 -35.55 -37.60 -39.55 -41.50 -43.00 -44.30 -44.90 -45.55

.----------I--------

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00001 0000 0.002000 .000007137 .001692 .000005069 .001400 .001265 .000003001 .000002507 .001225 .000002013 .001184 OOOOL1755 .001204 000001 496 .001223 .000001270 .001228 000001 043 .001233 .000001042 .001245 000001042 .001256 ,000000882 .001263 001 270 .000000722 .000000691 ,001 289 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5 ~ .001307 .000000638 .001311 .000000616 ,001316

. . .

.

.

_ _ I -

64

Natural frequency,

w , cpm

-.

I

mact
..

Rxact lcnputed €atart Computed

-0.608
.12 ,16 .10 -24

-.576
-.552

-.!s!l
-.483 -,439 -.389 -.333 -.27t -.207 -.136 -.062 ,016 .097 .1P1 ,268

-. -. -.551 -.520 -.
604 594 576

0.71 1
.694 6-4

0

0

-0.71 4
.I98 ,379 .f31
.641

.I99
,381 .534 .645 705

-.672

-.551
-.365

-0.907 665 545

-.

-.

.564
*..403

-.403
-.483 9.551 w.604 -.641

.459

.457

$26

.32 .36

-. -.389
9.438

-.484 482 -.551
9.605 -.642

.330 .186
.034

1
I

.40 .44

-.272 -.
-.
-.

.48 .52 .S6 .60 .64 .68

-.

333 -.662 -.663 206 136 062 -.557 01 6 -.486 .098 -a399 182 297 .260 -.I82 ,356 -.OS5

-.661
-.662

-.119 -.265 -.397
-.645

-.

.i28 ,104 ,032 120

.709 ,657
,555 ,408

,700 .lo4

-.136 .lo9
.342

0.266

-.397

-.

-,663 -.397 -.646 295 592 -.le0 -.SO3 - . 0 5 3 , -.381

-.556 -.485

-.

-.

.146

,537 .629 .721 .814
.901 1.000

493 -.643 -,602 -.600 11 -. -.588 -.650 -.6655 j -.492 -.499 -.657 jq.652 ! -.620 -.377 -.595 .-.588 I -.e67 -.052 -.474 ;-.467 -- .. 469245 226 -. -.302 - . 2 9 4 .142 -.006 .-. 078 -.284
,-.
j

- 507 .036 -.591 -.160 -.643 -.341 -.661 -.493

.23?

.032 ,-.163
,

'9.343 1

1

.572
.394

.171 070 -.301

,347

,562
786 1.000

.163 .433 .715

j ,170
I ,438

-.OlO

1.000

1

j

.308
.650 1.000

Natural frequency,

4 cpr

-

P
I

-.

.-

-

:craputed Exact
---

- . __ . ... . .. .. Caaputed Dtact
0

0

.04
.08

-.017

0

.12
.16

-.062 -.

.20 .24 .28
.32 .36

-.21 1 -.301 -. -.395 -. -.485 -.
.230

-.128 -.
-.566

.40

.a4 .48
.52
.56 .60 .64 .68 .72 .76 .80
.84 .88 .92 .96 1.00

.272
.316 .363 .411 .461 .512 ,564 .617 .671 .725 .780

-

634 ,230 685 .272 -.715 .317 .363 . 4 1 1 -.661 .461 592 .512 500 .564 385 .617 251 .671 099 .725 .067 .780 .244 .428 .617 ,808 I .ooo

-. -. -.722 -.704
-. -. -. -.

0 -.017 061 128 -*210 301 394 484 565 633 684 71 3 720 701 658 589 497 382

-. -. -. -. -.

-.
-

-. -. -. -. -. -. -. -.247 -.096 .070 -.
,246
.430 .618 .a09

.-

-..

1,000
...

.044 .157 .307 .466 .608 .712 .?61 .748 .670 .534 .350 ,137 085 236 -.473 -.598 -.659 -,647 -.561 404 ie8 .076 .371 .682 1.000

1 .Oh4 .156 .306 ,464 .605 .707 .755 .741 .663 .526

Q
.i30 .d01

-.681 766

.GSO
.77u

-.

.' 5 6

.343

-. -. -.474
-.

.131 091 299

.660 .377 -.013 392 646 697 529 196 ,198 .532

-. -. -. -. -.

.no

-.

