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PIPE DRAFTING

ANDDESIGN
ToKathy
I am my beloved's, and my beloved is mine. Roy

ToMary
Thank you for your help and support. Robert
PIPE DRAFTING
ANDDESIGN
THIRD EDITION
RoY A. PARISHERAND RoBERT A. RHEA

A.MSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONOON


NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • lOKYO
Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprinl oí Elsevier
Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier
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Toe Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 lGB, UK

First edition 1995


Second edition 2001
Third edition 2012

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Contents

Preface vii Chapter 4 Flange Basics


Acknowledgments ix Raring Flanges 56
About the Authors xi Flange Facings 56
Flange Types 58
Boles 65
Chapter 1 Overview of Pipe Drafting Gaskets 67
and Design Chapter 4 Review Quiz 71
Exercise Information 71
Types of Projects 1
Employers of Pipe Drafters and Designers 1 Chapter 4 Drawing Exercises 73
Engineering and Construction Companies 1
Operating Companies 2 Chapter 5 Valves
Architectural Enginecring Companies 2
Construction Companies 2 What is a Valve? 79
Fabrication Companies 2 Common Valve Types 79
Prepararion for Piping Drafring 2 Valve Operators 91
Technical Skills 2 Chapter 5 Review Quiz 96
Personal Skills 3 Exercise Informarion 96
Creation of Pipe Drawings 3 Chaprer 5 Drawing Exercises 99

Chapter 2 Steel Pipe Chapter 6 Mechanical Equipment


Hísrorv of Pipe 4 Types of Equipment 112
Píping Marerials 4 Mechanical Equipment Descriptions 123
Manufacturing Methods 4 Equipment in Use 124
Sizing of Pipe 5 Equípment Terminology 125
Wall Thickness 5 Vendor Data Drawings 128
Mechods of Joining Pipe 6 Drawing Equipment 128
Cast Iron Pipe 9 Chapter 6 Review Quiz 133
Plasric Pipe 1 O Chapter 6 Drawing Exercises 133
Drawing Pipe 11
Chapter 2 Review Quia 11 Chapter7 Flow Diagrams and lnstrumentation
Uses of Flow Diagrams 134
Chapter 3 Pipe Fittings Type of Flow Diagrams 134
90º Elbows 14 Flow Diagram Instruments 135
45° Elbows 20 Flow Diagram Drawing Symbols 138
Weld Tee 22 Flow Plan Arrangemenr 139
The Srub-in 30 Chapter 7 Review Quiz 146
Coupling 32 Exercise Information 146
Reducers 32 Chapter 7 Drawing Exercises 148
WeldCap 36
Use of Firtings 36 Chapter 8 Codes and Specifications
Screwed and Socket-Weld Fittings 38
Pipe Nipples 43 Codes 154
Flanged Fittings 44 Specíficatíons 154
Cast Iron Firtíngs 45 General Piping Specífications 155
Plastic Fittings 45 Specíficatíon Classes 158
Fitting Exercise Instructions and Information 45 Abbreviations 159
Chapter 3 Review Quu 47 Piping Abbreviations 166
Chapter 3 Drawing Exercises 48 Chapter 8 Review Quiz 169

V
vi

Chapter 9 Equipment Layout Uríliry Starions 262


Meter Runs 263
Plant CoordinareSystem 170 Sewerand Underground Piping Svsrems 266
Plant Elevations l 70 Chapcer 12 Review Quiz 267
Site Plans 176 Chapter 12 Exercises 267
Unit Plor Plan 176
EquipmentLocarion Drawing 176 Chapter 13 Piping lsometrics
Foundation Location Drawing 176
Piping Drawinglndex 176 What is an lsometric? 269
Chapter 9 Review Quíz 182 lsometric Orientation 272
Chapter 9 DrawingExercises 183 Drawing Piping Isometrics 275
lsometric Dimensions,Notes, and Callouts 278
Chapter 1 O Piping Arrangement Drawings, IsometricOffsets 278
Sections, and Elevations Chapter 13 Review Quíz 288
Chapter 13 DrawingExercises 289
Arrangement Drawings 186
Responsibilítiesof che Pipíng Designer 186 Chapter 14 Building 3D Piping Models
lnformationSources for Piping Arrangement Drawings 186
Layout Procedures 187 Advantagesof 3D Modeling 307
Píping ArrangementDrawingLayout 187 Checking for lnterferences 307
Dimensioning 233 Generating DrawingsAutomaticallyfrom a Model 311
Piping Sections and Elevations: What Are They? 233 Generating Isometric Drawings Automatically 312
Detail Drawings 237 Computer-AidedEngineeringof Models 312
Pipe Line List 23 7 Choosing a ModelingSoftwarePackage 314
Chapter 10 ReviewQuía 241 Building a 3D Model Using PDMS 314
Exercises: Plans, Elevatíons, and Sections 241
Chapter 15 Project Coordination
Chapter 11 Standard Piping Details Processand lnstrument Diagrams 342
Pipe Rack Spacing 242 Piping Arrangement Drawingswith Elevations 345
Drawing Pipe in The Rack 242 Foundation and Equipment Location Drawings 352
Pipe Flexíbiliry 243 Mechanical Equipment: Vender Drawings 358
Planning for Heat Expansion 244 Mechanical Equipment: Footings, Foundations, and
Pipe Anchors 246 Pedestals 378
Pipe lnsulation Shoes 247 Main Pipe Rack and Miscellaneous Pipe Supports: Plans,
Pipe Guides 247 Elevations, and Derails 390
Pipe Spans 247 Electrical Drawings: Lightingand PowerSupply and Grounding
Pipe Supports 248 Plan 395
Field Supports 248 3D Model Views: Units 01-04 403
DummySupports 250
Hanger Rods 25 l Appendix A: Dimensional Data 408
Spring Hangers 25 l Appendix B: Alphabet of Lines 448
Píck-up Pipe Supports 25 l
Chapter 11 Review Quiz 258 Appendix C: Review of Math 449
Appendix D: Use of the Calculator 450
Chapter 12 Piping Systems Appendix E: Architect's Scale 453
Plant Utilities 259 Glossary 454
Control Valve Manifolds 260 lndex 461
Preface

Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides New to this edition
step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, draft-
• A large-scalefour-Unit imaginary project that includes
ers and students through the creation of flow diagrams,
Flow diagrams, Foundation Location, Equipment
piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes
Location, and Piping Arrangement drawings, as well as
instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fit-
structural steel drawings and details, civil/foundation
tings, flanges, valves and mechanical equipment found
details, equipment vendar drawings, and electrical
on various types of piping drawings.
Power, Lighting, and Grounding Plans for each Unit.
More than 350 illustrations and photographs pro-
• Updated discussion and use of modem CAD and 3D
vide examples and visual instructions. A unique fea-
software tools
ture is the systematic creation and arrangement of
• Additional exercisers, drawings and dimensioning
drawings that begins with the development of a flow
charts to provide practice and assessment.
diagram then progresses to the layout of the struc-
tural and equipment foundations of a piping facility. Ancillaries:
Once mechanical equipment has been positioned and For instructors, an educational support package
oriented the piping components are added. The text is available that contains a set of electronic images of
continues through to the development of a 3D model. figures in the book, and solutions to the end of chap-
Advanced chapters díscuss the use of 3D software tools ter problem sets. The files are available to instructors
from which elevation, section and isometric drawings, by registering at: http://textbooks.elsevier.com/web/
and bilis of materials are extracted. Manuals.aspx?isbn=9780123847003.

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Acknowledgments

Nicole Blythe: AutoCAD 3D model included for their instructional value. They have been
Michael F. Fox: San Jacinto College Central proofed for accuracy but are not guaranteed for any par-
R. B. Herrscher: Nisseki Chemical Texas, Inc. ticular purpose. Toe publisher and authors do not offer
Alan Human: Flexitallic, Inc. any representations or warranties, nor do they accept
Kenneth Kluge: PDMS 3D model any liabilities with respect to the material, applications,
lrv Levine: AVEVA,Inc. procedures, dímensíoning charts, and/ or routines.
Heather Marquis: PDMS 3D model and
Trademarks
www.learnpdms.com tutorials
AutoCAD® is registered in the U.S. Patent and
Roger Parisher: Hodell-Natco, Inc.
Trademark office by Autodesk, Inc.
Toe material, applications, procedures, dimensioning PDMS® is a registered trademark of AVEA, Inc. an
charts, and routines presented in this book have been AVEVA Group ple company.

ix
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About the Authors

Roy A. Parisher is a professor in the engineeríng Robert A. Rhea is a former associate professor of
design graphics department at San Jacinto College engineering technology at the University of Houston
Central in Pasadena, Texas, where he has taught for Downtown, Houston, Texas.
over 30 years.

xi
CHAPTER

1
Overview of Pipe Drafting and Design

In the design of an industrial facility, engineers • pharmaceutical plants;


develop process flow sheets, set up project specifications, • food and beverage processíng plants;
and design or select equipment. Toe design drafters use • synthetic fuel plants;
the information supplied by engineers and equipment • offshore platforms;
vendors and apply the knowledge and experience gained • pipe line installations;
in the office and field to design and lay out the facility. • water treatment facilities;
In the design and layout of an industrial complex, • environmental waste disposal.
thousands of piping drawings are needed to provide
Many projects will be designed for construction in
detailed information to the craftsmen who will con-
other countries, offering the designer opportunities for
struct the facility. Facility design and layout must meet
travel. Each project presents drafters and designers with
the customer's expectations as well as comply with
opportunities to expand their skills and knowledge of
safety codes, government standards, client specifica-
the field of piping design.
tions, budget, and start-up date.
Toe piping group has the main responsibility for the
design and layout of the facility. Drafters and desígn-
ers must coordinate their efforts with the civil, struc- EMPLOYERSOF PIPE DRAFTERS
tural, electrical, and instrumentation groups throughout ANO DESIGNERS
the design process. Toe piping group must provide all
other design groups with the information they need to Employers seek to hire pipe drafters and designers
complete their part of the project. This timely 'sharing' range for various companies. Among them are
of information will guarantee the complete set of con- • engineering and construction companies;
struction drawíngs will be finished on schedule. Duríng • operating companies;
this time, it may be necessary for designers to visit • architectural firms;
the plant construction site to establish tie-ins or verify • construction companies;
information necessary to complete the design. • fabrication companies.

TYPES OF PROJECTS ENGINEERING ANO CONSTRUCTION


Toe pipe drafting and design discipline includes
COMPANIES
the widest range of opportunities in the field of design
Engineering and construction companies provide the
drafting. Toe types of design projects one could expect
design and layout of a facility. Many clients award the
to work on may include
engineering and design phase of a project to one firm and
• power plants; the construction phase to another. Although many operat-
• petrochemical complex; ing companies have a small engineering staff who handle
• pulp and paper plants; the day-to-day needs of changing and updating draw-
• fertilizer plants; ings, such as adding a pump or other small equipment,
• pipe systems for hospitals and high-ríse office they do not have the manpower to design and engineer a
buildings; grassroots plant or major add-on, Total plant design and

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2 1. OVERVIEW OF PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN

construction may require hundreds of workers and may CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES


entail years in the design and construction of the plant.
Many firms specialize only in the construction of
plants. Here the piping designer may actually help
OPERATING COMPANIES oversee the construction of the facility while working
under the supervisíon of a constructíon superintendent.
Operating companies are the clients who engage The designer is often called upon to make small design
in the day-to-day operation of a facility and who seek changes resulting from mistakes discovered during the
out the services of engineering and construction firms construction phase or as customers dictate changes. At
when expanding existing facilities or constructing a the completion of the project, drawings are updated to
new project. Many operating companies keep a small reflect the many changes made duríng construction.
engineering staff in the home office or at the plant job These drawings are called or referred to as "as-built"
site. Designers are exposed to the day-to-day opera- drawings.
tions of the facility and follow the construction of small
projects. This situation may require that the designer
have a broad range of knowledge and skills, as he or FABRICATION COMPANIES
she often may be asked to desígn and lay out the com-
plete project. The design may prepare foundation, steel, Fabrication companies fabricate and ship much of
and piping drawings as needed, and may even do sorne the pípíng necessary for the construction of the plant
electrical and instrumentation design when requíred. to the job site. Many fabrication drawings called piping
spool drawings must be prepared. These drawings give
detailed dimensions from which welders can fabricate
ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING the pipe. The drafter who prepares these drawings will
COMPANIES not be required to have an extensive background in plant
layout; however, the positíon provides the drafter with
Pipe drafters and designers employed by architec- valuable experience in materials and material scíence.
tural engíneering companies apply theír skills to com-
mercial and high-rise buildings. These may include
multistory office buildings, hospítals, condominiums, PREPARATION FOR PIPING DRAFTING
shopping malls, or other similar structures. In addi-
Students must have a good background in basic
tion to the industrial piping components such as those
drafting before pursuing a job in the field of pipe draft-
found in a typícal boiler room, supplementary píping
systems must be desígned for plumbing, HVAC (heat- ing and design. Students should have good manual
ing, ventilating, and air conditioning), and drainage drafting skills related to line quality and freehand let-
tering. At the same time, students must acquire knowl-
systems that are also required in these structures.
edge of the latest drafting software programs such as
Pipe drafters and designers must therefore be able to
AutoCAD1 and MicroStation2. As students advance,
develop drawíngs such as
they may use sophisticated three-dimensional (3D)
• piping flow sheets; software programs that automatícally generate plotted
• plot plans; drawíngs and isometrics from a 3D model.
• equipment location drawings;
• piping arrangement drawings;
• píping isometric drawings. TECHNICAL SKILLS
Leaming the "language" of piping prepares employ-
A pipe drafter must become familiar with the numer-
ees for advancement to other departments within the
ous symbols used to represent fittings, flanges, valves,
engineering firms. These departments include not only and mechanical equipment. This will requíre the time
the drafting and desígn departments but also
and effort needed to draw the symbol shapes by search-
• purchasing; íng through catalogs and dimensioning charts in order
• material control; to find the síze dimensíons needed to draw each piping
• material takeoff; component to scale. Often beginning drafters start out
• estimating; making corrections to existing drawings. This is where
• pipe stress and pipe supports;
• computer-aided drafting (CAD) support; 1 Autodesk. Inc,
• project management. 2Bentley Systems, Inc,

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CREATION OF PIPE DRAWl1'GS 3

they acquire the skills and knowledge of piping that has an important role in piping drawings. A 0.7mm or
will allow them to advance to the position of piping wider lead holder is commonly used on major elements
designer. of the drawing such as pipe and lettering. Background
Drafters who have held field positions as pipe fit- components such as equipment, foundations, support
ters or welders find this real-world experience valuable. structures, and dimension lines are typically drawn
Many times this experience allows them to advance ata with a 0.Smm lead.
faster pace. One cannot stress enough the importance of qual-
ity line work and lettering. Manual drawings are con-
stantly slid in and out of the file drawers and run
PERSONAL SKILLS through blueprint machines. This requires that lettering
and line work be neat and of good quality to maintain
Students should not neglect their speaking, writ- clarity of dimensions and callouts.
ing, and math skills. Every company appraises future
employees during the interview process not only for
technical skills but also for the personal skills needed to CAD Software Tools
interact with the engineering team. This interaction is a
must for the team in order to complete the job with a There are many different CAD software tools on the
minimal amount of rnistakes. Honesty, reliability, dedi- market today. Many engineering companies require
cation to improving skills, and a positive attitude con- their designers to know and use several different CAD
tribute much to the successful career of the designer. software tools. Engineering companies must be pre-
You will be a member of a design team. You may work pared to accommodate the client's preference of CAD
with people from countries all over the world. Getting programs. To be competitive in the job market, the
along with fellow workers has much to do with suc- pipe drafter must leam how to use AutoCAD and/
cessful yearly evaluations and compensation for your or MicroStation. These two CAD programs are widely
efforts. used by engineering firms in the United States and
throughout the world.
As with CAD programs, there are several 30 pipe
CREATION OF PIPE DRAWINGS modeling software programs on the market today.
Engineering firms must be responsive to the needs
and preferences of their clients. Software develop-
Manual Drafting ers steadily develop, revise, and refine programs to
Though new piping projects are no longer devel- meet the demands of engineering and design firms.
oped by hand, or manually, old vellum, mylar, and As with any business trying to attract new customers,
even cloth drawings are still in existence. As time per- software developers try to incorporate special features,
rnits and funds exist, companies are gradually convert- functions and amenities into their software programs
ing their "hard copy" drawings into electronic files. But that will attract potential users. Often clients will dictate
when older facilities that were originally drawn manu- that all bid packages subrnitted for a project shall be
ally need to be revamped, desígners and drafters may completed using a particular piping software program.
still find the need to use traditional drafting techniques. Most piping software packages provide the end user
Manual drafters use a variety of triangles, plastic tem- with the ability to develop 30 computer models of the
plates (circle and ellipse), and scales to lay out pípíng completed facility. Software packages such as PDMS3,
drawings. Although electric erasers are not necessary, PDS4, SmartPlant3D4, CADWorx4, PLANT-4D5, and
they make the job of erasing much easier and faster. MPDS46, among others have the intelligence to generate
Pencils and leads come in a wide range of sizes and not only 30 renderings with walk-through animations
shapes. Drafters usually use a 4H lead to draw projec- but also dimensioned and annotated 20 drawings as
tion lines and guidelines, and use an H or F lead for well as dimensioned isometrics with a complete Bill of
other line work and lettering needs. Line thickness also Materials.

3AVEVAGroup ple.
4IntergraphCorporation Part of Hexagon Group.
5CEA Systems, Inc.

6CAD Schroer GmbH.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


CHAPTER

2
Steel Pipe

HISTORY OF PIPE MANUFACTURING METHODS


Long ago someone discovered that carrying water Carbon steel pipe can be manufactured using sev-
from the nearby stream back to his or her dwelling was era! different techniques, each of which produces a
time-consuming and laborious. Ingenuity gave birth pipe with certain characteristics. These characteristics
to invention and the pipe was bom. Using the natu- include strength, wall thickness, corrosion resistance,
ral resources available, early humans probably fash- and temperature and pressure limitations. For exam-
ioned the first pipe from bamboo. Needing to move ple, pipes having the same wall thickness but manu-
larger amounts of water, they later hollowed out logs. factured by different methods may vary in strength
Egyptian and Aztec civilizations made pipes from and pressure limits. Toe pipe manufacturing methods
clay. Toe first metallic pipes were made from lead and to be discussed include: seamless, butt-welded, and
bronze by the Greeks and Romans. Toe use of iron as spiral-welded,
a material to manufacture pipe carne about with the Seamless pipe is formed by piercíng a solid, near-
invention of gun powder. Gun powder, of course, is not molten, steel rod, called a billet, with a mandrel to
used to make the iron, but gun powder necessitated the produce a pipe that has no seams or joints. Figure 2.1
invention of stronger gun barrels. lron pipes soon fol- depicts the manufacturing process of seamless pipe.
lowed. Eventually, exotic metals were developed, and Butt-welded pipe is formed by feeding a hot steel
the pipe became the highly specialized product it is plate through shapers that will roll it into a hollow circu-
toda y. lar shape. Forcibly squeezing the two ends of the plate
together will produce a fused joint or seam. Figure 2.2
shows the steel plate as it begins the process of forming
PIPING MATERIALS butt-welded pipe.
Least common of the three methods is spiral-welded
Applied in a general sense, pipe is a term used to pipe. Spiral-welded pipe is formed by twisting strips
designate a hollow, tubular body used to transport of metal into a spiral shape, similar to a barber's pole,
any commodity possessing flow characteristics such as then welding where the edges join one another to form
those found in liquids, gases, vapors, liquefied solids, a seam. This type of pipe is restricted to piping systems
and fine powders. using low pressures due to its thin walls. Figure 2.3
A comprehensive list of the materials used to manu- shows spiral-welded pipe as it appears before welding.
facture pipes would be quite lengthy. Sorne of the mate- Figure 2.4 shows the three pipes previously
rials include concrete, glass, lead, brass, copper, plastíc, described in their final forros.
aluminum, cast iron, carbon steel, and steel alloys. With Each of the three methods for producing pipe has
such a broad range of materials available, selectíng one its advantages and disadvantages. Butt-welded pipe,
to fit a particular need can be confusing. A thorough for example, is formed from rolled plate that has a
understanding of the pipe's intended use is essential. more uniform wall thickness and can be inspected for
Each material has limitations that may make it inappro- defects prior to forming and welding. This manufactur-
priate for a gíven application. Throughout this text, we ing method is particularly useful when thin walls and
will base our discussion on carbon steel pipe, the most long lengths are needed. Because of the welded seam,
common material used in the piping industry. however, there is always the possibility of defects that

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WALL TIIICKKESS 5
SIZING OF PIPE
Just as manufacturing methods differ, there are also
different ways to categorize the size of a pipe. Pipe is
identified by three different size categories: nominal
pipe size, outside diameter, and inside diameter (see
Mondrel
Figure 2.5).
Nominal pipe size (NPS) is used to describe a pipe by
FIGURE 2.1 Sizing seamless pipe.
name only. It is essentially a "reference" size and does not
translate to an exact diameter measurement of pipes 12''
and smaller. In process piping, the term nominal simply
refers to the name of the pipe, much like a 2" X 4" piece
of lumber. A 2" X 4'' board does not actually measure
2 X 4", nor does a 6 pipe actually measure 6" in diam-
11 11

eter. lt is just a convenient and easy way to identify pipe


andlumber.
Outside diameter (OD) and inside diameier (ID), as their
Pipe names imply, categorize pipes by their true outside and
inside measurements.
FIGURE 2.2 Shaping butt-welded pipe. One of the complexities of pipe design is that dif-
ferent sizes of ,Pipes are manufactured differently. Pipe
sizes (NPS) Vs through 12" have an outside diameter
1

greater than its nominal pipe size, whereas pipe sizes 14"
and above have an outside diameter equal to its nominal
pipe size.
In process piping, the aforementioned method of siz-
FIGURE 2.3 Forming spiral-welded pipe. ing the pipe maintains a uniform outside diameter while
varying the inside diameter. This method achieves the
desired strength necessary for the pipe to perform its
intended function while operating under various tem-
peratures and pressures.

WALL THICKNESS
StAMLESS ROLLE O SPIRAL-WELD Wall thickness is the term used to describe the mea-
FIGURE 2.4 Manufactured carbon steel pipe. surement of how thick the metal is that a pipe is made
from. There are three systems in which a pipe's wall
thickness can be categorized: the weight system, the
escape the numerous quality control checks performed schedule system, and the fractional/ decimal system.
during the manufacturing process. The weight system uses three categories to define the
As a result, the American National Standards thickness of a pipe: standard, extra strong, and double
Institute (ANSI) developed strict guidelines for the extra strong. Limited in number, these three pipe thick-
manufacture of pipe. Pressure Pípíng Code 831 was nesses restricta pipe designer's options.
written to govem the manufacture of pipe. In particular, Over time, pipe selection has increased in complex-
code 831.1.0 assigns a strength factor of 85% for rolled ity. With the development of new chemical processes,
pipe, 60% for spiral-welded pipe, and 100% efficiency the methods of manufacturing pipe have expanded to
for seamless pipe. meet process requirements. Such a wide array of com-
Generally, wider wall thicknesses are produced by modity possíbilities, with their ever changing corrosive
the seamless method. However, for the many low-pres- properties and their extreme range of temperature and
sure uses of pipe, the continuous welded method is the pressure variances, has necessitated the manufacture of
most economical. Seamless pipe is produced in single pipe in additional wall thicknesses. Now called sched­
and double random lengths. Single random lengths vary ules, these additional wall thicknesses allow a designer
from 16'-0" to 20'-0". Pipes 2 and below are found in
11 to specify a particular pipe that will meet the exact
double random lengths measuring from 35' -0" to 40'-0". requirements needed for quality installation and safe

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


6 2. STEEL PIPE

O.O.

O.O.= OUTSIOE OIAMETER


1.0.= INSIOE OIAMETER

FIGURE 2.5 Pipe measurements.

operation. Pipe, depending on the diameter, is manu- 6" NOMINAL PIPE SIZE O.O. a 6.625" (ACTUAL SIZE)
factured in the following schedules: 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, xxs
100, 120, 140, and 160.
Toe third system of categorizing wall thickness is to
simply measure the thickness in either a fractional or
decimal value. No matter which method is used to cat-
egorize a pipe's wall thickness, it will not affect the OD
of a pipe. OD is a set value that will not change. As wall EXTRA
STROHC
DOUBLE EXTRA
STRONC
thickness increases or decreases, it is the inside día-
meter that adjusts. An example of this variance in wall FIGURE 2.6 Pipe weight and wall thicknesses.
thickness is shown in Figure 2.6.
As you can see in Table 2.1, nominal size is not equal
to the actual OD or the ID for pipe 12" and smaller. lt
is simply a convenient method to use when referring to flow rates needed to adequately supply the commod-
pipe. As a piping drafter, you should be aware however ity at its prescribed rate and pressure. Buying and
that pipe 14" and larger is identified by its actual out- installing pipe that does not meet the mínimum
side measurement. Toe chart in Table 2.1 shows typical requirements can be dangerous and deadly. Conversely,
pipe diameters and wall thicknesses. "overdesigning" with pipe that far exceeds what is
Toe following formula can be used to calculate a necessary to do the job can result in tremendous cost
pipe's inside diameter (ID): overruns.

ID = OD - (2 x Wali Thickness)
METHODS OF JOINING PIPE
Before selecting pipe, careful consideration must be
gíven to its material, temperature and pressure allow- There are several methods for joining pipe together.
anees, corrosion resistance, and more. Toe process Toe three methods we will focus on are those most
engineer will need to pay careful attention to the flow widely used in piping systems made of carbon
requirements of a pipe used for a particular process. steel, as shown in Figure 2.7. They are butt-welded
Toe pressures and temperatures of a commodity in a (BW), screwed (Scrd), and socket-weld (SW). Later
pipe may dictate its wall thickness. But with thick-wall in the chapter, cast iron and plastic pipe uses will be
pipe, the inside diameter may not permit the required discussed.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


METIIODS OF JOINING PIPE 7

6 q ~ "' ~ ¡::¡
r-, ..,. ... ...
~- i
BUTT WELDED
-~ -tr-Lf/4
SOCKET WELDED
~
.§ ::: U') r...:
.... ....

-Elld!t
N
~ ~
"' "'
]
co
s"'
e::

'°~ "' ~ ¡ ~00 8


SCREWED
~ :§ o ~ o '°o o o ,....¡ $... FIGURE 2. 7 Pipe joining methods.

END OF PIPE

~-±-~
BEVELED 30'

6 ~ "'-or...: R
-GJB
00 r-, o o o o o
~
... ... ,._;...
ti') e-, e-, e-, e-, e-,
,._; ,._;
,§ ll) <Ó o <'i
.... .... .... ....
NN
íi,
..!S
co
s"'
e:: BUTT WELDED JOINTS
~~
e-, 1/16" ROOT GAP
~ ¿ ¡::¡ ~ ~ "'
00
)( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~
¡.,¡ ::::. o o o o o o o o o o FIGURE 2.8 Butt-weld joints.

Butt-Weld Connections

] "'
.....
"'
;,g
~ o"' ;::: ....
_,; "'
e-, r-, ~ ~ ~~
"'°' °' "!"'
ti') ll) ti')
A butt-weld joint is made by welding the beveled
$
.i::co
<'i ti') <Ó
°' °' ends of pipe together. Beveled ends (BE) indicate that
the ends of the pipe are not cut square but are rather
·.¡
~ cut or ground to have a tapered edge. In preparation for

-
"CI
:; the welding Yirocess, a welder will separate two pieces
of pipe by a 1/ space, known as a root gap. During the
; ...., ~ -o ~e-, ¡::¡
s
"CI
~ ll)
~~
á o o"' o o "lo ~o "lo
e-,
"l "l "l weldinp process, the two ends are drawn together and
ii5 o o o
the x6l gap disappears. If two pieces of pipe 3' -0" long
were welded together in this manner, the result would
be a total length of 6' -O''.
However, sometimes a back­up ring is used in criti-
] ; ~ ;~
-
5 "' ..,.
"l
~ ~ ~ '° cal situations. Toe back-up ring is used when there is a

ª
Q ~ .... ~ ..,. ~
... "'"' "' need to prevent the formation of weld icicles inside the
~.. pipe. The back-up ring creates a gap of Ys11 between the
~ two pieces of pipe. In this situation, the ring does not
~
..6
:a.. allow the ends of the pipe to be drawn together and
<.)
:s
-
:i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ keeps them separated by Ys".
~ :s "l "!
'° '°<Ó o.... ,._; ..,.,....
...
ti')

o § "'
_,; -o 00 If two lengths of pipe measuring 3' -O'' each were
$
"' "" ....
welded together usíng a back-up ring, the result
&
ii:
.
"'"'
..2....
would be a total length of 6' -O Ys". In this instance, the
Ys" gap would be shown when dimensioning the pipe .
] :s::¡; V) ..,. Otherwise, the root gap would not be considered at
p..
6 "' "?o....... "'8 ¡?i '° ..,. "' ali. Figure 2.8 shows the X/ root gap and the resulting
(/) 00 00
_,; N
.
e ~ .§ ~ ~ r...:
~ e-, ll)
..... ~ ~ ..,. ~
.; "' butt-weld joint.

u"' . e-
e,"'
.: 'a
..
i:,..

Ñ ~ Screwed or Threaded Connections


e"'
-;
~ o .5
~
,e
u
.. g
z :§ "' "' ..,. ­o 00
-
o
"'... ;:!: - ...
'° 00
Another common means of joining pipe is the
threaded end (TE) connection. Typically used on

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


8 2. STEEL PIPE

TABLE 2.2 American Standard and API Thread Engagement Dirnensions

Dimensions (in inches and millimeters)


Pipe size Thread
engagement
(in.) (mm) (in.) (mm)

THREAD ;.,• 13 ;.,• 13


ENGAGtMENT

· 1 1· 3,4• 20 rit 14

~IF-9
1· 25.4 •xt 18

llh" 38 •Y.t 18

2· 50.8 3,4" 20
SCREWED 21h" 63.5
·r.t 24

3• 76.2 1· 25.4

TABLE 2.3 Forged Steel Socket-Weld Fitting Socket Depth Dirnensions

Dimensions (in inches and millimeters)

Pipe size Thread


engagement
(in.) (mm) (in.) (mm)

1h" 13 ;.,• 13
3,4• 20 rit 14
1· 25.4 o/s" 16
lW 38 3A• 20
2· 50.8 7/s" 22

SOCKET 2~· 63.5 l1/s" 29


WELD 3• 76.2 13/8" 35

pipe 3" and smaller, threaded connections are gener- Socket-Weld Connections
ally referred to as screwed pipe. With tapered grooves
cut into the ends of a run of pipe, screwed pipe and Toe third method of joining carbon steel pipe is
screwed fittings can be easily assembled without weld- socket welding. When assembling pipe with socket-
ing or other permanent means of attachment. Screwed weld fittings, the pipe is inserted into the fitting before
pipe and its mating fittings will have threads that are welding, unlike a butt-weld connection that has the
either male or female. Male threads are cut into the out- pipe and fitting placed end to end. lnside the socket-
side of a pipe or fitting, whereas female threads are cut weld fitting is a collar that prevents the pipe from being
into the inside of the fitting. inserted too deeply into the fitting.
As screwed pipe and fittings are assembled, a short As with screwed connections, a short amount of
length of pipe is drawn into the fitting. This connection pipe length is lost when the socket-weld connections
length is called a thread engagement. When drawing and are made. Table 2.3 provides the socket depths for pipe
dirnensioning screwed pipe, a piping drafter must be sizes through 3" in diameter. Befare the weld is made,
aware of this lost length of pipe. As the diameter of the the pipe fitter will back the pipe off the collar approxí-
pipe increases, so will the length of the thread engage- mately Ys" to allow for heat expansion during the weld-
ment. Table 2.2 provides a chart indícatíng the thread ing procedure. Pipe used for socket-weld connections
engagements for small-bore pipe. will be prepared with a plain end. Plain end (PE) means

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CAST IRON PIPE 9

LEAD
SPIGOT SPIGOT
END END

FIGURE 2.9 Cast iron pipe compression joint. FIGURE 2.1 O Cast iron Jead and oakum joint.

the pipe is cut square, or perpendicular to, the long wall. Considering the low cost of raw manufacturing
axis, unlike butt-weld fittings that have beveled ends. materials and the relative ease of manufacture, cast iron
is the least expensive of the engineering metals. These
benefits make cast iron the choice application in envi-
CAST IRON PIPE ronments that demand good corrosion resistance.

Not ali piping systems require pipes designed to


withstand the extreme conditions found in process pip-
Joining Cast lron Pipe
ing facilities. Cast iron pipe, which has been in use for Cast iron pipe is grouped into two basic categories:
centuries, is used primarily in gravity flow applica- hub and spigot, and hubless.
tions such as storm and sanitary sewers, and waste and Toe hub, or bell, and spigot joint uses pipe with
vent piping installations. Residential, commercial, and two different end types. Toe hub end of the pipe has an
industrial facilities routinely are built with sorne form enlarged diameter, thus resembling a bell. Toe spigot
of gravity flow systems. Toe corrosion resistance prop- end of the adjoining pipe has a flat or plain-end shape.
erties of cast iron pipe make it the ideal product for per- Toe spigot is inserted into the bell to establish a joint.
manent below-ground gravity flow installations. Two methods of preventing leaks on bell and spigot
Toe term cast iron refers to a large group of ferrous joints are compression and lead and oakum. Toe compres-
metals. Cast irons are primarily alloys of iron that con- sion joint uses a one-píece rubber gasket to create a
tain more than 2% carbon and 1 % or more silicon. Cast leak-proof seal. As shown in Figure 2.9, when the spigot
iron, like steel, does corrode. What makes cast iron dif- end of the pipe is placed into the hub containing a gas-
ferent is its graphite content. As cast iron corrodes, an ket, the joint is sealed by displacing and compressing
insoluble layer of graphite compounds is produced. the rubber gasket. Unlike welded pipe, this joint can
Toe density and adherent strength of these compounds absorb vibration and can be deflected up to 5° without
form a barrier around the pipe that prevents further cor- leakage or failure.
rosion. In steel this graphite content does not exist, and Toe lead and oakum joint is made with oakum fiber
the compounds created duríng corrosion cannot bond and molten lead to create a strong, yet flexible, leak-
together. Unable to adhere to the pipe, they flake off proof and root-proof joint. When the molten lead is
and expose an unprotected metal surface that perpetu- poured over the waterproof oakum fiber, which is a
ates the corrosion cycle. In tests of severely corroded loose, oil-laden, hemp-like packing material, the joint
cast iron pipe, the graphite compounds have withstood becomes completely sealed. Water will not leak out and,
pressures of severa! hundred pounds per square inch, when used underground, roots cannot grow through
although corrosion had actually penetrated the pipe the joints (see Figure 2.10).

