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Original Title: [9] Exact Solution of Stress and Radial Displacement of Elastic Tapered Interference Fit

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doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.423-426.1438

Interference Fit

1

Naval Equipment Technology Institution, China 102442

2

School of Equipment Engineering, Engineering University of CAPF, China 710086

a

e10meiyou@163.com, bsipone@163.com, cxxmm119@sohu.com

Abstract. Tapered interference fits, which can transfer large torques, are widely used in the

connection design for propeller hubs and shafts of large vessels. In this paper, a model was developed

to study the influences of torques, rotational speeds and tapers on the tapered interference fit between

a propeller hub and a shaft. Using the classic elastic plane stress theory, the exact solutions of the

radial stresses, tangential stresses and radial displacements of the propeller hub and shaft are derived.

Then the calculation method of the magnitude of the tapered interference fit was presented. Finally

taking a screw propeller system as an example, the above solutions were calculated using the

numerical method. The results show that improving the stress distribution of the propeller hub is an

effective approach to increase the connection strength and torque transmission capacity. If the rotation

speed has to be considered, the stress and displacement would be increased significantly due to the

centrifugal force. The present analytical solutions are expected to be useful in the structure design of

tapered interference fits for propeller hubs and shafts.

Introduction

Interference fits are widely used in gear design for fixation of pinions, couplings, and the like on

shafts. They can transfer large torques, are easy to produce and offer significant cost advantages [1].

Commonly a cylindrical interference fit is applied. Such a clearance between hub and shaft is chosen,

that the stresses of all regions of the fit can be calculated by Lame’s solution. The design and stress

analysis of cylindrical interference fits are studied broadly and delicately, most of which are

concerned with a laminated composite tube which is interference fitted onto other structure like a

bearing bush or a hub. The model is developed as a hollow cylinder is subjected to internal or external

pressure, depending on the relative location in the joint assembly and the elastic solution can be found

for such a case in the literature [2-9]. But the solution of cylindrical interference fits is not very

suitable for screw propeller systems because the propeller hub and shaft are connected together by

tapered interference fits.

There are many studies on tapered interference fits. Teng Q. [10] researched the stress distribution

of the tapered interference fit by using the classic elastic plane stress theory. Based on the control of

the contact pressure, a design method of taper interference fits was given by Yuan R. J. [11]. D.

Bozkaya and S. Muftu [12] studied on the mechanical characteristics of taper interference fits by

using the methods of the analysis and finite element respectively. Moreover, they calculated the

contact pressure and investigated the influences of the parameters on tapered interference fits [13].

The effect of correlative geometrical parameters in an analytical model on the radial displacement of

the outer race was studied by Li W. J. [14]. However, there are few research works, which are

concerned with the influences of torques, rotational speeds and tapers on the strengths of propeller

hubs and shafts for tapered interference fits.

Analytical model

In this research, the structure analyzed here is only the part of the tapered interference fit of a screw

propeller system. The tapered interference fit between the propeller hub and shaft is shown in Fig. 1.

The radiuses of the small end and big end of the propeller shaft are indicated as rs and rb

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Trans

Tech Publications, www.ttp.net. (ID: 141.211.4.224, University of Michigan Library, Media Union Library, Ann Arbor, USA-17/04/15,20:12:39)

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 423-426 1439

respectively. The mean radius of the propeller shaft is represented as rm . R is the outer radius of the

propeller hub and L is the length of the tapered interference fit. Further we stipulate that the elastic

moduli E and Poisson’s ratio as well as the density of the propeller hub and shaft are equal.

Fig. 1 The tapered interference fit between the propeller hub and shaft.