;-,597 /-.(is5 !-.641 1-.553 395 178

-.

-.518 .085 -.247 . 3 7 8 , .123

1499

1

-.226
.141

-.673 -, 501

-. -.

.651 .403 .03? 343 ! 600

,-.652

;-.467

. .

66

Natural. frequency,

U ,

cpar

--

Canputed
11004

Mode shape
I frat --- mode

--

:ampoted k a c t

--.
-1,000 -.992 0.969 930 876 809 729 637 536 426 309 187 Of3 .063 187 .309 .426 ,536 .637 .729 .eo9 ,876 .930 .969 ,992 1.000

-:aaputed ba:t -1 .ooo .969 ,876 729 .536 -309 .063 187 426 637 809 930 992 992 930 609 637 -.426 187 .063 .30Y .536 .729 .876 .969 1 000
1,000 .969 .876 .729 .536 .309 .063 187 426 637 809 930 992 992 930 809 637 426 187 .063 .309 .536 .729 .876 .965 1.000
-

Second b x l e

Third mode
'

1 Fourth mdc I

Fifth laode
I -

--1.000 800 309 .309 .809

mputed

:anputed Exact
-1.000 809 309 .309 .a99 1.000 .809

I

.12
.20

.24
.28 .32 .36 .40 .44 * 48 .52 .56 .60 .64 .68 .72 76 .80 .84 .88 .92 .96 1.00

-. -. -. -. -. -. -. -.
-.
-0

-

-. .

-1.000 992 969 930 876 809 729 637 536 426 309 187 063 .063 .187 .309 .426 .536 .637 .729 .BO9 .876 .930 .969 .992 1.000

-. -. -. -. -. -. -.

-. -. -.

-. -.

-. -. -. -. -. -. -. -. -.
-. -.

-. -. -. -. -.
-. -. -. -. -.

-. -.

-1.000 930 729 426 063 ,309 .637 .876 .992 .969 .809 .536 .187 187 536 -* 809 969 -.P-2 876 637 309

-. -.
-. -.

-. -.

-. -.

1.000

.637 .876 .992

-.992 -.930 -.637

-.992 -.93C ,-.637

-. -.
-. -.

-. -.

-. -. -. -. -. -. -.
-. -.
-.

.063
.42b .729 ,930 1.000 . -.

.536 .187 187 536 809 969 992 876 -.637 309 .053 .426 .729 ,930 1,000

-. -. -.
- --

.729 .969 .969 .729 .309 187 637 933 992 809 426

.063

.536 ,876 1.000

. .

_ I _

.-- -

,729 ,969 .969 .729 .309 18;' -.637 933 992 809 426 .053 .536 .876 1,000

-. -. -. -. -.

809 -1.000 809 309 .309 .a09 1.000 .eo9 .309 309 809 -1.000 809 -. 309

-.309 -.

.?09

-. -. -. -.
-.

-: ,000
.309

-.809 -.809 -.309
.eo9
1.

.a09 .309 309

coo

'e.

-.

*.1.000 -, 809

-.

.809 .309 309 809

-.309
.309

.309 .809
1.000

_. --

--

.809 1.000

67

F k 8 t lDdt

I saarnd
16493

&

n i r d rodc

Fourth .ode

I

F i f t h #dt

c q u t e d mtact caputed
5W4.9 5505.8

Exact Cjnptted &%act Computed Exact Corputed Exact

16517 27416

21529

38231

38541

48895

49552
b

Third mode
--

-:ollputtc

rodc

F i f t h rodt

!aputed Sxact
I _ . -

1 .04

0

0

0
.309

0

.08 .13
.16 .20 .24 .28 .32 .36
.40 .44

.48 .52 .56 .60 .64 .68 72 .76 .80 .84
.8A

.063 ,125 -187 -249 .309 .368 .426 482 .3 .6 .588 .637 .685 ,729 .771 .809 .844 .876 .905 .930 .951 .969 .982

.063

.125 .187 .249 -309 .368 ,426 -482 , .536 .588 .637 .685 .729 .771
.a09

.951 .969 .982 .992 .998 1.300

:!!:1

.844

1 1

-.187 -.368 -.536 -.685 -.a09 -.go5 -.969 -.998 -.992 -.951 -.a76 -.771 -.637 -.482 -,309 -.125 .063

-.la7 -.368 -.536 -.685 -.e09
-.905

-.969 -.998 -.992 -.951 -.a76 -.771 -.637 -.482
-.309

-.
-.

