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INVISIBLE COMMUNICATION OF ENCIPHER DATA USING IMAGE

Group - Members
Sachinandan Satapathy 15BCE0643
Anshul Hedau 15BCE2079
Areeb Ahmed 15BCE2086

ABSTRACT

Due to the increase in smart system to intercept and steal the secured data that is been transferred across the
communication channel, the need for a secure model for data encryption and transfer have been arise.
Steganography is a technique that prevents unauthorized users to have access to the important data. Image
steganographic technique is relatively reliable technique for hiding and transferring secret data. Our model is
based in the duel encryption technique. This technique involves the basic encryption of data using symmetric
cryptography that gives us a strong encoded text data. This encoded data is then embedded in the image by some
stegnography technique like LSB, ISB, MLSB etc.This image is then send via secure channel and the receiver
first deploy reverse stegnography technique to extract data, This extracted data is then fed to the decoder where
the common key is used to decrypt the original message from the extracted data.

INTRODUCTION

Information hiding is a general term encompassing many sub disciplines. One of the most important sub
disciplines is Steganography. Steganography, is derived from a work by Johannes Trithemus (1462-1516)
entitled “Steganographia” and comes from the Greek (óôåãáíü-ò, ãñáö-åéí) defined as “covered writing” .It is
not enough to simply encipher the traffic, as criminals detect, and react to, the presence of encrypted
communications [9]. It is an ancient art of hiding information in ways a message is hidden in an innocent-
looking cover media so that will not arouse an eavesdropper’s suspicion. Steganography differs from
cryptography in the sense that where cryptography focuses on keeping the contents of a message secret,
steganography focuses on keeping the existence of a message secret.

In today’s world, the communication is the basic necessity of every growing area. Everyone wants the secrecy
and safety of their communicating data. In our daily life, we use many secure pathways like internet or
telephone for transferring and sharing information, but it's not safe at a certain level. In order to share the
information in a concealed manner two techniques could be used. These mechanisms are cryptography and
steganography. . In cryptography, the message is modified in an encrypted form with the help of encryption key
which is known to sender and receiver only. The message cannot be accessed by anyone without using the
encryption key. However, the transmission of encrypted message may easily arouse attacker’s suspicion, and the
encrypted message may thus be intercepted, attacked or decrypted violently. In order to overcome the
shortcomings of cryptographic techniques, steganography techniques have been developed. Steganography is
the art and science of communicating in such a way that it hides the existence of the communication. Thus,
steganography hides the existence of data so that no one can detect its presence. In steganography the process of
hiding information content inside any multimedia content like image , audio, video is referred as a
“Embedding”.

Most difficult kind of steganography is text steganography or linguistic steganography because due to the lack
of redundant information in a text compared to an image or audio.

LITERATURE SURVEY

Data Security using Compression and Cryptography Techniques

Data is any type of stored digital information. Security is about the protection of assets. Data security refers to
protective digital privacy measures that are applied to prevent unauthorized access to computers, databases and
websites. Cryptography protects users by providing functionality for the encryption of data and authentication of
other users. Compression is the process of reducing the number of bits or bytes needed to represent a given set
of data. It allows saving more data. The project aims to implement various cryptography algorithm for data
security. The data will be first compressed using compression techniques and then encryption techniques will
applied and then comparative analysis will be carried out for different combinations of compression and
encryption techniques. If encryption and compression are done at the same time then it takes less processing
time and more speed.

Information Hiding in Images Using Steganography Techniques

Steganography is a technique that prevents unauthorized users to have access to the important data. The
steganography and digital watermarking provide methods that users can hide and mix their information within
other information that make them difficult to recognize by attackers. In this project, we review some techniques
of steganography and digital watermarking in both spatial and frequency domains. Also we explain types of host
documents and we focused on types of images.

