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# Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols 423-426 (2013) pp 1438-1443 Online: 2013-09-27

## © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.423-426.1438

Interference Fit

## Ling Xiong1, a, Peng Shang2, b, Youlin Xu1, c

1
Naval Equipment Technology Institution, China 102442
2
School of Equipment Engineering, Engineering University of CAPF, China 710086
a
e10meiyou@163.com, bsipone@163.com, cxxmm119@sohu.com

## Keywords: exact solution, stress, radial displacement, tapered interference fit

Abstract. Tapered interference fits, which can transfer large torques, are widely used in the
connection design for propeller hubs and shafts of large vessels. In this paper, a model was developed
to study the influences of torques, rotational speeds and tapers on the tapered interference fit between
a propeller hub and a shaft. Using the classic elastic plane stress theory, the exact solutions of the
radial stresses, tangential stresses and radial displacements of the propeller hub and shaft are derived.
Then the calculation method of the magnitude of the tapered interference fit was presented. Finally
taking a screw propeller system as an example, the above solutions were calculated using the
numerical method. The results show that improving the stress distribution of the propeller hub is an
effective approach to increase the connection strength and torque transmission capacity. If the rotation
speed has to be considered, the stress and displacement would be increased significantly due to the
centrifugal force. The present analytical solutions are expected to be useful in the structure design of
tapered interference fits for propeller hubs and shafts.

Introduction
Interference fits are widely used in gear design for fixation of pinions, couplings, and the like on
shafts. They can transfer large torques, are easy to produce and offer significant cost advantages [1].
Commonly a cylindrical interference fit is applied. Such a clearance between hub and shaft is chosen,
that the stresses of all regions of the fit can be calculated by Lame’s solution. The design and stress
analysis of cylindrical interference fits are studied broadly and delicately, most of which are
concerned with a laminated composite tube which is interference fitted onto other structure like a
bearing bush or a hub. The model is developed as a hollow cylinder is subjected to internal or external
pressure, depending on the relative location in the joint assembly and the elastic solution can be found
for such a case in the literature [2-9]. But the solution of cylindrical interference fits is not very
suitable for screw propeller systems because the propeller hub and shaft are connected together by
tapered interference fits.
There are many studies on tapered interference fits. Teng Q. [10] researched the stress distribution
of the tapered interference fit by using the classic elastic plane stress theory. Based on the control of
the contact pressure, a design method of taper interference fits was given by Yuan R. J. [11]. D.
Bozkaya and S. Muftu [12] studied on the mechanical characteristics of taper interference fits by
using the methods of the analysis and finite element respectively. Moreover, they calculated the
contact pressure and investigated the influences of the parameters on tapered interference fits [13].
The effect of correlative geometrical parameters in an analytical model on the radial displacement of
the outer race was studied by Li W. J. [14]. However, there are few research works, which are
concerned with the influences of torques, rotational speeds and tapers on the strengths of propeller
hubs and shafts for tapered interference fits.
Analytical model
In this research, the structure analyzed here is only the part of the tapered interference fit of a screw
propeller system. The tapered interference fit between the propeller hub and shaft is shown in Fig. 1.
The radiuses of the small end and big end of the propeller shaft are indicated as rs and rb

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 423-426 1439

respectively. The mean radius of the propeller shaft is represented as rm . R is the outer radius of the
propeller hub and L is the length of the tapered interference fit. Further we stipulate that the elastic
moduli E and Poisson’s ratio  as well as the density  of the propeller hub and shaft are equal.

