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Bangladesh Case Study on

Gas Engine Power Project


1.1 Project Location

The Project area is located about 25 Km from Dhaka (capital city of Bangladesh)
by the eastern side of Ashulia-Savar road, at Ashulia, Savar, Dhaka. The site is on
the west side of vast wetland of Ashulia. REB (Rural electrification Board) has
leased out the designated land for the project of USPCL (United Summit Power
Company Limited).

Access to the site by road from Dhaka is possible through two major routes, one
via Uttara and then Ashulia and the other via Aminbazar and then Savar.

1.2 Project History

The Pally Biddut Samitis (Rural Electric Societies) or PBSs are non-government
autonomous cooperative institutions in the power sector registered with the Rural
Electrification Board (REB). The creation of the PBSs, construction of their
facilities, initial financing of their assets, training of their personnel and monitoring
of their performances are done by the REB of the Government established under
Rural Electrification Board ordinance, 1977.

The peak power demand in Bangladesh is between 2400 MW to 2600 MW,
according to mid 2000 estimates. The load forecast as per the latest estimate
provided by PDB shows that the demand is expected to increase up to 250-300
MW by end 2000. At present PDB can meet about 2000-2200 MW of power.
That’s why there is always a shortage of about 400 to 600 MW of power during
peak demand. Generally REB and subsequently PBS suffer due to this shortage of
load. The electricity distributed through the PBSs is about 15 per cent of combined
countrywide sales of power by the Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB)
and Dhaka Electric Supply Authority (DESA). Government considers this to be
insufficient and wishes to extend the share of the PBSs. There are at present 54
PBSs under REB in the country and their daily demand are 400 MW of power,
which PDB is constrained to meet during peak time.

It is observed from the daily load curve that the load management has not been
very effective and there is predominant peak during the evening hours. Bangladesh
is gradually shifting to industrialization and this growth is certain, if security of


3 Need of the Project Thrust of population increase makes Bangladesh the most densely populated country in the world. The government has decided to set up Barge Mounted Power Plants and along with that different capacities of other power plants(particularly small power plants of 10 MW or around capacity) to quickly add a few hundred megawatts of generation capacity. IFC’s business is investment in private sector projects through loans. IFC is a member of the World Bank Group. which also includes the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). Furthermore. social and disclosure policies. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) and EXIM Bank of USA are involved in financing the project along with USPCL. the installation of I0 MW power plants becomes necessary. the project sponsor must ensure compliance with Bangladesh requirement. It is IFC policy that all its operations are carried out in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. To meet the national requirement in the power generation REB solicited invitations to interested Bidders for Pre-Qualification of sponsors to develop around 10 MW (± 10%) gas fired power stations at Ashulia. The worsening gap between demand and supply of electricity as manifested by frequent load shedding throughout the country has prompted the government to take urgent measures to tackle the situation. They were asked to submit the proposals for the right to develop 10 MW (± 10%) net at Guarantee Point natural gas fired. supplies and load shedding can he avoided. IFC projects must comply with applicable IFC environmental. and the task of sustainable resource management difficult but very urgent. To this end. Being the most competitive bidder REB issued Letter of Intent (LOI) in favor of United Summit Power Co. as identified during the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). In this context. Operate and Own (BOO) basis. on a Build. Ltd. Savar. the International Development Association (IDA). IFC does not finance project activities that would contravene country (here in Bangladesh) obligations under relevant international environmental treaties and agreements. a Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued to interested bidders. equity investment. (USPCL). With the increase in population as well as industrialization the demand of electricity increased day by day. conventional reciprocating or combustion turbine electric power stations along with all support facilities at the Dhaka PBS on a BOO basis. After Pre-Qualification. a private limited company. Such a power station near load center would minimize transmission losses and would also improve voltage conditions. The present project is in response to the power requirement 2 . 1. and other financial instruments.