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


10 2. STEEL PIPE

STAINLESS STEEL TABLE 2.4 Tabor Abrasion Test Results

RETAINING CLAMP Abrasion ring CS-10, load lkg


Nylon 6-10 Smg/1,000 cycles
UHMWPE s
PVDF 5-10
PVC (rigid) 12-20
pp 15-20
HUBLESS
CPVC 20
PIPE
CTFE 13
,---, 1--------l ,---,
,---, ,---, PS 40-50
,---, ,---,
,---, ,---, Steel (304 55) so
,---, ,---,
'-'----- ,---,
,---,
,---,
,---,
,---,
,---, _,_,
ABS
PTFE
60-80
500-1000

STAINLESS For sorne piping systems, it is now inconceivable not


to use plastics. Pipes made from plastic are replacing
STEEL traditional, expensive materials like glass or ceramic-
SHIELD lined pipe. Sorne plastics such as UHMW PE, PVDF,
FIGURE 2.11 Cast iron hubless pipe coupling. CTFE, and nylon have such excellent wear resistance
that they prove in Taber Abrasion Tests to be 5-10 times
better in this regard than 304 Stainless Steel. Toe Taber
Abrasion Test cycles an abrasíve wheel over the face of
Hubless cast iron pipe uses pipe and fittings man- a plate made of the material being tested. After 1,000
ufactured without a hub. Toe method of joining these cycles of the wheel, the plate is measured to determine
pipe and fittings uses a hubless coupling that slips over the amount of weight loss. Table 2.4 lists the results.
the plain ends of the pipe and fittings and is tightened
to seal the ends. Hubless cast iron pipe is made in only
one wall thickness and ranges in diameter from 1 'h'' to
Joining Plastic Pipe
10 Figure 2.11 depicts the hubless cast iron pipe joint.
11• Plastic pipe can be joined by one of the follow-
íng methods: threading, solvent cement, or fusion.
Threading plastic pipe is not a viable option because it
PLASTIC PIPE is expensive. Heavy wall thicknesses are required, and
leaks from high pressures and expansion and contrae-
Toe latest entry into the materials list for manufac- tion are difficult to control. Joints made with solvent
turing pipe is plastic. Not orígínally thought of as a cement have proven more reliable. Though, once hard-
product capable of performing in the environs of a píp- ened, cemented joints cannot be disassembled. They
ing process facility, plastic has emerged as a reliable, offer good resistance to abrasive chemical and hígh-
safe, and cost-effective altemative material. There is pressure commodities and are available in a Iarge selec-
a broad range of plastic compounds being developed tion of fittings without the need of threads. Heat fusion
toda y. must be performed on sorne plastic compounds that
For piping systems, two categories are most effec- are resistant to chemical solvents. Pipe can either be
tive: fluoroplastics and thermoplastics. Fluoroplastics butt-joined or socket-joíned, Heat fusion can be used
are found in materials like PTFE, PVDF, EC1FE, CTFE, with thinner wall thicknesses and are pressure resistant
PFA, and FEP. As a group, fluoroplastics perform beyond the burst pressure of the pipe. Socket fittings
extremely well in aggressive chemical services at tem- provide large surface contact between the pipe and the
peratures from -328 to +SOOFº. Thermoplastics are fittings and are resistant to separation. For this reason,
those plastics that require melting during the manufac- they cannot be disassembled.
turing process. These plastics can be welded or injection Though fabrication with plastic may sound simple,
molded into shapes for machining into pipíng system caution must be exercised when using plastic pipe. Toe
components. effectiveness of a particular grade of plastic must be

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CHAPTER 2 REVIEW QUIZ 11

DRAWING SYMBOLS FOR PIPE


NOTE:
MANUAL DRAnlNG: l_
DRAW PIPE TO THE
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE.
~5
j SINGLE UNE PIPE
3 ~ ~
SINGLE UNE PIPE
CAD SOFTWARE: 12" ANO SMALLER ENO VIEW WITH INSULATION ENO VIEW
DRAW PIPE TO THE

<>
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE.

30 MODELING 2 "/H
SOFTWARE:
DRAWS PIPE TO THE
ACTUAL PIPE SIZE (OD). OOUBLE UNE PIPE OOUBLE UNE PIPE
14" ANO LARGER WITH INSULATION
FIGURE 2.12 Drawing representations of pipe.

tested before it is chosen for a particular service. Four When pipe is represented on a drawing, typically the
important variables must be evaluated: chemical resis- pipe's nominal size dimension is used to identify pipe
tance, pressure limitations, temperature limitations, and size. One would find it difficult to draw a 4" pipe to
stress. The various molecular components of plastics its actual outside diameter of 41h'', especíally on such a
make them susceptible to chemical reactions with cer- small scale as 3¡,;' = l '-0".
tain compounds. Hazardous mixtures must be avoided. There are certain applications, however, when the
Pressure and temperature Iimitations must be estab- pipe's true outside diameter dimension is used to rep-
lished for obvious reasons. Pipe that is overheated or resent the pipe on a drawing. Drawings created with
pressurized beyond capacíty can rupture, split, or burst. most software packages are an example. Piping soft-
Stress, as applied to pipe, entails physical demands ware programs draw with such accuracy that pipe is
such as length of service, resistance to expansion drawn using the actual outside diameter.
and contraction, and fluctuations in pressure and tem- NOTE: Pipe created by means other ihan a piping soft­
perature. Excessive stresses in the form of restricted ware program in this text will be draum using nominal sizee.
expansion and contraction, and frequent or sudden Be auiare that drawings generaied by pipe modeling software
changes in interna! pressure and temperature must be programe such as PDMS1 and PDS2 will use actual outside
avoided. dimensions and will differ slightly from manual and CAD­
generated drawings.

DRAWING PIPE
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW QUIZ
Toe pipe can be represented on drawings as either
single line or double line. Toe pipe 12" and smaller is 1. Name three methods of manufacturing carbon steel
typícally drawn single line and the pipe 14" and larger pipe.
is drawn double line. Single-line drawings are used to
identify the centerline of the pipe. Double lines are used
to represent the pipe's nominal size diameter.
Toe standard scale used on piping drawings is 2. Name the three most commonly used end preparations
W' = l '--0". Typically hand-drawn, single-line pipe is for joining pipe.
drawn with a 0.9mm ora double wide 0.7mm fine-line
lead holder. When drawing single-line pipe with CAD
software, a line havíng a width (lineweight) of approxi-
mately o/i:' is used on full-scale drawings. Toe double-
line pipe uses standard, or "default" line widths to 3. What is meant by the term nominal pipe size?
draw the pipe's nominal size diameter. A centerline is
used on all double-line pipes to allow for the placement
of dimensions. Figure 2.12 provides severa! representa- I
Aveva Group, ple.
tions of pipe as it may appear on a drawing. 2 Bentley Systems, Inc,

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


12 2. STEEL PIPE

4. Which diameter of pipe varíes as the wall thickness 8. What is the name for the amount of pipe "lost"
changes? when screwed connections are used?

5. What is the most common material used in the 9. What is the standard scale piping drawíngs are
manufacture of pipe used in petrochemical facilities? plotted to?

10. Name three methods for joining carbon steel and


6. When drawing pipe, which pipe sizes are drawn plastic pipe.
single-line and which sizes are drawn double-line?
Síngle-líne Double-line _
7. How long is the gap between two lengths of pipe
when a back-up ring separates them?

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CHAPTER

3
Pipe Fittings

Fittings are fabricated pipe components that are are commercially manufactured in standard weight,
used to perform specific functions throughout the rout- extra strong, Schedule 160, and double extra strong
ing of a pipeline. Fittings can make directional changes categories.
(elbow), create a branch from a main pipe (tee), or make In the petrochemical industry, most companies have
a reduction in the diameter of the pipe (reducer) (see guidelines known as Piping Specifications that state pipes
Figure 3.1). 3" in diameter and larger used in their facility will have
Because fittings are part of the pipíng system, butt-welded connections. These specifications, or specs
they must match as closely as possible in specifica- as they are more commonly referred, may also require
tion and rating to the pipe to which they are being pipes smaller than 3" in diameter to have screwed or
attached. Fittings, like pipe, are manufactured and socket-weld connections. For uniformity, the previously
classified according to their wall thickness or sched- mentioned specifications will be used throughout this
ule. There are many more wall thicknesses of pipe, book as a basis for determining pipe connection require-
however, than there are thicknesses of fittings. Fittings ments. However, this is not to say this is the only spec

FIGURE 3.1 Fittings.

13 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghts rcserved.


14 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

that can be written. There may be cases where small- Notice the relationship between the nominal size
bore pipe configurations are butt-welded, whereas and the length of the fitting. Toe 90º elbow's length is
larger-size routings may be screwed or socket-weld. equal to the nominal pipe size plus one­half of the nomi-
nal size. A simple formula that makes calculating this
dimension easy to remember is: Fitting length equals 1~
90ºELBOWS times NPS (nominal pipe size).
Example: Toe length of an 8 90º long-radíus elbow is
11

Of all the fittings, the elbow is the one most often


used. Simply put, the elbow, or ell, is used when a pipe 811 X l~ = 12"
changes direction. Elbows can turn up, turn down, turn
left, right, or any angle in between (see Figure 3.1). Toe NOTE: Use this formula Jor butt­weld fittings only.
90º elbows can be classified as one of the following:
• long-radíus elbow; Long-Radius Elbow
• short-radius elbow;
• reducing elbow; Dimensional sizes of fittings are typically provided
• mitered elbow. by the manufacturer of the fitting. Manufacturers issue
dimensioning charts containing lengths for a particu-
Of these four types, the long-radius elbow, shown in lar fitting. Toe dimensional chart used to establish sizes
Figure 3.2, is the one most com.monly used. of fittings discussed in this text are listed on the Welded
When one finds it necessary to draw a 90° elbow or Fittings-Flanges Chart provided in Appendix A. For
calculate how much space it will occupy in a routing brevity, portions of that chart are used throughout this
configuration, knowing its length becomes essential. An chapter when fitting measurements are needed. Use
elbow's length is commonly referred to as the cenier­io­ the 90º elbow portion of the Welded Fittings-Flanges
end dimension and is measured from the centerpoint of Chart (Figure 3.4) to find the length of the fitting. In
its radius to the end of either opening (see Figure 3.3). the thumbnail sketch on the left end of the chart, the A

TO END ..

t O.D.
-t _j_
112
X
NPS

_L..._.__.._
RAOIUS of L.R. elbow=
FIGURE 3.2 Long-radius elbow. 112 x NOMINAL PIPE Sil[.
FIGURE 3.3 Center-to-end dimension of a 90° long-radíus elbow.

@
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE -(INCHES) 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 1 o" 12" 14"

PIPE ( ÜUTSIDE D1AMETER) 2j 3~ 412 6~8 si 1~4 1 2.J4 14"

V 90ºL.R. EII I A 3 4~ 6 9 12 15 18 21
FIGURE 3.4 Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


90ºELOOWS 15

-ElB
63
'3
o
ffi (ff u? (íJ @¡ ~ ~ ~ tr1
V
'3
'3
-'4B
FIGURE 3.5 90° Elbow rotations.

dirnension represents the length or center-to-end dimen- the top, or the end wil1 yield different symbol shapes.
sion of the elbow. To find the fitting's length (in inches), For example, the 90º long-radius elbow can be rotated
locate the appropriate pipe size in the row labeled in numerous orientations, as shown in Figure 3.5. As
Nominal Pipe Size (Inches). Below the nominal pipe one can see, these rotations represent an elbow turning
size, in row A, the center-to-end dimension is shown. to the ríght, as well as it rolling toward (right and bot-
When drawing the elbow, the center-to-end dimen- tom orthographic views) and rolling away (left and top
sion is used as the radius measurement for the elbow's orthographic views) from the viewer.
centerline are. This measurement must be determined Toe drawing symbols for the 90º long-radius elbow are
before the elbow can be drawn. In time, once the center- derived from these rotations. Another drawing technique
to-end dirnension formula is memorized, referencíng unique to the piping discipline is that each component,
the Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart should no longer be depending on its pipe diameter, can be represented as
necessary. eíther a single-line or double-line symbol. As with pipe,
fittings that are 12" and smaller are drawn with single-line
symbols and those 14" and above are drawn with double-
Drawing Symbols for the 90º Long ..Radius
line symbols. Figure 3.6 shows the drawing symbols for
Elbow the various orthographic views of a 90° elbow. To better
As with all drafting disciplines, symbols are used to visualize the long-radius elbow, a short length of pipe has
represent real-world items on drawings. Like door sym- been attached to each end of the elbow. This depicts how
bols on an architectural floor plan or resistor symbols the elbow might appear if it were welded to a run of pipe.
on an electronic schematic, piping symbols are devel- Remember, only the centerline are of the elbow is drawn
oped to represent components uníque to the piping when representing the single-line symbols. Toe double-
discipline. What makes the piping discipline so chal- line symbol requires one-half of the pipe' s OD be added
lenging is that all pipe components, whether they be and subtracted, respectively, from the centerline are to
fittings, flanges, or valves, have multiple symbols for represent the total pipe diameter. Keep in mind as the
each individual component. So a single elbow can have front view of the elbow is rotated, so too will the adjacent
multiple representations. Lookíng at it from the side, orthographic views be rotated.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


o
16 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

­},:$
ti{
Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger
FIGURE 3.6 90° Long-radius elbow drawing symbols.

Drawing the 90º Long-Radius Elbow Example: Toe length of an 8" 90° long-radíus
elbow is
Toree "step-by-step" methods will be presented
for constructing the 90° long-radius elbow. Figure 3.7
describes the step-by-step procedures for drawing an 8" X 1 = 8"
elbow with traditional drafting techniques, Figure 3.8
shows the steps required to draw double-line symbols NOTE: Use this formula Jor butt­weld fittings only.
using AutoCAD commands, and Figure 3.9 shows the
steps required to draw a síngle-líne 12" elbow symbol,
NOTE: The step­by­step instructional procedures pre­ Drawing Symbols for the Short-Radius Elbow
sented using computer­aided drafting techniques pre­ Toe drawing symbols for a short-radius elbow are
sume each student has a comprehensive knowledge of basic shown in Figure 3.12.
AutoCAD commands. These instructional steps provide a NOTE: Anytime a short­radiue ell is used, the abbreoiated
simple method to create each fitting. They are not intended note S.R. must be placed adjacent to the drawing symbol, as
to restrict the student to any particular series of commands. shown in Figure 3.12.
Each student is encouraged to experiment with uarious com­
mands that may achieve the same result.
Short-Radius Elbow Reducing Elbows
Another elbow that may be used under certain cir- For a relatively short period of time, reducing elbows
cumstances and with permission from the customer were experimented with in various piping projects.
is the 90° short-radius elbow. Toe 90° short-radius ell Toe development of the reducing elbow carne about
makes a much sharper turn than does the long-radius from the thinking that in a situation where a 90° turn
ell (see Figure 3.10). Conversely, the short-radius ell also and line-size reduction occurred a single fitting could
creates a rather large pressure drop inside the line and be implemented. It was thought that a new fitting
does not have the smooth flow characteristics the long- could be manufactured that combined a 90º long-radius
radius ell has. For these reasons, the short-radius ell is elbow and a pipe reducer to save money and shorten
seldom used. the installation measurement, one fitting as opposed to
A simple formula can be used to cakulate the center- two. However, though theoretically correct, in practica!
to-end dimension of a 90º short-radius ell: Fitting length application the shortened fitting length made it more
equals 1 times NPS (nominal pipe size). Or, even simpler, difficult to install and remove bolts when it was welded
fitting length equals nominal pipe size (Figure 3.11). to flanges that were to be bolted to valves or nozzles.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


90ºELOOWS 17

~3
1. 2.

Uf+
~~

. j r¡ rj.
7" =\ OD of 14" 90· elbow. <f. Rodius of 14" elbow = 21 ".

3. 4.

Outer ore rodius (28") = 21 "+ 7". lnner ore rodius (14") = 21 "- 7".

5. 6.
--
íl
.... <,
~,,<5>,,
1
-,
~ \
\
1
I
\ /
\ /
-, /
<, /

Weld lines odded ond elbow dorkened. Rodius of 12" elbow = 1 \ x NPS
SO, 1 \ X 12" = 18".
Rodius of 12" elbow = 18".

FIGURE 3. 7 14"-90° Elbow. Manual step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. From the eenterline of the intersecting pipes, develop a eenterpoint measuring 21• (14" NPS x l~ = 21") toward the proposed elbow's
center,
Step 2. From the centerpoint, draw a 21" are, which will represen! the elbow's eenterline.
Step 3. Draw the elbow's outer are (28")by adding r (one-half the pipe's OD) to the 21" centerline dimension.
Step 4. Draw the elbow's inner are (14")by subtracting 7" (one-half the pipe's OD) from the 21• centerline dimension.
Step S. Draw two "weld lines" across the ends of the ares.
Step 6. Remember, for fittings 12" and below, only the are representing the elbow's centerline is drawn when ereating single-líne symbols.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


18 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

1. 1 2.
Dlt ~ =3
~7,,1

1 21" 1

_µ4q_
7" =\ 00 of 14" so' elbow. {¡_ Radius of 14" elbow 21 ".

3. 4.

OFFSET are 7" on each side. Add weld lines and change
middle orc's linetype to "Center",

FIGURE 3.8 14"-90° Elbow. AutoCAD step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. Use the OFFSET command to create construction lines parallel to the pipe's centerline 21" (14"NPS X 1 \., = 21") away.
Step 2.. From the construction line's intersection, create a 21" radius ARC using the Center, Start, End option.
Step 3. Develop the elbow by OFFSETing the centerline are 7" (one-half the pipe's OD) above and below.
Step 4. Draw the elbow's "weld lines" and change the middle are to the "Center" linetype.

Toe cramped space made it more costly to use in the Toe rniter ell is made by making angular cuts through
long run, thus its use has largely been discontinued. a straight run of pipe and then welding the pipe back
together after the cut sections have been rolled at vary-
ing angles (see Figure 3.13).
Mitered Elbows A 90° rnitered ell can be fabricated in two, three,
Toe last 90° elbow to be discussed is the rnitered or four welded sections. Toe number of welded
elbow. A rnitered elbow is not an actual fitting that is sections used depends on the smoothness of flow
purchased but is instead a field-fabricated bend in the required through the tum. A two-weld rniter will
routing of the pipe configuration. Generally used on create more commodity turbulence within the pipe than
24" and larger pipe sizes, a rnitered elbow is much less will a four-weld rniter. Though one-weld rniters are
expensive to fabricate at the job site than to purchase a used, they are rare and typically reserved for 30°, 45°, or
manufactured elbow and have it shipped to the job site. 60ºtums.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


90ºELOOWS 19

1. ! 2. Stort

~~ Center

lf=
End

--ffi- OFFSET pipe equal to <i. Rodius of 12" elbow = 18".


center-to-end dimension. Construct 18" Are (C,S,E).

3. 4.

-+
1

Match pipe ond are lineweíghts. Add weld dots.

FIGURE 3.9 Single-line 12"-90° elbow. AutoCAD step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. Use the OFFSET command to create construction lines parallel to the pipe 18" away. Toe offset distance is equal to the elbow's center-to-
end dimension (12" x 1 ~ = 18").
Step 2. From the intersection of the construction lines crea te an 18" radius ARC using the Center, Start, End option.
Step 3. Change the arc's lineweight to match the pipe's.
Step 4. Add weld dots to complete the elbow symbol. Crea te the weld dots with the OONUT command. The donut will have an inside radius of
O.O" andan outside radius of 1.75".

CENTER
TO END
1 •

1O.O.
r _i

RAOIUS of S.R. elbow=


1 x NOMINAL PIPE SIZf.
FIGURE 3 .1 O Long-radíus and short-radíus elbows. FIGURE 3.11 Center-to-end dimensión of a 90° short-radius elbow.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


20 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger


FIGURE 3.12 Short-radius elbow drawing symbols.

--+ --+ --+

--l RADIUS I~ --l RADIUS .,


--l RADIUS ~

2-WELD 3-WELD 4-WELD


FIGURE 3.13 Mitered elbows.

Drawing Symbols for Mitered Elbows orthographic views, the welds must be drawn elliptical
in shape.
Figure 3.14 shows the síngle-line and double-line
drawing symbols for mitered elbows. Unlike the pre-
vious ells, the weld dots and weld lines in the adjacent 45ºELBOWS
orthographic views of the mitered elbow are repre-
sented by ellipses. Ellipses are used because the welds Another important fitting is the 45º elbow. This
are not perpendicular to your line of sight. Therefore, elbow is also used to make changes in direction within
when projecting from the front view to any of the four the piping configuration. Toe obvious difference

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


45ºELOOWS 21

Two-weld miter Three-weld miter


FIGURE 3 .14 Mitered elbows drawing symbols.

between the 90º and 45º elbows is the angle formed


by the turn. Because the 45° elbow is one-half of a 90°
elbow, as shown in Figure 3.15, it is obviously shorter.
It is logical, therefore, to assume that a design
using two 45º elbows to make a directional change,
instead of two 90º elbows, would result in consid-
erable savings. Savings not only related to the cost
of the fittings themselves, but savings in the physí-
cal space needed to route the pipe. Figure 3.15 shows
that two 14" 90º elbows, when welded together, require
3'-6" (42") of space to alter the course of the piping
run. This is considerably more than when two 45°
elbows are used to make the directional change
(Figure 3.16).
Unlike the 90º elbow, there is not a simple formula
that can be applied to establish the center-to-end
FIGURE 3.15 45º Elbow. dimension of all 45° elbows, simply dividing the length

1
3'-6"
13'-6"

1 1

14" NOMINAL PIPE SIZE


FIGURE 3.16 90° Ell versus 45° elbow.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


22 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

NOMINAL PIPE SIZES -(INCHES) 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 1 O" 12" 14"
PIPE ( Ü UTSIDE ÜIAMETER) 2i 3~ 4~ 6i Bi 1 oj 12j 14
~ 0 45ºL.R. EII I B 1 i 2 2~ 3Í 5 6t 7~ 8Í
FIGURE 3.17 Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart.

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger

FIGURE 3.18 45° Elbow drawing symbols.

of the 90º elbow by 2 will not work. One can multiply used without the 45º ell and the elbow is rolled at an
the nominal pipe size times 0.625 (%") to determine the angle not perpendicular to your line of sight, the open
elbow's length, but that only works for elbows 4"-24 in
11 of the 90° ell will appear as an ellipse. In any view
size. To avoid confusion, it is recommended to use the where the open end of the elbow appears at any angle
Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart to get the to our line of sight other than 90°, ellipses must be used
length of a 45º elbow (see Figure 3.17). to represent the fitting. Figure 3.23 shows the ortho-
graphic views of 90º elbows rolled at a 45° angle.
Drawing Symbols for the 45º Elbow Figure 3.24 illustrates the use of 45º ellipses to draw
the 90° elbow rolled at a 45° angle. lf the 90° elbow is
Toe drawing symbols for the 45° elbow are shown in rolled at a 30º or 60º angle, use the respective degree
Figure 3.18. ellipse to lay out and construct the elbows.
Drawing the 45º Elbow
Three "step-by-step" methods will be presented for
WELDTEE
constructing the drawing symbols for the 45º elbow.
Figures 3.19 and 3.20 describe two manual drawing Toe name of this fitting comes from its resemblance
methods and Figure 3.21 will describe the AutoCAD to the letter T. It is a three-outlet fitting used to make
perpendicular connections to a pipe (see Figure 3.25).
procedures.
Toe two terms used to describe the pipe and its per-
pendicular connection are header and branch. Toe main
90° Elbows Rolled at 45º run of pipe is called the header, whereas the perpen-
Many times to avoid using two 90° elbows in suc- dicular line that connects to the header is known as
cession, designers will use one 90º ell and one 45º ell a branch. Figure 3.26 shows a pipe header with two
welded together (see Figure 3.22). When a 90º elbow is branch connections. Notice there are two tees installed

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


WELDTEE 23

1. 2.
-~
'
+-1
Duplicote procedure for o 90" elbow. Drow 45" line from ell's centerpoint.

3. 4.
\
\
\
1 \ \
+-\! l
+
1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1
l x-:i
- 1 -

Erase one-half of ell. Drow attaching 45' pipe and centerline.

5. 6.

Draw vertical weld line from f. to outer are.


Trim 45· weld line. Change middle orc's linetype to "Center".

FIGURE 3.19 45° Elbow. Manual step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. Using construction lines duplicates the step-by-step procederes used to draw the 90º long-radius elbow.
Step 2. From the centerpoint used to construct the ares, draw a 45° angla line that will divide the elbow in half.
Step 3. Erase the half of the 90" elbow that is not needed.
Step 4. Draw the attaclúng 45º pipe.
Step S. Draw vertical and 45° weld lines from arc's centerpoint. Trim and darken the weld lines.
Step 6. Change the middle are to a "Center" linetype.

PIPE DRAFI'ING AND DESIGN


24 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

1. 2.
'B' dim.

<$>,
~-
~"<
-,
-,

Drow intersecting 45" lines. Meosure 'B' dimension olong f.

3. 4.
~"~fl . ,
f
I
I
I
I
I N
I (
/:
,
,,,,,,,,.------ .......

.....
.,.. -
'

~
\

\'
1 ~
\
',

j Í""
' , __ ....
\ \ \ I
\\ \ ' ,,1/ I //
' ' <, ......
'
........
.... ,, / I
__ .,,,,
Meosure 7" on eoch side of <i_. Drow concentric circles from o 21" f.

5. 6.

+
Trim ores ond odd weld lines. Dorken weld lines ond odd pipe ends.

FIGURE 3.20 45° Elbow. Altemative manual step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. Draw intersecting 45° construction lines as shown.
Step 2. Using the B dimension for a 14" 45° elbow from the Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart, measure this length along each construction line
beginning at the point of intersection,
Step 3. Determine one-half of the pipe's diameter (7") and mark this distance on each side of each construction líne. This will establish the OD of
the pipe.
Step 4. Use a circle template or compass to draw concentric circles that will represent the elbow's center, inside, and outside ares. These circles
are 21•, 14", and 28", respectively.
Step 5. Draw vertical and 45° weld lines from the arc's centerpoint. Trim the concentric circles and darken the weld lines.
Step 6. Change the middle are to a "Center" linetype.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


WELDTEE 25

1. 2.

INSERT existing go· elbow. Drow 45· line from crc's centerpoint.

3. 4.

~­,­~
I i
I

+
1 1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1
~
TRIM/ERASE elements not needed. Draw 45· pipe & centerline.

5. 6.

+
Drow 45· weld line from {¡_ to outer are. Change middle orc's linetype to "Center",
TRIM weld lines.

FIGURE 3.21 45° Elbow. AutoCAD step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. INSERT the 90º elbow created previously.
Step 2. From the elbow's centerpoint, draw a 45° construction lineas shown. Use Polar Tracking set to 45° to simplify this procedure.
Step 3. TRIM and ERASE the portion of the 90° elbow not needed.
Step 4. Draw the attaching 45° pipe.
Step 5. TRIM the 45° weld line.
Step 6. Change the middle are to a "Center" linetype.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


26 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

in Figure 3.26. One is known as a straight tee and the dot used to represent the weld on the 12 and smaller
11

other is a reducing tee. On a straight tee, all three out- branch outlet on the reducing tee.
lets are of the same nominal pipe size. A reducing tee
has a branch that has a smaller line size than the header. Drawing Symbols for the Weld Tee
Since a1l pipelines 12" and smaller are drawn single- Toe drawing symbols used to represent the
line, and therefore, the pipe diameters are difficult tee are developed from the rotations of the tee into
to distinguish, a branch that is 12" and smaller must the various orthographic views. Figure 3.27 depicts the
be identified with a note that defines the header size rotations of the tee into the profile and horizontal
and the branch size (see Figure 3.26). Notice the weld projection planes.
tee requires three welds be made to install the fitting Figure 3.28 shows the drawing symbols derived
within the header. Pay particular attention to the weld from the 90° rotations of a straight and reducíng tee.
Remember, a callout is required on the reducing tee to
identify the header and branch sizes. Toe header size is
always shown first in the note.

Drawing the Weld Tee


Before drawing the weld tee, two dimensions must
be determined. Toe first dimension is required to estab-
90.ELL lish the center-to-end length of the header portion of
/' ~ROLLED 45') the tee and the second dimension is used to establish
1
the length of the branch portion of the tee. If a straight
tee is to be drawn, use the Welded Fittings-Flanges

~¡5'~~ Dimensioning Chart to find the C dimension of the tee.


Toe C dimension is the center-to-end measurement
l 45'ELL
for both the header and branch lengths. Therefore, the
C dimension must be doubled to find the total length
FIGURE 3.22 90° and 45° elbows welded together. (end-to-end) of the fitting (see Figure 3.29).

+-~

45º

'
FIGURE 3.23 Orthographic views of 90° rolled ata 45° angle.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


WELDTEE 27

45º
21" -
~-

(((+
/ I -:

\ -,\ <,""--) /
21 "

\\'/!\_ t
__
\ \ \ / 1

-,
..............
------ /
USE CIRCLE
\
<,
<,
<;
_....,/
__.. /
/
USE 45º
ELLIPSE
90ºELBOW 90ºELBOW
(ROLLED AT 45º)
FIGURE 3.24 Constructing the 90° rolled ata 45° angle.

When a reducing tee is drawn, the branch length is


slightly shorter than that of a straight tee. Therefore, the
new branch length must be determined. Toe M dimen-
sion, as defined on the Taylor Forge Seamless Welding
Fittings Chart, establishes the length of the reducing
branch. Toe Taylor Forge Seamless Welding Fittings
Chart is found in Appendi.x A. Figures 3.30 and 3.31
provide the step-by-step procedures for drawing dou-
ble-line and single-line tee symbols, respectively.
FIGURE 3.25 Weld tee.

14" STRAIGHT TEE PIPE BRANCHES 14" X 10"


RED. TEE

PIPE HEADER
FIGURE 3.26 Header and branch connections.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


28 3. PIPE AlT!NGS

FIGURE 3.27 Weld tee fitting rotatíons.

+~-1::r~~
~

~
LL.pJ)
Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger

FIGURE 3.28 Weld tee drawing symbols.

NOMINAL PIPE SIZES 2" 3" 4" 1 O" 12" 14"

CLP
-(INCHES) 6" 8"

PIPE ( ÜUTSIDE ÜIAMETER) 2i 3f 4f 6~ 8~ 1 o-i 1 2-i 14


fil Center-to-End I C 2t 3i 4i Si 7 8~ 10 11
FIGURE 3.29 Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


WELDTEE 29

1. 2.

I
1
t
11"
l_ _L
1. 22"
.1
Drow o 22" horizontal centerline. Center on 11" vertical centerline.

(A) 7" 7" (A)


3. 4.
• 1 1 1 ·

1
1

(B) (B) ~1-

Drow 14" lines equolly spoced from the two fs. Orow lines connecting the ends ond bronch.

FIGURE 3.30 14" Welded straight tee drawing symbols.


Step l. Using the 11" C dimension found in the 14" column of the Weld tee section of the Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart, draw a
centerline 22" long (11" ['12 a tee] X 2 = 22") to represen! the tee's total Jength.
Step 2.. From the midpoint of the tee's centerline, draw a perpendicular line 11" long in !he desired direction of the branch to represen! tee's
branch length.
Step 3. Draw a 7" ('12 of the pipe's nominal size) horizontal Jine on each side of the branch's centerline (A) and two 14" vertical Jines on each end
of the header's centerline as shown (B) to establish the weld lines of !he tee.
Step 4. Add a 22" horizontal Jine to connect the two ends of the tee, then draw two horizontal lines, parallel to the tee's centerline, that will con-
nect the two vertical weld Jines. Add two vertical lines that will connect the horizontal weld line of the branch to the header. Trim the
horizontal line as necessary.

1. 2. 3.

.L
1

17" 1
a\·
1 1 T
Drow o 17" horizontal centerline. Center on 8 1/2" verticol centerline. Add three weld dots.

FIGURE 3.31 10" Straight tee. AutoCAD step-by-step drafting procedure.


Step l. Draw a UNE 17" long, having a 0.53mm Jineweight, to represen! the tee's total header length (81-2" [center-to-end length] X 2 = 17").
Step 2.. To represen! the length of the tee's branch, draw an 8'12" perpendicular UNE, from the M!Dpoint of the tee's centerline, in !he desired
direction of the tee, having a 0.53mm lineweight.
Step 3. Add the tee's weld dots. Create the dots with the OONUT command. The OONUT will have an inside diameter of O" and outside diam-
eter of l. 75".

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


30 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

CONNECTIONS BRANCH COPEO


TO FIT ONTO
HOLE BORED HEADER PIPE
INTO HEADER
FOR BRANCH
14"

PIPE HEADER
WELD SYMBOL
VARIES ACCORDING
TO COMPANY STANDARD

FIGURE 3.32 Stub-in connections.

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger


FIGURE 3.33 Stub-in drawing symbols.

THESTUB,IN Figure 3.33 depicts the single-line and double-line


drawing symbols for a stub-in connection. Notice only
Another method. of branching a pipe from a header one weld dot is shown on the single-line symbol and it
is called a stub­in. Toe stub-in is most commonly used is placed at the intersection of the header and branch
as an alternative to the reducing tee. Toe stub-in is pipe lines. Also notice that the weld dot is not a com-
not an actual fitting that can be purchased, but rather plete circular shape. lt is semi-circular and drawn only
a description of how the branch connection is fabri- on the branching side of the connection.
cated. Quite simply, a hole, either the size of the OD or Toe proximity to which stub-ins can be placed adjacent
ID of the desired branch, is bored into the header pipe, to one another is another important consideration.Toe gen-
and the branch is then stubbed onto it. To create a bet- erally accepted welding practice is to allow a mínimum of
ter fit, the connectíng end of the branch pipe is cut, or '?/' between welds or one header pipe diameter, whichever
coped, in such a way as to fit around the hole that has is larger, between welds. This means 18" (in Figure 3.34) is
been bored into the header pipe. The two pipes are fit- the mínimum spacing between the two branches (16" and
ted together and then welded. Although the branch 14") when attached to a common header. This also applies
connection can be of the same pipe size as the header to the placement of branch when welded near a fitting.
or smaller, it cannot be larger. Figure 3.32 depicts the Figure 3.34 provides the mínimum measurements allowed
attachment of a stub-in. between 16" and 14" branches and fittings on an 18" header.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


TIIESTUB-IN 31

MAINTAIN ONE PIPE DIA.