Fig. 1 The tapered interference fit between the propeller hub and shaft.
Using the classic elastic plane stress theory, the equilibrium differential equation can be expressed
as
 r   r  r   
    2 r  0 , (1)
r r r
and the strain-displacement relation and constitutive equation can be given as
1  u 
   0  
    r du ,
 
(2)
 r
 0 1   dr 
 1 1 
 
 r    E E   r 
   1 
1    
. (3)
 
 E E 
Suppose p is the contact pressure of the tapered interference fit, and then the boundary conditions
are given in Eq. (4) in order to guarantee the equations above have a unique solution.
 r , H   r ,S r r   p
 r  rm

m
, (4)
 r , H r  R  0
where p can be given as
2M
p . (5)
 Lf  rs  rb 
2

The taper of the propeller shaft can be expressed as 1: K , and the length of the tapered interference fit
L can be derived as
L  K  rb  rs  . (6)
The propeller shaft is a solid shaft, so the radial stress is a finite value for r  0 . Then combine
Eqs. 1-6, the radial stresses and tangential stresses of the propeller hub and shaft deduce to Eqs. 7-10
respectively,
2M  R 2  r 2   2 N 2  3     R  r   4r   rs  rb  
2 2 2 2

 r ,H     , (7)
 fK  rb  rs   4R 2   rs  rb   r 2 r2
2
28800
 
2M  R  r   2 N 2  3     2  R  r   rs  rb  1  3 2 
2 2 2 2 2

 ,H   R   r  , (8)
 fK  rb  rs   4 R 2   rs  rb   r 2
2
7200  4r 2 3  
   
1440 Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

2M  2 N 2  3    

 r ,S    rs  rb   4r 2  ,
2
(9)
 fK  rb  rs  rs  rb 
2
28800 

 2 N 2  3      rs  rb 
1  3 2 
2
2M
 ,S      r . (10)
 fK  rb  rs  rs  rb  3   
2
7200  4
And the displacements of the propeller hub and shaft can be expressed as

uH 
2Mr

1    R 2  1    r 2
 fKE  rb  rs   4 R 2   rs  rb 2  r 2
 
, (11)
 
 2 N 2  3     1    rs  rb  R  1     4 R   rs  rb   r 1   2 3 
2 2 2 2 2

   r 
7200 E  4r 3  

 2 N 2 1      3    rs  rb  r 
2
2Mr 1 
uS       1    r 3  . (12)
 fKE  rb  rs   rs  rb  2
7200E  4 
The magnitude of the tapered interference fit of the propeller hub and shaft can be given in Eq. 13.
  2 uH  uS r  r r /2 .
s 
(13)
b

Numerical analysis
This section studies the influences of the torque M and rotational speed N as well as taper K on the
radial stresses, tangential stresses and displacements of the propeller hub and shaft. Extensive
numerical computations have been performed with the following data: elastic modulus
EC  ES  210Gpa , Poisson’s ratio C  S  0.3 , the density C  S  7800kg/m3 , static friction
coefficient f  0.12 , the outer radius of the propeller hub R  507.5mm , the radius of the small end
of the propeller shaft rs  226mm , the radius of the big end of the propeller shaft rb  251.5mm .
Some characteristic examples are presented in the following.
The influences of the torque M and taper K as well as rotational speed N on the radial stresses
of the propeller hub and shaft are shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. The radial stress of the propeller hub
 r , H increases firstly as the radius r increases, and then decreases as the radius r increases. The
radial stress of the propeller hub  r , H is reduced to zero for r  0.5m . The maximum of  r , H is
closely related to the structure of the propeller hub. However, Fig. 3 shows a negative correlation
between the radial stress of the propeller shaft  r , S and the radius r .  r , S is minimum for r  0.2m .
The maximum  r , S happens in the center of the propeller shaft. The influences of M , K and N on
the radial stresses of the propeller hub and shaft are significant.

## (a) Dependence of  r , H upon M (b) Dependence of  r , H upon K (c) Dependence of  r , H upon N

for K  20 and N  1000rpm . for N  1000rpm , M  85kN  m . for M  85kN  m and K  20 .
Fig. 2 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the radial stress of the propeller
hub.
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 423-426 1441

## (a) Dependence of  r , S upon M (b) Dependence of  r , S upon K (c) Dependence of  r , S upon N

for K  20 and N  1000rpm . for N  1000rpm , M  85kN  m . for M  85kN  m and K  20 .
Fig. 3 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the radial stress of the propeller
shaft.
In Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, the tangential stresses of the propeller hub and shaft decrease with the growing
of the radius r . The dependence of the tangential stress upon the torque, taper and rotational speed for
the propeller hub is similar as those for the propeller shaft.   ,H and   ,S are positively correlated
with the taper K and negatively correlated with the torque M and rotational speed N .

