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APPENDIX B

Solving Polynomial Equations

EXERCISE SET B

(b) q(x) = 2x2 + 4, r(x) = 9

(c) q(x) = x3 − x2 + 2x − 2, r(x) = 2x + 1

(b) q(x) = x3 + 3x2 − x + 2, r(x) = 3x − 1

(c) q(x) = 5x3 − 5, r(x) = 4x2 + 10

(b) q(x) = x3 − 5x2 + 20x − 100, r(x) = 504

(c) q(x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1, r(x) = 0

(b) q(x) = 2x3 − 5x2 + 3x − 39, r(x) = 147

(c) q(x) = x6 + x5 + x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1, r(x) = 2

5. x 0 1 −3 7

p(x) −4 −3 101 5001

6. x 1 −1 3 −3 7 −7 21 −21

p(x) −24 −12 12 0 420 −168 10416 −7812

(a) b divides 1, b = ±1; a divides 24, a = 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24;

the possible candidates are {±1, ±2, ±3, ±4, ±6, ±8, ±12, ±24}

(b) b divides 3 so b = ±1, ±3; a divides −10 so a = 1, 2, 5, 10;

the possible candidates are {±1, ±2, ±5, ±10, ±1/3, ±2/3, ±5/3, ±10/3}

(c) b divides 1 so b = ±1; a divides 17 so a = 1, 17;

the possible candidates are {±1, ±17}

10. An integer zero c divides −21, so c = ±1, ±3, ±7, ±21 are the only possibilities; substitution of

these candidates shows that the integer zeros are −7, −1, 3

√ √

18. x = −3/2, 2 ± 3 are the real roots. 19. x = −2, −2/3, −1 ± 3 are the real roots.

530

January 27, 2005 11:58 l24-appb-sv Sheet number 2 Page number 531 black

20. −2, −1, 1/2, 3 21. −2, 2, 3 are the only real roots.

24. (−3)7 = −2187, so −3 is a root and thus by Theorem F.4, x + 3 is a factor of x7 + 2187.

25. If the side of the cube is x then x2 (x − 3) = 196; the only real root of this equation is x = 7 cm.

a a 3

26. (a) Try to solve > + 1. The polynomial p(x) = x3 − x + 1 has only one real root

b b

c ≈ −1.325, and p(0) = 1 so p(x) > 0 for all x > c; hence there is no positive rational

a a 3

solution of > + 1.

b b

(b) From part (a), any real x < c is a solution.

27. Use the Factor Theorem with x as the variable and y as the constant c.

(a) For any positive integer n the polynomial xn − y n has x = y as a root.

(b) For any positive even integer n the polynomial xn − y n has x = −y as a root.

(c) For any positive odd integer n the polynomial xn + y n has x = −y as a root.

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