(NPS) MIN. CLEARANCE
BETWEEN WELDS OF
~
J 1 .>: MAINTAIN ONE PIPE DIA.
(NPS) MIN. CLEARANCE
BETWEEN WELDS OF
14'
ELBOW ANO EDGE
1
BRANCH CONNECTIONS.
OF 16" BRANCH. 18"
.--"""T""--1 +r--------.
18"

1/2 0.D. of 16" pipe = 8"


18" -90' elbow = 27"
MIN. CLEAR.(one pipe dio.-NPS)=18"
MIN. CLEAR.(one pipe dio.-NPS) = 18"
4'-6" 2'-9" + 1/2 O.D. of 14" pipe = 7"
+ 1/2 O.D. of 16" pipe - 9"
TOTAL = 4'-6" TOTAL = 2' -9"

FIGURE 3.34 Spacing minimums fer welding stub-ins.

Stub-in Reinforcements Single-line symbol Double-line symbol


Even though the use of the stub-in is limited by
the pressure, temperature, and commodity within a
pipe, its use is becoming increasingly popular. Its chief
advantage over the tee is cost. Not only is a cost sav-
ing realized in the purchase of a fitting, but also in
REINFORCING
the installation. The stub-in requires only one weld, PAD
whereas the tee requires three. Although the cost of bor-
ing the hole and coping the branch must the factored in,
the overall expense of fabricating a stub-in is much less
than the purchase and installation of a reducing tee.
When interna! conditions such as pressure or tem-
perature of the commodity or externa! forces such as
vibrations or pulsations are placed on a stub-in, special
reinforcement may be necessary to prevent the branch WELDING SADDLE
from separating from the header. Three reinforcing FIGURE 3.35 Reinforcing pads and saddles.
altematives are listed below:
• Reinforcing pad. The primary intent of the
representations of reinforcing pads and welding
reinforcing pad is to provide strength to the pipe
saddles.
header in the area where the branch hole has been
• 0-lets. Purchased fittings, o-lets have one end
cut. Resembling a round, metal washer that has been
shaped to the contour of the outside diameter of
bent to conform to the curvature of the pipe, the
the pipe header and the other end manufactured
reinforcing pad is a ring cut from steel plate that has
to accept the type of end connections being used
a hole in the center equal to the outside diameter of
on the branch. 0-lets are manufactured for butt-
the branch connection. It is slipped onto the branch
welded, socket-welded, and threaded connections.
pipe befare the branch pipe is welded to the header.
Weld-o-lets are manufactured for butt-weld fittings.
Once the branch has been welded to the header, the
Sock-o-lets are made for socket-weld fittings. And
reinforcing pad is slid down the branch to cover the
thread-o-lets are available for screwed fittings. Toe
weld connection. Toe reinforcing pad is then welded
photograph in Figure 3.36 shows how a thread-o-let
to both the branch and the header.
sits atop a header pipe before welding. Figure 3.37
• Welding saddle. A precision manufactured
provides drawing symbols for weld-o-lets, sock-o-
reínforcíng pad, the welding saddle has a short
lets, and thread-o-lets.
nec~ ?n the branch outlet that is designed to gíve
additíonal support to the branch connection. Figure By design weld-o-lets, sock-o-lets, and thread-o-
3.35 shows single-line and double-line drawing lets all form 90° branch connections to the header.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


32 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

Single-line symbol Double-line symbol

LATR-0-LET

FIGURE 3.36 Thread-o-let.

Single-line symbol Double-line symbol ELB-0-LET


FIGURE 3.38 Latr-o-let and Elb-o-let drawing symbols.

where instrument connections are required. There are


two common methods used to make branch connec-
WELD-0-LET tions with couplings:

1. Toe coupling rests on the external surface of the


pipe header and is welded from the outside (see
Figure 3.39).
2. Ahole is bored into the pipe header large enough
to accept the OD of the coupling. Toe coupling is
SOCK-0-LET inserted into the hole and is then welded (see Figure
3.40). Figure 3.41 shows the drawing symbols for a
coupling. Because of it being a branch connection,
the nominal pipe size and the position of a coupling
must be provided on a drawing, typically the
isometric fabrication drawing .

THREAD-0-LET
FIGURE 3.37 0-let drawing symbols. REDUCERS
When the piping designer wants to reduce the diam-
eter of a straight run of pipe, a reduóng fitting must be
For situations where a 45º angular connection may used. Appropriately named, the reducer is available in
be required, other o-lets are available for installation. two styles as shown in Figure 3.42:
Speófically, they are the latr-o-let and elb-o-let. Figure
3.38 shows drawing symbols for a latr-o-let and an concentric­having a common centerline;
elb-o-let. eccentric-having offset centerlines.
Toe differing characteristics of these two reducers are
quite noticeable. The concentric reducer maintains the
COUPLING same centerline through both the large and small ends
of the fitting. Conversely, the eccentric reducer has off-
Another type of fitting used to make branch connec- set centerlines that will create a flat surface on either
tions is the coupling. Used primarily for connecting the top or the bottom of the fitting, depending on how
small-bore screwed or socket-weld pipe to large-bore the fitting is rolled prior to welding. There are specific
pipe headers, the couplíng is also used extensively situations where the eccentric reducer must be installed

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


REDUCERS 33
FIGURE 3.39 Welding a cou-
pling onto a pipe header.
COUPLING

WELD

FIGURE 3.40 Inserting a cou-


pling into a pipe header.
COUPLING

Single-line symbol Double-line symbol


1

FIGURE 3 .41 Couplings as branches.

with its flat side on the top, or the flat side on the bot-
tom of the fitting. For example, when a pipe is routed FIGURE 3.42 Eccentric and concentric reducer.
through a pipe rack, it naturally will rest on the steel
beams and will be supported throughout its length. But racks to maintain a constant Bottom of Pipe (BOP) (see
if that pipe changes its pipe size while in the pipe rack, Figure 3.43). When representing the reducer on a draw-
it will not rest on all the steel supports. Toe small end ing it is necessary to include a note that identifies the
will not have a diameter large enough to touch the steel reducer's size and type, as well as its orientation. In the
supports. Therefore, an eccentric reducer is used in pipe example in Figure 3.43, the reducer is to be installed

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


34 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

18"x14" ECC. 18"x14"


RED.(FOB) CONC. RED.

COMMON CENTERLINE
-.... __ OFFSET CENTERLl~NE=-l..-==----lr- ---

PIPE UNSUPPORTED _/

FIGURE 3.43 Reducers in a pipe rack.

A quícker, though less accurate method, is to take


one-half the difference between the two outside diarne-
ters. Figure 3.45 shows the method of dimensioning the
offset distance between the centerlines of the eccentric
reducer in its FOT and FOB orientations.

Drawing Symbols for the Concentric and


FIGURE 3.44 Eccentric reducer on pump suction nozzle. Eccentric Reducer
The orthographic views for the concentric and
eccentric reducers are shown in Figure 3.46. No mat-
ter what the size of the reducer is, it is always drawn
as a double-line symbol. Notice the callouts that must
with its flat side on the bottom. Therefore, the abbre- be included with the eccentric reducer. The large end is
viation FOB in the note instructs the fabricator how to always listed first, no matter what the direction of flow
install the reducer. is, and the flat side must be indicated.
Eccentric reducers are also used on pump suction
nozzles to keep entrained air from entering the pump. Drawing the Reducers
By keeping a Flat on Top (FOT) surface, vapor pockets
can be eliminated. Figure 3.44 depicts the installation of Before drawing the reducer, the length of the fit-
an 18" X 14" eccentric reducer installed on a pump suc- ting must be found on the Welded Fittings-Flanges
tion nozzle with the flat surface installed on the top. Dimensioning Chart (see Figure 3.47). The H dimension
It is important for a designer not to forget to include will provide the end-to-end length for either the con-
the dimensional difference between the two centerlines centric or eccentric reducer.
of an eccentric reducer when calculating the elevations NOTE: Always use the H dimension of the large end
of pipe in a pipe rack. The formula for calculating this when determining the fitting length of any reducing fitting.
difference is Figure 3.48 represents the step-by-step procedures
used to draw a 16" X 14 concentric reducer. Figure
11

Offset = large ID - small ID 3.49 shows the step-by-step procedures that a 10" x 8 11

2 eccentric reducer, flat on bottom, is drawn with.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


REDUCERS 35

12"X8" 14"X10"
ECC. RED. ECC. REO.
(F.O.T.) (F.O.T.)

ECCENTRIC REDUCER - FLAT ON TOP

Of'F'SET 00.IENSION

12"X8" 14"X10"
ECC. REO. ECC. REO.
(F.O.B.) (F.O.B.)
ECCENTRIC REDUCER - FLAT ON BOTTOM

FIGURE 3.45 Offset dimensioning of eccentric reducers,

~ BJ---n

t Hc. 1 ~ Bc.x,,
CONCENTRIC REOUCER

t ~8t
~

~ ~
1~
ECC. RED. ECC. REO.
(F.O.B.) (F.O.B.)
ECCENTRIC REOUCER

FIGURE 3.46 Drawing symbols for concentricand eccentric reducers.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


36 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

-D
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE-(INCHES) 2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 1 O" 12" 14"
PIPE ( ÜUTSIDE ÜIAMETER) 2i 3~ 4~ 6i s¡ 1 oj 12j 14"
1-H-1 -D- lenolh of Reducerl H 3 3~ 4 5~ 6 7 8 13
FIGURE 3.4 7 Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart.

1. 2.
---
l. 14" .1 :t~--H::
Draw a 14" horizontal centerline. Drow lorge ond smoll ends to match pipe's NPS.

3. 4.

B
16" X 14"

-
) (
Add the diagonal lines. Dorken weld lines ond odd connecting pipe.

FIGURE 3.48 16" X 14" Concentric reducer. Manual step-by-step drafting procedures.
Step l. Using the H dimension found on the Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart, draw a centerline 14" long.
Step 2. Measure 8" (one-half the 16" large end size) on each side of the centerline on one end of the centerline and 7" (one-half the 14• small end
síze) on each side of the opposite end of the centerline.
Step 3. Connect the opposing ends of the fitting by drawing lines from endpoint to endpoint.
Step 4. Darken the sides and weld lines of the reducer then add the connecting pipe.

WELDCAP USE OF FITIINGS


Though there are others, the last weld fitting we will Thus far we have discussed each fitting individually.
discuss is the weld cap. Toe weld cap is used to seal We will now look at how they relate to other fittings
or cap the open end of a run of pipe. To dirnension the when used in the design of various pípíng systems.
positional location of a weld cap on a drawing, sirnply Depending on the given situation, fittings will be either
dirnension the length of the run of pipe. Toe cap is not welded to each other or separated by lengths of pipe.
included in the length dirnension of the pipe. A pipe fit- Welding one fitting directly to another is called fitting
ter will know to weld the cap on the end of the pipe. make­up. Single-line and double-line representations of
Toe weld cap, like the reducer, is another fitting that fitting make-up are shown in Figure 3.51.
is drawn as a double-line symbol, no matter what the In most situations, the erection of the piping system
pipe's nominal size is. When representing the capona will require the designer to use pipes of various lengths
drawing, use an ellipse to construct the round end of the between the fittings. In these cases, the pipe is cut to
fitting. Figure 3.50 shows the single-line and double-line the required length and then beveled in preparation
drawing symbols for a weld cap. Notice the weld dot on for welding to a fitting. When a pipe configuration is
the single-line symbol is drawn as a half-circle only. not assembled as fitting make-up, and the fittings are
Toe length of the fitting is found on the Taylor Forge separated by a short section of the pipe, most com-
Seamless Welding Fitting Chart in Appendix A. panies stipulate that the pipe must be at least one

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


USE OF FIITINGS 37

1. 2.

-,-
10" L
_L_
- - Lz:_J
Drow a 1 O" vertical line. Drow a 7" horizontal line.

3. 4.

t ~"~]-~"n
LJ] 1
10" X 8"
ECC. REO. {F.0.B.)
Draw an 8" vertical line. Drow the top connecting line.

FIGURE 3.49 10" x 8" Eccentric reducer (FOB)-AutoCAD step-by-step drafting procedure.
Step 1. Torepresent the large diameter end of the reducer,draw a vertical LINE 10" long (NPS), having a 0.53mm linewcight.
Step 2. Draw a horizontal LINE perpendicular and to the right measuring 7" (H dimension from Welded Fittings-Flangeschart), which will rep-
resent the length of the reducer.
Step 3. Create the small diameter end of the reducer by drawing an 8" (NPS) vertical LINE up from the right end of the reducer.
Step 4. Complete the eccentric reducer by drawing a sloping LINE back to the top of the 10" line, connecting the two vertical ends. Add the
reducer's weld dots with the DONUT command. Toe DONUT will have an inside diameter of O" and outside diameter of 1.75". TRIM
the weld dots so that only one-half of the dot is visible.

DRAW THE CAP WITH


A 30º ELLIPSE

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger


FIGURE 3.50 Weld cap drawing symbols.

pipe-diameter long or 3" mínimum length, whichever It is important to maintain this rrurumum spacing
is longest. A cut length of one pipe diameter means because once assembled each weld in every piping con-
that any section of pipe that is to be placed between figuration in the facility must be x-rayed and heat treated.
two fittings must be at least as long as the nominal X-rays are performed to guarantee the quality of the
pipe size of the fitting used. For example, if 8" fit- weld. Once a weld has been completed, if another weld
tings are being used, the mínimum cut length of pipe procedure is performed too close to it, the heat from the
between any two fittings is 8". For pipe configurations new weld may have an adverse effect on the first weld.
of a 3" nominal size or smaller, the mínimum pipe cut Therefore, the one pipe-diameter mínimum spacing
length is 3". These short sections of pipe are sometimes allows the pipe to dissipate the heat before it can spoil the
referred to as spool or pup pieces. first weld. By maintaining a minimum spacing between

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


38 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

welds, a pipe can be conveniently cut, beveled, and SCREWED AND SOCKET,WELDFITTINGS
welded without adverse effects on adjacent welds. Figure
3.52 depicts the one pipe-diameter mínimum spacing. Screwed and socket-weld fittings perform the same
NOTE: The one pipe­diameter mínimum spacing is a basic functions as butt-weld fittings. Like butt-weld fit-
standard used throughout the piping industry and will be tings, elbows, tees, and reducers are manufactured for
applied to the drawing exercises and projects used in this screwed and socket-weld applications. There are, how-
text. ever, a few differences that must be examined. Screwed
Welds may seem insignificant to the beginning and socket-weld fittings are normally reserved for
drafter, but it goes without saying that a piping facil- installations where the nominal pipe size is 3" and
ity could not be built without them. So remember, ali smaller. Screwed and socket-weld fittings are also
welds must be shown on drawings in their exact and available in cast iron, malleable iron, or forged steel.
proper locations. And, use weld dots on single-line pipe Typically, forged steel fittings are used on high pres-
symbols and weld lines on double-line pipe symbols. sure and temperature lines. However, low pressure
and temperature lines, such as air, water, or conden-
Applying Fitting Make-up Dimensions sate, are fabricated using either cast or malleable iron
fittings.
Toe next step in the drawing of pipe is the calcula- Pipe lines containing high pressure and temperature
tion and placement of dimensions on drawings. At the commodities, which are subject to substantial amounts
present time, the only concem is how to position and of movement and vibration, mandate fittings made of
align dimensions on butt-weld fitting configurations. forged steel. For these reasons, forged steel screwed and
As a general rule of thumb, there are three methods in socket-weld fittings are manufactured in two pressure
which dimensions are placed on butt-weld piping con- classes~3000# and 6000#. Toe sizing charts, shown in
figurations. They are as follows: Appendix A, provide the dimensional measurements
for 3000# and 6000# screwed and socket-weld fittings.
• Center-to-center. Place dimensions from center of
Figures 3.54 and 3.55 display a portion of the screwed
fitting to center of fitting.
and socket-weld fitting dimensioning charts found in
• Center-to-face. Place dimensions from center of
AppendixA.
fitting to face of flange.
Most screwed fittings are manufactured with ínter-
• Face-to-face, Place dimensions from face of flange to
nal, or fema/e, threads as defined by the American
face of flange.
Standard and API thread guídelines. As shown in
Figure 3.53 provides sorne examples for placing Figure 3.56, of particular concem to the pipe designer
dimensions on drawings. Notice though, when a weld is the amount of pipe length lost during the assembly
cap is installed, the dimension needed is a center-to-end of screwed fitting configurations. When screwed fittings
of pipe measurement. and threaded pipe are assembled, a certain amount of

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger

FIGURE 3.51 Fitting make-up.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


SCREWED AND SOCKET-WRD FITTINGS 39

--- ONE

BETWEEN WELDS
PIPE-DIAMETER
(Nominal Pipe Size)
or 3" MIN.
---i
-

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger

FIGURE 3.52 Mínimum pipe cut lengths.

2· -st 2· -9f' 8' - 7"


FIGURE 3.53 Placement
of dimensions on butt-weld
configurations.

01-2-C30-16"

O)
1
'iD

-+--- + -----,f-

pipe length is lost as a result of the interna! and exter- engagements from the total unassembled length of pipe
nal, or male, thread connecting process. Each time a and fittings. Toe unassembled length can be thought of
threaded connection, or engagement, is made, the con- as all the pieces, both fittings and pipe, being laid out
figuration gets shorter. Toe length of this engagement end to end. From this unassembled length, the total of
varies depending upon the nominal pipe size and all the thread engagements is then subtracted to deter-
pound rating of the fitting. Toe procedure to determine mine the total assembled lengih. Toe formula below
the actual center-to-center length of a threaded config- applies the values shown in Figure 3.56 to calculate the
uration is to subtract the total length of all the thread assembled length,

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


40 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

SCREWED FITTINGS
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE -(INCHES)
1 .. 3" 1 .. 141 .. 121 .. 2" 221 .. 3"
2 4
3000 # A 5
115 1.l2 1.J
4 2 218 2.1 2
31 3.J
8 4
90ºELL
~ 6000 # A 1.l 1.J4
2 2 21
8 2 8 4
3
21 31 3.J 415

tffit] A 5
3000 # 115 1.l2 1.J
4 2 2i 2~ 3i 3.J 4
HALF TEE
6000 # A 11
2
11
4
3
2 218 212 318 3.J4 415

B 5

41\--4
7
3000 # 1 1..l 115
8 115 111
1
16 2 215 212
45ºELL
6000 # B 5 111 111 123
1..l 116
8
1 21 31
32 16 32 215 2 8
ce-¡ 3000 # e 1.Z. 2 21 2-º- 3.l 31 3-º- 4..l
8 8 8 8 8 8 4

EJ COUPLING
6000 # e 1.Z.
8 2 2i 3i 3i 3i 4..l
2i 4
3000 # D 7 215 3 7 1

~]
218 215 214 16 315 315 415 4..l
2
UNION
6000 # D 21
8 3i 3i 3i
3
415 42.
8
NORMAL THREAD 3000 # 2
1 9
16
11
16
11
16
11
16
.J
4
15
16 1
ENGAGEMENT 6000 # 2
1 9
16
11
16
11
16
11
16
.J
4
15
16 1
FIGURE 3.54 Screwed fittings dimensioning chart.

calculating overall lengths of pipe runs. However, there


is a slight difference from screwed pipe assemblies. On
Sorne fittings, such as plugs and swages, however, socket-weld connections, a .){6• gap is factored into each
are manufactured with externa! threads and their socket-weld connection. Figure 3.57 provides a sec-
assembled lengths are treated differently, as will be tional view of two socket-weld elbows and the connect-
explained later. íng pipe. Notice two socket depths must be subtracted
Toe socket-weld fitting has become the fitting of from the total unassembled length of the two elbows
choice for many fabricators because it offers greater and the piece of pipe, then Ys" is added back to account
strength at each point of connection. Even though for the two Yi/ gaps, before an assembled configuration
screwed fittings can be seal-welded if necessary, length can be determined. If a formula were applied to
strength of the fitting is decreased when the threads calculate the ossembled length using the values shown in
are cut during the manufacturing process. Socket-weld Figure 3.57, it would look like
fittings can be easily fitted and welded without the
need of special clamps or tack-welds, which are often AL = CE1 + CE2 + PL - (501 + 502) + ¡"
required to hold a fitting in place before the final weld
is made. Like screwed fitting configurations, during the
Fittings
assembly of socket-weld configurations, there is pipe
length loss. This lost length is equal to the depth of the Like butt-weld fittings, screwed and socket-weld fit-
socket, or socket depth, and must be accounted for when tings are used to make similar routings in the piping

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


SCREWED AND SOCKET-WRD FITTINGS 41

SOCKET-WELD 1 ..
FITTINGS
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE -(INCHES) 21 .. 43" 1 ,, 1-4 121 " 2" 221 .. 3"
3000 # 11 115
8 A 5 11 1.J
2 4 2 2l8 3
3.d
8
D~
90ºELL
6000 # A 5
115 112 1.J
4 2 2l8 212 314 3.d4

o-' +
3000 # A 8
5
11 115 11
2
1.J
4 2 2l8 3 3.d
8
A HALF TEE
~ 6000 # A 5
115 112 1.J
4 2 2l 8
21 3.l 3.J
2 4 4
3000 # B 7
8 1 1.l
8
5 7 11J 1 21
115 115 16 215 2
o,~ 1 45ºELL
r-li...+--11~
B
6000 # B 1 11
8
5
115 1D 1D 123 1 21
32 16 32 215 2
3000 # e 1 _l_ 2 2j 2i 3i 3j 3-º-8 4...1..

o::-:RJº
8 4
COUPLING
6000 # e 1 i.
8 2 2l8 2-º-8 318 3.d8 3-º-8 4...1..
4
3000 # E 115 2...1.. 2.l
16 4 2
213 1 7
16 315 315 4 5
415
oJ~I
, ~ UNION
6000 # E 5
215 212 213 2l 2l 31J 315 4-º-
16 4 8 16 16 8
3000 # D 1 9 .2 11 l. 7 1 l. , .1

SOCKET DEPTH 6000 # D


2
11
16
16
3
4 8
8
7
16
15
16
4
, .1
8
8
1
8
1.1
2
8
1-º-
8
FIGURE 3.55 Socket-weld fittings dimensioning chart.

system, but only in srnaller pipe sizes. Screwed and There are, however, sorne fittings that are unique to
socket-weld fittings differ in size and shape, but the screwed and socket-weld family of fittings. These
they achieve the same purpose as butt-weld fíttings. fittings do not lend themselves to butt-weld applica-
However, there are sorne differences. Ninety degree tions and are manufactured solely for use in screwed
elbows are not available as long-radius or short-radius, and socket-weld configurations. A brief discussion of
and their center-to-end dimension must be found on a those is as follows.
dimensioning chart, as no formula is available for cal-
culating their radius length. Figure 3.58 provides exam-
Unions
ples of sorne screwed and socket-weld fittings.
Screwed and socket-weld fittings are represented Toe uníon, shown in Figure 3.60, is a fitting placed
differently on drawings than their butt-weld counter- within a pípíng configuration that will allow the assern-
parts. For example, screwed and socket-weld elbows bly to be disassernbled for inspection, repair, or replace-
are drawn with square corners, usíng short hash marks rnent. Manufactured for screwed and socket-weld
to represent the connection points of the fitting and applícatíons, the union is represented on drawings as
its mating pipe. Sorne engineering companies even shown in Figure 3.61. Unions should be positioned in
draw short ears on the hash marks to indicate a differ- locations that will facilitate the easy rernoval of critica!
ence between screwed and socket-weld symbols (see pieces of equípment, Figure 3.62 shows how unions are
Figure 3.59). placed in a configuration to allow easy rernoval of a valve.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


42 3. PIPE AlT!NGS

CENTER- TO-CENTER DIMENSION


Assernbled Length = AL
(CE1)
CENTER-
TO-END PIPE LENGTH
DIMENSION CENTER-
(TE 1) (PL) (TE z) TO-END
OF FITIING
DIMENSION
THREAD OF FITIING
ENGAGEMENT
(TE)

FIGURE 3.56 Interna! and externa! thread engagements.

CENTER- CENTER- TO-CENTER DIMENSION CENTER-


TO-END Assernbled Length = AL TO-END
DIMENSION (CE1) (CEz) DIMENSION
OF FITIING OF FITIING
PIPE LENGTH
CENTER- CENTER-
(PL)
TO-BOTIOM TO-BOTIOM
OF SOCKET OF SOCKET

FIGURE 3.57 Socket-weld fitting connections.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


PIPE NIPPLES 43

FIGURE 3.60 Union.


FIGURE 3.58 Screwed and socket-weld fittings.

TEE
HH
SCREWED UNION
PIPE
ELL NIPPLE

SCREWED FITTINGS
HH
SOCKET-WELD UNION
FIGURE 3.61 Unión drawing symbols.

Coupling
Although this fitting is used in butt-welding applica-
tions as a branch connection, its primary use is to connect
lengths of screwed and socket-weld pipe together. Sorne
PIPE clients may stipulate, however, that all socket-weld pipe
NIPPLE must be connected with a butt-weld rather than a coupling.

SOCKET -WELD FITTINGS PIPE NIPPLES


FIGURE 3.59 Screwed and socket-weld drawing symbols.
By design, screwed and socket-weld fittings cannot
be assembled by placing one fitting directly in contact
with another fitting. There must be pipe in between.
As mentioned previously, screwed fittings are manu-
Plug factured with threads on the inside of the fitting and
Toe plug, like a cap, is designed to seal the end of socket-weld fittings have an internal socket that pre-
a run of pipe. Plugs are manufactured for screwed fit- vents fitting make-up assembly like butt-weld fittings.
tings with male threads and are screwed into the end of To facilitate the assembly of screwed and socket-weld
a pipe to create a seal. Figure 3.63 shows the drawing fittings, short lengths of pipe called pipe nipples are
symbols for the plug. placed between the fittings. Pipe nipples can vary in

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


44 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

UNION a drawing (see Figure 3.64). Figure 3.64 shows varyíng


lengths and sizes of screwed pipe and swage nipples.
Swages are unique in that they can be used in
screwed, socket-weld, or butt-weld configurations.
When used in these configurations, swages will have a
ELL variety of different end preparations. These end prepa-
ration combinations allow the swage to be used in a
number of different attachment applications-in other
words, screwed to socket-weld, butt-weld to screwed,
or butt-weld to socket-weld. Screwed swages will have
FIGURE 3.62 Positioning of unions. threaded ends (TE), socket-weld swages will have plain
ends (PE), and butt-weld swages will have beveled
ends (BE). Because socket-weld swages are inserted into
PLUG IN mating fittings, many companies allow the substitution
COUPLING (Vent) of beveled end swages. Since the end is inserted into the
fitting and the weld is made on the outside of the fit-
ting, it makes little difference how the end cut is made.
Swages are also manufactured with different prepara-
tions on their opposing ends. When specifying a swage,
use the following abbreviations:
BBE-bevel both ends;
TBE-thread both ends;
PLUG IN PBE-plain both ends;
VALVE (Droin) BLE/TSE-bevel large end/thread small end;
PLE/TSE-plain large end/thread small end.
FIGURE 3.63 Plug drawing symbols.
Figure 3.65 depicts three different concentric swage
nipples. Notice the end preparation combinations on
the examples. Figure 3.66 shows the drawing symbols
length depending upon the distance required to fab- for various swages.
ricate the pipe configuration. A clase nipple is one that Toe swage section of the Screwed Fittings dimension-
allows for the mínimum assembly length between two íng chart, shown in Figure 3.67, provides the length or,
pipe fittings. Remember, screwed and socket-weld con- S dimension, of swage fittings. Like reducers, one must
figurations have a certain amount of pipe length loss always use the large end pipe size to find the length of
due to thread engagement and socket depth. Because the swage on the dimensioning chart. Notice the Out/et
thread engagement and socket depth varíes depending section of the chart. This section simply indicates the
on the pipe's nominal size, each pipe size has a different range in which the small end pipe size can reduce to.
minimum length for the dimension of a close nipple. It does not affect the length of the fitting. Remember,
Many companies will use 3", as the standard míni- all fittings that are attached after the swage are obvi-
mum length of pipe nipples. This length will accorn- ously of a smaller pipe size and, therefore, will not
modate the amount of pipe length lost on both ends of only be shorter in length, but will also have a shorter
the fitting as well as provide sufficient wrench clearance thread engagement. These important factors should not
during assembly for the larger screwed pipe sizes. be overlooked when calculating the center-to-center
dimensions of screwed or socket-weld configurations.
Swage
One exception to the standard 3" mínimum rule is the FLANGED FITTINGS
swage nipple. Swages are functionally similar to reduc-
ers, in that they are used to make line-size reductions in Flanged fittings perform functions similar to other
a straight run of pipe, but they are specifically designed fittings of the same type. Toe mejor difference is their
for screwed and socket-weld pipe. Screwed swages have method of connection. Toe connection joint for flanged
extemal (male) threads and are connected directly to fittings is made by bolting two specially designed metal
other screwed fittings without the need of a pipe nipple. surfaces together. Sandwiched between the two sur-
Llke reducers, they are available in either a concentric faces is a gasket that prevents leaks. Flange types will
or eccentric shape and are always drawn double-line on be discussed at great length in a following chapter.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


FllTING EXERCISE INSTRUCTIOI\S ANO 11\FORMATION 45

SWAGE CALLOUTS
4"x3"SWAGE
BLE-TSE

FIGURE 3.64 Pipe and swage nipples.


í 3"x2"SWAGE
PLE-TSE

í 3"x2"SWAGE
TBE

FIGURE 3.65 Concentric swage nipples.

CAST !RON FITTINGS FIGURE 3.66 Swage drawing symbols.

Cast iron fittings are typically designed for use in Ali the standard fitting shapes are available: elbows,
gravity-flow installations using low-pressure water ser- tees, reducers, couplings, unions, etc. Plastic fittings
vices. Toe physical appearance of pipe configurations are manufactured for either screwed, socket, or butted
made of cast iron fittings is quite different from pipe assembly. Plastic screwed and socket fittings are avail-
routed with forged steel fittings. Toe large assortment able in sizes through 4" in diameter. Butt fittings are
of available fittings and the method in which these manufactured for sizes 6-10".
configurations are assembled make their appearance
quite distinguishable. Above-ground cast iron confígu-
rations often require multiple changes in direction and FITTING EXERCISE INSTRUCTIONS AND
elevation to avoid obstructions with preexisting instal- INFORMATION
lations. Because molten cast iron can be easily manufac-
tured into many unique shapes that cannot be attained Toe fittings depicted in Figure 3.68 will be used to
with steel, pipe routings that have many varying turns, complete exercíses in Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 10. To com-
bends, and branches are quite common. plete those exercises, draw the symbols below usíng the
following instructions:
PLASTIC FITTINGS • Draw ali fitting symbols full size using dimensions
found on the Welded Fittings and Flanges
Plastic fittings are also manufactured in many Dimensioning Charts.
diverse and unique shapes. Therefore, they have • Double-line symbols are drawn with a "default"
become the material of choice for many low-pressure lineweight. Single-líne symbols are drawn with a
and low-temperature applications, replacing cast iron. 0.53mm lineweight.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


46 3. PIPE FlITIKGS

• Draw all weld dots with the DONUT comrnand. • BLOCK the symbol with the base point placed at an
Toe DONUT will have an inside diameter of O" and appropriate location using an ENDpoint, MIDpoint,
outside diameter of 1.75". or CENter OSNAP.
• Create a BLOCK of each symbol, Use a block name • SAVEthe file as Fitting Symbols.
that appropriately describes the fitting and its size.
NOTE: When drawing the symbol that represents the
(DO NOT include text with the blocked symbol.)
back of the elbow, break the are so that it creates an opening
approximately 45° to the pipe.

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE


1
1
s, -(INCHES)
s
w
A
1--
L....L.....J
__J
1--
:::::>
e=:,
1"
-
2
1/4
to
3/s
3"
4
1/4
to
1 ,,

1/4
to
1"
1-4
1/4
to
1 1114 1112 2114 2112
1/2 3/4
1- 12"
1/4 1/4
to
2" 2-21 "

to
1/4
to
3"
1/4
to

l s
G
111 ~ E 23/4 3 3112 4 4112 6112 7 8
FIGURE 3,67 Swage dimensioning chart.

-E8 e- 14 TEE OPEN~


14-90 BACK
ffi-
e
8-90 BACK

(i?
14 TEE SIDE

.: 'r
~

83
14 TEE END
14 TEE BACK
/
8-90 SIDE 8-90 OPEN
14-90 SIDE 14-90 OPEN

e-
12 TEE OPEN~

e-- 12 TEE SIDE _L @


12-90 BACK 6-90 BACK

r
12 TEE END

í 'f
»<.
12 TEE BACK • <:» •

~ 6-90 OPEN
10 TEE OPEN~
12-90 SIDE 12-90 OPEN 6-90 SIDE

@
e- e-
4-90 BACK
10 TEESIDE .L
10 TEE END

r
10-90 BACK 10 TEE BACK • ~ •

10-90
r SIDE
Cf
10-90 OPEN
4-90 SIDE 4-90
~
OPEN
14x12
B
CONC RED
B
12x1 O CONC RED

FIGURE 3.68 Fitting drawing syrnbols with file names.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CHAPTER 3 REVIEW QUIZ 47

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW QUIZ 9. Which fitting is used to make a reduction in the line
size of a run of pipe?-----------
1. Typically, pipe smaller than 311 in diameter is
manufactured as having or 10. Name the two types of reducers. _
--------- end connections.
2. What is the most common fitting used? 11. Define fitting make-up. _

3. What are the four classifications of elbows? 12. What are the two pressure classifications for
screwed and socket-weld fittings?
4. What is the formula for calculating the center-to-end
dimension for LR and SR elbows? 13. What type of fittings must be bolted together? __
LR = ----------------
SR=---------------
14. What is the typical installation service for cast iron
5. Describe a mitered elbow. _ pipe? _

15. Name the three types of plastic fitting end types


6. When confíguríng tee connections, what is the main manufactured. _
run of pipe called? _

7. Name the two types of tees. ---------

8. What are sorne altemate methods to a tee fitting


when fabricating branch connections? _

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
G) 12" ELBOW 14" ELBOW

~
1

DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN


1 2" 45' ELBOW 14" 45' ELBOW

EXERCISE 3-1
G) DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHQWN
1 'L TEE @ DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
14" TEE

~~
~

~
_,
ca"" rh
$
o

~-y<il
:i:
111 >
o / ~;a
s' ....
21 lil
~ ~
zo
~
@ ©
m
o DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN X

14" x ,O" CONCENTRIC REDUCER 14" x 1 O" ECCENTRIC REDUCER 93


IB o
¡¡;
C)
z ¡¡¡

ttr.rl ttr.rl
i ~ .! i ~­x1 ECC. RED.
F.0.8.