1. In this context.2 acres. The gas engines drive the electric generators to produce electricity at 11 kV and 50Hz.2 million. 1. The plant was supposed to go into production by end 2000 or early 2001. water requirement 18 cubic meter per day and natural gas requirement 125 MSCF per hour. Total number of employees during operation is 22 and the project cost US $ 6. The raw material is local natural gas. which covers not only physical and biological aspect. policy and institutional requirement • Present a description of the project/program and the activities involved and evaluate the proposed area of exploration activities from the environmental point of view • Delineate the significant environmental issues / impacts found / identified and believed to be involved 3 . Total land requirement 1.5 Extent and scope of EIA The present EIA is focused on. This EIA identifies the major potential environmental impact/issues due to the plant location and operation along with suggestion of effective measures to mitigate the adverse impacts and enhance the positive environment potential. this contributes towards overall development of the country. but also the human dimension. it should be noted that the term “environment” and its derivatives have been used in a wide sense. a Bangladeshi Environmental Consulting Firm. and attempts to perform in a manner so that through contributing to the power sector need and operating in an environmentally and socially responsive manner.4 Project Features This is a gas engine type power generation project of 10 MW electricity at base load. preparation of the EIA for the Plant. and is limited to. The report has the following specific scope: • Present a brief discussion on the EIA process and its role in the planning and • Implementation of development projects • Present a brief discussion of the legal. and carried out by Protech Engineering.

The surrounding areas of the site have mixed use as for seasonal crop production. Since the proposed land is more or less flat and at road level so there no land development is required. • Features of scientific interest on and around the plant site are absent 4 . scattered homestead. as mentioned by the local people.6 Environmental setting The site is located about 25 km from Dhaka City by the eastside of Ashulia-Savar road. on the southwest side and a poultry farm named SA. During the EIA study the construction of the power plant was going on. 1. fallow lands and industries. From the field visit to the site and its surroundings it is confirmed that the proponent would construct the above-mentioned lines without the need of resettlement of people. On the eastside of the site there is a semi-pucca house and all other sides are surrounded by vacant lands and scattered homesteads. There is also a garments factory at the northwest side of the project. suggests that it was a fallow land without crop production. Rahman on the west side of the proposed site. The site for the proposed power plant has been purchased about two years back by REB from its owner at market value and no homestead acquisition was involved for the proposed site. as because the construction would be done by the side of the Ashulia-Savar road. The past history of the site. only domestic animals and a few common birds were observed around the plant site. • Suggest certain recommended measures to be undertaken during the Planning. The topography of the area is flat land and sparsely populated. Also there are some lands demarcated for industrial uses and there is an Export Processing Zone (EPZ) situated about 5 km from the site. There is garments industry named MST Fashion and a proposed washing plant named Laundry Industries Ltd. commercial and related activities only. However. construction and operation stages so that the performance al through remains in an environment friendly manner. monuments or sites of historic and of archaeological interest were observed near the site. It is obvious that in future the area would be mostly used for industrial. half kilometer of gas pipeline from sub station to the proposed site and five-kilometer long electric transmission grid line for the transmission of generated electricity to PBS would be constructed along the side of the Ashulia- Savar road. • No high rise building. Some of the notable features of the surroundings are: • Like other pans of Bangladesh. A gas substation is about half kilometer northwest and the transmission grid line is about five-kilometer from the site.

This includes mitigation/ offsetting/ enhancement measures. the area falls under category ‘B’ as per area classification by DOE. fishery resources. to ensure that the proposed EPMs and monitoring will actually be carried out as proposed in the EIA The objective of the EIA report is also to comply with the requirement of the Government regulatory requirement and in contributing to the process of obtaining the required environmental clearance from the Department of Environment (DOE). natural reserved forest and vegetation. • Assist to prepare technical monitoring programs for monitoring the project's effects on environment during both the construction and operation phases • Guide to prepare a recommended Environmental Management Plan which presents the institutional plan. for both with-project and without-project conditions • Evaluate feasible ways by which each SEI can be suitably managed by use of Environmental Protection Measures (EPMs). but as a separate document to obtain environmental clearance) are to: • Evaluate the Project's anticipated effects on environmental resources in the region to be affected by the Project. and work with the overall project team. endangered species present in and around the plant site From the above discussion. so that the adjusted project plan will be both economically and environmentally sound to the extent feasible. So. benefits. tasks. • There is no development of scenic or recreation facility on and around the plant site. including management. 1.7 Purpose of the EIA The purpose of the EIA. which has been carried out (not as an integral part of the overall project planning. 5 . it is dear that the land use of the area is mixed (commercial and mixed) in nature. in order to identify any significant environmental impacts (SEIs) of the Project • Describe any of these SEIs for present and anticipated future conditions. to incorporate needed EPMs into the overall project plan. • There is no wildlife. This will allow Decision Makers to be clearly appraised of the economic and environmental consequences if the decision is made to proceed or not to proceed with the project.