Using the classic elastic plane stress theory, the equilibrium differential equation can be expressed

as

r r r

2 r 0 , (1)

r r r

and the strain-displacement relation and constitutive equation can be given as

1 u

0

r du ,

(2)

r

0 1 dr

1 1

r E E r

1

1

. (3)

E E

Suppose p is the contact pressure of the tapered interference fit, and then the boundary conditions

are given in Eq. (4) in order to guarantee the equations above have a unique solution.

r , H r ,S r r p

r rm

m

, (4)

r , H r R 0

where p can be given as

2M

p . (5)

Lf rs rb

2

The taper of the propeller shaft can be expressed as 1: K , and the length of the tapered interference fit

L can be derived as

L K rb rs . (6)

The propeller shaft is a solid shaft, so the radial stress is a finite value for r 0 . Then combine

Eqs. 1-6, the radial stresses and tangential stresses of the propeller hub and shaft deduce to Eqs. 7-10

respectively,

2M R 2 r 2 2 N 2 3 R r 4r rs rb

2 2 2 2

r ,H , (7)

fK rb rs 4R 2 rs rb r 2 r2

2

28800

2M R r 2 N 2 3 2 R r rs rb 1 3 2

2 2 2 2 2

,H R r , (8)

fK rb rs 4 R 2 rs rb r 2

2

7200 4r 2 3

1440 Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

2M 2 N 2 3

r ,S rs rb 4r 2 ,

2

(9)

fK rb rs rs rb

2

28800

2 N 2 3 rs rb

1 3 2

2

2M

,S r . (10)

fK rb rs rs rb 3

2

7200 4

And the displacements of the propeller hub and shaft can be expressed as

uH

2Mr

1 R 2 1 r 2

fKE rb rs 4 R 2 rs rb 2 r 2

, (11)

2 N 2 3 1 rs rb R 1 4 R rs rb r 1 2 3

2 2 2 2 2

r

7200 E 4r 3

2 N 2 1 3 rs rb r

2

2Mr 1

uS 1 r 3 . (12)

fKE rb rs rs rb 2

7200E 4

The magnitude of the tapered interference fit of the propeller hub and shaft can be given in Eq. 13.

2 uH uS r r r /2 .

s

(13)

b

Numerical analysis

This section studies the influences of the torque M and rotational speed N as well as taper K on the

radial stresses, tangential stresses and displacements of the propeller hub and shaft. Extensive

numerical computations have been performed with the following data: elastic modulus

EC ES 210Gpa , Poisson’s ratio C S 0.3 , the density C S 7800kg/m3 , static friction

coefficient f 0.12 , the outer radius of the propeller hub R 507.5mm , the radius of the small end

of the propeller shaft rs 226mm , the radius of the big end of the propeller shaft rb 251.5mm .

Some characteristic examples are presented in the following.

The influences of the torque M and taper K as well as rotational speed N on the radial stresses

of the propeller hub and shaft are shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. The radial stress of the propeller hub

r , H increases firstly as the radius r increases, and then decreases as the radius r increases. The

radial stress of the propeller hub r , H is reduced to zero for r 0.5m . The maximum of r , H is

closely related to the structure of the propeller hub. However, Fig. 3 shows a negative correlation

between the radial stress of the propeller shaft r , S and the radius r . r , S is minimum for r 0.2m .

The maximum r , S happens in the center of the propeller shaft. The influences of M , K and N on

the radial stresses of the propeller hub and shaft are significant.

for K 20 and N 1000rpm . for N 1000rpm , M 85kN m . for M 85kN m and K 20 .

Fig. 2 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the radial stress of the propeller

hub.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 423-426 1441

for K 20 and N 1000rpm . for N 1000rpm , M 85kN m . for M 85kN m and K 20 .

Fig. 3 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the radial stress of the propeller

shaft.

In Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, the tangential stresses of the propeller hub and shaft decrease with the growing

of the radius r . The dependence of the tangential stress upon the torque, taper and rotational speed for

the propeller hub is similar as those for the propeller shaft. ,H and ,S are positively correlated

with the taper K and negatively correlated with the torque M and rotational speed N .

for K 20 and N 1000rpm . for N 1000rpm , M 85kN m . for M 85kN m and K 20 .