J: : ,588 .729
.044

1.000

:83:

1

'I

951 - * 351 -1.000 -1.000 -.125 951 951 .063 309 809 .249 588 588 309 .426 309 .ooo .588 .OOG .713 .309 .309 .844 .588 .588 .030 .809 .a09 .951 .951 .9d2 1.000 1.000 1. '0 _ .

. . -. -.588 -.588 -.809 -.803
-.

.309 .588 .a09 .951 1.000 .951 .a09 .588 .309 000 309

.588 .a09 .9Sl 1.000 .951 .a09 -588 .309 000 309

-.982

-.426 -.771 -.969 -.063
.368 .729 .951 .992 .844 .536 .125 -.309 I -.685 -.930 -.998 -.982 -.930 -.sa8 -.063 .482 .e76 .998 .809 .368 -.187 -.685

-.809 -.482
.368 .729 .951 .992 .a44 .536 .125 309 685 930 998 .-. 876 588 187 ,249 .6 37 .go5 1.000 - -

.992 .771

I

-.249 -.729 -.982 1 -.930, -.063 -.
-. -.
.482 1 -876j .998 1 .a09 j .368 I 187 I 685 969 951 637 125 .426

-. -. -. -.

-.
-. -.

-. -. -.

-.
-. -.

-. -. -.

.a44

1.000
- ~ I _

68

TABLE

XV.-

OOnPARISCNS OIP OOCIPUTBD UNaWPLgD BBNDING AND MRSION NATtauL

u31-

BMn

WI'ftf A TIP

(CASB 2)

n& o
F

keferance freqwncy,b
_-I.__

Carpuled f reqwncy,

Ver t i c a l Vertical Tot 8 ion Vertical
Tor a ion

266
2 837 5 506 8 847 16 517

--

-_-_.-

__--_. .-.__-

_-

STha t i p weight, as represented, a f f e c t s only the bending natural f tequencics b e e reference IO.

.

1
m. A

--

2 5 8 16

817 505 823 493

TABLB XVI.-

mPARISONS OP c(mpuTED WCOUPLEO BENDING AND TORSION

NATURAL F'REQURXISS WITH FXISCT SOLUTIONS

WINROT! FING,

SIMPLY SUPPORITD, UNIFORM BEAH (CASE 3)

.

..

.

.

~

-

Cunpiited frequency, cpr, Vertical \"xr tical To.- sion Vertical Tor sion Vertical Tot 8 ion Vertical Tor 8ion T o r s ion
.. . . . .-.

_-__ -__ _- Exact frequency,
I__

I _

- .-

cpa
-_I-_ _ I -

1 6 11 15 21 2? 32 42 43 54

711 846 004 402 966 380 841 779 582 :58

1 711 6 84G
11 15 22 2? 33 42 44 55 012 403 023 382 035 785 047 058
I

-.

69

carputcd
)bdc
we

Exact solution cpr

+fly, in-1
(a)
-0.01 1

1
2 3 4

1 704
6 726

-0.01 1

1 704
6 727

-.046
54,629 -.113 12,953

-.046
53.81 7

11 050
14 740
22 354 25 032 34 315 36 417
I _ I
_ I I

11 057

14 750
22 411 25 094

-.111
12.985

5
6 7 8
--.-_

-.220
5.322
-. _ . . I -

-.

21 5

34 497
36 665
II_____I_.

5.384

-.369

-.356

__--I__-

aThe quantity f i y

is measured at the center of gravity.

70

I
rl

71

Y

t?

(a) Center-of-gravity o f f s e t .

Y

(b) Shear c e n t e r o f f s e t .

Figure 2 . - Sign conventicsns for center-of-gravity and shear c e n t e r o f f s e t s from pitch axis.
7?

(a) Vertical plane.

(b) Horizontal plane.

?j+1

( c ) Torsion plane.

Figure 3 - Sign conventions for deflections, slopes, shears, and moments . a s m i s t e d with a blade segment. Arrows indicate positive directions.
73

Y

(a) Forces and m e n t s independent of deformation.

?igure 4.- System of forces and raacnts at a single m s station. as

74

(b) Forces and moments dependent on deformation. Figure 4.Concluded.

75

Y

(a) Collective out-of-plane condition.