Consultation with affected people The EIA's Public Consultation Team conducted a series of formal and informal meetings. Resettlement No resettlement was necessary. At the same time they like to see that the plant performs in an environmentally and socially responsive manner. with few people working. Similarly other potential sources of pollution were also considered. natural gas based. As the plant is a small one. Based on results of the consultations. NATURE AND SCOPE OF ISSUES The major issues related to the EIA was • The plant’s location suitability from an environmental point of view • Pollution aspects due to the plant. the land being a purchased land without any displacement of people. (REB’s rural electrification consultant) about a year back from the time of conducting the EIA. particularly air pollution • Social issues particularly resettlement and public consultation Pollution management Air pollution aspect was duly considered and the anticipated impacts studied and documented.2. distance to gas pipelines and distance to electrical inter connection sub stations and also a site good enough to construct the plant. 6 . alternate sites were not looked into. as there was no human habitation on the selected land. there had not been any major concern from any corner. it had been obvious that people want project like this and they welcome such efforts. arranged Focus Group Discussions and Key Informants’ Interviews with the community members and stakeholders. As the project site was finalized on the above- mentioned criteria. Site alternatives The sites for the installation of the power plant were selected by NRECA International Ltd. Site was selected on the basis of proximity to load centers within the PBS. easy to develop and available for purchase.

page 3120 of Bangladesh Gazette 7 . one says ‘Environmental impact assessment should be made mandatory and should constitute an integral part of any new energy development project’ The Power Policy 1997 suggests. introduction of economically viable and environment friendly technology. The Energy Policy 1995 highlights the importance of protecting the environment by requiring EIA for any new energy development project. Policy guideline for small power plants in private sector. However it was formally introduced in the 1992 Environment Policy and subsequently legalized through the Environment Conservation Act 1995 and Environment Conservation Rules 1997. Section 5 of the Policy "Institutional arrangement" requires that “Department of Environment will review and approve all environmental Impact Assessments”. According to this policy guideline. PROCESS AND PROCEDURAL CONTEXT The concept of Environmental Impact Assessment was introduced in Bangladesh in the late 1980s. The good thing is. 1997 is to promote small power plants (SPP) of not more than 10 MW in private sector. “Development of power sub-sector shall be such that it is sustainable environmentally and cost-effective at the same time”. Out of seven recommendations of the Energy Policy. 3. “the SPPs can be located in any part of Bangladesh”. the sponsors will be required to obtain license from the GOB”. “SPP will need to comply will all laws of Bangladesh including environmental standards” as per the requirement of the policy guideline.3.1 Compliance with DOE EIA guidelines As DOE has its own EIA guidelines for industries 1997. Orange and Red) as scheduled in the Environment Conservation Rules 1997 (ECR'97) and `Power Generation Plants’ fall under the Red category (item 6. The Guidelines under consideration however tend to address the three categories of industries and other projects (Green. schedule-1. the Project Proponent while conducting EIA is expected to consult and follow the DOE EIA guidelines. The present plant under consideration is a SPP. “As per electricity Act 1910. Environmental policy requires “conducting Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for all new public and private industries”.