EXERCISE 3-2
50 3. PIPE AlT!NGS

FITIING MAKE-UP
DRAW THE FRONT VIEW /!S SHOWN. PROJECT TOP, LEFT ANO RIGHT SIOE VIEWS.

1 4" ELBOWS
G) ®
12" ELBOWS

1 1 1 1 1 1

-+ +- --+--+-- +-+---
1 1 ¡
1 1

-+-
-+-+~+-+-
-+- 1

- -+ -
-+- l -+-
1 1

1 1 1
-+--+-+-
' 1 1

1 4"

-+- ---+--
1 4" X 1 2"

EXERCISE 3-3

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


CHAPTER J DRAWING EXERCISES 51

CD
NOTE: USE 4H LEAD FOR
1 4.. 45· ELBOWS CENTER OF 45·
ELLIPSE

PROJECTION UNES
MAKE PROJECTION
UNES LIGHT

42" CENTER OF 45·

_ _.____ ~-=-==__ _ ._ t- .ELLIPSE

14"

DRAW THE FRONT VIEW AS SHOWN. PROJECT TOP, LEFT ANO RIGHT SIDE VIEWS.

DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN


1 Z' 45· ELBOWS

1-
42"

1 2,,

EXERCISE 3-4

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


52 3. PIPE AlT!NGS

FITIING MAKE-UP
SOLVE FOR THE MISSING DIMENSIONS

G) 8"

-- 18"

ff'

1 6" X 1 2"

EXERCISE 3-5

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


CHAPTER J DRAWING EXERCISES 53

FITTING MAKE-UP
SOLVE f"OR THE MISSING OIMENSIONS

1 O" 8"

10" ® 8" ®
10" X 8"

EXERCISE 3-6

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


54 3. PIPE AlT!NGS

FITIING MAKE-UP
SOLVE FOR THE MISSING DIMENSIONS

CD 3000#FS SCREWED
3" LONG NIPPLES
M\ 6000#FS SCREWED
\6J 3" LONG N!PPLES

1-

rn 3000# FS SW (A"'\ 6000# FS SW


\:::!.) 3" LONG NIPPLES \:::!) 3" LONG NIPPLES

3/4.x1/t SWG 3/4.x1/'l SWG

JBE JBE
1. 1- J
EXERCISE 3- 7

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


CHAPTER J DRAWING EXERCISES 55

FITTING CALCULATIONS FITTING CALCULATIONS


3"-3000# SCRD. FITTINGS
2"- 3000# S.W. FITTINGS
3" LONG PIPE NIPPLES 3" LONG PIPE NIPPLES

"TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH"

"TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH"

TOTAL UNASSEMBLED LENGTH: _ TOTAL UNASSEMBLED LENGTH:


THREAD ENGAGEMENT LENGTH: _ SOCKET DEPTH LENGTH:
TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH: _ TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH: _

EXERCtSE 3-8 EXERCISE 3- 1 O

FITTING CALCULATIONS
FITTING CALCULATIONS
2"- 3000# S.W. FITIINGS
2"-6000# SCRO. FITIINGS 3" LONG PIPE NIPPLES
3" LONG PIPE NIPPLES

2"x%" SWG.

"TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH" "TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH"

TOTAL UNASSEMBLED LENGTH:


TOTAL UNASSEMBLED LENGTH:
SOCKET DEPTH LENGTH:
THREAD ENGAGEMENT LENGTH: ----
TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH: _
TOTAL ASSEMBLED LENGTH: ----
EXERCISE 3-9 EXERCISE 3-1 1

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


CHAPTER

4
Flange Basics

Toe flange is a ring-shaped device that is used as an examples of how piping configurations are connected
altemative to welding or threading various pipíng sys- to a vertical vessel vía a nozzle.
tem components together. Flanged connections, which
require bolting, are the preferred altemative to welding
because they can be easily assembled, disassembled, RATING FLANGES
then reassembled when needed for shipping, inspec-
tion, maintenance, or replacement. Flanged connec- Rating, as applied to flanges, may best be defined as
tions are favored over threaded connections because the maximum pressure allowed by the Pressure Piping
threading large-bore pipe is not an econornical or reli- Code for the specific temperature at which the flange
able operation, as leakage on large-bore threaded pipe will be operating. Flanges and nozzles are sized accord-
is difficult to prevent. For these reasons, the flange is an ing to pressure ratings established by the American
important component of any piping system. Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). These pres-
Flanges are primarily used where a connecting or sure ratings, often called pound ratings, are divided
dismantling joint is needed. These joints may include into seven categories for forged steel flanges. They are
attaching pipe to fittings, valves, mechanical equip- 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, and 2500#. Cast iron
ment, or any other integral component within a piping flanges have pound ratings of 25#, 125#, 250#, and 800#.
configuratíon. Pound ratings, when combined with the temperature
In the typical pipe facility, every piece of mechanical of the commodity within the pipe, are used to select the
equipment is manufactured with at least one inlet and appropriate size, rating, and type of flange. This pres-
outlet connection point. Toe point where the piping sure/temperature relationship will allow any given
configuration is connected to the equipment is called flange to be used in a number of different applications.
a nozzle. From this nozzle-to-flange connection point, For example, a 150# forged steel flange is rated to per-
the piping routing is begun. Figure 4.1 depicts multiple form at 150# PSIG at 500 ºF. If the temperature were
decreased to lOOºF, this same flange could be used for
275# PSIG. However, if the temperature were increased
to 750ºF, the flange could only be used for 100# PSIG.
As you can see, the pressure/temperature relation-
ship is important. When temperature decreases, the
allowable pressure increases, and vice versa. Pound
ratings are also used to establish the outside diameter
and thickness of a flange. Typically as pound ratings
increase, so will the flange's diameter and thickness.

FLANGE FACINGS
Toe mating surface of a flange, nozzle, or valve is
called the face. Toe face is usually machined to create
FIGURE 4,1 Vessel nozzles. a smooth surface. This smooth surface will help assure

56 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghts rcserved.


FI.ANGE FACINGS 57
a leak-proof seal when two flanges are bolted together ones provided in this text, include the Vil' raised face
with a gasket sandwiched between. thickness in the length dimensions for 150# and 300#
Although numerous types of flange faces are pro- flanges. However, the 1,4'' raised face thickness is not
duced, we will focus only on the following three: always included in the length dimensions for 400# and
higher pound ratings. To assure accurate dimension-
• flat face;
íng, always determine if the dimensíoning chart being
• raised face;
used includes the W' raised face thickness for the larger
• ring-type joint,
pound rating flanges. The 1,4" raised face thickness
must be added to the dimensioning chart measurement
to obtain the overall flange length if the dimensión-
Flat Face
ing chart indicates it has not been added. Figure 4.5
As the name implies, flanges with flat faces are those includes a sectional view of a weld neck flange having
that have a flat, level connecting surface (see Figure 4.2). a raised face.
Forged steel flanges with a flat face flange are commonly
found in 150# and 300# ratings. Their principal use is to
make connections with 125# and 250# cast iron flanges,
Ríng-Type Joint
respectively. Attaching steel pipe to the cast iron flanges Also known simply as ring joint, the ring-type joint
found on sorne valves and mechanical equipment does not use a gasket to form a seal between connecting
always presents a problem because of the brittle nature
of cast iron. Usíng a flat face flange will assure full sur-
face contact, thereby reducing the possibility of cracking
the softer cast iron. Figure 4.3 shows a sectional view of
a flange with a flat face.

Raised Face
Toe most common face type in use, the raised face,
is available in all seven of the aforementioned pound
ratings. Appropriately named, this flange face has a
prominent raised surface. With shallow grooves etched
into the raised surface, this flange face assures a posí-
tive grip with the gasket. Flanges rated 150# and 300#
have a Yil' raised face, whereas flanges 400# and above
have a W' raised face (see Figure 4.4). lt is important
to note that most dimensíoníng charts, including the

GASKET FACING
FLAT FACE (FF)

FIGURE 4.3 Flat face welding neck flange.

FIGURE 4,2 Flat face flange. FIGURE 4,4 Raised face flange.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


58

-t 4. FLANGE BASICS

1/16" FOR 150#


ANO 300#
1/4" FOR 400#
ANO HEAVIER

GASKET FACING
RING JOINT FACE (RTJ)
GASKET FACING FIGURE 4. 7 Ring-type joint welding neck flange.
RAISED FACE (RF)

FIGURE 4.5 Raised face welding neck flange.

dismantling ring joint connections, the flanges must be


forcibly separated to release the ríng from the groove.
In crowded instaliations, this could cause major prob-
lems. Because of this, the ring joint flange is relegated to
applications where space for maintenance and replace-
mentare adequate.
Although available for ali pound ratings, flanges
with ring-type joint faces are normally used in piping
systems rated 400# and higher. See Figure 4.7 for the
sectional view of a flange with a ring-type joint face.

FLANGE TYPES
Flanges have been designed and developed to be
used in a myriad of applications. Each one has its own
special characteristics and should be carefully selected
to meet specific function requirements. Toe following
FIGURE 4.6 Ring-type joint flange.
flanges will be discussed in this chapter:
• weldneck;
• threaded;
• socket-weld;
flanges. Instead a round metallic ring is used that rests
• slip-on;
in a deep groove cut into the flange face (see Figure 4.6).
• lap-joint;
Toe donut-shaped ring can be oval or octagonal in
• reducing;
design. As the bolts are tightened, the metal ríng is • blind;
compressed, creating a tight seal.
• orífice.
Although it is the most expensive, the ring-type
joint is considered to be the most efficient flange used NOTE: A photograph and short description accom-
in process piping systems. Toe ring and groove design panies each flange, as well as symbols to depict the
actualiy uses intemal pressures to enhance the sealing flange as it would appear on a drawing. Because
capacity of the connecting flanges. Toe superiority of ali flange symbols are somewhat typical, only the
this seal can have its disadvantages, however. When step-by-step drawíng techniques used to create the
PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN
FLANGE TYPES 59
orthographic drawing symbols for a weld neck flange to reduce high-stress concentrations at the base of
will be shown. Toe drawing symbols for the remaining the flange by transferring stress to the adjoining pipe.
flanges can be created in a similar fashion with only a Although expensive, the weld neck flange is the best-
few minor alterations. designed butt-weld flange available because of its
inherent structural value and ease of assembly.
Known for its strength and resistance to dishing, the
Weld Neck Flange weld neck flange is manufactured with a long tapered
Toe weld neck Jlange shown in Figure 4.8 is occasion- hub. Toe tapered hub is created by the gradual increase
ally referred to as the "high-hub" flange. It is designed in metal thickness from the weld joint to the flange fac-
ing, Toe symmetrical taper transition is extremely ben-
eficia! under conditions of repeated bending caused by
line expansion, contraction, or other externa! forces. See
Figure 4.9 for weld neck flange drawing symbols.
Weld neck flanges are normally used in severe ser-
vice applications involving high pressures, high tem-
peratures, or subzero conditions.
Toe hole in a weld neck flange is bored to match the
ID of the adjoining pipe. In other words, the thinner
the wall thickness of the pipe, the larger the bore (hole)
through the flange. Conversely, the thicker the wall
thickness of the pipe, the smaller the bore through the
flange. Because the pipe and the flange have matching
inside diameters, there is little restriction to the flow.
FIGURE 4.8 Weld neck flange.
Turbulence and erosion are therefore eliminated.

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger


FIGURE 4.9 Weld neck flange drawing symbols.

NOMINAL PIPE SIZES -{INCHES) 2" 2 ;,-2" 3" 4" 6" 8" 1 O" 1 2" 1 4" 1 6" 1 8"
PIPE ( Ü UTSIDE DIAMETER) 2j 2i 3~ 4~ 6i 8i 1 oí 12Í 14 16 18
o
WTL'
F 6~ 7~ 8¡ 10 12~ 15 17~ 20~ 23 25~ 28
R
FA
L
lºI~ L 2Í 3 3! 3~ 3¡ 43..8 4~8 si 5¡ 5Í 6¡
w~ T l
8 1 1; 1 ¡ 1,76 1¡ 1.Z.8 2 2i 2¡ 2~
NE
s 1 / 16" RAISED FACE INCLUDED ON 'L' & 'T' DIMENSIONS
FIGURE 4.10 Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


60 4. FLANGE BASICS

1. 2. 2 1g"
• 11 •

t
23"
J_
-~-5%"
Drow o 23" vertical line. OFFSET the flonge foce ond drow the f
3. 4.

~-+.-t. 7" ~~-


t

Represent the 14" NPS. Drow the 30· flonge hub lines.

FIGURE 4.11 Drawing procedures for a 14"-300#RFWN flange.


Step l. Using architectural units, draw a vertical line 23" tall. This line will represen! the flange's face diameter.
Step 2. OFFSET a line 21/s" to the right to represen! the flange face thickness. Draw a horizontal line across the ends of the two vertical lines to
cap the flange face. From the MIDpoint of the flange's face (left Iine), draw a centerline SS/8" to the right to represent the flange length
(length thru hub).
Step 3. From the right end of the centerline, draw a vertical line 7" upward and downward to represent the pipe's 14" NPS.
Step 4. From the vertical ends, draw 30° lines to the flange faceto represent the hub. (45° lines are used when constructing single-líne symbols.)

Drawing the Weld Neck Flange proper size pipe in the Nominal Pipe Size row. Follow
the pipe size column down, through the chart, to deter-
Before constructing the orthographic drawing mine the O, T, and L dimensions. For demonstration
symbols, three important dimensions must be deter- purposes, the procedures to draw double-line drawing
mined. These dimensions can be found on the Welded symbols for a 14"­300# Raised Face, Weld Neck (RFWN)
Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart, shown partially flange (Figure 4.11), and a síngle-líne 12"-150#-RFWN
in Figure 4.10. Toe thumbnail image in this chart repre- flange (Figure 4.12) will be presented. You should find
sents the raised face weld neck (RFWN) flange and the the O, T, and L measurements for these flanges to be 23"
position of its three dimensions in the chart. (O), 2Ys" (T), SYs" (L) and 19" (O), l W' (T), and 41h'' (L),
Toe three dimensions needed to draw the flange are respective}y.
O, T, and L. Toe O dimension represents the flange's Use Figure 4.11 and the step-by-step procedures that
outside diameter. The T defines the flange's face thick- follow to construct the drawing symbols for a 14"-300#
ness and the L provides the flange' s length or lengih­ raised face, weld neck flange.
thru­hub dimension (sorne charts may show this as the Y
dimension). These three dimensions vary for each pipe Slip-on Flange
size and pound rating and must be determined before Toe slip­on flange shown in Figure 4.13 has a low hub
constructing the drawing symbols of each flange. that allows the pipe to be inserted into the flange prior
To find the numerical values for these dimensions to welding. Available with a flat (FFSO) or raised face
of a particular flange, select the appropriate pound rat- (RFSO) and shorter in length than a weld neck flange,
íng chart, which is, 150#, 300#, 400#, etc. Next, find the the slip-on flange is used in areas where short tie-ins

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


FLANGE TYPES 61

1. 2.
t

. n.
19"
J_
41;;i'
Draw a 19" vertical line.
Set lineweight to .70mm. Draw horizontal line to represent hub length.

3. 4.

Draw DONUT to represent


r weld dot. Set lineweight
rof hub line to .53mm.

FIGURE 4.12 Drawing procedures for a 12"·150#RFWNflange.


Step l. Using architectural units, draw a vertical UNE 19". (O dimension from Welded Fitting-Flanges dimensioníng chart) tall. Give the linea
0.70mm lineweight. This line will represent the flange's face diameter,
Step 2. From the MIDpoint of the flange's face, draw a horizontal line 4W (T dimensión) to the right to represent the flange's Jength (length thru
hub).
Step 3. On the right end of the horizontal line, draw a DONUT having a O.O" inside diameter anda 1.75" outside diameter to represent the weld
dot.
Step 4. Change the LINEWEIGHT of the horizontal line (hub) to 0.53mm. This will match the lineweight of the pipe when the symbol is
attached to it.

are necessary or space limitations necessitate its use


and in replacement operations when connecting pre-
existing equipment. Toe slip-on flange does have two
significant disadvantages, however: the requirement of
two fillet welds, one interna! and one external, to pro-
vide sufficient strength and prevent leakage, and a life
span about one-third that of the weld neck flange. They
are preferred over welding neck flanges by many users
because of their lower initial cost. However, the total
cost after installation is not much less than the welding
neck because of the additional welding involved. See
the Taylor Forge Seamless Fittings Dimensioning Chart
in Appendix A for dimensions of the slip-on flange. Toe FIGURE 4,13 Slip-on flange.
drawing symbols for the slip-on flange are shown in
Figure 4.14.

of the lap-joint flange to the piping system requires


Lap-Joint Flange
a lap-joint stub end. The lap-joint flange and stub
Toe lap­joint jlange in Figure 4.15 is primarily used in end assembly are used mainly in piping systems that
carbon or low alloy steel piping systems. Attachment necessitate frequent dismantling for inspection or

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


62 4. FLANGE BASICS

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger


FIGURE 4, 14 Slip-on flange drawing symbols.

A seal weld is sometimes applied around the threaded


joint to reduce the possibility of leakage. This tech-
nique, however, cannot be considered as entirely satis-
factory nor is it always possible. Figure 4.18 represents
the síngle-líne threaded flange drawíng symbol.

Socket-Weld Flange
Toe socket­weld flange shown in Figure 4.19
is also similar to the slip-on flange. lt was originally
developed for use in small-diameter (~') hígh-
pressure piping systems. Like socket-weld fittings,
pipe is inserted into the socket then welded. An inter-
na! weld is often employed for added strength. By
FIGURE 4.15 Lap-joint flange. grinding the interna! weld smooth, turbulence and
flow restriction are kept to a minimum. Toe single-line
drawing symbol for the socket-weld flange is shown in
routine maintenance. It is also used in the erection Figure 4.20.
of large-diameter or hard-to-adjust pípíng configu-
rations because of its quick bolt hole alignment.
Figure 4.16 depícts the drawing symbols for the Reducing Flange
lap-joínt flange. Like the reducer fitting, the reducing jlange in
Figure 4.21 is used to make a reduction in the diam-
Threaded Flange eter of the pipe. A reducing flange is most frequently
used in installations with limited space. Crowded situ-
Toe threaded jlange depicted in Figure 4.17 is similar ations may necessitate the use of the reducing flange
to the slip-on flange, but the bore is threaded. Its prin- because it has a shorter overall length when compared
cipal value is that it can be assembled without welding. to a weld neck flange and reducer-fitting configura-
This feature makes the threaded flange well suited to tion. Be advised however, the flow should travel from
extreme pressure services that operate at normal atmo- the smaller size to the larger. If the flow were reversed,
spheric temperatures and in highly explosive areas severe turbulence could develop.
where welding may create a hazard. Callouts are placed on drawings to describe the
Threaded flanges are not suited, however, for condi- reducing flange in the same manner as those used on
tions involving temperatures or bending stresses of any the reducer fitting: large end first, small end second.
significance, particularly when cyclic conditions exist, One additional note is needed, however. The pound rat-
which may cause leakage through the threads. After íng and flange type are included in the callout.
just relatively few cycles of expansion and contraction Toe reducing flange maintains all the dimensional
or movement caused by stress, the threaded flange no characteristics of the larger end size. One exception,
longer performs adequately. however, is the interna! bore. Toe interna! bore is

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


FLANGE TYPES 63

Single-line: 12" and smaller Double-line: 14" and larger


FIGURE 4.16 Lap-joint flange drawing symbols.

OR

FIGURE 4.17 Threaded flange. g


FIGURE 4.20 Socket-weld flange drawing symbols.

FIGURE 4.18 Single-line threaded flange drawing symbol.


,,
-
..•
Á

FIGURE 4.21 Reducing flange.

manufactured to match that of the smaller pipe size.


Figure 4.22 shows a 12" X 6"-300# Raised Face Slip-On
flange. Notice the use of abbreviations to keep the size
of the callout to a mínimum.
Reducing flanges are manufactured as weld neck,
FIGURE 4.19 Socket-weld flange. slip-on, or threaded flange types.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


64 4. FLANGE BASICS

Blind Flange called jack screws. These screws are used to help sepa-
rate the flanges so inspection and/ or replacement of the
Toe blind flange depicted in Figure 4.23 serves a func- orífice plate can be performed. Toe orífice flange is a
tion similar to that of a plug or cap. It is used to ter- single component of the orífice jlange union assembly.
mínate the end of a piping system. Toe blind flange is Toe orífice flange union is composed of two orífice
basically a flange that does not have a hub ora bored flanges, an orífice plate, bolts, nuts, [ack screws, and two
center. Blind flanges have the face thickness of a flange, gaskets.
a matching face type, and similar belting pattem. Blind Toe orífice flange union is used to measure, or meter,
flanges can also be used to seal a nozzle opening on a the amount of pressure drop through the orífice plate.
pressure vessel. Because it is bolted, the blind flange Toe length of pipe within the piping system where orí-
provides easy access to the interior of a vessel or pipe, fice flanges are installed and where these measurements
unlike a cap that is welded. Figure 4.24 represents the are recorded is known as a meter run. Figure 4.26 shows
drawing symbol for the blind flange. the orífice flange union assembly installed in a meter
run. Toe broken-out section shown in Figure 4.27 shows
the interna! view of a meter run.
Orifi.ce Flange
Toe orífice plate, which is not typically furnished
Of the flanges discussed, the orífice jlange (Figure 4.25) with the orífice union assembly package, looks simi-
is the only one that actually performs a function. Toe lar to a large ring washer with a handle attached.
function of the orífice flange is to measure the rate of When fully assembled, the orífice plate is sandwiched
the flow of the commodity through the piping system. between the orífice flanges. Valve taps are inserted into
Orífice flanges are easy to recognize because they have pressure holes that allow for the attachment of field
a hole drilled through the face of the flange perpendicu- monitoring equipment so accurate measurements can
lar to the pipe. They also have an additional set of bolts be recorded.

BLIND FLANGE

FIGURE 4.24 Blind flange drawing symbols.

{Vessel nozzle is o
12"-300# RFSO)

FIGURE 4.22 Reducing flange drawing symbol with callout.

FIGURE 4.23 Blind flange. FIGURE 4.25 Orifice flange.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


llOLTS 65
Orifice flanges can be either weld neck, slíp-on, or
threaded. Toe weld neck and threaded orifice flanges
are manufactured in 300# and larger pound ratings.
However, the slip-on orifice flange is only available as
a 300# raised face flange. Toe single-line and double-
line drawing symbols for the orifice flange are shown in
Figure 4.28.

BOLTS
To complete any flanged assembly, two additional
items are required: bolts and gaskets. Bolts obviously
hold mating flanges, nozzles, or valves together. Toe
pressure rating of a flange will determine the size, spac-
FIGURE 4,26 Orífice flange unión assembly. Courtesy of Nisseki ing, and number of bolts required. As the nominal pipe
Chemical Texas lnc., Bayport, Texas.

ORIFICE FLANGES

ORIFICE PLATE
FLANGE TAPS
FIGURE 4.27 Broken-out section of meter run.

%"(TYP) G) V2 "(TYP)
FIGURE 4.28 Orífice flange draw-
ing symbols.

Single-line: 12" and smaller


---fi~3/8"
Double-line: 14" and larger

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


66 4. FLANGE BASICS

size and pressure ratíngs change, so will the diameter, To assure that bolt holes on flanges, nozzles, or
spacing, and number of bolts. valves align properly, holes are equally spaced around
Flanges are designed to match the bolt circle and bolt the flange. One column on the Taylor Forge Forged
hole dimensions of other flanges that are of the same Steel Flanges Dimensioning Chart found in Appendix A
diameter and pressure ratíng. Bolt hole arrangements indicates the number and diameter of the bolt holes on
may seem inconsequential, but when one considers the flanges. Notice bolts are found in quantities of 4, that is,
fact that components of a piping system may be fabri- 4, 8, 12, 16, etc. The following formula makes bolt hole
cated in one country, then shipped to another coun- location and alignment quick and simple.
try for assembly, bolt alignments become increasingly
Formula: 360º/# of holes = angular location
important. lt is critical that drawings convey the exact
Example: 360º/8 (holes) = 45º
orientation of flanges to the fabricator. Otherwise, bolt
holes may not align properly. ANSI standards require Using this formula shows holes on an eight-hole
all flanges straddle the horizontal, vertical, or north- flange to be spaced 45º apart. By straddling the center-
south centerlines of pipe and equipment, as shown in line, holes will be positioned 221/zº on each side of the
Figure 4.29, unless otherwise noted on a drawíng. centerline (see Figure 4.30).

HORIZONTAL

BOLT HOLES STRADDLE


HORIZONTAL ANO
VERTICAL (t_.

ELEVATION

I
1-
::::)
o
(/)
<,
~I
O:::
o
z

BOLT HOLES STRADDLE


NORTH/SOUTH ANO
EAST/WEST (t_.

PLAN
FIGURE 4.29 Bolt hole orientation.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


GASKETS 67

45·

4-BOLT HOLES 8-BOL T HOLES

12-BOLT HOLES 16-BOLT HOLES


FIGURE 4.30 Bolt hole spacing.

Bolts are available in two types: machine or stud. GASKETS


Machine bolts have a ''head" on one end and threads on
the other. Stud bolts have threads throughout their entire Toe primary purpose of any flanged assembly is to
length and require the use of two nuts (see Figure 4.31). connect piping systems in such a manner as to pro-
Stud bolts are the most commonly used type and are avail- duce a leak-free envirorunent. Hazardous and combus-
able in two grades: A-193-87 and A-193-816. B7 grade tible materials and extreme pressures and temperatures
bolts are used for temperatures up to 1,000ºF. 816 bolts require the utmost in safety precaution. Creating a
are used when temperatures exceed l,OOOºF. Figure 4.32 leak-proof seal between two connecting metal surfaces
depicts a sectional view of two flanges being mated in an industrial setting is almost impossible. Therefore,
around a gasket and secured with stud and machine bolts. gaskets perform a vital function in plant safety.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


68 4. FLANGE BASICS

Using a gasket material softer than two adjoining together, the gasket material will conform to any ímper-
flanges is an excellent way to eliminate the possibility fections in the flange faces to create a uniform seal.
of a fluid escape. Gaskets can be made of materials such Figure 4.33 demonstrates the three types of gaskets
as asbestos, rubber, neoprene, Teflon, lead, or copper. that can be found in piping systems. They are full face,
When bolts are tightened and flange faces are drawn flat ring, and metal ring, Full face gaskets (Figure 4.34)
are used on flat face flanges. Flat ring gaskets
(Figure 4.35) are used on raised face flanges. Metal rings
(Figure 4.36) are used on ring-type joint flanges.
A gasket's thickness must be accounted for when
dimensioning the piping system. Toe typical gasket
has a thickness of Ys" (3.175mm). At every occurrence
of a flange bolting to a nozzle, two flanges joining one
another, two valves joining one another, or a flange con-
necting to a valve, a gasket thickness must be added
to the length of the pipe components. Figures 4.37 and
4.38 show that a flat-ring gasket does occupy space.
Though it is only Ys" thick, a gasket cannot be ignored.
Figure 4.39 depicts the gap between ring-type joint
flanges. Toe ring-type joint section of the Welded
Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning Chart gíves the gap
FIGURE 4.31 Stud and machine bolts. measurement as the G dimension. This dimension will

STUD BOLT

MACHI NE BOLT
FIGURE 4.32 Drawing representation of stud and machine bolts.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


GASKETS 69

FIGURE 4.33 Gaskets. Courtesy of Flexitallic, lnc.

FIGURE 4.36 Metal ríngs for ring-type joint flanges. Courtesy of


Fle:xitallie, !ne.

FIGURE 4.34 Full face gaskets.

FIGURE 4.3 7 Flat ring gasket and flange. Courtesy of Flexitallic, lnc.

FIGURE 4.35 Flat ring gaskets. Courtesy of Flexítallic, lnc.


FIGURE 4.38 Flat ring gasket between flanges. Courtesy of
Fle:xitallie, lnc.

vary depending on the size and pound rating of the For each instance of a gasket or ríng, gap spacing
flange. This is an important consideration to keep in must be reflected in the dimensions shown on a pip-
mind when dimensioning piping runs that have ring- ing drawing. Tick marks are used to indicate each loca-
type joint connections. tion where a gasket or ring gap has been included in

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


70 4. FLANGE BASICS

the dimensioning of the p1pmg configuration. Tick


~·--.=_.!,.....,. rnarks are drawn approximately W' long and are placed

;;;---~·

.-,r,J,lii.
-
, .. ,
~
:~
on piping drawings near the location where a gas-
ket or ring is to be installed. Figure 4.40 depicts two
tick marks, one on each end of a valve, that have been
included in the total dimension between the faces of the
two flanges. Toe dimension would be the sum total of

1 ~-·~Á'
one valve and two gaskets.

FIGURE 4.39 Ring-type joint gap spacing.

EACH BOLTED
CONNECTION
MUST HAVE A
GASKET!
~~
TIC MARK ___..¡ 1
USED TO -----
REPRESENT
THE GASKET

6"-150#, GATE

FACE TO FACE LENGTH OF VALVE


+ THICKNESS OF TWO GASKETS
= VALVE/FLANGE ASSEMBLY OIMENSION
( 1
+
o
Y4
1 o}¡
Y2~) ~[><]~
I' ,o}¡ 'I
FIGURE 4.40 Include gaskets with dímensions.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


EXERCISE INf-ORMATION 71

CHAPTER 4 REVIEW QUIZ 8. Name the two types of bolts used to assemble
flanges.
1. Name the seven forged steel flange pound ratings.

9. Accordíng to ANSI standards, which centerlines


should flanges straddle on pipe and equipment?

2. Name the four pressure classes for cast iron flanges.

3. What are the three flange face types discussed in this 10. Llst four materials used to manufacture gaskets.
chapter?

4. What is the thickness of the raised face on a 600#


raised face flange?
EXERCISE INFORMATION
S. Briefly describe five types of flanges depicted in this
chapter. Toe flanges depicted in Figure 4.41 wil1 be used to
complete the exercises in Chapters 4, 5, and 10. To com-
plete the exercises, draw the symbols shown usíng the
following guídelines:
• Draw ali flange symbols ful1 size using dimensions
found on the Welded Fittings-Flanges Dimensioning
Charts,
• Items in Figure 4.41 that are represented with a
SIZE/RATING o T L
"Phantom" linetype are for reference only and are
4"-150# R.F.W.N. _ not to be drawn. They will not be part of the finished
6"-300# R.F.W.N. ---- symbol.
• Double-line symbols are drawn with a "default"
10"-400#
R.F.W.N. Iineweíght, Síngle-line symbols are drawn with a
0.53mm lineweight.
16"-600#
• Draw ali weld dots with the DONUT command
R.F.W.N.
8"-óOO# R.F.W.N. _ having a O'' inside diameter anda 1.75" outside
diameter.
6. Give O, T, and L dimensions of the following flanges. • Create a BLOCK of each symbol. Use a block name
that appropriately describes the flange and its size
7. What is the purpose of an orifice flange union
and pound rating. (DO NOT include text with the
assembly?
blocked symbol.)
• BLOCK the symbol with the base point placed at an
appropriate location usíng an ENDpoint, MIDpoint,
or CENter osnap.
SAVE the file as Flange Symbols.dwg.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


72 4. FLA1'GE BASJCS

300# RFWN 150#RFWN

~-1 c--1
~

1 4" _ _J __ _J
~ ~
14"-300 00 14"-300 LT 14"-150 00 14"-150 LT

1 2" @-
12"-300 00
~
12"-300 LT
~--
12"-150 00
~
12"-150 LT

1 O" @--
10"-300 00
t
1 o"-300 LT
~--
10"-150 OD
~

10"-150 LT

8" @> ~
@--- ~

8"-300 OD 8"-300 LT 8"-150 OD 8"-150 LT

6"
6"-300 00 6"-300 LT 6"-150 OD 6"-150 LT

4"
4"-300 00 4"-300 LT 4"-150 00 4"-150 LT

FIGURE 4.41 Flange drawing symbols.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


e,
"'*
Sil
!.
:::,
o
(JQ

::!1 ~
G)
DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
@
DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN Sil
1 '.t' -300# :::,
RFWN 14~ -300# RFWN (JQ ~
1l :;:d
~
e,

.H i
o
~
:;:d
o
ca""
111
......
(J)
o
:i:
>
o ~ ~;e
s' ....
21 lil
~ ~
zo

©
~
0)
DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN m
X
o 1 rf' -300# RFWN 1 f!' -300# RFWN 93
IB o
¡¡;
C)
z ¡¡¡

EXERCISE 4-1
74 4. FLA1'GE BASJCS

FITIING MAKE-UP
DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
14" -300# RFWN

DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN


1 ~ -300# RFWN

r-!
1

EXERCISE 4-2

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


CHAPTER 4 DRAWING EXERCISES 75

FITIING MAKE-UP
SOLVE FOR THE MISSING DIMENSIONS

G) 150# RFWN @ 150# RFWN 150# RFWN

1 O" 1 2"

© 300# RFWN ~ 300# RFWN


® 300# RFWN

8"

1 O"
1
1 O"x8"

(J) . 300# RFWN


® 150# RFWN

8"

12'' 1 1 o"
1 O" xB"
1 2" x 1 O"

NOTE: ALL
GASKETS 1 /e:' EXERCISE 4-3

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
1 4" -300# RFWN
DO NOT DIMENSION

::-tj-
14"

-1
L{)

:l:!
"O
m
o .,..
~
=l ~
zo
tí "'
s
so> 1 4"
ª
[fl

m
l'[l
C)
z

(O
1

EXERCISE 4-4
.: !O,, SR. El.L
0
!O" ! 4 "-JOO,I' 6'~!50,1'
RA-f/N

o
RA-f/N

/6" X 14,, o
:i:
>
~;e
....