X

(b) Collective in-plane condition. Figure 5- Rub bundary condition representations. .

76

Y

( c ) Cyclic out-of-plane a o n d i t i m .

(d) Cyclic in-plane condition.

<J sa
Hinge

offset
h 2
(e 1 Scissors ou t-of-plane cond it ion.

Figure 5.- Continued.

X

t

( f ) Scissors in-plane amditian.

(g) Torsion condition.

Figure 5.- Concluded.

(a) Schematic of typical determinant rad auxiliary functions.

Extrapolated trial fr. puency

3 v
4

I

w

3-1

cr?

1

(b) Illustration of natural frequency iteration technique.

Figure 6.- Determination of r-atural frequencies using the auxiliary function.

79

INPI

s'
UNCH

I

L -

ElCALL START

;

elJ
CALL AMPLID

I

YES

I
I

AMPLID

1

PARANTERS INMHNMNI O F AND 8

n

U

r
NO

NO
_j

PtOl FREWfNCV .TRSUS

n

Figure 7.80

Computer program flow chart and logic.

8.797 1 REV SCISSORS i200. RPM
G.0
COLI

0 TORSION
0

0 VERT LCRL 0 H9f?IZO)UlFK.

5
Y

k

u
I

b!

LL

w

0

0

.2

.L1

-6

i

-0

RHD 1 Us

9.157 / REV 1200. RP:' 6.0 COLL

SClSSORS

0 TORStON

0 VERTLCQC 0 HORIZONTFSL

z
w

0 t -

u
w
I

w

LL

0

-1.01

0

.2

1

.Li

i

RRD l Us

a6

1

.8

I

1.0

I

Figure 8.- Illustration of program optional output (mode shape plot - j .

81

CFlSC

loaooo.

COUPLED BLFICE NFITIJf?fK FREQUENCfES
C W U I C R PRowI#( m

l7(1/OY/lYI

f EASt

’“i
11.2

x 10’

-

Figure 9.- I l l u s t r a t i o n of prog:an; o p t i m a l out-art ( p l o t of v x i a t i o n of natural frequency w i t h rotor speed).
82

E
Q,

2
-3
cl

4
CI

d Lc 3
U

a
C

cu

2

k 0 Y

0 0 0

0 0

0

0 0

53

83

h l

0 0 0 0

0 0 0
tD
r)

0 0 0
N
r)

co

0 0 0

0

84

3 3
10

0

3 3 3

3

3 3 3
d (

M

a

0)

3 3 3

n

o e

MID

0 0
0

cv

o a
0 0

2

85

L
.

William 8. Weller and Rayrond E Mineck .

and

-_
10 W i r k Unit No

. -

.._

NASA Langley Research Center
H*PtOne
M 23665
~

-_.___...____

12 S p n n n i i q A p ~ bin* and Atkiin. v

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, DC 20546 and US Army Aviation RcD Coaaand .. St. Louis, MO 63166
_ L _ -

15 Supoiemrntrrv No!-

William H. Wellec and Raymnd E Clineck: .
Laboratories (AVRADCa4)

.

I _ _ -I _ -

--_-

t -1 1 ---. ..
_ _ _ I I _

_ _ _ I

13

TbLW < I t f\l*lhrlI Jt>cl

__ . . -1 i’w\%,<t( ~ s b ~ ’ . h l

I

Techr! ica 1 Memo randum

- - -

1 1 &nib

r’rolrrt No

1 L161 I O 2 ~ ~ 4 5

Structures Laboratory, U.S.
. _ _ I

Army RcT

16 Ab%Ifdcl

-

shapes of helicopter rotor blade. , has been refiqed to improve prcqram accuracy and versatility. The program is based on the Holzer-Myklestad approach adapted for rotating beams. Coupled vertical (out-of-plane) , horizontal (in-plane), and torsional mode characteristics can be determined for a variety of hut, and blade configurations of practicd interest. The resulting Frogram is dwumented hy presenting the recursion equations and techniques for determining natural frequencies and d e shapes, input data requirements, and descriptions of various program outputs. The accuracy of the progrpm is demnstrated by ccmparing computed result:. with exact solutions to classical problems and expcrimental data.

An existing computer program, used

for predicting the natural frequencies an? mode

-l_i i
!

iI
!

Natural frrquencies Mode shape

Unclassified

-

Uniimitcd

I