4. and field surveys were undertaken. like the feasibility study report. It should be noted that they might obtain an initial site clearance on the basis of an IEE report. etc. The present report has been prepared based on the information supplied by the project proponent and undertaking site visits to the proposed area with a view to reconnaissance survey of the area and its surrounding areas. During this process. The present study and the preparation of the report took due cognizance of these Guidelines to remain consistent with and the structure and contents tried to comprehensively address these guidelines. Relevant secondary and primary information regarding such exploration program and other environmental information was collected. samples were collected and analyzed. the following steps were followed: • Collection of information relating to the project by requesting and meeting with the Project Proponent • Collection and review of pertinent reports and other references • Undertake field visits to the project site • Survey the neighborhood • Gather information from various government and other agencies.0 APPROACHES TAKEN Scoping was done carefully so that the focus is made concretely in a limited time and with limited resources without wasting efforts. • Critical analysis of the project document and other information • Understanding the program. of 28 August 1997 and of ECR'97 and page-49 of the 'EIA Guidelines for Industries). no objection from local authority]. process involved and the surrounding environment • Undertake surveys 8 . This was followed by evaluation of the information to delineate the major environmental issues relating to the proposed program. and subsequently submit an EIA report for obtaining environmental clearance along with other necessary papers. [Red List Industries are those which may cause ‘significant adverse’ environmental impacts and are therefore required to submit an EIA report.

which is not very sensitive in terms of floral and faunal resources and also not densely inhabited. Since the location of the proposed power plant is in near 9 . As the proposed power plant would be fired with gas. detailed special studies were not conducted on these. where appropriate. the pollutants of potential concern are sulfur dioxide (SO2).1 Anticipated Environmental Impacts 5. hydrocarbon etc. to handle environmental issues The IEE methodology involved basically is of that described in EIA guidelines published by DOE for industries and ADB manuals of IEE/REIA/EIA guidelines and the World Bank EA Source Book. carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO). the required emission control techniques would be incorporated into the mitigation measures. • Collect. changes on landscape.1 Impacts on Air Quality Impact Origin Emission from the engine stack and unburned gases from the engine operation may affect the ambient air quality. The high temperature of flue gases also impacts the air quality in terms of thermal pollution. social impacts. which is pragmatic and reasonable.0 RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS 5. The situation aggravates when gas contains high percentage of impurities like sulfur. but not really limited to those. Some of these were studied carefully and in depth. 5. Each of these pollutants is examined below to ensure the Bangladesh emission limits and. analyze samples • Identification of possible environmental impacts and evaluation of their significance and consequences • Identification of sources of pollution and other causes of degradation of significance • Undertake public consultations • Presentation of a brief outline/components of an environmental management plan. public health and safety. however as the plant is a small one and a gas based one in an area. construction impacts.1. Particular focus was on air pollution and water pollution aspects. The combustion of fossil fuels for power generation inevitably results in emission of gaseous pollutants to the atmosphere. impacts on both flora and fauna. oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

On the basis of the above emission level. this is extremely low and. this is referred to nitrogen oxides and air quality is discussed.rural area so it is expected that the site would be away from major pollution sources. is considered insignificant. commonly referred to as nitrogen oxides (NOx).002%. and in the case of gas engines approximately 90% of the NOx is present as NO with the remainder being NO2. in comparison to coal and oil fired plant. For this assessment the sulfur content of the gas is assumed to be 0. ground level concentration (GLC) at various distances for a proposed stack height of I 5. Typically. As per designed standard the maximum emission of NOx from the engines would be 45 ppm at 15% 02. Further ambient air qualities of rural areas of Bangladesh are relatively good and also the emissions from the proposed power plant are expected to have only minor impacts. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) The combustion of fossil fuels generally produces two forms of nitrogen oxides. and hence overall NOx emissions.Om can be calculated using air quality model.nitrogen dioxide. nitrogen dioxide is referred to. it reacts with ozone and other chemicals in the air and oxidizes to NO2 with time. when atmospheric emissions are discussed. The two oxides are: NO . By superimposing the calculated ground level concentrations from sources over background concentration then. The emission rates can be compared to and be seen to comply with all the relevant Bangladesh standards. there is an increase in thermal NOx emissions. NOx from the fuel is usually referred to as ‘Fuel NOx’ and NOx from the air is generally referred to as ‘Thermal NOx’. The NOx produced will originate from both the fuel and the air.nitric oxide and NO2 . Once NO enters the atmosphere. 10 . With an increase in combustion temperature. The proportion varies depending on the combustion technology. For these reasons. only conclusion can be drawn whether the proposed project will create any negative impact on air quality or not. The health effects of nitrogen dioxide are far greater than that of nitric oxide. The proportion of fuel NOx to thermal NOx depends cm the temperature of combustion. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) The emissions of sulfur dioxide are dependent on the sulfur content of the gas.