0 6'~ ! 50/ RA-f/N 0 I 2 '~JOO/ RFft/N 0


(TYP) B

\_4,~JOO/
RA-f/N (TYPJ)
!6" X /2"

4,, SR.

A
EXERCISE 4-5
-.J
00

CD 0 0
1!0'­!50/
RFWN(!YP.J)
/O~
REO. (!YP.)
6H

l±JI RFWN

0 A
A

/4" X /2"
!2'~!50/
RFWN __,,____~I

/2"­JOO/ RFWN
(!YP.J)
J 8'~/50/
RFWN(!YP.J)
'
EXERCISE 4-6
CHAPTER

5
Val ves

WHAT IS A VALVE?* As long as industries continue to devise new reasons to


control gases, liquids, and even solids, valve design will
A valve is a product rarely noticed by the average continue to meet the demand.
person, yet it plays an important role in the quality of
our lives. Each time you turn on a water faucet, use
your dishwasher, turn on a gas range, or step on the COMMON VALVE TYPES
accelerator in your car, you operate a valve. Without
modern valve systems, there would be no fresh, pure Valves are manufactured in numerous sizes, body
water in your home, no modern appliances, and no gas- styles, and pound ratings to meet a wide variety of
oline waiting at the comer service station. application needs. Valves are also manufactured with
One of the most widely observed, but least recog- varying types of end preparations that allow them to be
nized, type of valve is the fire hydrant. Fire hydrants readily mated to flanges or pipes of the same size and
are connected to municipal water supply systems. They rating. Valve end preparations can be screwed, socket-
are specialized in that they are underground valves that weld, beveled, or flanged. Flanged valves are manufac-
can be opened and closed from an aboveground loca- tured to have either raised, flat, or ring-type joint faces.
tion when needed in emergency situations.
By definition, a valve is a device that controls the
flow of a fluid. But today's valves can control not only
Gate Valves
the flow but also the rate, the volume, the pressure, and The gate valve is the most frequently used valve in
the direction of a fluid within a pipe. Valves are not Iim- pípíng systems. It is a general service valve that is used
ited to fluids. They can control liquids, gases, vapors, primarily for on-off, nonthrottling applications. When
slurries, or dry materials. Valves can turn on or off, reg- fully opened, the gate valve creates rninirnal obstruc-
ulate, modulate, or isolate. They can range in size from tion to the flow. Gate valves control the commodíty
a fraction of an inch to as large as 30 ft in diameter and flowing through the pipe with a flat, vertical wedge, or
can vary in complexity from a simple brass valve, avail- gate, that slides up or down as the valve's handwheel
able at the local hardware store, to a precision-desígned, is turned. As the handwheel is rotated, the wedge will
highly sophisticated coolant system control valve made slide through the valve body to block or release the
of exotic metal alloy used in a nuclear reactor. Valves flow.
can also control the flow of all types of commodities. Designed to be either fully opened or closed,
From the thinnest gas to highly corrosive chernicals, the gate valve should not be operated in a partially
from superheated steam to toxic gases, from abrasive opened/ closed position. A partially opened gate valve
slurries to radioactive materials, valves can be desígned will hasten erosion caused by the commodity within
to service them all. They can handle temperatures from the pipe and will ruin the valve seat in a short period
the cryogenic region to molten metal exceeding 1,500ºF, of time. Turbulence from the commodity will also
and valves can contain pressures ranging from severe cause the wedge to vibrate, creating a "chattering"
vacuum to 20,000 pounds per square inch. noise when the valve is partially opened. Figure 5.1
The valve is one of the most basic and indispens- depicts the externa! and intemal views of a typical gate
able components of our modem technological society. val ve.

• "What is a Valve?" Courtesy of VMA (Valve Manufacturers Association).

79 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghtsrcserved.


80 5. VALVES

and worker accessibility around the valve. Of particular


importance is the valve's open handwheel height. This
dimension defines the maximum height of the valve
when it is in the full-open position. The open hand-
wheel height is measured from the centerline of the
valve body to the tip of the valve stem.
The valve stem is a threaded rod that connects the
valve's wedge or gate to the handwheel. Valve stems
fall into one of two categories: rising or nonrising.
A risíng stem is one in which the stem rises and lowers
as the handwheel is rotated. The handwheel remains
in a stationary position as the stem passes through
it. On valves having a nonrising stem, the hand-
wheel is attached to the end of the stem and moves up
and down with the stem as the valve is opened or
closed.
The length of a rising stem must be determined
before the handwheel is represented on a drawing.
When the valve is fully opened, the stem is at its hígh-
est point. The maximum distance the stem will extend
above the handwheel is approximately equal to the
nominal size of the pipe. Knowing the length of the
stem allows a piping designer to draw the valve symbol
with the handwheel located at the proper distance from
the end of the stem which ultimately aids in determin-
ing when interference problems may occur,
Another important dimension is the diameter of
the flanged faces on flanged valves. When represent-
ing flanged valves, the diameter of the valve's flanges
must be drawn to match the size and pound rating of
the flange or nozzle to which the valve is being bolted.
Because most valve dimensioning charts do not pro-
vide this information, a drafter must refer to the flange
dimensioning chart to find the proper flange OD
measurements.
Valve symbols vary from company to company and
FIGURE 5.1 Gate valve.Courtesyof [enkins Bros. client to client. It is therefore imperative that a drafter
be familiar with the syrnbols being used on a project
before work begíns on that new project. The symbols
As with pipe, fittings, and flanges, valves are rep- shown in this text are typícal of those found on many
resented by symbols on piping drawings. These sym- piping drawings. They should not be considered stan-
bols are developed in such a manner as to describe the dard for all applications, however. The symbols shown
valve's body style, end type, and handwheel orienta- in Figure 5.3 represent screwed, socket-weld, and
tion. Syrnbol sizes are established from dimensions pro- flanged gate valves. Notice also the two methods of
vided in manufacturers' catalogs or data sheets. Three representing handwheels.
dimensions are crucial when drawing a valve symbol: The valve rotations represented in Figure 5.4 depict
face-to-faoe (length), handwheel height, and handwheel the possible rotations in which valves may appear on
diameter (see Figure 5.2). drawings. Bolt-hole orientations of nozzles on vessels,
The length of a valve is represented on most dimen- pumps, or other equipment may not always straddle
sioning charts as the face­to­face dimension. The face- the preferred north-south or east-west centerlines.
to-face dimension is a length that is standard among Also, accessibility may not always allow for vertical
valve manufacturers and defines the length of a valve or horizontal positioning of handwheels. Therefore,
from one end to the other. Also important are the height angular rotation of valves becomes imperative and the
and diameter of a valve's handwheel. These measure- rotations shown in Figure 5.4 indicate how those valve
ments are necessary to establish operational clearances rotations would appear on piping drawings.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


COMMOJ\ VALVE TYPES 81

VALVES 150#
NOMINAL PIPE SIZES -{INCHES) 2 3 4 6 8 10 1 2 14 1 6 18
PIPE ( ÜUTSIDE 01AMETER) 2i 312 412 6g 8g 1014 12..24 14

-~
16 18
L 7 8 9 10~ 11~ 13 14 15 1 6 17

i l~ o
G
A
H 15i 2oj 25i 35f 44 52 "1 60"1 70"1 79~ 89
T
E L --~ 1
8 9 10 14 16 18 18 22 24 27
L 8 9~ 1 1 "1 16 "1
G 19
* * * * *
[~9
L
V o
A EB
H 13j 1 6"1 19..24 24"1 26
* * * * *
L
V
o 8 9 10 12 16 * * * * *
e
L 10 111 4 13 i 171 4 21j 26"1 * * * *
r~
E o
s N
T
R H 27i 28t5 29t5 38 39f 46-¡¡-
* * * *
o
L
e
H-- o 13i 13i 13i 16 16 21i * * * *
H ¡-L -J __ ÍH L 8 9~ 1 112 14 1912 24~ 27"1 35 39
*
E
e
K
-r H 5 6 7 9 1ot 12i 13Í 18 20~ *
150# RF
NOTE: ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES
* REFER TO VENDOR'S CATALOG
FIGURE 5.2 Flanged valve dimensioning chart.

SCREWED FLANGED

PLAN

PLAN PLAN

ELEVATION END

SOCKET-WELD
~
PLAN

ELEVATION END ELEVATION END ELEVATION END


SINGLE-UNE DOUBLE-LINE
FIGURE 5.3 Gate valve drawing symbols.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


82 5. VALVES

so' 60. 45• 30· o· o· -so' -45. -60· -so'


FIGURE 5.4 Gate valve rotation drawing symbols.

Drawing the Gate Valve Drawing symbols of the globe valve are similar to
those of the gate valve. Measurements used to draw
Figures 5.5 and 5.6 are pictorial representations of the the valve are found on manufacturers' dimensioning
step-by-step procedures used to draw a 10''-300# RFWN charts. One noticeable difference is the use of a dark-
gate valve using manual and AutoCAD methods of ened circle positioned at the intersection of the diagonal
construction. Symbols depicting other valve types are lines in the valve's body. One other difference, though
developed using similar step-by-step procedures but not quite as noticeable, is the use of a nonrising stem
with minor changes or alterations that would reflect the on globe valves. Drawing symbols for globe valves are
representation of that particular valve. shown in Figure 5.8.

Globe Valves
Globe valves are used primarily in situations where
Angle Valves
throttling of the commodity is required. By simply rotat- Toe angle valve, like the globe valve, is used for throt-
ing the handwheel, the rate at which the commodity tling. As shown in Figure 5.9, the flow entering the
flows through the valve can be adjusted to any desired valve and the flow leaving the valve form a 90º angle.
level. Havíng the valve seat parallel to the line of flow In the event a pipe is making a 90° turn, the angle valve
is an important feature of the globe valve. This feature is used to eliminate the need for a 90º elbow and addi-
makes the globe valve efficient when throttling com- tional fittings.
modities as well as yielding minimal disk and seat ero- Angle valves as well as globe valves are typically
sion. This configuration, however, creates a large amount installed so a commodity will flow in an upward direc-
of resistance within the valve. Toe design of the globe tion through the valve body. This upward flow direc-
valve body forces the flow of the commodity to change tion will keep pressure under the disk seat. Pressure
direction within the valve itself. This change in direction from below the seat promotes easier operation and
creates substantial pressure drop and turbulence. Toe reduces the erosive action on the seat and disk. For
globe valve is therefore not recommended when flow high-temperature commodities, however, such as
resistance and pressure drop are to be avoided. Figure superheated steam, the flow direction is reversed.
5.7 depicts the interna! view of a globe valve. When the valve is closed, temperature on the lower side

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


COMMON VALVE TYPES 83

1. 2.
1~·

{D
-ii--=-

1. 18" .. 1
Llci
Gother volve's dimensions from chort. Orow volve' s body length and flange diameter.

3. 4.
B.

~
B.

Draw diagonal body lines and erase construction. Draw the handwheel 's centerline.

1 O" 1 O"
5. 6.

LfJ
u,
o.
3

r-,
l{)

Drow hondwheel's diameter and stern's height. Add diagonal handwheel lines.

FIGURE 5.5 Gate valve. Manual step-by-step drawing procedures.


Step l. Use the appropriate vendor's catalog to determine the overall dimensions of a 10"-300#RFWN gate valve. Find the valve's length, L
(face-to-face) (18"); handwheel height, H (57"); handwheel diameter (handwheel O) (20"); and flange diameter (flange O) (171h"); and
flange face thickness (flange T) (!%").
Step 2. Lightly draw a rectangle having the width of the face-to-face (18") dimension and the height of the flange diameter (171h"). Draw two
lines parallel to the vertical ends 17-'" away from and toward the center of the rectangle.
Step3.
A. Draw intersecting, diagonal lines (A) from the ends of the inner vertical lines to create the valve body.
B. Erase the horizontal construction lines (B) between the inner vertical lines that form the val ve' s flange faces.
Step 4. From the intersection of the diagonal lines (center of valve body), draw a vertical centerline the length of the handwheel's "open" height
(57").
Step S. Measure 10" (distance equal to NPS) down from the top of the centerline. Draw a construction line perpendicular to the centerline.
Measure one-half (10") of the handwheel's diameter (20") on either side of the handwheel centerline. Draw a line below and parallel to
the handwheel to represent the thickness of the handwheel. Draw lines parallel to the top of the valve centerline, above the handwheel
to represen! the valve stem. Though not the actual measurement, 1" can be used for both the handwheel and valve stem thickness.
Step 6. To complete the handwheel representation, draw a line from each end of the handwheel down to the center of the valve body. Lines
drawn in the opposite direction can also be used as an alternative.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


84 5. VALVES

1. 2. 1~"
11'

tf
c. c.

1. 18" .. 1

B.
~
Gather volve's dimensions from chart. Draw valve body length, height and foce thickness.

3. 4.
A. A.

~
A. A.

Drow diagonal body and flange cap lines. Draw the hondwheel' s centerline.

20"
5. 6.

LfJ
V)
o..
3

r-,
l{)

Draw hondwheel's diameter and stern's height. Add diagonal handwheel lines.

FIGURE 5.6 Gate valve. AutoCAD step-by-step drawing procedures.


Step l. Use the appropriate vendor's catalog to determine the overall dimensions of a 10"-300# RFWN gate valve. Find the valve's length, L
(face-to-face) (18"); handwheel height, H (57"); handwheel diameter (handwheel O) (20"); flange diameter (flange O) (17W); and flange
thickness (flange T) (17,4().
Step 2.
A. Draw a vertical line 17'h" long to represen! the flange diameter of the valve's face.
B. OFFSETthe vertical Iine 18" (face-to-face dimension) to the right to establish to valve's length.
C. From each end of the valve OFFSET,toward the center, the valve's flange face thickness (17,{¡").
Step3.
A. Draw horizontal Iines (A) to "cap" the ends of the valve's flange face.
B. Draw intersecting, diagonal lines (B) from the ends of the vertical lines to create the valve body.
Step 4. Draw a vertical centerline from the center of the valve's body 57" long to represen! the handwheel's "open" dimension.
Step S. Draw a 20" (handwheel's diameter) horizontal Iine, equally centered on the valve's centerline, 10" (distance equal to NPS) from the top
end of the valve's centerline. Give the valve's handwheel and stem a 0.3mm lineweight.
Step 6. To complete the handwheel representation, draw a line from each end of the handwheel down to the center of the valve body. Lines
drawn in the opposite direction can also be used as an altemative.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


COMMON VALVE TYPES 85

~
TOP

FRONT END

TOP

FRONT END
FIGURE 5.8 Globe valve drawing symbols.
FIGURE 5. 7 Globe valve. Courtesy of VELAN.

of the disk is signífícantly higher than that on the upper


side. Because the valve's stem is on the upper side of
the disk, it will be cooler. This temperature differential
causes the valve stem to contract, lifting the disk off the
seat. This lifting action will result in the seat and disk
faces being scored. To avoid this problem, valve manu-
facturers recommend installing globe and angle valves
so high-temperature commodities flow into the valve
from the upper side. This flow direction will keep pres-
sure above the disk, forcing it into the seat and creating
a tighter seal. Figure 5.10 depicts the drawing symbols
for the angle valve.

Check Valves
Check valves differ signifícantly from gate and
globe valves. Check valves are designed to prevent
backflow. Backflow simply means the flow that has
reversed itself within a pipe and begins to flow back- FIGURE 5.9 Angle valve. Courtesy of [enkins Bros.
ward. There are many designs of check valves, but the
two most common types are the swing check and the lift
check. Check valves do not use handwheels to control
the flow of a commodity but instead use gravity and created through the valve. This clear path creates mini-
the pressure of the commodity to operate the valve mal turbulence and pressure drop within the valve.
(see Figure 5.11). Pressure must always be under the disk for the valve
Toe swing check valve is installed as a companion to function properly. When flow reverses, the pressure
valve to the gate valve. As the name implies, thís valve and weight of the commodity against the disk will force
has a swinging gate that is hinged at the top and opens the disk against the seat, stopping all backflow. Check
as a commodity flows through the valve. When the valves are often regarded as safety or precautionary
valve disk is in the open position, a clear flow path is equipment.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


86 5. VALVES

TOP TOP

FRONT END FRONT END


Single-fine symbols Double-line symbols

FIGURE 5.10 Angle valve drawing symbols.

FIGURE 5.11 Swing and lift check valves. Courtesy of Crane Co.

Toe lift check valve is often bolted directly to a globe direction only. Similar to the horizontal lift check, ver-
valve. Figure 5.11 shows the lift check valve has a body tical lift check valves use a disk or ball that raises off
style similar to the globe valve. As the flow enters the the seat when a commodity flows upward through the
valve, the disk is lifted up off the seat to allow the flow valve. When the flow stops, gravity will reseat the disk
to pass. As with the globe valve, there is significant tur- or ball preventing backflow. This check valve requires
bulence and pressure drop. the outlet end of the valve to always be installed in
There are two types of lift check valves: horizon­ the up position. Sorne manufacturers refer to lift check
tal and vertical. Both of these valves use either a disk valves that employ the use of a ball as a hall check valve.
or ball and the force of gravity to close the valve in Figure 5.12 depicts drawing symbols used to repre-
the event of reverse flow. Toe horizontal lift check sent the check valve. Notice the top and front views
valve has a seat that líes parallel to the flow. Toe are identical and both symbols indicate the direction of
result is an S-shaped body style that mandates the flow.
valve be installed in the horizontal position only and
has a flow that enters from below the seat. Toe flow
entering the valve raises the disk or ball off the seat,
Ball Valve
permitting the commodity to pass through the valve Toe ball valve is an inexpensive altemative to other
body. valves. Ball va/ves use a metal ball with a hole bored
Toe vertical lift check valve is designed to work through the center, sandwiched between two seats
automatically on flow that is traveling in an upward to control flow. Used in many hydrocarbon process

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


COMMON VALVE TYPES 87

TOP TOP

FRONT END FRONT END


Single-line symbols Double-line symbols

FIGURE 5.12 Checkvalve drawing symbols.

Plug Valves installation. Unlike the hall valve, the plug valve uses
a tapered wedge rather than a hall to create a seal. This
wedge, or plug, has an elongated opening, which when
placed in the open position, allows the commodity to
pass through the valve. The plug is the only movable
part of the valve and its tapered shape assures positive
seating (see Figure 5.15).
Plug valves are designed with etched grooves along
the tapered plug to permit a lubricant to seal and
lubricate the interna} surfaces as well as to provide a
hydraulic jacking force to lift the plug within the body,
thus permitting easy operation. The clear and open pas-
sageway through the valve body provides little oppor-
tunity for scale or sediment to collect. In fact, the plug
seats so well that as the plug is rotated, foreign debris is
wiped from the plug's externa! surfaces. These valves,
FIGURE 5 .13 Ball valve. Courtesy of Jenkins Bros. however, do require constant lubrication to maintain a
tight seal between the plug and the body. Figure 5.16
depicts drawing symbols used to represent the plug
applications, hall valves are capable of throttling gases valve.
and vapors and are especially useful for low-flow situa-
tions. These valves are quick opening and provide a very
tight closure on hard-to-hold fluids (see Figure 5.13). Butterfly Valve
Ball valves do not use a handwheel but instead use The butterfly valve has a unique body style unlike
a wrench to control the flow. A 90° turn of the wrench the other valves we have discussed. The butterfly uses
opens or doses the valve. This simple design yields a a circular plate or wafer operated by a wrench to con-
nonsticking operation that produces minimal pressure trol the flow. A 90º tum of the wrench moves the wafer
drop when the valve is in its full-open position. Drawing from a fully open position to a fully closed position. The
symbols for the hall valve are shown in Figure 5.14. wafer remains in the stream of flow and rotates around
a shaft connected to the wrench. As the valve is being
closed, the wafer rotates to become perpendicular to
Plug Valve
the direction of flow and acts as a dam to reduce or stop
Unlike other valves, the plug valve uses either a the flow. When the wrench is rotated back to the origi-
handwheel or a wrench to operate the valve. Plug nal position, the wafer aligns itself with the direction
valves provide a tíght seal against hard-to-hold com- of flow and allows the commodity to pass through the
modities and require a mínimum amount of space for valve (see Figure 5.17).

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


88 5. VALVES

TOP TOP

FRONT END FRDNT END


Single-line symbols Double-line symbols

FIGURE 5.14 Ball valve drawing symbols.

systerns. To prevent major damage to equipment, and


more importantly, injury to workers, relief valves can
WEDGEPLUG
release elevated pressures before they become extreme.
O·SEAL VALVE Relief valves use a steel spring as a means to automati-
cally open when pressures reach unsafe levels. These
valves can be adjusted and regulated to pop off when
interna! pressures exceed predetermined settings. Once
interna! pressures return to operational levels, the relief
valve doses. Figure 5.19 shows the interna! mechanism
of a relief valve.
Another valve that performs the same basic function
as the relief valve is the pressure safety valve. Although
similar in design and appearance, the two valves oper-
ate differently. Relief valves are used in píping systems
that service líquíd commodities and are designed to
open proportionally, that is, as pressure from the com-
modity increases so does the opening of the valve.
FIGURE 5.15 Plug valve. Ccurtesy of Siockham Valves.
Toe hígher the pressure, the larger the opening. Toe
pressure safety valve, however, is used with hígher-
pressure commodities such as steam and gas. Pressure
Butterfly valves have minimal turbulence and pres- safety valves are designed to open completely when
sure drop. They are good for on - off and throttling interna! pressures exceed the setting for which the
service and perform well when controlling large flow interna! spring has been set. As with the relief valve,
amounts of liquids and gases. However, these valves once interna! pressures return to operational levels,
do not normally create a tight seal and must be used in the valve will close itself. Figure 5.20 provides drawing
low-pressure situations or where sorne leakage is per- symbols used to represent the relief valve and pressure
missible. Drawing symbols for the butterfly valve are safety valve.
shown in Figure 5.18. A dimensioning chart for the but-
terfly valve is included in the appendix.
Control Valve
Toe flow, level, pressure, and temperature of all
Relief Valves commodities being processed must be monitored,
Relief valves have a purpose quite different from the adjusted, and regulated to maintain a safe, efficient,
previous valves. They are designed to release exces- and profitable facility. Pressures and temperatures that
sive pressure that builds up in equipment and piping are allowed to elevate unchecked to extreme levels

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


COMMON VALVE TYPES 89

~
TOP TOP

FRONT END FRONT END


Single-line symbols Double-line symbols

FIGURE 5 .16 Plug val ve drawing symbols.

Wafer Waferlug Two-flange

FIGURE 5 .1 7 Butterfly valve. Courtesy of Crane Ce.

HNH
TOP TOP

HNH
FRONT END FRONT END
Single-line symbols Double-line symbols

FIGURE 5.18 Butterfly valve drawing symbols.

can become deadly. Commoctity flow rates and prod- common valve body style used as a control valve is the
uct storage levels that are insufficient may lead to less globe valve. Ball, butterfly, and plug valves can also be
production. Therefore, the control valve, which is a used as control valve body types. Control valves receive
remotely operated valve that can make precise adjust- a signa! from instruments positioned throughout the
ments to regulate and monitor any commodity flow- pipíng system to automatically make adjustments that
íng through a piping system, is widely used. Toe most regulate the commoctity within the piping system.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


90 5. VALVES

SPRING A()j_ SCREW

CAP GASKET

SPRING BUTTON

BONNET
BUTTON

BELLOWS

BODY STUO

HEX. NUT

LOCK SCREW (P.HJ

LOCK SCREW STUO

LOCK SCREW GASKET

LOCK SCREW (.B.O.R.)

HE.X.. NUTl,B.QR.L SJ

DRAIN

FIGURE 5 .19 Relief valve. Courtesy of Farris Safety­Relief Va/ves.

~-
TOP TOP

FRONT END FRONT


Single-line symbols Double-line symbols

FIGURE 5.20 Relief and pressure safety valve drawing symbols.

Control valves can perform many routine and repetitive Control valves are positioned throughout a pip-
operations or they can be designed for one specific task. ing facility, often in remote locations where access by
Figure 5.21 shows the drawing symbols for a control plant personnel is problematic. However, when oper-
valve. ational procedures require that there be continuous

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


VALVE OPERATORS 91

TOP
TOP

FRONT END
FRONT END
Single-line symbols Double-tine symbols

FIGURE 5.21 Control valve.

PLAN

8"x6"
(1YP. 2)
SECTION "A-1'!.'
FIGURE 5.22 Control valve manifold.

functionality, a back-up to the control valve must be VALVE OPERATORS


incorporated. To achieve this, control valve manifolds
are configured. Control valve manifolds, also known A valve operator is a mechanism that causes a valve
as manifold control stations, use a combination of to perform its function. Operators can be manual or
gate, globe, and control valves, uniquely arranged, to automatic. Manual operators employ levers, gears,
make continuous operational control of the commod- or wheels to facilitate movement within a valve. A
ity feasible. Control valve manifolds are discussed in designer / drafter has freedom and responsibility to
greater detail in Chapter 12. Figure 5.22 depicts the determine the positional location and orientation of
Plan and Elevation views of a typical control valve valves. However, consideration must be gíven not only
manifold. to make valve operation convenient and practícal, but
Depending upon the space available for the installa- also to make the operation safe for facility personnel.
tion of a manifold control station, different configura- When locatíng a valve, the diameter and length of its
tions can be employed. Figure 5.23 shows two possible handwheel, and if possible "clash" or interference with
installations of a control valve manifold. other components, must be addressed. Therefore, the

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


92 5. VALVES

6"

4"

6"x4" FRC ~

-:
RED. TEE 301 ~

FIGURE 5.23 Control valve manifold configurations.

placement and orientation of handwheels must follow Actuators


sorne specific guídelínes, Figure 5.24 provides the loca-
tion preferences for operating, emergency, and isolat- Automatic operators known as aciuaiors use an
ing valves when their stems are installed horizontally. externa! power supply to provide the necessary force
Notice, specific ''hazard" zones are shown for the head required to operate valves. Automatic actuators use
and lower leg area that must be avoided. Figure 5.25 hydraulic, pneumatic, or electrical power as their
shows similar guidelines for orienting valves when they source for operating valves. Hydraulíc and pneumatic
are installed vertically. Notice that once a valve hand- actuators use fluid or air pressure, respectively, to oper-
wheel reaches its maximum installed height of 4 '-6", the ate valves needing linear or quarter-tum movements.
~al~e is then rotated and bolted at such an angle so that Electric actuators have motor drives that operate valves
ít will eventually become horizontal in orientation. requiring multiple tum movements.
In situations where the standard handwheel is insuf- Automatic actuators are often provided on control
ficient to operate the valve, gears are commonly used valves that require frequent throttling or those found in
to enhance a handwheel's effectiveness. Bevel, spur, ~mote and inaccessible locations within a piping facil-
and worm gears supply the handwheel with a greater 1ty. Another common application for automatic actua-
mechanical advantage to open, close, or throttle the tors is on control valves of large-diameter pipe. These
commodity within the pipe. valves are often so large that a worker simply cannot
If a valve is installed ata height that is out of a work- provide the torque required to operate the valve. Also,
er's reach, a chain operator is often used. Toe chain oper- in an effort to protect workers, control valves located
ator is a sprocket-like attachment bolted to a valve's in extremely toxic or hostile environments are outfitted
handwheel. A looped chain is passed through the wi~ automatic actuators. Additionally, in emergency sit-
sprocket and is hung down to a height that is accessible uatíons, valves that must be immediately shut down are
by a worker. This allows a worker to operate the valve operated automatically. Figure 5.27 shows a diaphragm-
without the aid of a ladder or moveable scaffold. Figure style valve actuator. Notice it is attached to a double-
5.26 shows a typical chain operator. port, globe valve body, which makes throttling possible.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


YALVE OPERATORS 93
VALVE SERVICE
VALVE LOCATION PREFERENCES
(HORIZONTAL STEM)

USE CHAIN OPERATOR PERMISSIBLE lf


HEIGHTS SHOWN REFER TO ~ WHEN PERMITTED BY ACCESSIBLE BY
CENTERLINE or HANOWHEEL - ~- PLANT MANAG[MENT.
CHAIN MUST NOT
PORTABLE LADDER
UP TO ,o·-o·
HANC IN WALKWAY.

8'-0"
6"
7'-0"

6'-0"
HEAD HAZARD
6" ZONE
5'-0"

6"~~~~~~~~~~~~L-
4' -0" ------------t---~=-::::::::í'l'.'T

6" -----------+--~=~--
3' -o" ------------1-=:::::¡.. _
_:: ~'":lllJ!' =FDAR=:r=HT CHDICE
2.
6" SMALL VALVES---
ACCEPTABLE
LARGE VALVES
1 '-0" ~-~.........,~-'""""'..........,'""""',__ UN O ESIRAB LE ---

6" ~~~~~ _j_ _ _j_~

NOTES:
1. WHENEVER DESIGN CONDITIONS ALLOW, VALVES ARE BEST INSTALLED WITH THE STEM
ALIGNED VERTICALLY (POINTING STRAIGHT UP). THIS POSITION FACILITATES BETIER IN-FIELD
MAINTENANCE (INSPECTION, REPACKING, LUBRICATION, ETC.)

2. VALVES MAY BE ROTATED TO THE HORIZONTAL POSITION WITHOUT SACRIFICING MAINTENANCE


CONVENIENCE, BUT THEY MUST NOT BE INSTALLED WITH THE STEM POINTING DOWNWARD,
SINCE THIS CAUSES THE BONNET TO ACT AS A TRAP FOR ABRASIVE SEDIMENT.

3. SAFETY REQUIRES THAT VALVES BE POSITIONED ~ PLATFORMS 1 O' -0" OR HIGHER,


RATHER THAN ADJACENT TO THEM.

FIGURE 5.24 Valve location preferences with horizontal stem.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


94 5. VALVES

VALVE LOCATION PREFERENCES


(VERTICAL STEM)
'<30--J ~
w
>

EXTtNSION
HANOLES

6" -------1---+t--+-t--+---+--
2' -0" ------~-+-+--+---+---+-+--

FOR ISOLATINC
VAL.VES ONLY

6" --------+-+++--+-+--+---+-- .L, STILE OR


LOW WM.l<.

o
:
CD
:
o (O o1
o
1
.~1
MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL
""
OISTANCE F"ROM OPERATOR
NOTES:
1. WHENEVER DESIGN CONDITIONS ALLOW, VALVES ARE BEST INSTALLED WITH THE STEM
ALIGNED VERTICALLY (POINTING STRAIGHT UP). THIS POSITION FACILITATES BETTER IN-FIELD
MAINTENANCE (INSPECTION, REPACKING, LUBRICATION, ETC.)

2. VALVES MAY BE ROTATED TO THE HORIZONTAL POSITION WITHOUT SACRIFICING MAINTENANCE


CONVENIENCE, BUT THEY MUST NOT BE INSTALLED WITH THE STEM POINTING DOWNWARD,
SINCE THIS CAUSES THE BONNET TO ACT AS A TRAP FOR ABRASIVE SEDIMENT.

3. SAFETY REQUIRES THAT VALVES BE POSITIONED ABOVE PLATFORMS 1 O' -0" OR HIGHER,
RATHER THAN ADJACENT TO THEM.

FIGURE 5.25 Valve location preferences with vertical stem.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


YALVE OPERATORS 95

FIGURE 5.26 Valve chain operator.

----'-'AlVf'1,.IIQ

FIGURE 5.2 7 Valve actuator. Courtesy of Fisher Controls.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


96 5. VALVES

CHAPTER 5 REVIEW QUIZ 10. What type of device is used to opera te valves
installed in remote locations of a piping facility?
1. What is a valve?

EXERCISE INFORMATION
2. Name four end preparations for manufactured
Toe valves depicted in Figure 5.28 will be used to
valves.
complete the exercises in this chapter and Chapter 10.
Draw the valve symbols using the following guidelines:
• Draw ali valve symbols full size usíng dimensions
from the Welded Fittings-Flanges and Valves
Dimensioning Chart.
3. What is the pri.mary application for gate valves? • Draw the valve's body, centerline, and handwheel
bonnet with "default" lineweights.
• Create a BLOCK of each symbol. Use a block name
4. What phrase describes a valve's length
that appropriately describes the valve and its size
measurement?
and pound rating. (DO NOT include text with the
blocked symbol.)
5. What can be used to approximate the distance a • Place a base point on either end of the "bouitie­shape"
stem will rise above a handwheel? symbols and in the center of "end­oieu/'symbols
usíng either MIDpoint, or CENter OSNAP options.
• SAVE the file as "VALVE SYMBOLS.dwg."
6. Globe valves are used for what service situation?
After the symbols have been created and the draw-
ing saved, begin a NEW drawing and use AutoCAD
7. When using angle valves, in which direction must Design Center or the INSERT command to place the
the flow be traveling when it enters the valve? required valve symbols in their appropriate locations to
reproduce Exercises 5.1 and 5.4.
Solve for the missing dimensions using the required
8. What is the purpose of a check valve? dimensioning charts Exercises 5.2 and 5.3.
Exercises 5.5 and 5.6. Use dimensions found on the
appropriate valve dimensions charts to draw the speci-
9. Which valve prevents excessive pressure on gas and fied valves.
vapor service line? Exercises 5.7 through 5.13. Sketch the missing views
of the pipe configurations shown.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


EXERCISE INf-ORMATION 97

GATE VALVES:150 RF

14" CATE TOP 12" CATE TOP

,;-- -,
«,~ _ _J
14" CATE FRONT 14" CATE END 12" CATE FRONT 12" CATE END

1 4" 1 2"

10" CATE TOP 8" CATE TOP

.: ,·,'\
((----
\ '-..//
'-··

10" CATE FRONT 10" CATE END 8" CATE FRONT 8" CATE END

1 O" 8"
Fígure 5.28 Valve drawing symbols.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


98 5. VALVES

GATE VALVES:150 RF

11', ,'11 K71J


11 11
",' ',"
11
u
6'" GATE TOP 4"' GATE TOP

6" GATE FRONT 6" GATE END 4" GATE FRONT 4" GATE END

6" 4"

GATE VALVES:300 RF

~
6" GATE TOP ~
4" GATE TOP

6" GATE FRONT 6" GATE END 4" GATE FRONT 4" GATE END

6" 4"
FIGURE 5.28 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


e:,
'1
~
~-:::, o
(JQ

-
~ ~

CD
ORAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN <
1 4" -300# RF GATE VALVE ~
12" -150# RF GATE VALVE fl :;:d
VI
~ e:,
~

i
o
~
:;:d
o
~ o
(J) :i:
>
~ ~;e
"'
o
;e

~
zo
h\
0 ORAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
5' -300# RF GLOSE VALVE
DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN
14"-150# RF CHECK VALVE
m
X
93
o
¡¡;
¡¡¡

EXERCISE 5-1
.....
8

Solve for the missing dimensions. Solve for the missing dimensions.