Two of the techniques to prevent unauthorized users from copying information without owner permission are
cryptography and steganography. Cryptography is a rule or protocol between transmitter and receiver using
some encryption keys to understand each other. Those encryption keys can be private or public. Unauthorized
users can see the coded information without understanding or being able to read it.

Steganography, Cryptography, Watermarking: A Comparative Study

Schemes where the original cover signal is needed to reveal the hidden information are known as cover escrow.
A data hiding scheme using the statistical properties of dithered imagery is proposed by Tanka, in this method,
the dot patterns of the ordered dither pixels are controlled by the information bits to be concealed. This system
accommodates 2 KB of hidden information for a bi-level 256 x 256 image, yielding a payload of data or
information hiding ratio of one information bit to four cover image bits. An information hiding ratio of 1:6 is
obtained for tri-level image of the same size, the method has high payload but is restricted to dithered images
and is not resistant to errors in stegno image.

A Novel Steganography Algorithm for Hiding Text in Image using Five Modulus Method

It is sometimes not enough to keep the contents of a message secret, it may also be necessary to keep the
existence of the message secret and the concept responsible for this is called steganography. Steganography is
the practice of hiding secret message within any media. Steganography is often confused with cryptography
because the two are similar in the way that they both are used to protect secret information. If both the
techniques: cryptography and steganography is used then the communication becomes double secured.

A Study of Various Steganographic Techniques Used for Information Hiding

The main purpose of Steganography is to hide data in a cover media so that others will not be able to notice it.
While cryptography is about protecting the content of messages, steganography is about concealing their very
existence. The applications of information hiding systems mainly range over a broad area from military,
intelligence agencies, online elections, internet banking, medical-imaging and so on. The cover medium is
usually chosen keeping in mind the type and the size of the secret message and many different carrier file
formats can be used. In the current situation digital images are the most popular carrier/cover files that can be
used to transmit secret information. Steganography equation is ‘Stego-medium = Cover medium + Secret
message + Stego key’. The embedded data is the message that one wishes to send secretly. It is usually hidden
in an innocuous message referred to as a covertext or cover-image or cover-audio as appropriate, producing the
stego-text or other stego-object. A stego-key is used to control the hiding process so as to restrict detection and
/or recovery of the embedded data to parties who know it.

SECURE IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY USING CRYPTOGRAPHY AND IMAGE TRANSPOSITION

Spatial domain techniques which are direct modification of input image's pixels including
least significant bit (LSB) methods, edges based methods, pixel-value differencing (PVD) based methods, and
pixel-indicator-techniques (PIT) . These methods result in high quality stego images and provide higher payload
but are vulnerable to different normal attacks such as joint photographic experts group (JPEG)
compression, noise attacks, and low-pass/high-pass filtering and geometric attacks such as image resizing,
cropping and rotations by different angles . Transform domain techniques use the transformed-coefficients of
the input image obtained through different transforms such as discrete Fourier transform (DFT) , discrete
wavelet transform (DWT) , discrete cosine transform (DCT) and contourlet transform for data hiding. These
methods have lower payload but can survive against different attacks.
LITERATURE REVIEW TABLE

S. NO. PAPER TITLE CONCEPT USED KEYWORD

1 Data Security using Compression Data Compression and Run length, Huffman,
and cryptography techniques encryption LZW, Arithmetic coding,
RC4, Caesar Cipher,
DES.

2 Information Hiding in Images Cryptography and Frequency Domain


Using Steganography steganography Watermarking, Discrete
Techniques wavelet transform,
Discrete cosine
transform, Embedding
and detection Processes
3 Steganography, Cryptography, Steganography, Steganography,
Watermarking: A Comparative Cryptography, Cryptography,
Study Watermarking Watermarking
4 Novel Steganography Algorithm Steganography Five Modulus Method
for Hiding Text in Image using
Five Modulus Method
5 Secure image steganography Steganography , LSB, PVD, PIT, DWT,
using cryptography and image Cryptography DCT , Counterlet
transposition transform

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