The conversion rate is determined by a number of factors including time. complex or simple terrain.0 m will able to keep the emission level of NOx within the allowable limit of Bangladesh. at present ambient condition. The SCREEN 3 model includes subroutines to estimate the effect of building wash. This model is approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the calculation of maximum short term concentration of non-reactive pollutants emitted from a single point source Short term concentrations generally represent peak I-hr. But it can safely be presumed that. As the exhaust passes into the atmosphere. SCREEN 3 is an optimized version of the USEPA reference Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model. the NO is oxidized to NO2. so no extra mitigation measure would be needed for combating the NOx emission level from the plant in question.0 m. Emissions of NOx from combustion plants generally include l0-25%NO2 and 75-90% NO. As per designed standard the maximum emission of CO from the engines would be 1314 mg/Nm3 (dry at 5% O2). rural or urban dispersion. This value will comply with the Bangladesh standard of 100 µg/ m3 for Category —B area. ozone and hydrocarbon concentration. For short term modeling a conversion rate of 50% is accepted. No account is made for wind direction.l. No Bangladesh emission limits for carbon monoxide are available.98 µg /m3 at a distance of 380 m from the stack.e. temperature. SCREEN 3 assumes that pollutants are conserved (i. Mitigation measures The discussion confirms that. Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO) is generated when incomplete combustion takes place. after operation of proposed plant. the proposed stack height of 15.38 µg/ m3. It is found that maximum I-hr concentration of NOx would be 14. 8-hr or 24-hr ground level concentrations. inversion breakup and shoreline fumigation. no atmospheric reactions take place). as the proposed project 11 . The result of using SCREEN 3 is presented in Amnex-6.Dispersion modeling techniques have been used to calculate maximum ground level concentration of nitrogen-di-oxide for a stack height of 15. maximum NOx concentration would be 39. The combined concentration of NO and NO2 are therefore expressed as NOx. The model used for this assessment was SCREEN 3. Maximum concentrations are calculated on a screening set of 54 meteorological conditions for distance downwind of the source. This means.

would be set up mostly in the rural areas. Any reduction in emissions of CO2 is therefore beneficial but need to be weighed up against the need for production of electricity. Mitigation Measures The solid wastes would first be scavenges to screen the saleable wastes and remaining portion would be collected at a convenient point and disposed safely to designated landfill sites. CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are associated with ‘global warming’. Carbon dioxide The emission of carbon dioxide (C02) depends on the fuel burn and the carbon content of the fuel. There are low lying areas surrounding the site so these solid materials could be safely disposed to the nearby landfill. which reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and heat. These materials could be delivered to the nearby landfill safely.2 Pollution from Solid Waste Impact Origin The operation of the plant by itself would not generate any solid waste. empty drums etc. the ambient air quality of those areas would significantly be less than the Bangladesh standards of 2000 µg/ m3. All these materials would be non-toxic and therefore does not require specialist disposal requirements. So the impact due to emission of CO would not be significant for the proposed power stations. The proposed power station would be of modem design with optimum designed cycle efficiency in order to maximize the MW output and hence. bags. Residual Impact Provided that the mitigation measure indicated above is fully implemented. Solid waste generated by people working at the proposed power station is paper. per unit of fuel burnt. residual impact will be insignificant 12 . the CO2 emission. pallets. 5. boxes. along with negligible quantity of domestic waste. office wastes. The fuels that would be fired contain about 75% carbon.1.