CD 14" 300# GATE VALVE RF


1 /8" GASKETS
14"
14"
150# GATE VALVE RF
150# CHECK VALVE RF
1 /8" GASKETS

Solve for the missing dimensions. Solve for the missing dimensions.
6" 150# GATE VALVE RF 8" 300# GLOBE VALVE RF
4" 300# CONTROL VALVE RF 1/8" GASKETS
1 /8" GASKETS

GATE
VALVE
(TYP)

6"x4"
(TYP)
EXERCISE 5-2
Solve for the missing dimensions. Solve for the missing dimensions.
8" 150# GATE VALVE RF 1 O" 150# GATE VALVE RF
6" 150# GLOSE VALVE RF 8" 150# GLOSE VALVE RF
6" 300# CONTROL VALVE RF 8" 300# CONTROL VALVE RF
1/8" GASKETS 1/8" GASKETS

© ® 1 '-3" © 1 '-3"

6" 8"

6" 300# RF CD 8" 300# RF .


1:::::::3=::---t- o o
GATE ® 1 GATE ® 1
VALVE
(TYP) E::::=F=----+- e.o VALVE
(TYP) E:::3==----t- e.o
® ®
10"x8"
1----i--_.. __ (TYP. 2)

@ @
A= F=
A= F=
----
---- ----
8= G=
B= G= ----
---- ---- C= H=
C= H= ---- ----
---- ---- D=
D=
----
1=
----
---- 1=
----
E= 1=(6' -0")-(G+H)
E= 1=(6' -0")-(G+H)
---- E=(D)-(F + 1 '-3")
E=(D)-(F+1'-3") EXERCISE 5-3

....o
....
....
o
N

14"

:l:!
"O
m
o
~
=l ~
tí 14"
~

so> ~
m
l'[l
C)
z

DRAW ALL VIEWS AS SHOWN


14" 300# RF WN FLG.
DO NOT DIMENSION
14" X 10"
ECC RED
(FOT) EXERCISE 5-4
CHAPTER 5 DRAWING EXERCISES 103

o 24"
20" ~

N
;::-
<.O
LO

N
~"'-
1'- 4- _ _¡

~ 4 ~8" I' · • 'I . Y


1 8 4"

10"-300# RFWN, GATE

14"-300#RFWN, GATE 12"-300#RFWN, GATE

EXERCISE 5-5

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


104 5. VALVES

8"-1 SO#RFWN, GLOBE

T
16"-600#RFWN, GATE 8"-300#RFWN, GLOBE

EXERCISE 5-6

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


--+-
1
-+--t 1

ca""
+ -~- o

¡
:i:
111 ~ >
o 1 ~;e
s'
21
t
"'
o
;e

~ ~
zo

--6
~ m

r
1 X
o
IB --
1- 93
o
¡¡;

r
C)
z ¡¡¡

t- -t-1
1
1

EXERCISE 5- 7
:l:!
"O
m
o T T
~
=l ~
tí ~

so> ~
m
l'[l
C)
.l l_
z
1

-[
EXERCISE 5-8
-+-1

-1------1----~-
i i i

-~---
i i
--rl
i
---+-
-+-------,--
1 1 2" 1

+---+- 1

--f-i---¡--- -:--- ~ ---1-1-


-1--

;~8-)-~ ~I
r">:

l2..J

EXERCISE 5-9
....o
"'1
....
o
00

! ! 1

-+-----t-----1'-
I I

--L--
1

j_ __
1 1

Q-----'- ¡
' 1 i '
! !
--+-----t-
¡ 2" '

-t-----t--
1

i ! i
--------- _j_
i
----r-
1
1 1 1

1
1 ----

1 1

t
1 1

t E Jq:E J ( ~

EXERCISE 5-1 O
r
--+--

EXERCISE 5-11
....
....
o

-~}--))
1

-©)-
1 1
-+- -+-

-,- 1
1

-,- 1
1

+--+--
-t-
:~12" S.R. -+--+
-t-
1
-¡--

-+-'-- 1

EXERCISE 5-12
ca""
111
o
:i:
>
o ~;e
s' 1 1

21 1 1 "'
o
;e

~ ~
zo
~

+- -+-
m

-t--
1 1 X
o 93
IB o
¡¡;
C)
z ¡¡¡

-,- -,-
EXERCISE 5-1 3
........
....
CHAPTER

6
Mechanical Equipment

TYPES OF EQUIPMENT horizon. Also known as an accumulator, it is used pri-


marily as a receiving and collectíng container for líq-
Although piping components such as fittings, uids and/or gaseous vapors and, therefore, has no
flanges, and valves are important and impossible to do intemal moving parts. Accumulators can be located at
without in a process facility, they play a minor role in grade level or placed high in an equipment structure.
the actual manufacturing of a salable product. Other Support saddles, which are U-shaped supports, are
components of a pipíng facility actually perform the welded on the underside to secure and stabilize the ves-
tasks for which the facility is being built. Collectively, sel as it rests on two concrete foundations, which are
they are known as mechanical equipment. located near each end of the vessel. A nozzle on the top
Mechanical equipment can be used to start, stop, of the vessel allows liquids to enter and fill the vessel.
heat, cool, liquefy, purify, distill, refine, vaporize, trans- Another nozzle, coming off the bottom, allows the liq-
fer, store, mix, or separate the commodity flowing uids to be drawn out. Smaller nozzles are positioned
through the piping system. Toe discussion in this chap- that are used for venting, drainíng, and instrumentation
ter will concentrate on the pieces of equipment that are attachment. As will be discussed in Chapter 7, specíal-
used in a majority of ali chemical and refining facilities. ized monitoring instruments are needed to measure the
leve! and pressure of the commodity within the vessel.
Lastly, a large-diameter nozzle, typically 18" ID, called
Vessels a manway ar manhole, provides an entrance into the ves-
Horizontal Vessels/Accumulat.ors sel for a worker who must perform intemal inspection
Toe horizontal vessel, similar to the one shown in and/ or maintenance. Figure 6.2 shows the Plan and
Figure 6.1, is a cylindrical-shaped storage tank that is Elevation views of a typical horizontal vessel.
installed in a facility with its long axis parallel to the
Vertical Vessels!Fractionation Columns!Reactors
Toe vertical vessel is a cylindrical vessel whose long
axis is perpendicular to the horizon (see Figure 6.3). It is
one of the most visible pieces of equipment, and sorne
vertical vessels can exceed 200 ft in height. Configured
as a Fraaionation column, these vertical vessels have
intemal plates called trays that aid in the refining and
collection of the various molecular compounds of a
feedstock. Toe process of refining, or breaking a feed-
stock down into its various molecular compounds, is
called fraciional distillation. Distillation elicits only a
physical change in a commodity, not a chemical one.
After further refinement and processing, these com-
pounds will become salable commodities such as fuels,
plastics, and many other essential products. A detailed
FIGURE 6.1 Horizontalvessel. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, explanation of the fractional distillation process will be
lnc., Bayport, Texas. presented later in this chapter.

112 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghtsrcserved.


TYPES OF EQUIPM8' T 113

-N-=-
r 1 r 1
,-k 1r t 1r .. , ,1
1 1 , f-

,Jfi~~.
' " ... , \

' . . 1-~,
1
• I
+
-, /
'
~;--
.J. 1

1
1 t
,+1-r,+1,
1
''

'{...-

~· ' 1 1 1

_J_ -¡-

SOUTH ELEVATION EAST ELEVATION


FIGURE 6.2 Plan and Elevation views of a horizontal vessel.

framework structures. Being the primary piece of


equipment in a more volatile process, reactors are more
closely monitored than fractionation columns because
of the higher temperatures and pressures they operate
under. See Figure 6.4 for the Plan and Elevation views
of a vertical vessel.

Ladders, Cages, and Platforms


Many vessels and other pieces of equipment are built
to such heights that they are accessible only by ladders.
Ladders allow workers to access the hígher elevations
of equipment for routine inspection and maintenance.
Ladders are made of steel bar and plate, and are welded
or bolted to the exterior of a vessel.
Cages are designed to endose a ladder and prevent a
worker from falling. Made of steel plate, cages provide the
worker with a sense of security when scaling tall structures.
Plaiforms are like elevated walkways installed
around the outside of a vessel or between pieces of
equipment. Having a minirnum width of 3' -0", they
have a floor made of steel grating or diamond" plate.
II

With 42" tall handrails, workers can safely operate,


inspect, and maintain a vessel. Platforms are spaced so
ladders will not have a vertical run of more than 30' -0",
FIGURE 6.3 Vertical vessel. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, lnc., but are not spaced closer than 8' -O" to provide adequate
Bayporl, Texas. headroom clearance. Larger platforms can actually
become large multilevel structures that provide flooring
Reactors, through the introduction of a reagent or for equipment needed at higher elevations, as seen in
catalyst, change the chemical composition of a com- Figure 6.3. A typical vertical ladder and cage are shown
modity. Typically much larger in size than a fraction- in Figure 6.5. Platform walkways are also depicted
ation column, reactors can be housed in large, steel spanning between storage tanks in Figure 6.5.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


114 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

270·
-N.::::=-
~ -N.::::=- 135·

PLAN

go·
PLATFORM
NO. 2
270·

135·
-N.::::=-

1------0-

225'

90-

PLATFORM
NO. 1
ELEVATION
FIGURE 6,4 Plan and Elevation views of a vertical vessel with platform orientations.

Pumps nonpulsating rate of flow. With a fast spinning impel-


ler creating a low-pressure center point, any comrnodity
Pumps, similar to the one shown in Figure 6.6, are entering the pump will naturally seek the center of the
mechanical devices used to move fluids under pres- impeller only to be spun out at a hígh rate of speed.
sure from one location to another. Pumps accelerate Toe efficient operation of the centrifugal pump makes it
the speed at which a comrnodity travels within a pipe, the standard of most piping facilities.
thereby increasing its rate of flow. Pumps used in pip-
íng facilities typically will be one of the following clas-
sifications: centrífugal, reciprocating, or rotary. Reciprocating pumps
Toe reciprocating pump creates pressure with a
Centrifu.gal Pumps piston or plunger that alternately move back and
Toe centrifuga! force created by the high-speed forth. With each stroke of the piston, pressure is
impellers of a centrifuga! pump creates a smooth increased forcing the comrnodity out of the pump.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


TYPES OF EQUIPM8'T 115
TABLE 6.1 Pump Nozzle Arrangements
Suction Discharge Position

1 SIDE SIDE

2 TOP TOP

3 SIDE TOP

4 END TOP

END
5 END
(IN-UNE)

pumps use mechanical devices such as pistons, gears,


or screws to discharge a commodity at a smooth, con-
tinuous rate of flow. lt performs without creating the
extreme pressure surges often associated with the recip-
FIGURE 6.5 Ladder, cage, and platforms. Courtesy of Nisseki rocating pump.
Chemical Texas, lnc., Baypcrt, Texas.
Nozzle Arrangements
To effectively locate a pump withín a píping facility,
one must be especially concemed with the suctíon and
discharge nozzles. Toe suction nozzle is where the com-
modity is drawn into the pump. Toe discharge nozzle is
where the commodity is propelled from the pump. Toe
positioning of the nozzles on the pump is called pump
nozzle arrangemeni. Dependíng on the type, pumps typi-
cally are available in five different nozzle arrangements.
Toe chart in Table 6.1 shows the arrangements of pump
nozzles.
Of primary concern to pumps, especially centrifu-
ga! ones, is NPSH. Net Positive Suciion Head is, in sim-
plified terms, the mínimum amount of pressure (head)
needed by the commodity flowing into the pump that
will keep the pump primed, or pumping. NPSH, math-
ematically, is the sum of the resident pressure on the
FIGURE 6.6 Pump. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, lnc., Baypcrt, commodity in the pipe, at the pump's suction nozzle,
Texas. plus the pressure caused by gravity's effect on the com-
modity minus the amount of friction on the commodity
flowing through the pipe. More simply stated, NPSH is
Toe recíprocatíng pump is installed in piping systems head pressure plus gravity pressure minus friction. To
where extremely high pressures are required. achieve maximum efficiency, most pumps are installed
with its suction line enteríng the pump from a vertical
RotaryPump orientation to maximize head pressure.
Toe rotary pump is similar to the reciprocating Figure 6.7 depicts the Plan and Elevation views of a
pump in that it is a positive displacement type. Rotary typical pump. Notice only two nozzles are represented

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


116 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

-N-=-
SUCTION

PLAN
il
~~
1

suc_r_1o_N_~~- FIGURE 6.8 Electric motor. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, lnc.,
Bayport, Texas.

J
11

PAVING
1'

EAST ELEVATION
FIGURE 6. 7 Pump Plan and Elevation views.

in detall. A pipe drafter's primary concern is the loca-


tion, size, and rating of these nozzles. Toe type of
pump driver is secondary, unless it is a steam turbine,
in which case the turbine's steam supply and retum
nozzles must be represented on the piping arrangement
drawing.

Pump Drivers
Ali pumps require a starting device to function.
These devices are known as drivers. Toe driver is con- FIGURE 6.9 Diesel engine. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, lnc.,
nected to the pump vía a rotating shaft and coupling. Bayport, Texas.
Toe shaft tums the impellers, gears, and screws or
moves the pistons to initiate the "pumping" action. An
electric motor is the most commonly used driver. As an
alternative to electricity and as a back-up to the electric down because of an explosion or a fue, diesel engines
motor, a steam turbine is often employed. Toe steam provide power to the pumps that provide water to fue
turbine can operate duríng power outages or when a monitors, hoses, and other firewater systems in a facil-
motor is being repaired or replaced. Steam turbines are ity. Turbines can also provide electrical power to other
also chosen over electric motors for use in areas where essential plant services. Limited to outdoor service only,
explosive gases may be present. Toe electric current, diesel engines can be used when conditions render
which is required to power the motor, is a possible igní- electric motors and steam turbines useless. Figure 6.9
tion source to flammable gases that may have leaked shows a typical diesel engíne driver.
and collected near the motor. The turbine, driven by
steam, obviously reduces the possibility of an expío-
sion. Figure 6.8 shows an electric motor driver. Compressors
A diesel engine is used duríng times of emergency. Toe compressor is similar to the pump, but it is
When piping systems have been damaged and shut designed to move air, gases, or vapors rather than

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


TYPES OF EQUIPM8'T 117
SHELL OUTLET
WARM PROCESS

TUBE OUTLET
WARM LIQUID
FIGURE 6.1 O Interna! view of a shell and tube exchanger.

liquids. The compressor is used to increase the rate at be counterproductive. Exchangers simply transfer heat
which a gaseous commodity flows from one location through contact with a metal surface of a different
to another. Gases, unlike liquids, are elastic and must temperature. An exchanger most people are familiar
be compressed to increase flow rate. Liquids obví- with is the common household water heater whereby
ously cannot be compressed, unless you are building cold water flows around a heated element to warm the
a hydraulic application. Like pumps, compressors are water. A number of exchanger types are available; they
manufactured in centrífugal, reciprocating, and rotary include the shell and tube, double pipe, reboiler, and
configurations. air fan.

Shell and Tube Exchanger


Exchangers
The shell and tube exchanger performs its task by
Another common piece of mechanical equipment is circulating a hot líquíd around tubes that contain a
the exchanger. The exchanger's primary function in a cooler liquid. The hot liquid circulates in an enclosed
piping facility is to transfer heat from one commodity area called the shell. Tubes containing the cooler líq-
to another. Whether the objective is to heat a liquid to uid are looped through the shell. Hot liquid in the
a desired temperature or cool a product for final stor- shell warms the cooler liquid in the tubes, whereas
age, the exchanger can accomplish both. The most the cooler líquíd in the tubes cools the warm liquid in
important feature of the exchanger is that commodities the shell. Figure 6.10 provides a look into the shell and
are mot mixed with another agent to heat it up or cool tube exchanger. Contact between the cool and hot liq-
it down. A substantial amount of time and money has uids will naturally exchange heat from the hotter to the
been invested to purify the commodity, so mixing any- colder. Figure 6.11 shows the Plan and Elevation views
thing with it, just to heat it up or cool it down, would of a shell and tube exchanger.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


118 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

-N-c:::==-
r ,
1 1

1
J

PLAN

SOUTH ELEVATION EAST ELEVATION


FIGURE 6.11 Shell and tube exchanger Plan and Elevation views.

To prevent the two pipes of the exchanger from com-


ing in contact with one another, thin metal plates called
fins are welded to the outside of the smaller pipe. Figure
6.13 shows an end view of the double-pipe exchanger.
These fins also aid in the transfer of heat from one com-
modity to the other. Figure 6.14 provides the Plan and
Elevation views of the double-pipe exchanger.

Rebofler
Toe reboiler, as the name implies, is a device used
to replenish the heat lost by a process commodity. It is
natural that during the refining process commodities
will lose heat. In many cases lower temperature means
less efficiency and productivity. Therefore, it becomes
necessary to reheat certain commodities after a period
of time. Two types of reboilers are available for use: the
FIGURE 6.12 Double-pipe exchanger. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical kettle-type and the thermosyphon. A kettle-type reboiler
Texas, lnc., Bayport, Texas. is similar in design and appearance to the shell and tube
exchanger. Toe commodity to be heated is routed, via
pipe, to and from the heater and fractionation column.
Toe thermosyphon reboiler, however, is attached directly
Double-Pipe Exchanger to a fractionating column via its nozzles. Toe inlet and
Also known as the G­Fin or Hairpin. exchanger, double- outlet nozzles of a reboiler are bolted directly to the two
pipe exchangers are manufactured with a single, small- nozzles on the fractionating column. Figure 6.15 repre-
diameter pipe inserted into a larger-diameter pipe. Toe sents an exploded view of a kettle-type reboiler,
two pipes contain commodities of different tempera- Reboilers are used to keep fluids, which are circulat-
tures similar to the shell and tube exchanger. Figure ing through a tower, at their peak operating tempera-
6.12 includes two double-pipe exchangers stacked atop ture. Toe process commodity enters the reboiler from
one another. Toe upper is shown without protective the tower in a liquid state, is heated by either super-
insulation and the lower one with insulation. heated steam or another hot liquid, and is returned

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


TYPES OF EQUIPM8' T 119

in a vaporous state to an area in the tower called the


flash zone. Figure 6.16 depicts the location and use of a
reboiler. As we will see later, the flash zone is crucial to
the distillation process. Figure 6.17 shows the Plan and
Elevation views of a kettle-type reboiler.
AirFan
Air fans are large fan-type coolers placed above or
below a pipe rack that draw air across pipes to cool
them. Air fans opérate on the same principle as an auto-
mobile' s radiator, only on a much larger scale. Air fans
can be as large as 20' -0'' wide and 30' -O'' long. If linked
together, air fans can span up to lOOftor more, running
the entire length of a pipe rack.

Cooling Towers
After circulating through equipment such as
exchangers and condensers, cooling water will have
accumulated substantial heat gain. Without dissipating
the heat gain, cooling water will lose its cooling effec-
tiveness and become less efficient. A cooling tower is a
mechanical device that will lower the temperature of
cooling water. Cooling towers are uniquely designed
to dissipate heat gaín by evaporating large amounts of
aerated water that is circulated through an air-induced
FIGURE 6.13 End view of a double-pipe exchanger.

- N-.:::::=-

PLAN

EAST ELEVATION
FIGURE 6.14 Double-pipe exchanger. Pipe and Elevation views.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


120 6. MEQ !ANICAL EQUIPMENT

VAPOR OUTLET
20S"F

OIL INLET

OIL OUTLET
SSO"F
FIGURE 6.15 lntemal views of a kettle-type reboiler.

HEATER

FRACTIONATION
COLUMN
FIGURE 6.16 Reboiler in use.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


TYPES OF EQUIPM8' T 121

r,

-($-
1 1
$-$--:,-1:-
1 1
L-'

PLAN

EAST ELEVATION
FIGURE 6.1 7 Plan and Elevation views of a kettle-type reboiler.

Heaters/Boilers
Heaters, or furnaces as they are also known, are used
to raise the ternperature of a feedstock to the point
where it can be used in a process facility. Sorne feeds,
like crude oil, rnust be heated to approximately 700ºF
before it can be piped into a fractionation column where
its refining process begins, Firebrick lines the interior
walls of a heater to retain heat. Open-flame burners,
fueled with oil or gas, are used to generate the extreme
temperatures inside the heater's firebox. Traversing
back and forth in a continuous S or U pattern are the
pipes carrying the comrnodity being heated.
Heaters can be of the vertical or horizontal type.
Vertical heaters are often circular in shape and have
interna! piping traveling in a vertical direction (see
FIGURE 6.18 Cooling tower. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, Figure 6.19). Horizontal or box heaters are rectangular
tnc., Bayport, Texas. in shape and have pipes routed in the horizontal plane.
Both the S and U pattern heaters have similar character-
istics that indude brick-Iined heating chambers, flaming
burners, and baffled venting stacks (see Figure 6.20).
tower. Large fans sit atop a honey-combed charnber Boilers employ the same heating principle as a heater.
and draw through cascading sheets of water. As the They are used primarily to generate superheated steam
air passes through the falling water, it extracts heat. or stripping steam. Constructed similar to a heater, boíl-
Although there is a significant amount of drift (the ers can raise the temperature of water or condensate to
amount of water lost during the aerating and evapora- 1,000 ºF or more.
tion sequence), cooling towers are extremely efficient
and are widely used. Older cooling towers are easily
recognizable because they are constructed of wood and Storage Tanks
have horizontal slats resernbling louvers with water From the name, it is easy to determine what this
cascadíng down the walls. Figure 6.18 represents a typi- piece of equiprnent is used for. Storage tanks are used
cal cooling tower. in severa! phases of the refining process. They can be

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


122 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

used to store crude oil before its use in the facility, as


holding tanks for a partially refined product await-
ing further processing, or to collect a finished product
before its delivery or pickup by a customer.
Usually placed within a common area of a fácil-
ity known as a tank farm, storage tanks come in various
shapes and sizes. Sorne are shaped similar to horizontal
vessels and sorne are spherical, like a hall. Toe majority
of storage tanks, however, are huge, ground-supported
vessels, as muchas 200ft in diameter and up to 60ft tall.
Spherical tanks are used primarily for storing liquefied
petroleum gases like butane, methane, or propane. Toe
expanding nature of gaseous commodities requires that
a spherical shape be used. As gases expand equally in all
directions, it becomes necessary to store them in a vessel
that distributes load stresses equally to its walls. Toe larger
tanks, used for storing liquid product, may have either a
conical, elliptical, geodesic dome, floating, or open roof.
Floating roofs raise and lower to automatically adjust to
the level of the commodity in the tank. Floating roof tanks
use "pontoons" to create a seal agaínst the tank's wall to
help reduce evaporation and prevent the buildup of dan-
gerous gases that often occur with flammable liquids.
FIGURE 6.19 Vertical heater. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, As a preventative measure, containment díkes are
lnc., Bayport, Texas. erected to contain mejor leaks or spills. Should a storage

EXHAUST STACK ----

CONVECTION TUBES
SUPPORT
STRUCTURE

FIRE BRICK
HEATER BOX

RADIANT TUBES

HEATING CHAMBER

FLAME BURNER

FIGURE 6.20 Box heater.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


MECHAi'llCAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS 123

• Deethanizer­the first in a series of three distillation


columns whereby heavier gaseous molecule
hydrocarbons, or NGL (natural gas liquids) are
fractionated. Toe deethanizer distillation column's
overhead product is ethane gas. Its bottoms residue
is routed to a depropanizer far further processing.
• Deiso­butanizer­a distillation column that
fractionates butane. lso-butane is a refrigerant that is
used to replace ozone layer-depleting gases.
• Demethanizer­a fractionating column in a
cryogenic low-temperature distillation process
whereby lighter gaseous molecule hydrocarbons
(methane) are fractionated from raw natural gas.
• Depropanizer­a distillation column that receives the
bottoms residue from a deethanizer whose overhead
FIGURE 6.21 Storage tanks. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, lnc., product is propane. Its bottom residue is routed to a
Baypqrt, Texas. debutanizer.
• Distillation column­see fractionation column.
• Exchanger (shell and tube, g­fin)­Generic name
tank rupture or suffer severe damage, the dike will pre- gíven to a device used to transfer heat from one
vent major contanúnation to surrounding areas. Dikes commodity to another, though available in a number
can be earthen dams or concrete retaining walls built of different configurations it is spedfícally designed
around the perimeter of the entire storage facility, or a to prevent the two commodities from mixing.
single tank, at a height that would hold the contents of a • Flare stack­a vertical-axis tower that uses an open
storage tank, should a spill occur. Figure 6.21 depicts typi- fiare to bum waste or contaminated product.
cal storage tanks and surrounding concrete retaining wall. • Fractionation column­any number of vertical-axis,
separating devices having intemal trays, plates, or
other packing materials that are used to separate,
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
or fractionate a feedstock into various component
DESCRIPTIONS
by-products (fractions) by refining it (distilling,
fractionating) at the molecular level.
Numerous pieces of mechanical equipment are used
• Heater-horizontal- or vertical-axis device used to
in process facilities. Below is a list and description of
heat a commodity by circulating it through pipes that
sorne of them:
run through an open-flame firebox.
• Accumulator­a horizontal-axis vessel havíng no • Knock­out drum-used to collect any liquids present
intemal parts used to collect product as it circula tes in the waste stream prior to entering a fiare system,
through the refining process. especially important if substantial cooling of heavy
• Air cooler (air fan, fin­fan)­a rectangular device liquids is necessary.
having small-diameter pipes or tubes winding • Mixer-device used to combine liquid, semi-liquid,
back and forth, side-to-side, similar to that of an or bulk materials needed in the refining process.
automobile radiator. Sometimes mounted above a • Pump-mechanical device used to increase the flow
pipe rack, it uses large fans to draw air across the pressure of a liquid commodity.
tubes for cooling. • Reactor­a vertical-axis vessel that introduces a
• Chiller­one of the many types of exchangers used reagent or catalyst into a feedstock to induce a chemical
to reduce the temperature of a process commodity. reaction that will yield a uniquely different product.
• Column­see fractionation column. • Reboiler­used to superheat or vaporize the liquid
• Compressor­a mechanical device used to increase the feed befare entering a distillation column. Kettle-
flow pressure of a gaseous or vaporous commodity. type (horizontal) and thermosyphon (vertical)
• Cooling tower­uses a large fan to remove the reboilers use steam or hot oil to vaporize the feed
latent heat from coolíng water by drawing air across befare it enters the distillation column.
cascading water. • Scrubber­used to separate contaminants from gases
• Debutanizer­a distillation column that receives the during the refining process.
bottoms residue from a depropanizer whose overhead • Separator­any collection-type vessel used to
product is a mixture of normal and iso-butane. Its separate liquids from gases or other liquids duríng
bottoms residue is a C5+ mixture (pentane). the refining process.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


124 6. MEQ !ANICALEQUIPMENT

• Storage tank-containment vessel used to store gases necessary to transform raw crude oil into its various by-
or liquids before, duríng, or after the refining process. prod.uct components.
Crude oil and its derivatives are the most comrnon
supply prod.ucts used in petrochemical facilities. Known
as Jeed, crude oil is made up of molecules formed by
EQUIPMENT IN USE thousands of different hydrogen and carbon atom com-
binations. Because the molecules are different, each
Now that we have discussed the major pieces of crude oil molecule will boíl at a different temperature.
equipment, let us look at how they are integrated and But because they are comparatively similar in molecu-
function in a typical piping facility. The description lar structure, groups of molecules often boíl within a
to follow will be an abbreviated sequence of steps narrow range of each other. These groups are called

AVIATION
GASOLINE LIGHT
NAPHTHA
(AV GAS)

MOTOR HEAVY
GASOLINE NAPHTHA

MILITARY &
COMMERCIAL
JET FUEL

LIGHT
DIESEL FUEL
GAS OIL

FUEL Oll
LUBE Oll
HEAVY
GAS OIL

FLASH
ZONE zoo'r
Jl
HEATER/FURNACE

,,,;:=== ...===:a:
STRIPPING STEAM

780.F

ASPHALT 780.F
COKE BOTTOMS
TAR RESIOUE

CRUDE DISTILLATION FLOW CHART


FIGURE 6.22 Crude feed by-products.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOOY 125

fractions. The process that will separate these fractions for its crude oil feed. As you look at this example, keep
into their various groups, so they may be collected for in mind that the extraction and refinement of these
further processíng, is called fractionai distillation. Figure by-products would require multiple stages of further
6.22 depicts the by-products refined from crude oil feed. processing, taking place in numerous additional frac-
A closer look at the fractional distillation schematic tionation columns. In the typical fractional distillation
will allow us to examine how each piece of equipment process, heavy by-producís such as asphalt and tar
has a unique and distinct role in the refining process. come off the bottom of the column as residue. As the
From the storage facility, crude oil feed is pumped vapors rise and temperatures begin to decrease, the
through preheat exchangers. These exchangers are molecules of heavy oil products, which include fuel
the first stage of the heating process. From the preheat and lubricatíng oils, condense, collect on a tray, and are
exchangers, the crude is sent to a heater or furnace. extracted. At hígher elevations in the column, light oil
Once inside the heater, the feed is circulated through products such as diese! fuel and kerosene are removed.
a series of pipes and is heated to a temperature of Above the kerosene, heavy naphtha, used in makíng
approximately 700 ºF. The boiling feed is then piped motor gasoline, and light naphtha, used to make avia-
to the fractíonatíng column. This area of the column is tion gasoline, are collected for further processíng. Toe
known as the flash zone. The flash zone is the position light naphtha is a prime example of how further pro-
in the fractionating column where the incoming feed, cessing can yield additional products.
when infused with stripping steam, separates into When the light naphtha vapors are removed from
vapor and liquid states. Siripping steam is superheated, the top of the column, they are sent through exchangers
dry steam that enhances the molecular breakdown of to be condensed. As the liquid naphtha is condensed,
the crude feed. it is piped to an accumulator for collection. In the accu-
Inside the column, the heated crude oil molecules mulator, the liquid naphtha settles to the bottom and
will begín to group together accordíng to their weights. is pumped away for additional processing to later
The natural tendency of lighter-weight molecules to rise become aviation gasoline (av gas). The naphtha vapors
causes the light fractions, those with a low-temperature left in the accumulator rise to the top and are removed
boiling point, to vaporize and rise to the top of the by a compressor to be further processed into liquefied
column. Heavy fractions, the heavier molecules with petroleum gases (LPG) such as butane, methane, and
a high-temperature boiling point, remain in a liquid propane of burned in a fiare stack as waste gases.
state and settle to the bottom of the column. Horizontal
trays, spaced 18-24" apart inside the column, act as
a filter that will separate and collect the rising vapors
and falling liquids into various fractions. As vapors EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOGY
rise through the column, they begín to cool. At one spe-
cific and unique height in the column, when the vapors Toe following list identifies items generally associ-
cool to a precise temperature, the fractions condense. ated with mechanical equipment and vessels:
Toe condensing fractions, now liquid, collect on a tray
that has been placed in the column at that exact height • Base plate­A flat, metal ring welded to the bottom
based on temperatures cakulated by a process engineer, of a vessel's supporting skirt that rests on a concrete
Trapping the liquid is a short, vertical plate, known as foundation. Holes around the perimeter of the metal
a weir, which acts as a dam to contain the líquid on the ring make it possible to position it over anchor bolts
tray. The weir is of such a height that liquid by-product and secure it to the foundation.
will collect and be drawn off by pipe attached to a noz- • Downcomers-Verticalopenings adjacent to a tray
zle. Toe liquid fraction, now a by-product of the feed, that allow liquids flowing over a weir plate to fall to
is routed to other areas of the facility for additional the tray below and begin the fractionation process
refinement and processing. If an excess amount of liq- agaín,
uid collects on the tray, it will overflow the weir and fall • Head­The end enclosures of a vessel. They can be
down through an area known as a downcomer to a lower either semi-elliptical, spherical, or dished.
section of the column. There it is once again heated to • Insulaiion rings-Continuous circular rings welded to
the point of vaporization. The vapors will begín to rise the exterior of a vertical vessel that support a vessel's
and start the process over agaín, Depending on precise insulation. They are typically spaced on 12'-0" centers.
fractionation requirements, trays can have a number of • Lifting lugs-Donut-shaped rings welded to the
configurations. Figure 6.23 shows a "single-pass" and vessel's shell or head that allow the vessel to be
"double-pass" tray configuration. raised and positioned during installation.
Figure 6.24 shows an expanded schematic flowchart • Manholes­Similar to large nozzles that allow
of a fractionating column and the by-products extracted workers entry points into a vessel. They generally are

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


126 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

SINGLE PASS DOUBLE PASS

P~N P~N

WEIR PLATE

DOWNCOMERS

\ '\ I f I

l) ', '
1 / \ ' ''
~,..\ t1 i
~t I: r I
;, a,
1, A ,'11
,a, , 1
,a ,

ELEVATION ELEVATION
FIGURE 6.23 Single-pass and double-pass tray configurations.