Fig. 4 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the tangential stress of the

propeller hub.

for K 20 and N 1000rpm . for N 1000rpm , M 85kN m . for M 85kN m and K 20 .

Fig. 5 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the tangential stress of the

propeller shaft.

The displacements of the propeller hub and shaft are plotted in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. The displacement

of the propeller hub increases as the radius r increases. For different M , K and N , the

displacement of the propeller hub u H is always greater than zero. However, the direction and

magnitude of the displacement of the propeller shaft depends on the magnitude of torque, taper and

rotational speed.

1442 Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

(a) Dependence of uH upon M (b) Dependence of uH upon K for (c) Dependence of uH upon N for

for K 20 and N 1000rpm . N 1000rpm , M 85kN m . M 85kN m and K 20 .

Fig. 6 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the displacement of the

propeller hub.

(a) Dependence of uS upon M for (b) Dependence of uS upon K for (c) Dependence of uS upon N for

K 20 and N 1000rpm . N 1000rpm , M 85kN m . M 85kN m and K 20 .

Fig. 7 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the displacement of the

propeller shaft.

Conclusions

Three determine parameters: the torque, rotational speed and taper, have to be considered for the

design of the tapered interference fit between the propeller hub and shaft. Improving the stress

distribution of the propeller hub is an effective approach to increase the connection strength and

torque transmission capacity. If the rotation speed has to be considered, the connection strength would

be decreased significantly due to the centrifugal force.

Considering of the yield stress of the material, the calculation method of the maximum load

capacities of the taper interference fits has to be improved. For this purpose further studies have to be

performed.

References

[1] F. G. Kollman: Journal of Mechanical Design Vol. 103 (1981), p. 61

[2] S.Sen and B.Aksakal: Materials and Design Vol. 25 (2004), p. 407-417

[3] D. Castagnetti and E. Dragoni: IMechE, J. Strain Analysis Vol. 40 (2005), p. 177-184

[4] M. M. Calistrat and G. G. Leaseburge, in: presented at the Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng. Conf. (1974).

[5] Seung Woo Lee and Dai Gil Lee: Composite Structures Vol. 78 (2007), p. 584-595

[6] Robert W. Bosley, U.S. Patent 5,697,848. (1997)

[7] Pierre-Daniel Pfister and Yves Perriard, in: Proc. 8th ICEMS, 3054-3059, Wuhan, China (2008)

[8] Guoping Wang, Hualing Chen, Shemiao Qi et al, in: 3rd International Conference on Machinery,

Materials Science and Engineering Applications, Wuhan, China (2013)

[9] Peng Shang, Ying Zhan, Sheng Feng et al, Advanced Materials Research Vol. 744 (2013), p.

180-184

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 423-426 1443

[10] In Chinese: Qi Teng, Zhongxia Xiang. Machinery Design & Manufacture Vol. 2 (2002), p. 63-64

[11] In Chinese: Rongjuan Yuan. Journal of Machine Design Vol. 20, 2 (2003), p. 42-43

[12] Dincer Bozkaya, Sinan Müftü. Journal of Biomechanics Vol. 36 (2003), p. 1649-1658

[13] Dincer Bozkaya, Sinan Müftü. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering Vol. 126 (2004), p.

393-401

[14] In Chinese: Weijian Li, Cunyuan Pan. Journal of Mechanical Strength Vol. 33 (2011), p. 86-92

Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.423-426

Exact Solution of Stress and Radial Displacement of Elastic Tapered Interference Fit

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.423-426.1438

DOI References

[1] F. G. Kollman: Journal of Mechanical Design Vol. 103 (1981), p.61.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3254885

[2] S. Sen and B. Aksakal: Materials and Design Vol. 25 (2004), pp.407-417.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2003.11.009

[3] D. Castagnetti and E. Dragoni: IMechE, J. Strain Analysis Vol. 40 (2005), pp.177-184.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/030932405X7737

[5] Seung Woo Lee and Dai Gil Lee: Composite Structures Vol. 78 (2007), pp.584-595.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.11.021

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