so there are no mitigating measures suggested for the project. there are very few scattered homesteads within the close proximity of the proposed site. The proposed power plant would generate significant noise during operation. The level of noise would be about 65 dB (A) at a distance lOO. In addition to control measures. Since.1. Moreover. This oil is generally used in the brick kilns and has other secondary uses.4 Noise and vibration impacts Impact Origin There would be moderate noise and vibration from the power station.g. the proponent has imported pre-fabricated powerhouse building with sufficient acoustic design. So. it is understood that the project proponent would take measures (e. However. For the proposed site the distance from the engine to the boundary of plant would exceed the Bangladesh standards for mixed area (60 dB (A) at day time and 50 dB (A) at night time). careful acoustic design is to be done to reduce the noise level within the allowable limit Mitigation Measures After getting the site clearance the proponent has purchased more lands to increase the boundary for the project. O m and 60dB (A) at a distance of 150.0 m from engines. in their plant to reduce the noise level to an acceptable limit 13 . The proponent mentioned that they would sell this waste oil to the secondary users Mitigation Measures As there is no chance of mixing and disposal of lubricating oil on to land or water.5.3 Impact due to Lubricating Oil Impact Origin Insignificant amount of used lubricating oil would be generated from 10 MW power plant. The engine manufacturer are supplying separate silencer for each engine to reduce the noise in operation. The generated waste oil would be stored in a sealed tank constructed on the site. 5.1. installation of noise barrier). which might reduce the noise to allowable limit of Bangladesh. so the impact from noise and vibration would not create significant effect. if necessary in future. creating buffer zones surrounding the power station by planting trees will reduce noise level to some extent.

This would obviously help to present unemployment burden of the country to some extent. Insurance for all employees should be taken out.5. so that there would not be any negative occupational health impact. the project proponent shall employ local people wherever possible and to give preference to employment of the land less and jobless people. Employment will definitely provide an opportunity to improve his basic living standard. employees and technical personnel. there would other indirect beneficial impacts on national economy through foreign investment. Regular medical check-up is to be done to ensure the soundness of health of the employees and workers.1.1. but also for the better plant operation and maintenance.5 Impact on Socio-economic Environment Impact on Employment and Family Finance The project envisages providing permanent employment of about a total of 22 skilled and unskilled personnel during its operation phase.6 Impact On Health and Safety Impact Origin As there might be hazards to the plant workers. 5. Pollution control measures are to be duly adopted as necessary. health and assurance of safe drinking water supply and sanitation. including noise and emission control. who would be subjected to exposure to hazardous substances and situation. Mitigating Measures Safe and good occupational health status of the employees and workers is important for not only the persons working in the plant. including protection of workers from hazards/fire/spillage etc. This will ensure the real benefit for the poorest of the poor. but still. The workers who work inside the factory face occupational health hazard due to different operation processes. Benefit Enhancement Measures Although labor recruitment is a matter of the proponent who has the right to determine whom he shall and shall not employ. A senior Medical officer with sufficient background and experience in occupational health problems should coordinate this issue and would be 14 . Protective clothing and accessories should be provided to the workers. as well as protection of workers. Apart from this direct benefit. provisions need to be made by the project for protecting occupational health.

2 Environment protection measures Atmospheric emission management The combustion of fossil fuels for power generation inevitably results in emission of gaseous pollutants to the atmosphere. Since. Natural gas will be burned as fuel. carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (C02). the required emission control techniques are incorporated into the rehabilitation program. Fuel Management The fuel will be transported to the site by a pipeline. Cultural and Archaeological Sites/Objects No sites or objects of religious.1. the pollutants of potential concern are sulfur dioxide (SO2). hand gloves. Prior to being fed to a gas engine. ear protector etc. 5. 5. The proponent also will construct an underground water reservoir for fire fighting. where appropriate. oxides of nitrogen (NOx). archaeological significance are expected to be affected by the project. cultural. 5.9 Religious. the proponent will take necessary step to minimize the emission level to meet the national standards of Bangladesh. responsible for drawing up and implementing a detailed and regular program for ensuring health safety for all the workers in the industrial unit. gaseous emissions will be released to the atmosphere through the stacks. the project would also have full provision for fire fighting and first aid medical services. There are no tribal or indigenous people. CO and CO2. As the proposed power plant is fired with gas. particulate matter emission wilt not occur. Management of Solid Wastes 15 . The emission will contain NOx. it will be treated in a gas compound to adjust its pressure to a value suitable for engine firing. The project has provision in its recurring annual expenditure for purchasing safety items such as aprons. When the plant goes into operation.8 Other Safety Provisions Beyond the above measures.1. Each of these pollutants is examined to ensure the Bangladesh limits will be complied with and.