18" ID and are accessible by ladders and platforms. concrete foundations and create a cradle-like support
When not in use, the manhole is sealed with a blind in which the vessel can rest.
flange. • Sea/ pan­A tray installed below the bottom tray in a
• Milnholehinge­A hinge that creates a pivot point vessel to prevent liquids from bypassing the trays.
allowing the blind flange attached to the manhole to • Shell­The cylindrical walls of a vessel.
be easily removed for worker entrance. • Skirt­A cylinder-shaped support for a vertical
• Nozzle­A flange-faced tie-in connection that allows vessel. One end is welded to the base plate allowing
a piping configuration to be bolted to a vessel, it to rest on the foundation and the other end is
pump, exchanger, or other piece of mechanical welded to the bottom head of a vertical vessel.
equipment. Nozzles are provided in locations where • Skirt access opening­An 18" ID hole 2'-6" above
a commodity is either introduced or removed from a the foundation that allows workers' entrance for
vessel or piece of equipment. inspection and maintenance.
• Nozzle orientation­The angular arrangement of • Skirtfireproofing­Generally brick or gunite,
nozzles around the perimeter of a vessel' s shell. fireproofing is applied around the interior and
• Nozzle projection­Used to establish the distance from exterior walls of a vessel skirt. It is necessary to
the vessel's centerline to the nozzle's face of flange. prevent damage to vessel skirt in case a fue occurs.
• Reinforcing pad­A plate contoured to the shape of • Skirt vents-Equally spaced holes approximately
a vessel shell. It is positioned around nozzles and 3-4" in diameter bored near the top of the vessel
provides additional strength in the areas where metal skirt that allow toxic and explosive gases to escape.
was removed from the shell. • Trays­Flat metal plates spaced approximately
• Saddles­U­shaped supports welded on horizontal 18-24" apart inside a vertical vessel. They can
vessels and exchangers. Saddles are bolted to be bolted or welded to the vessel shell. Trays are

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


EQUIPMENT TERMINOLOOY 127

CRUDE OIL
FROM STORAGE

PRE-HEAT
EXCHANGERS

255'F
STEAM

700'F
J1
HEATER/FURNACE

BOTTOMS RESIDUE

CRUDE DISTILLATION FLOW CHART


FIGURE 6.24 Flowchart of fractional distillation process.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


128 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

perforated to allow rising vapors and.falling liqu~ds foundations, locate supports, and calculate interfer-
to pass through with the aid of a valvíng mecharusm ences without having the actual piece of equipment
called a cap. available to measure.
• Weir­A dam-like plate welded on a tray that allows
a fractionated by-product to collect and be extracted
by a nozzle. DRAWING EQUIPMENT

Vendor data drawings are valuable sources of infor-


mation when the need to represent equipment on a pip-
VENDOR DATA DRAWINGS
ing drawing arises. Although piping drawings do not
require the duplication of all the information shown on
With a myriad of piping facilities in operation, one
equipment data drawings, they do require_representa-
should not expect specialized piping equipment to be
tion of overall equipment lengths and heights, along
an item found on a store shelf, waiting to be purchased,
with nozzle sizes, locations, projections, orientations,
like repair parts for an automobile. Each piece of e~uip-
and pound ratings. The drawings shown in the Figures
ment has certain criteria that must be met before ít can
6.25 and 6.26 are typical representations of vendor data
become part of a process unit, boiler room, or produc-
drawings for a shell and tube exchanger and horizontal
tion facility. Although duplicate pieces of equipment are
vessel, respectively.
found within the same facility, every piping facility has
Piping arrangement drawings can be tedious and
equipment installations unique unto itself. Thei:efore,
time-consuming to create. Toe step-by-step procedures
equipment must be specifically designed and fabncated
shown in Figure 6.27 can be used as a guide to develop
for each situation.
the various elements of a horizontal vessel. Toe mea-
Once specilic performance requirements for equip-
surements used to represent vessel 01-V-102 on a plan,
ment have been established by engíneeríng, process,
elevation, or section view are taken from the vendor
and other design groups, purchase orders are placed
data drawing shown in Figure 6.26. This accumulator
with companies called vendors who specialize in m~u-
is capped on each end with a 2:1 semi-elliptical head.
facturing the specialized equipment. Although equip-
Drawing the vessel's shell is not difficult, but deve~op-
ment such as pumps and compressors are considered
ment of the 2:1 semi-elliptical head can be challengmg.
to be somewhat "standard" and are readily available,
Use the step-by-step procedure shown in Figure 6.28 to
other pieces of equipment such as vessels, he~~ers, an? create a 2:1 semi-elliptical head on each end of 01-V-102.
exchangers must be custom-made for a specific ap~b-
cation. Vendors provide engineering and construction
companies data drawings that show exact measure- Drawing the Horizontal Vessel
ments, locations, pound ratings, and overall sizes of the
newly manufactured item. Engineering companies ~en See Figure 6.27.
use the information found on these vendor data drawmgs
as a reference so pipe connecting to the piece of equip-
ment can be designed, drawn, fabricated, and installed
Drawing the 2: 1 Semi-elliptical Head
with precision. Vendor data drawings also provide See Figure 6.28
designers the necessary information required to build

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


NOZZLE SCHEDULE
MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE PROJ.
NOZZLE "A"&"B" NOZZLE "e" NOZZLE "D"

lH_L
11"
7/8tn 1 5/8"-iÍI
15" A
8
e
C.W.INLET
C.W.OUTLET
6"
6"
150#
150#
RF
RF
1 '-8"
1'-8"

Jcga"(TYP.) T~-1 T~ VAPOR IN 10" 300# RF 1 '-8"


1" -!4---, µ2:jL3· w o LIQUID OUT 8"
1 ..
300# RF 1 '-8"
(TYP.) V TW/VENT 8 6000# CPLG W/PLUG

NOZZLE DETAILS

-N-=- 31/2"t
1 1/2" 2"

r~~
1 1
50.8
1 1
l J

~_J_
PLAN
SEE DETAil
24'-0"
DETAil "A"
1'-4" 18'-10·

1'-8"
ci
-+-+-11+11----+--+-- - -- p ---
•N 1·-a·

1s·-o·

EAST ELEVATION NORTH ELEVATION

DEPROPANIZER OVERHEAD CONDENSER 01-E-102


FIGURE 6.25 Shell and tube exchanger vendor data drawing.
....
l.,J
NOZZLE SCHEDULE o
NOZZLE "Nl" NOZZLE "N2" MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE PROJ.

M
15" 17.5"
Nl LIQUIO IN 8" 300/1 RF 2'-8"
7/8"
5/8"-iM~
r'H 8" l=~-f8. N2
N3
LIQUIO
ORAIN
OUT 10"
2"
300#
300#
RF
RF
2'-8"
2'-6"

Ld 3"(TYP.)
~-i N4
NS
VAPOR
RELIEF
OUT 4•
4•
300#
300"
RF
RF
2'-8"
2'-8"
N6 LEVEL GAGE 2" 300" RF 2'-6"
NOZZLE "N4"&"N5" NOZZLE "N3",''N6"&"N7"


N7 LEVEL GAGE 2" 300# RF 2'-4"

125·1;~.-
10" 6.5" Cl VENT 6000# CPLG W/PLUG

4"_¡_¡_
,¡a·J;j}· M1 MANWAY

r ,
18" 300" RF 2'-10"

- f\l---,;::::=-
,!-
1 1
NOZZLE DETAILS
·+: ----+',+,,
1
1
1
1
I ,,

'f
'l'. ,
1 1

PLAN

SOUTH ELEVATION

DEPROPANIZER REFLUX ACCUMULATOR O 1-V-102


FIGURE 6.26 Horizontal vessel vendor data drawing.
DRAWING EQUIPMEJ--T 131

Dimensions needed


to draw shell of A
01­V­102: 15'-0"
i::
Tangent to Tangent o
1
Dim.:= 15'-0" ~
01-V-102 ID:
(lnside Oiometer)= 4' -0" 8

STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3


Dimensions needed to
loca te nozzle N of
2
01­V­102:
T ongent line to t N2 = 1 '-0"
1 ' •
Nozzle size (NPS) = 1 O"
Nozzle pound roting=
Nozzle projection
300#
= 2'-8" ~!
STEP 4 STEP 5 STEP 6
FIGURE 6.2 7 Step-by-step procedures for drawing 01-V-102.
• Step l. Determine the vessel's diameter and length as provided by the vendor drawing. Using the measurements from Figure 6.26, the ves-
sel's ID (lnside Diameter) is 4' ..()" and its length from Tangent line to Tangent line is 15' -O".
• Step 2. Draw a horizontal centerline equal to the vessel's length.
• Step 3. Create two lines parallel to the centerline measuring one-half of the vessel's ID (2'-0") above (A) and below (B) the centerline. Toe
total height should be equal to the vessel's ID (4' -O"). Connect the endpoints of the two new horizontal lines with phantom lines to establish
the ends of the vessel' s shell (C).
• Step 4. Using measurements provided on the 01-V-102 vender drawing, determine the following values for nozzle N2: the distance the
nozzle's centerline measures from the Tangent line (1 '..()"), nozzle size (10"), nozzle pound rating (300#), and nozzle projection length (2'-8").
• Step S. From the left Tangent line, OFFSET a parallel line l'-0" to the right to establish the centerline of nozzle N2. From the centerline of the
vessel, OFFSET a parallel line 2'-8" below, to establish the face of the nozzle. Using dimensions found on the 300# Welded Fittings-Flanges
Dirnensioning Chart in Appendix A, draw the nozzle using the flange's OD (17'1h") and face thickness (lW').
• Step 6. Use the step-by-step procedures shown in Figure 6.28 to develop the 2:1 semi-elliptical heads.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


132 6. MECHA,'llCAL EQUIPMENT

"ICSSEL OIAMETER •1

1.
-1- ~_jl_
TANGENT UNE 7

STEP 1 STEP 2

*----t-
POINT 1 1 POINT 2

CIRCLE 2
CPt\ /CP2
-¡-

STEP 3 STEP 4

ERASE
TANGENT UNE

/ \
ADD WELD UNE
I \,,-- CIRCLE J

1
\ I
\ I
-,
<,
-
STEP 5
- _.,,.
/
/
STEP 6

FIGURE 6.28 Step-by-step procedures for drawing a 2:1 semi-elliptical head.


• Step l. Develop the vessel's shell using the step-by-step procedures shown in Figure 6.27.
• Step 2. OFFSET a line above and parallel to the Tangent line that is a distance equal to the IDD (lnside Depth of Dish) dimension. Use the
following formula to establish the IDD dimension. IDO = vessel diameter X 0.25
• Step 3. Draw 30° lines from Points 1 and 2 that will intersect on the vessel's centerline and establish Point 3.
• Step 4. Construct Circle 1 by drawing a CIRCLE having its centerpoint at the intersection of the 30° line and the Tangent line (CP1 in step 3).
The radius of Circle 1 is measured from CPl, then horizontally to the left end of the vessel. Circle 2 is constructed in a similar manner on the
opposite side of the vessel using CP2 as its centerpoint.
• Step 5. Circle 3 is a TANgent, TANgent, TANgent circle type. The three tangen! selection points are identified by the three "dots" shown in
the Step 5 figure. The resulting circle is shown as dashed lines.
• Step 6. Use OFFSET to construct a weld line that measures 2-3" below and parallel to the Tangent line. TRIM the ares as necessary. ERASE
the Tangent line.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CHAPTER 6 DRAWING EXERCISES 133

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW QUIZ 10. How does a cooling tower perform its function?

1. Define mechanical equipment.


11. What items are typically found on a tank farm?

2. What is an accumulator? 12. Name sorne of the common by-products derived


from crude oil feedstock?

3. Explain fractional distillation.


13. What interna! device is used as a separator
and collector of molecules in a fractionation
4. What is a by­product ?
11 11
column?

S. What does a pump do? 14. Which directions do light and heavy molecules
travel within a fractionation column?

6. What are the five pump nozzle configurations?


15. Where is the dimensional data used to draw
mechanical equipment found?

7. Name three types of pump drivers.


CHAPTER 6 DRAWING EXERCISES
Exercises: Drawing Equipment
8. What does a compressor do? Exercise 6.1. Draw the plan and elevation views of
the shell and tube exchanger as shown in Figure 6.25 to
full scale and place in an A size border to % = l '-0"
II
11 11

scale.
9. Describe the function of an exchanger. Exercise 6.2. Draw the plan and elevation views of
the horizontal vessel as shown in Figure 6.26 full scale
and place in an A size border to %'' = l '--0" scale.
II
11

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


CHAPTER

7
Flow Diagrams and lnstrumentation

Flow diagrams describe, in a schematic drawing for- project specifications, standards, and accepted design
mat, the sequential flow of liquids, gases, and vapors practices. Toe flow diagram is usually "yellowed out" as
as they enter, flow through, and exit the process facil- each line is completed and incorporated into the design.
ity. By using simplified drawing symbols, to represent
various pieces of mechanical equipment, valvíng, and
instrumentation, and specific notes, callouts, and abbre- TYPE OF FLOW DIAGRAMS
viations, the flow diagram provides the pípíng designer
with an overall view of the operation of a facility. Process engineers are responsible for developing flow
Toe flow diagrams presented in this chapter are rep- diagrams. In many large engineering firms, an entire
resentative of the types used by many engineering and department is dedicated to the development of flow día-
design companies. While actual symbols may vary grams. Today almost all flow diagrams are laid out with
slightly from company to company, the general appear- CAD drafting software or a 30 plant modeling software
ance of flow diagrams is the same throughout the pip- program that has a flow diagram package included.
íng industry. Although there are various types of flow diagrams used
Anyone new to flow diagrams must become famil- during the design phase, we will concentrate on just
iar with the piping, equipment, and instrumentation three: the Process, Mechanical, and Utility flow diagrams.
symbols, as well as the abbreviations used on flow día-
grams, in order to be able to interpret them.
One of the most difficult concepts for students to Process Flow Diagram
comprehend is the absence of scale in the preparation of
Toe Process flow diagram is the first flow diagram
flow diagrams. Toe flow diagram should be laid out in
developed during the design process. Toe Process flow
a very simplistic and logícal order and be "read" from
diagram will include the following:
left to right. It guides the drafter and designer in the
same manner a road map guides a traveler. 1. Major mechanical equipment
2. Main pípíng
3. Direction of commodíty flow
USES OF FLOW DIAGRAMS 4. Operating pressures and temperatures of the facility
components
Toe flow diagram is used by the pípíng group to S. Major controlling instrumentation
develop and lay out the Plot Plan. When developing
Toe Process flow diagram will denote the following:
the Plot Plan, the arrangement of the mechanical equip-
ment in the facility reflects, in part, the logical sequence • Conditions to be used for the design of various
of flow depicted on the flow diagram. However, many pieces of mechanical equipment required for facility
other factors such as code requirements, client stan- operation, that is, fractionation columns, pumps,
dards and preferences, worker safety, and cost influence heaters, etc.
the positioníng of equipment. • Toe operating and design conditions (pressures
Once the Plot Plan is finalized, the piping designer and temperatures) of which a particular piece
routes the pipe between the various pieces of mechani- of mechanical equipment will function. Design
cal equipment as indicated by the flow diagram usíng conditions establish the lirnits that certain

134 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghts rcserved.


FLOW DIAGRA}"1 INSTRUMENTS 135

components such as gaskets and valve seats used Sorne of the common plant utilities are the following:
in the facility can withstand. Design pressure is
calculated to be at least 10% above the maximum • Steam • Condensate
operating pressure or 25# greater (whichever is • Fue! oil • u tility air
largest). Toe design temperature will be at least • Instrument air • Cooling water
the maximum operating temperature, but should • Draínage systems • Fiare system
be at least 25 degrees above the normal operating
temperature. Once flow diagrams have been finalized, they will be
• Composition of the commodities used in the refining stamped for "release" by a registered professional engí-
or treatment process sequence as they enter and neer, approving them for construction by the engíneeríng
leave the unit. group. Toe flow diagram is a dynamíc document. They
Figure 7.1 is the Process flow diagram of Unit-Ol. may be revised and updated during the project's desígn
phase to reflect the client changes or modifications
imposed by governmental regulations. Continua! review
Mechanical Flow Diagram of relevant flow diagrams must occur on a regular basis.
From the Process flow diagram, the mechanical Figure 7.3 is the Utilíty flow diagram of Unit-Ol.
group develops the Mechanical flow diagram. Toe
Mechanical jlow diagram provides much more detailed
data than the process flow diagram. Many companies FLOW DIAGRAM INSTRUMENTS
refer to the Mechanical flow diagram as the "P&ID"
(Process and lnstrument Diagram). Often referred to To ensure the safe and efficíent operation of a facil-
as the "bible" of the design process, this drawing pro- ity controlling instrumentation is an absolute necessity.
vides the pipe drafter with specific desígn criteria. Controlling instruments function by sensing condi-
Mechanical flow diagrams include the following: tional changes in the commodities they monitor, either
in pipes or mechanical equipment. These conditional
1. Pipe line numbers with direction of commodity flow changes comprise the four basic instrument groups;
2. Pipe specifications and line sizes they are the following:
3. All mechanical equipment
4. All operating and isolating valves Flow (F)
5. All controlling instrumentation with transmitting Level (L)
devices
Pressure (P)
Mechanical flow diagrams define the exact sequence Temperature (T)
in which all mechanical equipment, valves, instrumen-
tation, connections, etc. are to be made on each pro-
cess pipe routed through the facility. Figure 7.2 is the Within these four instrument groups are uniquely
desígned instruments that carry out the sensing, con-
Mechanical flow diagram of Unit-01.
trolling, and monitoring of the commodíty, These
instruments can be one or a combination of the follow-
The Utility Flow Diagram ing five specific types:
Toe Utility jlow diagram includes all pipes, valves,
Controller (C)
and instrumentation of the facility utilities. Utilities are
services that are essential to the proper function of the Indicator (I)
facility. Although the facility is not being constructed Gauge (G)
to make condensate, condensate will be present in the
Alarm (A)
facility and must be dealt with. Similarly, the facilíty is
not being designed to gather and sell rainwater but the Recorder (R)
collection, treatment, and disposing of rainwater must
be incorporated into the facility's design. Sorne utilities By learníng the combination of these nine instru-
found in a petrochemical facility correspond to those ment groups and types, students will be able to ínter-
found in a typícal house, such as water, gas, heating oil, pret most of the instrumentation symbols present on a
and sewer drains. Others are specific to industrial applí- Mechanical flow diagram.
cations, such as compressed aír for pneumatic tools and Figure 7.4 illustrates a combination of the instrument
steam for high-pressure cleaning. group and type to develop symbols and abbreviations

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


01-E-101 01-V-101 01-E-102 01-V-102
REBOILER DEPROPANIZER OVERHEAD REFLUX
CONDENSER ACCUMULATOR

125"f

36

COOLING WATER
01-E-102 SEE UTIUlY
01-V-101 FLOW DIAGRAM

:-'
;¡¡
FEED
20 ~
255 PSIG
21o·r
FlARE
º>o
s:
~
~o
~..-J
245"f
~
~z
;;!
;.,

01-P-101A & 1018


PRODUCT ANO
REFLUX PUMPS
FIGURE 7.1 Process flow diagramof Unit-01.
01-E-JOJ OJ-y-101 OJ-E-J02 01-y-102
FRACTlONATOA FRACTIOHATOA <MRHEAD REFI.UX
REBOUR 4'-0" OO. X 52'-0" T/T COHDENSER ACCUMUlATOA
4'-0" OO. X 15'-0'l/T

01-1$-A.15-6.
COOUNG WATER
Ol-14-A15-S• SEE UTIUTY
FI.OW ow.RAM

1W
3

.. !
s
1

01-11-A.15-6•-tH

HOT Oll
SE[ V11UTY
FI.OW D<AGRAM

01-10-A.15-G•-tH

..
y ORAIN

QJ-P-JOJA & 6
PROOUCT a< REFWX
PUMPS

FIGURE 7 .2 Mechanical flow diagram of Unit-01.


138 7. FLOW DIAGRAMS ANO l?-:STRUMENTATION

COCUNC ftAI(*
ro" rlfOW TO
. . ...
rUM
01-(-1Q2 J'll:()M 01-\'-102

6" 6"

6" ••

L ..
~<J
'""""
l'VJlt """""
HCAT W:OIUMI MTURN
HU.t YlOIUM $1.#Pl1'
'#TR..
-
...
COOl,H; A(1UAH

..
COOlNC WTR. ~.,
IICSTRI.JMO«TlílA

.
,....-.><J
r-M
..
PV,NI Mlit

F
S(IMC( Ml!Jt

• V.STUM

FIGURE 7 .3 Utility flow diagram of Unit-01.

that represent an instrument's function on a flow día- or pressure inside a vessel is too high or too low or that
gram. Toe first letter in the symbol typically indicates there is no flow or reverse flow.
the instrument group, while the second and/or third Indicators-devices used to indicate the liquid level,
letters indicate(s) the instrument type. temperature, pressure, or flow rate inside a piping
To respond to a change in, or to control the flow, level, system.
pressure, or temperature of a commodity, an instru- Recorders-electronic devices used to record the
ment must first sense a change in a particular variable. liquid level, temperature, pressure, and flow rate inside
Once a change has been detected, the instrument then a vessel or piping system throughout a certain shift or
transmits this information, via mechanical, electronic, period of time.
or pneumatic means, to a control panel where it can be Although they are often installed independently,
observed, recorded, and responded to. At the same time, multitype instruments are engineered to perform vari-
the instrument may actívate other devices that will affect ous functions simultaneously. If there are the need to
and change process conditions elsewhere in the facil- record and control the level of a commodity in a ves-
ity. Sorne instruments are read in the plant at the instru- sel, one would install a level recording controller (LRC).
ment's actual location; others are displayed on a control Toe LRC would not only record the level of the com-
panel located in the operator 's control room. modity in the vessel but also send a sígnal to a control
valve that opens or doses to adjust the commodity level
lnstrument Types inside the vessel.

Gauges-instruments that measure the liquid level


inside a vessel or the temperature and/or pressure FLOW DIAGRAM DRAWING SYMBOLS
in the piping system. Level, temperature, or pressure
gauges can be locally mounted to enable plant opera- Figure 7.Sa-e provides sorne examples of the many
tors to obtain a visual reading. mechanical equipment symbols that can be found
Controllers-devices used to maintain a specified on flow diagrams. Figure 7.6 shows sorne of the com-
liquid level, temperature, pressure, or flow inside a ves- mon valve symbols used on flow diagrams along with
sel or piping system. Controllers can actívate a control various pipe and instrument line symbols. Note all
valve, which regulates the level, temperature, pressure, valves, irrespective of their pipe size or pound rating,
or flow of the commodity coming into or out of a vessel. are drawn the same size. Remember, flow diagrams are
Alarms-instruments that send a sígnal via lights, schematic drawings where drawing to the exact dimen-
horns, or sirens indicate the liquid level, temperature, sional size is not necessary. Generally, nozzles and

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


139

o
FLOWPl.N\ ARRANGEMENT

LOCALL Y MOUNTED INSTRUMENT 8 PANEL/BOARD MOUNTED INSTRUMENT

FLOW INSTRUMENTS PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS


@ FLOW ALARM @ PRESSURE ALARM

® FLOW ELEMENT @ PRESSURE CONTROLLER

® FLOW INOICATOR ® PRESSURE INOICATOR

@ FLOW RECOROER @ PRESSURE RECORDER

® FLOW RECOROING CONTROLLER 8 PRESSURE INOICATING CONTROLLER

® FLOW TRANSMITIER 8 PRESSURE RECOROING CONTROLLER

LEVEL INSTRUMENTS 8 PRESSURE SAFETY VALVE

@ LEVEL ALARM
@
8
RELIEF VALVE

LEVEL ALARM HIGH


TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTS
8 LEVEL ALARM LOW @ TEMPERATURE ALARM

@ LEVEL CONTROLLER 0 TEMPERATURE INDICATOR

@ LEVEL GAUGE/GLASS ® TEMPERATURE RECORDER

0 LEVEL INOICATOR 8 TEMPERATURE RECORDING CONTROLLER

@ LEVEL INOICATING CONTROLLER @ TEMPERATURE/THERMO WELL

@ LEVEL RECOROING CONTROLLER ® rn TRANSMITTER (OR) 0


FIGURE 7.4 Flow diagram instrument symbols.

reducers are not shown on the Mechanical flow día- FLOW PLAN ARRANGEMENT
gram. Toe flow diagram in Figure 7.2 shows reducers
in order to aid in the visualization and understanding Toe flow plan, or sequence of flow, should be
of the flow diagram and its relationship to the piping arranged in a logical order of commodity flow. Even
arrangement drawing. Symbols used on flow diagrams with a brief examination of the flow diagram, the pri-
are symbolic representations of actual pieces of equip- mary flow of commodity through the facility should
ment. lypically, these symbols have a rudimentary be obvious. Use the following checklist as an aid when
resemblance to the actual piece of mechanical equip- developing a flow diagram.
ment installed in the field.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


140 7. FLOW DIAGRAMS ANO l?-:STRUMENTATION

(a)

(.. .____I _ _____.,I)


HORIZONTAL YESSEL
(ACCUMULATOR)

HORIZONTAL VESSEL
(SEPARATOR}

'
... ,. ,

VERTICAL VESSEL FLARE STACK


(FRACTIONATION COLUMN)
FIGURE 7 .5a-e Flow diagram mechanical equipment symbols.

• Avoid crossing lines where possible. • Show important valves, orifice flanges, and control
• Space mechanical equipment to avoid overcrowding. valves.
• Add notes to symbols where necessary for clarity. • Show commodity flow directions through
• Use arrows to show commodíty flow direction. exchangers with arrows.
• Show equipment numbers when it is necessary to • Do not run lines diagonally across the drawing.
identify mechanical equipment. • Label feed lines entering the unit from the field
• Show control systems on the sketch. Toe control where the line enters the unit. Label product lines
scheme is frequently the most important part of a leaving the unit by name.
flow plan sketch. • Do not draw lines any closer together than necessary.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


FLOWPl.N\ ARRANGEMENT 141

(b)

x~
G-----

SHELL AND TUBE


EXCHANGER
SHELL AND TUBE
EXCHANGERS (IN SERIES) G-FIN EXCHANGER
n
G-FIN EXCHANGERS
(IN SERIES)

t5
G ..

AIR COOLER
(FIN-FAN) COOUNG TQWER
FIGURE 7.5 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


142 7. FLOW DIAGRAMS ANO JNSTRUMENTATJON

(e)

HEATING MEDIUM VAPOR OUTLET


SUPPLY

UQUID INLET

HEATING MEOIUM BOTIOMS OUT


RETURN

KETTLE- TYPE RESOi LER

HORIZONTAL (BOX) HEATER

VAPOR OUTLET

HEATING MEDIUM
SUPPLY

HEATING MEOIUM
RETURN

LIQUID INLET

VERTICAL HEATER THERMO-SYPHON REBOILER


FIGURE 7 .5 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


FLOW PLAN ARRANGEMENT 143

(d)

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


w /ELECTRIC MOTOR w /DIESEL ENGINE

RECIPROCATING PUMP
w /ELECTRIC MOTOR
. ºr--1·--
CENTRIFUGAL IN-UNE
PUMP w/ELECTRIC MOTOR

ROTARY (GEAR) PUMP COMPRESSOR w/


w /ELECTRIC MOTOR ELECTRIC MOTOR

FIGURE 7.5 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


144 7. FLOW DIAGRAMS ANO l?-:STRUMENTATION

(e)

n
-:/
"
()

/-
(

FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANK


FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANK
w/AGITATOR
w/FLOAT GAUGE
(ELECTRIC MOTOR)

<,
FOAM UNE
CONNECTION
----
)

(
.....
<,
<;
<,
'\ 11
.,... ..... / 11
r-, 11
<, 11
ROOF ORAIN ' <, :::.U.=::

--------/

FLOATING ROOF MIX TANK


STORAGE TANK
FIGURE 7.5 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


FLOWPl.N\ ARRANGEMENT 145

VALVE SYMBOLS LINE SYMBOLS

BALL VALVE /7/ 7 7/ 7 7/ 7 7/ 7 7/ 7


INSTRUMENT AIR UNE

BUTIERFLY VALVE )( )( )( )( )( )(
INSTRUMENT CAPILLARY TUBING

N CHECK VALVE INSTRUMENT ELECTRICAL LEAD

N
PIPE

CONTROL VALVE
MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS

C><J GATE VALVE


~ 1~ ORIFICE FLANGE ASSEMBLY

GLOSE VALVE
~T~ SPECTACLE BLIND (CLOSED)

~?~ SPECTACLE BLIND (OPEN)

PLUG VALVE
~ PIPING SPECIALITY ITEM

PRESSURE
SAFETY
VALVE
FIGURE 7 .6 Aow diagram piping symbols and abbreviations.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


146 7. FLOW DIAGRAMS ANO l?-:STRUMENTATION

CHAPTER 7 REVIEW QUIZ 6. Identify the following instrument abbreviations:


a. LG _
b. FA. _
1. List five items shown on the process flow diagram. ~ TI _
d. PC. _
e. TRC ~
f. LC _
g. PSV _
h. HCV _
2. List five items shown on the mechanical flow i. LAH. _
diagram. j. LAL. _

EXERCISE INFORMATION

3. List the four basic instrument groups.


Use the instructions included in Figure 7.7 to create
the flow diagram symbols with AutoCAD as shown.
BLOCK each symbol individually, without text. Place
the base point in the location specified. Give the sym-
bols a concise, yet descriptive name. SAVE the drawing
4. Describe the functions of the five instrurnent types. as FLOW SYMBOLS.

Drawing Exercises 7, 1-7 ,6


Recreate the flow diagrams as shown, usíng the
symbols in Figure 7.7 where applicable. Symbols rep-
resenting other pieces of mechanical equipment can be
5. What type of instrurnent is used to maintain a certain developed on an as-needed basis. Although mechanical
liquid level? equipment is not drawn to scale, it should be propor-
tional to the other symbols used in the drawing.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