## (a) Dependence of   ,H upon M (b) Dependence of   ,H upon K (c) Dependence of   ,H upon N

for K  20 and N  1000rpm . for N  1000rpm , M  85kN  m . for M  85kN  m and K  20 .
Fig. 4 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the tangential stress of the
propeller hub.

## (a) Dependence of   ,S upon M (b) Dependence of   ,S upon K (c) Dependence of   ,S upon N

for K  20 and N  1000rpm . for N  1000rpm , M  85kN  m . for M  85kN  m and K  20 .
Fig. 5 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the tangential stress of the
propeller shaft.
The displacements of the propeller hub and shaft are plotted in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. The displacement
of the propeller hub increases as the radius r increases. For different M , K and N , the
displacement of the propeller hub u H is always greater than zero. However, the direction and
magnitude of the displacement of the propeller shaft depends on the magnitude of torque, taper and
rotational speed.
1442 Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing

(a) Dependence of uH upon M (b) Dependence of uH upon K for (c) Dependence of uH upon N for
for K  20 and N  1000rpm . N  1000rpm , M  85kN  m . M  85kN  m and K  20 .
Fig. 6 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the displacement of the
propeller hub.

(a) Dependence of uS upon M for (b) Dependence of uS upon K for (c) Dependence of uS upon N for
K  20 and N  1000rpm . N  1000rpm , M  85kN  m . M  85kN  m and K  20 .
Fig. 7 Influences of the torque and taper as well as rotational speed on the displacement of the
propeller shaft.

Conclusions
Three determine parameters: the torque, rotational speed and taper, have to be considered for the
design of the tapered interference fit between the propeller hub and shaft. Improving the stress
distribution of the propeller hub is an effective approach to increase the connection strength and
torque transmission capacity. If the rotation speed has to be considered, the connection strength would
be decreased significantly due to the centrifugal force.
Considering of the yield stress of the material, the calculation method of the maximum load
capacities of the taper interference fits has to be improved. For this purpose further studies have to be
performed.

References
[1] F. G. Kollman: Journal of Mechanical Design Vol. 103 (1981), p. 61
[2] S.Sen and B.Aksakal: Materials and Design Vol. 25 (2004), p. 407-417
[3] D. Castagnetti and E. Dragoni: IMechE, J. Strain Analysis Vol. 40 (2005), p. 177-184
[4] M. M. Calistrat and G. G. Leaseburge, in: presented at the Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng. Conf. (1974).
[5] Seung Woo Lee and Dai Gil Lee: Composite Structures Vol. 78 (2007), p. 584-595
[6] Robert W. Bosley, U.S. Patent 5,697,848. (1997)
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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 423-426 1443

[10] In Chinese: Qi Teng, Zhongxia Xiang. Machinery Design & Manufacture Vol. 2 (2002), p. 63-64
[11] In Chinese: Rongjuan Yuan. Journal of Machine Design Vol. 20, 2 (2003), p. 42-43
[12] Dincer Bozkaya, Sinan Müftü. Journal of Biomechanics Vol. 36 (2003), p. 1649-1658
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[14] In Chinese: Weijian Li, Cunyuan Pan. Journal of Mechanical Strength Vol. 33 (2011), p. 86-92
Applied Materials and Technologies for Modern Manufacturing
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Exact Solution of Stress and Radial Displacement of Elastic Tapered Interference Fit
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.423-426.1438

DOI References
[1] F. G. Kollman: Journal of Mechanical Design Vol. 103 (1981), p.61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3254885
[2] S. Sen and B. Aksakal: Materials and Design Vol. 25 (2004), pp.407-417.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2003.11.009
[3] D. Castagnetti and E. Dragoni: IMechE, J. Strain Analysis Vol. 40 (2005), pp.177-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1243/030932405X7737
[5] Seung Woo Lee and Dai Gil Lee: Composite Structures Vol. 78 (2007), pp.584-595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.11.021