maintain ecological balance and generally contribute to the scenic beauty of the area. Aqueous Management Ground water will be used for all purposes and the impact of any abstraction on local water bodies would be minimal It is worth pointing out that this power plant is not a steam thermal plant. no significant ecological impacts arising from solid waste management are anticipated. reduce noise level. Domestic Sewage Management All domestic sewage along with occasional floor and machine wash will be treated in a septic tank. so there will be no question of discharging any cooling water. there is no requirement of large volume of cooling water (small amount of water will be needed only for make up water in cooling system). Any excavated earth will be stored on-site and later used for landscaping activities.3 Monitoring Requirement Environmental monitoring is an essential tool in relation to environmental management as it provides the basic information for rational management decisions. Recycling will be adopted wherever possible and only small quantities will require disposal to landfill. The treated water will be discharged through soak pit. The prime objectives of monitoring are- 16 . the green belt can be created in a short time. Hence. As close loop cooling system will be used. Therefore. 5. Soil in and around the plan site is fertile and plenty of water is available. The vegetation would purify the air. Noise Level Management Adequate measures have been proposed for the control of noise and vibration from the equipment installed in the plant. Greening Program A green belt development program with different kinds of trees would be undertaken. Therefore. Noise level monitoring would be performed periodically and the workers exposed to noise would have adequate protective device.

assessed and evaluated periodically to observe the trends of change in base line environmental quality. Monitoring parameters suggested are Sox and NOx for air quality (near and away to the stack. coupled with inquiries • Physical measurement of selected parameters In the case of industrial projects in general. on a quarterly basis) 5. the Project Proponent submitted its application for environmental clearance to the DOE Dhaka Divisional Office in a prescribed format along with all necessary papers. After review by the divisional (regional office). and steps to be taken to adopt appropriate control measures. through a feedback mechanism.3. 5. The importance of this monitoring program is also for ensuring that the plant does not create adverse environmental changes in the area and providing a database of operations and maintenance. or which were unforeseen. can be identified. to the Environment 17 . This included the EIA Report. four samples a year. water. There are two basic forms of monitoring: • Visual observation or checking. the application along with EIA was forwarded to the Head Quarter. on a quarterly basis) and Noise level (near the boundary.1 Monitoring Indicators Environmental monitoring requires set of indicators that could be conveniently measured. • To provide information on the actual nature and extent of key impacts and the effectiveness of the mitigation measures which. noise etc. It should be mentioned here that the monitoring program should be such so that it can ensure compliance with national environmental standards. can be taken into account in the planning and execution of similar projects in future. four samples each a year.4 Evaluation of the project and granting approval As per the regulatory requirement of the Department of Environment. monitoring is done by physical measurement of some selected parameters like air. which can be utilized if unwarranted complaints are made. • To check on whether mitigation and benefit enhancement measures are actually being adopted and are providing effective in practice • To provide a means whereby impacts which were subject to uncertainty at the time of preparation of EIA.

questions and answers. observations. it would be good to have those prepared in local language too (in Bengali) • The Plant authority can use the EIA report as a guiding tool for its response towards environmental compatibility • Some other Power Plant proponents/Power Plants use this EIA as a reference/support document 18 .0 LESSONS LEARNED • EIA contributed to obtain Environmental Clearance for the Power Plant • EIA undertaken had been a positive initiative and appreciated overall • If EIA could have been undertaken as an integral part of the Feasibility Study. Then the application was considered favorably and the decision was taken to issue Environmental Clearance in favor of the Power Plant. 6. impacts and mitigation measures • Emission and noise are two major sources of problem for power plants • Bangladesh natural gas is a ‘sweet’ gas and not much problem is anticipated • Presentation of EIA at DOE in presence of both DOE officials and external experts is a good idea • EIA reports should be widely disseminated • All EIAs are prepared in English in country. Once this was presented to a wider group of Committee Members. Clearance Committee. that would have been better • EIA is an useful tool to delineate environmental issues. This committee in its weekly review meeting reviewed the EIA and then asked the Proponent and Consultant to present the EIA in a special meeting of the Clearance Committee at a later date. The EIA report was recommended to be approved by the Committee and then was approved by the Department of Environment. which included specialists from outside of DOE. there had been discussion.

1998. Farooque M and Hasan S. 2000. 1988. The Philippines. India. ‘Bangladesh: Environment Operational Strategy (Draft)’.The World Conservation Union. ESCAP. EIA Guidelines for Industries. Protech Engineering. I &II)”. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Laws regulating environment in Bangladesh. Manila. ‘EIA of United Summit Power Company Limited’.K. Asian Development Bank. Bangladesh. 2000. Asian Development Bank. 1989. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Manila. 1996. Thailand. 1985. Dhaka. Dhaka. Dhaka. ‘Environmental Chemistry”. Bangladesh.7. Bangladesh 19 ..1 Key references ADB. “Training Workshop on Environmental Impact Assessment and Evaluation: Proceedings and Training Manual. Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association and Food Foundation. BBS. Bangladesh BBS. New Delhi. IUCN. GOI/ADB/ESCAP. Bangladesh. ‘Review of laws and policies concerning natural resource management in Bangladesh’. Dhaka. “Environmental Impact Assessment – Guidelines for Planners and Decision-makers”. DOE. “1999 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh”. IUCN.R. Wiley Eastern Limited. ADB. Department of Environment. Manila. The Philippines AE. 2000. DE A. Bangladesh. 1997. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Asian Development Bank. Key references and information sources 7. 2001. (Vol. Bangkok. Dhaka. “Environmental Guidelines for Selected Industrial and Power Development Projects”. The Philippines. 1999. “Population Census 2001 Preliminary Report”.. Dhaka.

‘Environmental assessment source book. Ministry of Environment and Forest and IUCN The World Conservation Union. Bangladesh Environment Conservation Rules. Bangladesh WB. S. Volume III Guidelines for environmental assessment of energy and industry projects’. “Fundamentals of Environmental Pollution”.Kannan K. USA 20 . et al. 1992. Dhaka. MOEF. “Environmental Technology in Developing Countries (Vol. MOEF. Ministry of Environment and Forest. New Delhi. Dhaka. 1988.F.. SEATEC International. MOP. Dhaka. Bangladesh. Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act. Dhaka. Environment Policy 1992 and Environmental Action Plan. Bangladesh. Bangladesh. I&II)”. Chand and Company Limited. National Environmental Management Plan. Dhaka. Dhaka. Environment Department of the World Bank. Bangladesh. Ludwig H. India. Towards Sustainable Development – National Conservation Strategy. 1992. MOEF. 1995. “The Fifth five year plan 1997-2002’. 1997. 1992. MOEF/IUCN. Ministry of Environment and Forest. Thailand. Bangladesh. Ministry of Planning. 1995. Ministry of Environment and Forest. Washington. MOEF.. 1998. Ministry of Environment and Forest. 1991. Bangkok. Date of preparation of case study: 12 October 2003 21 . Uttara. Road-6.Anwarul Islam Organization : N/A Position : Independent EIA Practitioner/Environment & Development Adviser Contact Address : House-5.2 Person preparing the case study Name : M. Sector-6.8956708 Fax : 880-2-9885248 Email : anwarsi@citechco. Bangladesh Phone : 880-2-8914803.7.