EXERCISE INFORMATION 147
FLOW DIAGRAM SYMBOLS
TO ORAW FLOW OIAGRAM SYMBOLS, SET GRIO TO .125" ANO SNAP TO .0625".
THE .125" GRIO REPRESENTED BELOW HAS BEEN ENLARGED FOR BETTER
VISUALIZATION. DRAW ANO BLOCK EACH SYMBOL. SYMBOL NAME ANO [NAME]
INSERTION BASE POINT (}8t) HAVE BEEN INCLUOED FOR PROPER IOENTIFICATION.

~~~---16
[GV] [GBV] [CKV] [FA] [ORIF-FLG]
GATE GLOSE CHECK FLOW ORIFICE FLANGE
VALVE VALVE VALVE ARROW SET

~- [ cv J [PSV]
----+------++*+~-----'-------+-~

[VTIC]
[HTIC]
FOR
HORIZONTAL
I NSTRU M ENT
[RED]
REDUCER
1----+--+------i
CONTROL PRESSURE FOR VERTICAL
SAFETY AIR LINES
VALVE INSTRUMENT
VALVE AIR UNES

[CA]

[IB] INSTRUMENT
BUBBLE

FIGURE 7. 7 Aow diagram exercise symbols.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


H-501
RECYCLE GAS HEATER

---® o
---® ~
:-"
;¡¡
o
'l 'l ~ ~
:;i:,
r r r r
'l H-501 t ~ º
>
o
tj s:

1
r ~
TO PILOT ~
o
SHUFFlNG
STtAM
05-250-A15-2"
PROVIDE !{WEEP HOLES AT LOW POINTS 1 1 • o
;
1'.,'2 ~¡::
m
t:;:¡ z
@--- T ~ ;;i
_....__N :;i:, ;..;
o

1 ~
05-256-A15-1• lO "'""
(J)

1
r')
tl:1
(J)
CD
IN
1
lO
o

05-263-A 15-3" -IET

EXERCISE 7.1
P-501 P-502
NITROGEN INJECTION PUMP AMMONIA INJECTION PUMP
3 GMP O 5800 FT TDH 4 GMP O 8200 FT TDH
600 RMP O 8 HP 900 RMP O 10 HP
A1MOS.

SET AT
SET~
25f PSIG ~ 1825t PSIG
NITROCEN 05-306-AlS-2"
o
FUR(
1~; ,;,; 1·
05-305-A15-1i'2
tl1ROaN TO
ca"" ,;,; ,;,;
HITROOEN GAS HfATER o
:i:
111 >
o ~;x,
s'
21 05-307-A15-1i'2
,· _,
MUII\ 10
GAS l6IDl
lil
~ ~
~
05-308-A15-1i'2 ,· zo
m
o
IB J, .J; h~ X
93
o
<1 ¡¡;

SET' ¡¡¡
C)
z
~1 ! 18JSt
PSIG ,y;
8
:;¡
8
1 ,;,; 05-309-AlS-2"
10
,;,; flAAE

@l 05-310-A15-1i'2

1y; ,y; 1 ;,;
~
TO

P-501 P-502

EXERCISE 7.2
....
V\
o

...
J

HOTO..
SC[ UTIUTY

"°"-
01-16-CJ0-2·

""""Y

..

Q1-P-1Q1A & 8
........
PROOUC1 .t REfllJlC

EXERCISE 7 .3
02-V-203 02-E-201
FRACTIONATION COLUMN PROOUCT CONDENSER
4'-9" 00 X 18'-9" T/T
DES. 375# @ 750ºF

02-39-A 15-6"

4"

02-28-A15-6"

COOUNG WATER
02-E-201 SEE UTIUlY
02-34-A15-12" 02-29-A15-6" Fl.OW DIAGRAM
FEED 7

02-38-A 15-6"

02-37-A 15-4" -IH

6"
02-V-203 02-35-A15-6"-IH

02-P-202 A&B
REFLUX PUMPS
12 HP@ 4200 RPMs

EXERCISE 7 .4
03-V-303 03-H-304 03-FS-305
SEPERATOR HEATER FLARE STACK
36"0.D. X 19'-Q" T/T

03-33-A15-4" 03-32-Al 5-6"


PRODUCT
STORAGE

FACILITY
Yows 03-18-A 15-8"
LOADING/
UNLOADING

03-FS-305

03-20-A15-10"-IH HOT OIL SUPPLY


,-----11----.-----!SEE UTILfTY
FLOW DIAGRAM

03-31-A15-12" -IH
03-30-AlS-6"
FUEL GAS >----------t

10" 10"
HOT OIL RETURN 03-19-A15-10"-IH 10" 10"
SEE LITILfTY
FLOW DIACRAM 355'
12" 12"

03-H-304 03-P-301A & 3018


HOT Oll PUMPS

EXERCISE 7 .5
04-E-404 04-V-401 04-E-402A&B 04-CT-406
FRACTIONATOR fRACTIONATOR PROOUCT CONOENSORS COOUNG TOWER
REBOILER

04-21-A15-8•

..
04-E-402A

.. o
:i:
>
~;x,
04-V-401

SI.S'f'

04-E-4028

J 04-P-405A 04-P-4058

04-47-CJ0-4.

04-P-405A & 04-P-4056


COOLING WATER SUPPLY PUMPS

EXERCISE 7 .6
CHAPTER

8
Codes and Specifications

As anyone who has ever played a game can te~ you, and error. When something purchased did not fit, some-
there are specific rules that must be followed if the thing built broke, or something heated ble:W up, som~ne
game is to be played correctly. The same holds true for made a note of the mistake, remembered ít the next time
building a piping facility. Just as the rules of a game a similar situation occurred, and made it an operational
establish the basic guidelines for acceptable play, codes procedure. Eventually, the operational procedure evolved
and specifications establish guidelines for piping facili- into either a piping code or engíneeríng specification.
ties to ensure everything from quality construction to
worker safety.
Codes are a broad-based set of guidelines that gov-
CODES
em the total scope of a project. Cedes originate from
Though you may not be familiar with codes specific
a number of sources. Sorne sources are governmental
to pípíng facilities, you are familiar with a structure to
agencies such as OSHA and the EPA. Others are orga-
which codes also apply: the typical house or apartment.
nizations, institutes, societies, or associations such as
Codes have been written coneerníng door sizes, window
American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI) and
sizes, lumber dimensions, electrical requirements, etc.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Take windows as an example. National building codes
Toe ASME has developed the Code far Pressure Piping
state, when needed for emergency egress, in case of a
831 that govems the engineering of petroleum re~er-
fire, windows are placed a maximum of 40" above the
ies, chernical, pharmaceutical, and related processmg
floor, in habitable roorns. Additionally, national build-
plants and the requirements necessary for their safe
ing cedes mandate that windows in.sleep~g.roorns must
design and construction.
have a net glazing area of 5.7sqft with a nurumum open-
Specifications, or specs, on the other hand, ~e de~el-
ing height of 2'-0" anda width of 1'-8". Toe cedes estab-
oped as a specific set of guideline~ for the e~~eenn?' lished by various governmental agencies affect everyone
design, fabrication, and construction. of a p1p~g fácil-
on a daily basis. Cedes exist that mandate safety requíre-
ity. Engineering specifications establish the basis ~om
ments for automobile manufacturers, the use of fire retar-
which the final plant design is produced. Broken ínto
dant fabrics in clothing, and even acceptable radiation
groups specific to the various des~~ disc!p.lines needed levels for rnicrowave ovens. As you can see, codes affect
for a particular project, such as p1pmg, civil, structural,
comrnon, everyday life. Though you may be unaware of
or electrical, specs will include guidelines on a number
them, codes impact each of us in a very personal way.
of tapies including initial site selection, pr?curem:nt
Codes for piping facilities have been implemented in
guidelines for piping materials and m~aruca_I eqmp-
a similar fashion. Regulations have been established that
ment, as well as equipment hydrostatíc testing and
govem pressure and temperature limits, material composi-
comrnissioning guidelines. Written to maintain cons~-
tion and stress allowances, worker safety,emergency evac-
tency and uniforrnity throughout all phase~ of a pr?J-
uation procedures, and many, many other tapies. A partial
ect, engineering specifications are very detailed. While
list of the ASMEcedes written for piping facilitiesis shown
codes can be as broad as a statement indicating that a11
in section 2.01 of the General Piping Specifications.
piping components must conform t~ AS~ standa.rds,
specs are so detailed that they may include mstruc~ons
to the drafter stating that dimensions are to be wntten SPECIFICATIONS
in feet and inches with precision to the nearest Yt/.
As we look at codes and specs, remember that they As previously mentioned, engineering specifica-
have been developed through years of trial, application, tions stipulate specific details for engineering, design,

154 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghts rcserved.


GENERAL PIPING SPECIFICATIOKS 155
fabrication, and construction of a facility. Piping speci- 3. DRAWING AND PROCEDURES
fications in particular are used by numerous groups 3.01 All piping drawings shall be complete and in
whose goal is to see a piping project through to comple- sufficient detail to clearly indicate all clearances, intersec-
tion. Engíneers, designers, and drafters will use piping tions, anchors, guides, supports, expansion provisions,
specs to establish sizes, pound ratings, and dimensions and connections to associated mechanical equipment.
of pipe and equipment. Stress calculations are made 3.02 All piping drawings shall show dimensions
from information provided in the Specs to ensure that in feet and inches. Inches shall be used when the
columns, beams, and supports withstand the loads dimensions are less than 1 ­0 Dimensions will be to
11 11•

and forces placed on them. Purchasing personnel need the nearest JI¡{.
Specs to ensure proper pipíng materials and mechani- 3.03 lntersecting coordinates shall be used to posi-
cal equipment are bought. Welders and fabricators use tion all mechanical equipment, pumps, pipe supports,
Specs to erect structures, supports, and route the proper structures, and buildings. Ali drawings are to be CAD
size pipe. Piping Specs also provide the workers who generated or plotted from an approved 3D modeling
install instrumentation controls with the proper temper- software package.
ature and pressure calibration settings. 3.03.1 Pipe shall be dimensioned from coordinates
When applied to a piping facility, piping specifi- to show location. Elevations shall be used to indicate
cations become quite lengthy and are very detailed. height measurements.
General Piping Specifications, as they are known, com- 3.04 All piping 12" and below will be shown single-
prise volumes of printed material, often seeming to be line and piping 14" and larger will be shown double-
never-ending, The General Piping Specifications that line, except in congested areas where double-line work
follow are an abbreviated sample of a typical specifica- is required for clarity. Standard symbols shall be used
tion document. throughout. Drawings will be plotted to 3¡~' = l"-0''
scale, except details or where needed for clarity.
3.05 Each pipeline shown on drawings shall be
clearly marked with a line number. The line num-
GENERAL PIPING SPECIFICATIONS ber will provide Unit number, Pipe number, Piping
Specification class, and nominal pipe size. The follow-
l. SCOPE ing example illustrates the approved line number:
1.01 This Specification covers the materials and pro-
cedures for all process and utility piping. 01-20-AlS-10"-IHwhere
01 is the Unit number
2. CODE REQUIREMENTS 20 is the Line nurnber
2.01 Piping shall be in accordance with the follow-
A15 is the Pipe Specification class
ing applicable ASME codes:
10" is the nominal pipe size
IH is insulate for heat conservation
ASMEB31 Code for Pressure Piping
A typical line number is shoum in Figure 8.1.
ASME B31.1-2010 Power Piping
ASME B31.3-2008 Process Piping
4. PIPING
ASME B31.4-2009 Pipeline Transportation Systems 4.01 Piping rnaterials shall be in accordance with
ASME B31.5-2010 Refrigeration Piping and Heat piping material specifications and any deviations shall
Transfer Components be noted on the drawings.
ASME B31.8-2007 Gas Transportation and 4.02 All piping, as far as practicable, shall be routed
Distribution Pipíng Systems overhead on pipe stanchions, or pipe sleepers, and shall
ASME BPVC-2010 Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code be routed the shortest possible run and require the min-
imum number of fittings: pipe configurations also shall
be free from appreciable vibration with suitable expan-
2.02 Stress relieving shall conform to the p1pmg sion provided for hot lines.
code. The stress relieving method used will depend on 4.03 All nongalvanized steel underground lines
job location, quantity, and available tools: but the pre- shall be coated and wrapped in accordance with engí-
ferred post-heat treatment method shall be furnace neering specifications.
treatment for a11 "shop" fabricated piping and exother- 4.04 All operating valves 6' -O'' above Grade or plat-
rnic/ stress relieving type packages (or equal) for field form shall be chain operated. Sorne of the valves not to
assembly welds and field fabricated piping. be considered as operating valves are branch line block

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


156 8. CODES A."lD SPECIFICATIONS

02-104-A 15-6"-ST (2-1 / 4")


Unit Number __J ~ t L No ond
Line Number Nominal Size ~f T rocers
Specificotion Closs Pipe Size
Heot Trocing Symbol lnsulotion Symbol
ET - Electric T roced IC Cold
SJ - Steom Jocketed IH - Hot
ST - Steom (w/trocers) IS - Sofety
PP - Personnel
Protection
FIGURE 8.1 Line number.

valves from header, by-pass valve and block valves 5.03 Test connections shall be%".
on control manifold stations, level controllers, main 5.04 Temperature instruments such as TW, TI, TIC,
header blocks on all utility services, and block valves on TRC, etc., shall have 1" NPT.
exchangers and coolers. 5.05 TW and TI connections in pípíng shall be
4.05 Expansion or contraction shall be considered located 45° off centerline or in the horizontal.
for each line. Cold spring shall be considered for each
6. VENTS AND DRAINS
line. Cold spring shall be used where it is beneficial and
6.01 Ali lines shall have high point vents and low
in accordance with the ASA Code for Pressure Piping
point drains shall be 3.4" couplings with pipe plugs,
and noted on spool drawings.
except in specifications covering materials such as alu-
4.06 Slíp-on flanges may be substituted for weld
minum in which case they shall be flanged.
neck flanges to suit space limitations where allowed
6.02 Any vent or drain required for plant operation
in the specifications. In other specifications, slip-on
shall be sized and shown in the flow diagram.
flanges may be used only when approved by the design
supervisor. 7. ORIFICES
4.07 Pipe sizes of l1A11, 2W', 31h 5 and 7" shall not
11,
11, 7.01 Generally, the mínimum requirements for ori-
be used except as required for equipment connections. fice runs shall be in accordance with the AGA-ASME
4.08 Basket type with 10-mesh screen start-up Standards. Orífice taps shall be vertical for air and gas
strainers shall be used in all pump suctions. service and shall be on the horizontal for liquid and
4.09 Clips, lugs, anchors, guides, etc., shall be steam service.
installed in field after erection on standard piping.
8. CLEARANCES AND SPACING
For any special alloy where field welding would have
8.00 Roadways
adverse effect on the material, all attachments shall be
8.01 Mínimum clearance over main roadways shall
installed by shop fabricator.
be 18'-0" to the lowest projection.
4.11 When couplings are used for thermometer and
8.02 Mínimum clearance over secondary roadways
thermocouple well connections, the inside surface shall
is 14'-6" to the lowest projection,
be free of any weld metal and the opening shall be clear
8.03 Mínimum width of secondary roadways is
and free to receive a well.
10'-0 excluding 3' -0" shoulders.
11,
4.12 Steam tracing shall be installed in accordance
with job standards. 8.1.0 Walkways
4.13 Pipe supports spacing shall be 20'-0" maxi- 8.1.01 Headroom beneath main overhead pipe rack
mum with píck-up supports as required for lines 3 and 11 shall be a mínimum of 11 '-O". Special attention shall be
smaller. given to instrument and electrical trays along with any
lines that drop from bottom level of pipe rack, to maín-
5. INSTRUMENTSAND INSTRUMENT tain, mínimum clearance,
CONNECTIONS 8.1.02 Maíntain a mínimum headroom clearance
5.01 Liquid level controllers and gage glasses shall over aisleway of 7' -0".
be located so as to be accessible from grade, ladder, or 8.1.03 Maintain mínimum headroom clearance
platform. of 7' -6" inside buildings and for miscellaneous pipe
5.02 Pressure gage connections shall be % 11• supports.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


GENERAL PIPING SPECIFICATIOKS 157

2'-6"
(8.2.01)

~- 135'-6"
~)

PLATFORM ELEv.
114°-6"
PLAN

~
"'
é..i.__T_..~~~-;,-;r,-,!""'TI

04-109-A 15-14" (J.04 & J.05) í


ncv. 12•·-o· b
(3.03.1)

H.P. PAVING

ELEVATION
FIGURE 8.2 Application of engineering specifications.

8.2.0 Platforms
8.1.04 Clear passageway between equipment or 8.2.01 Maintain mínimum platform width of 2' -6".
equipment piping and adjacent equipment shall be 2' -6" 8.2.02 Maintain nurumum headroom clearance
mínimum. above platforms of 7'-0".
Exception: Horizontal clear space between exchanger 8.2.03 Platforms shall be placed 2'-6" below the cen-
flanges shall be a mínimum of 18". terline of manways.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


158 8. CODES A."lD SPECIFICATIONS

8.2.04 Maximum vertical distance between platforms 12.02 Toe fabricator shall be supplied with an origi-
(ladder length) is 30'-011• nal of each spool. The fabricator shall complete the
8.2.05 Cages are not required for ladders 8'-0 long
11 spools with mark numbers and field weld locations and
or less or ladders that end 20' -0'' or less above the high return.
point of pavíng. 12.03 Shop-fabrícated pipíng shali be cleaned of
8.2.06 Platforms shali be provided for manways that all rust, mili scale, weld slag and splatter, and primed
have a centerline 15' -0 or higher above high point of
11 before shipment. Unless otherwise specified, the primer
paving. shall consist of one coat of zinc chromate.
An example of how clearance and spacing specifica­
tions are applied to piping drawings is represented in 13. TESTING
Figure 8.2. 13.01 Where practical, ali lines shall be hydrostati-
cally tested in place. Testíng shall be in accordance with
9. INSULATION ANO PAlNTING ASME Code for Process Piping, latest revision.
9.01 All hot insulated lines 21h'' larger shall be on 3" 13.02 Where water may have a deleterious effect on
mínimum heíght insulation shoes. All low-temperature piping or equipment, the system shall be tested with air
pipíng will rest on the insulation with a steel cradle out- and soap suds.
síde of the insulation to distribute the load at the point 13.03 Lines ventíng or draíning to atmosphere shall
of support. not be tested.
9.02 Insulation thickness for piping is indicated 14. COLOR CODE
on the pipeline list. All insulation materials shali be 14.01 Toe following color code shall be used to assist
instalied in accordance with insulation specifications. the construction department with a method of identífí-
9.03 All paintíngs shall be done in accordance with cation for valves and other piping materials.
paintíng specifications. 14.02 For standard steel, bronze, cast malleable, and
wrought iron the field material receiving group can best
10. FABRICATIONTOLERANCES code the material as received.
10.01 Flange bolt holes shall straddle the vertical, 14.03 Special carbon steel and any alloys shali be
horizontal, or North-South centerline unless otherwise color coded by the manufacturer, vendor,or fabricator.
noted. Rotation of flange bolt holes shali not exceed ){/
measured across the flange face parallel to a centerline
and between the holes nearest to it. Color Specification

11. SHIPPING LENGTHS Black WD12


11.01 Shop fabricated pipe shali be prefabricated Blue AlS
in the number of pieces shown on the spool drawing Green WS12
unless otherwise approved in writíng. If piece mark
Oran ge C30
numbers are not shown on drawings, piping shall be
prefabricated in as few pieces as possible, consistent Red PA12
with raíl or truck shipment, to mínimize field weldíng. White IA12
Field welds shall be straight butt welds unless other- Yellow 515
wise specifically shown or approved.
11.02 Toe fabricator shall provide protectíon for ali
flange faces, male threaded connections, plugs for all
female threaded connections, covers for all open pipe, An example of how engineering specifications are
etc., to prevent damage during shipment and storage as applied to piping drawings is presented in Figure 8.2.
noted in the Weldíng Specifications. Both shop and field
shall ensure that flange faces are protected from corro-
sion or rust, with extreme care taken on RTJ and T&G SPECIFICATION CLASSES
flanges.
As extensive as the General Piping Specifications
12. PIECE MARKING ANO SHOP PAINTING are, they should not be considered all encompassing.
12.01 Each shop fabricated spool piece shall have Engineering specifications are divided into groups, or
a mark number assigned. Toe fabricator shali paint classes, developed especially for particular services,
the number on the piece, or if another method of Classes are categorized generaliy by the commod-
identification is to be used, written approval must be ity flowing withín the pipe and its associated pressure
obtained. and temperature. Specification classes take into account

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


ABBREVIATIONS 159

whether the commodity is a gas or liquid, includ- TABLES.! Piping Specificatíon Class Directory
ing design and operating temperatures and pressures,
Class Rating Material Service
even corrosiveness. Table 8.2 is a sample of a Piping
Specification Class Directory. It includes the class des- AlS lSO#RF Carbon 5teel Process
ignation, flange type and ratings, material, and service AlSC lSO#RF Carbon 5teel Caustic
commodity type.
AlSP lSO#RF Special Carbon Process ( -20
Specification classes use service parameters to estab- 5teel to -SOºF)
lish flange pound ratings, pipe wall thickness, pressure
and temperature limits, as well as the type of pipe and AlSF lSO#RF Carbon 5teel Freon
fitting connections to be used, that is, screwed, socket- C30 300#RF Carbon 5teel Process
weld, butt-weld, flanged, etc. Classes are extremely C30C 300#RF Carbon 5teel Caustic
detailed. They specify which manufacture to purchase
C30P 300#RF Special Carbon Process ( -20
valves from, as well as the specific manufacturer's Steel to -SOºF)
model number to be used. Classes specify the material
gaskets will be made of and whether branch connec- CW15 lSO#RF Carbon 5teel Cooling Water
tions are to be made using straight tees, reducing tees, F60 600# RF Carbon 5teel Process
or stub-ins. Specification classes also stipulate corrosion F60P 600#RF Carbón 5teel Pipeline
allowance values. Corrosion allowance is the amount of
IP12 125#Scrd Carbón 5teel Instrument
surface material allowed to be eroded by the commod- (Galvanized) Process Piping
ity within the pipe while permitting the pipe to remain
usable for the particular service for which it is installed. IA12 125#Scrd Carbon 5teel Instrument Air
(Galvanized) Headerand
All encompassing, specs even dictate what color to
Utility Piping
paint the pipe.
Sorne of the specification classes that were listed 1512 125#Scrd Carbon 5teel Instrument Air
(Galvanized) Signal Piping
in Table 8.1 are presented in Figure 8.3a-f and are to
be applied to the various assignments and projects PA12 125#Scrd Carbon Steel Plant Air
throughout this text. Use them as a reference to answer (Galvanized)
specific questions relating to the design and drafting R30 300#RF Carbon 5teel 175# 5team and
procedures needed to complete Units 01, 02, 03, and Condensate
04. As with all engineering specifications, íncludíng the 515 lSO#RF Carbon 5teel Low Pressure
examples in this text, they should only be used with the Steamand
project for which they are written and should not be Condensate
considered typical for every project. UAlS 150# Carbon 5teel Utility Air
Header
WD12 125#Scrd Carbon 5teel Domestic Water
ABBREVIATIONS (Galvanized)
W512 125#Scrd Carbon 5teel Service Water
As a pípíng facility becomes more complex, so do the (Galvanized)
pípíng drawings. Facilities such as multistoried struc-
tures, specialized refining systems, and complex equip-
ment arrangements compound the crowdedness of a found on p1pmg arrangement drawings, elevations,
drawing. To alleviate the crowded conditions, abbrevia- details, flow diagrams, and/or isometrics. A complete
tions should be used to reduce the space requirements listing is almost impossible to assemble, as engineering
of callouts and notes. The following compilation is an companies and their clients often develop abbreviations
alphabetical listing of many common abbreviations that are unique to specific projects.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


160 8. CODES ANO SPECIFICATIONS

(a)
PIPING A15 SPECIFICATION
PO UNO
RATING 150# RF MATERIAL: CAR BON STEEL

DESIGN OPERATING
CORROSION CONDITIONS:
ALLOWANCE . 05" PSIG
'F
200
350
175
275

ITEM SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION
1/2"-11/2" EX. HVY. SEAMLESS-PLAIN ENOS
Pipe 2"
3"-24"
STO. WT.
STO. WT.
SEAMLESS-PLAIN ENOS
SEAMLESS-BEVELED ENDS
1/2"- 2" 3000# FORGED STEEL SOCKET WELD
Fittings 3"-24" STO. WT. FORGEO STEEL BUTT WELD
1/2"-11/2" 150# FS - RAISED FACE SOCKET WELD
Flonges 2"
3"-24"
150#
150#
FS -
FS -
RAISEO FACE SOCKET WELD
RAISED FACE WELD NECK

VAL VES SIZES IN


INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION END
TYPES

1/2"- 2" 150-800 FORGED CARBON STEEL SWE


Gate 3"-24" 150 CAST CARBON STEEL RF

1/2"- 2" 150-800 FORGED CARBON STEEL SWE


Globe 3"-24" 150 CAST CARBON STEEL RF

GASKETS Flexitallic style -


150#, 304SS: 1 /8" thick
BRANCH UNE SIZE USE A TEE

CONNECT.
2"-BELOW
3"-ABOVE
USE A TEE ANO SWAGE ON SIZES 2" & SMALLER
STUB-IN WHEN LESS THAN LINE SIZE 150#
FIGURE 8.3 (a) A15 Class Piping Speci.fication; (b) C30 Class Piping Specification; (e) IA12 Class Piping Specification; (d) PA12 Class Piping
Speci.fication;(e) 515 Oass Piping Specification;(f) WS12 Class Piping Specification.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


ABBREVIATIONS 161

(b)
PIPING C30 SPECIFICATION
POUND
RATING 3QQ# RF MATERIAL: CAR BON STEEL

CONDITIONS: DESIGN OPERATING


CORROSION
ALLOWANCE .05" PSIG
'F
375
425
300
350

ITEM SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION
1/2"- 1/2" EX. HVY. SEAMLESS-PLAIN ENDS
Pipe 2"
3"-24"
STO. WT.
STO. WT.
SEAMLESS-PLAIN
SEAMLESS-BEVELED
ENDS
ENDS
1/r- r 3000# FORGED STEEL SOCKET WELD
Fittings 3"-24" STO. WT. FORGED STEEL BUTT WELD
1/2"-11/2" 300# FS - RAISED FACE SOCKET WELD
Flanges 2"
3"-24"
300#
300#
FS -
FS -
RAISED FACE SOCKET WELD
RAISED FACE WELD NECK

VALVES SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION END
TYPES

1/2"- 2" 150-800 FORGED CARBON STEEL SWE


Gate 3"-24" 300 CAST CARBON STEEL RF

1 /2"- 2" 150-800 FORGED CARBON STEEL SWE


Globe 3"-24" 300 CAST CARBON STEEL RF

GASKETS Flexitallic style - 300#, 304SS: 1 /8" thick


BRANCH
300#
LINE SIZE USE A TEE
2"-BELOW USE A TEE ANO SWAGE ON SIZES 2" & SMALLER
CONNECT. 3"-ABOVE STUB-IN WHEN LESS THAN UNE SIZE

FIGURE 8.3 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


162 8. CODES ANO SPECIFICATIONS

(e)
PIPING IA12 SPECIFICATION
POUND
RATING 125# MATERIAL: CAR BON STEEL GALVANIZED

DESIGN OPERATING
CONDITIONS:
CORROSION
ALLOWANCE .05" PSIG
T
200
150

ITEM SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION
1/2"-11/2" EX. HVY. SEAMLESS-THREAOED-GALVANIZED
Pipe 2" - 6'º STO. WT. SEAMLESS-THREAOED-GALVANIZED

Fittings 1/2" - 6" 3000# FORGEO STEEL-THREADEO-GALVANIZEO

Flan ges 1/2" - 6" 150# FORGED STEEL-THREADED-FLAT FACE

VAL VES SIZES IN


INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION END
TYPES

1 /2"- 2" 125 CAST BRONZE SE


Gate 3"-6" 125 CAST BRONZE FF

1 /2"- 2" 125 CAST BRONZE SE


Globe 3" 150 CAST BRONZE FF

GASKETS 150#, 1 / 16" thick ASBESTOS- FULL FACE with BOLT HOLES
BRANCH
125#
UNE SIZE USE A TEE

CONNECT. 4"-BELOW USE A TEE ANO SWAGE ON SIZES 6" & SMALLER

FIGURE 8.3 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


ABBREVIATIONS 163

(d)
PIPING PA12 SPECIFICATION
PO UNO
RATING 125# MATERIAL: CAR BON STEEL GALVANIZED

DESIGN OPERATING
CONDITIONS:
CORROSION
ALLOWANCE . 05" PSIG
'F
200
150

ITEM SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION
1/2"-11/2" EX. HVY. SEAMLESS- THREADED-GALVANIZED
Pipe 2" - 6" STO. WT. SEAMLESS-THREADED-GALVANIZED

Fittings 1/2" - 6" 3000# FORGED STEEL-THREADED-CALVANIZED

Flonges 1/2" - 6" 150# FORGED STEEL-THREADED-FLAT FACE

VAL VES SIZES IN


INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION END
TYPES

1/2"- 2" 125 CAST BRONZE SE


Gote 3"-6" 125 CAST BRONZE FF

1/2"- 2" 125 CAST BRONZE SE


Globe 3" 150 CAST BRONZE FF

GASKETS 150#, 1 / 16" thick ASBESTOS- FULL FACE with BOLT HOLES
BRANCH
125#
LINE SIZE USE A TEE
4"-BELOW USE A TEE AND SWAGE ON SIZES 6" & SMALLER
CONNECT.
FIGURE 8.3 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


164 8. CODES ANO SPECIFICATIONS

(e)
PIPING S15 SPECIFICATION
POUND
RATING 150# RF MATERIAL: CAR BON STEEL

DESIGN OPERATING
.05"
CORROSION CONDITIONS:
PSIG 200 175
ALLOWANCE T 350 275

ITEM SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION
1/2"-11/2" EX. HVY. SEAMLESS-PLAIN ENOS
Pipe 2"
3"-24"
STO. WT.
STO. WT.
SEAMLESS-PLAIN ENOS
SEAMLESS-BEVELEO ENDS
1 /2"- 2" 3000# FORGED STEEL SOCKET WELO
Fittings 3"-24" STO. WT. FORGED STEEL BUTT WELD
1 /2" - 1 1 /2" 150# FS - RAISED FACE SOCKET WELD. EX. HVY. BORE
Flonges 2"
3"-24"
150#
150#
FS - RAISED FACE SOCKET WELD. STO. WT. BORE
FS - RAISED FACE WELD NECK, STO. WT. BORE

VAL VES SIZES IN


INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION END
TYPES

1/2"- 2" 150-800 FORGED CARBON STEEL SWE


Gote 3"-24" 150 CAST CARBON STEEL RF
1/2"- 2" 150-800 FORGED CARBON STEEL SWE
Globe 3"-24" 150 CAST CARBON STEEL RF

STEAM 125# STEAM SCRD


1/2" FORGED ALLOY STEEL
TRAP

GASKETS Flexitollic style - 150#, 304SS: 1 /8" thick


UNE SIZE USE A TEE
BRANCH
CONNECT.
11/2" -BELOW USE A TEE ANO SWAGE ON SIZES 2" & SMALLER
2"-BELOW
3"-ABOVE
USE A SOC-0-LET ON SIZES 3" & LARGER
STUB-IN WHEN LESS THAN UNE SIZE
1 50#
FIGURE 8.3 (Continued)

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


ABBREVIATIONS 165
(f)
PIPING WS12 SPECIFICATION
POUND
RATING 125# MATERIAL: CAR BON STEEL GALVANIZED

DESIGN OPERATING
CONDITIONS:
CORROSION
ALLOWANCE . 05" PSIG
'F
200
150

ITEM SIZES IN
INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION
1/2"-11/2" EX. HVY. SEAMLESS-THREADED-GALVANIZED
Pipe 2" - 6" STO. WT. SEAMLESS-THREAOED-GALVANIZEO

Fittings 1/2" - 6" 3000# FORGEO STEEL-THREAOED-GALVANIZEO

Flan ges 1/2" - 6" 150# FORGED STEEL-THREAOEO-FLAT FACE

VAL VES SIZES IN


INCHES
WEIGHT/
RATING DESCRIPTION ENO
TYPES

1/2"- 2" 125 CAST BRONZE SE


Gote 3"-6" 125 CAST BRONZE FF
1/2"- 2" 125 CAST BRONZE SE
Globe 3" 150 CAST BRONZE FF

GASKETS 150#,1/16" thick ASBESTOS- FULL FACE with BOLT HOLES


BRANCH
125#
LINE SIZE USE A TEE
4"-BELOW USE A TEE ANO SWAGE ON SIZES 6" & SMALLER
CONNECT.
FIGURE 8.3 (Conlinueá)

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


166 8. CODES A."lD SPECIFICATIONS

PIPING ABBREVIATIONS es Cold Spring


ese Car Seal Closed
A eso Car Seal Open
CTRLV Control Valve
A Alarm CWR Cooling Water Return
A Anchor cws Cooling Water Supply
ACCUM Accu.mulator
AL Alu.minu.m
ANSI American National Standards lnstitute D
API American Petroleum Institute
ASSY Assembly DA Directional Anchor
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials DF Drain Funnel
ATMOS Atmosphere DIA Diameter
AUX Auxiliary DIM Dimension
AVG Average DISCH Discharge
AZ Azimuth DR Drain
DW DummyWeld
DWG Drawing
B DRWN Drawn
B Beveled
BB Bolted Bonnet E
BBE Bevel Both Ends
BBL Barrel(s) E East
BC Bolt Circle ECC Eccentric
BD BlowDown EL Elevation
BE Beveled End(s) ELL Elbow
BF Blind Flange ELEV Elevation
BL Battery Limits EQUIP Equipment
BLDG Building ERW Electric Resistance Welded
BLE Bevel Large End EXCH Exchanger
BOM Bill of Materials EXIST Existing
BOP Bottom of Pipe
B&S Bell and Spigot
BSE Bevel Small End F
BTU British Thermal Unit FA Flow Alarm
BV Ball Valve FBO Furnished By Others
BW Butt-weld FDN Foundation
FE Flow Element
e F/F
FF
Face-to-Face
Flat Face
CB Catch Basin FF Full Face
CHKV CheckValve FI Flow Indicator
Ch.Op. Chain Operator FIC Flow Indicating Controller
CI Castlron FIG Figure
CL Oearance FLR Floor
co CleanOut FLDFAB Field Fabricate
COL Column FL Flan ge
COLS Columns FOB Flat on Bottom
CONC Concentric FOT Flat on Top
CONO Condensa te FR Flow Recorder
CONN Connection FRC Flow Recording Controller
CORR Corrosion FS Field Support
CPLG Coupling FS Forged Steel
es Carbon Steel rr Foot orFeet
es Cast Steel FW Field Weld

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


PIPING ABBREVIATIONS 167

G L
G Gauge or Gage L Level
GAL Gallon(s) LA LevelAlarm
GALV Galvanized LAH Level Alarm-High
GPH Gallons Per Hour LAL Level Alarm-Low
GPM Gallons Per Minute LBS Pounds
GR Grade LC Level Controller
GaV Gate Valve LC LockClosed
GIV Globe Valve LG Level Gauge
LG Level Glass
LI Level Indicator
H LIC Level Indicating Controller
HCV Hand Control Valve LLL Low Liquid Level
HDR Header LN Llne
HIC Hand Indicating Controller LO LockOpen
HLL High Liquid Level LP Low Pressure
HOR Horizontal LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
HP High Pressure LPT LowPoint
HPFS Hígh Point Finished Surface LR Level Recorder
HPP High Point Paving LR LongRadius
HR HangerRod LRC Level Recording Controller
HR Hour LS Level Switch
HTR Heater
HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
HVY Heavy
M
HYD Hydraulic mm millimeter
M Meter
M&F Male and Female
I MATL Material
IA lnstrument Air MAX Maximum
IA lnsulation (Anti-sweat) MECH Mechanical
IC lnsulation (Cold) MFG Manufacturing
ID lnside Diameter MFR Manufacturer
IDD lnside Depth of Dish MI Malleable lron
IET Electric Trace MIN Mínimum
IGT Glycol Trace MIN Minute
IH lnsulation (Heat Conservation) MISC Miscellaneous
IN Inch(es) MK PieceMark
INS lnsulate or lnsulation MW Manway
INST lnstrument(ation) MW MiterWeld
INV Invert Elevation
IPS lron Pipe Size
IS lnsulation Safety
N
ISA lnstrumentation Society of America N North
ISO Intemational Organízation for NC Normally Closed
Standardization NEC National Electric Code
ISO Isometric NEG Negative
IST Steam Trace NIP Nipple
NLL Normal Liquid Level
NO Normally Open
J NO Number
JCT Junction NOM Nominal
JS JackScrew NOZZ Nozzle
JT Joint NPS Nominal Pipe Size

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


168 8. CODES A."lD SPECIFICATIONS

NPSH Net Positive Suction Head REY Reverse


NPT National Pipe Thread REY Revision
NTS Not to Scale RF Raised Face
RJ Ring-TypeJoint
RPM Rotations Per Minute
o RS RisingStem
OAL Overall Length RTJ Ring TypeJoint
OD Outside Diameter
OH
OPP
OpenHearth
Opposite
s
OS&Y Outside Screw and Yoke s South
OVHD Overhead se Sample Connection
ows Oily Water Sewer SeH Schedule
SeRD Screwed
SECT Section
p SH (SHT) Sheet
PA Pipe Anchor SMLS Seamless
PA Pressure Alarm so SlipOn
Pe Pressure Controller so SteamOut
PCY Pressure Control Valve SOL Sock-o-let
PdRC Pressure Differential Recording Controller SP Set Point
PE Plain End SPGR Spedfic Gravity
PI Point of Intersection SPEe Spedfication
PI Pressure lndicator SQ Square
PIC Pressure lndicating Controller SR Short Radius
P&ID Piping and InstrumentDiagram STO Standard
PLE Plain Large End STL Steel
PO PumpOut STM Steam
POE Plain One End SUCT Suction
POS Positive SUPT Support
pp Personnel Protection sw Socket-Weld
PR Pressure Recorder SWG Swage
PRe Pressure Recording Controller SWP Standard Working Pressure
PS Pipe Support SYS System
PSE Plain Small End
PSI Pounds Per Square lnch T
PSIA Pounds Per Square lnch Absolute
PSIG Pounds Per Square lnch Gage T Steam Trap
PSY Pressure Safety Valve TA Temperature Alarm
PT Point Tan Tangent
TBE Thread Both Ends
Te TemperatureController
Q Te Y TemperatureControl Valve
QTY Quantity TE Threaded End
QUAD Quadrant TEMP Temperature
QUAD Quadruple T&e Thread and Coupled
T&G Tongue and Groove
THRD Thread
R
TI Temperature lndicator
R Radius TIC Temperature lndicatingController
REe'D Received TLE Thread Large End
RED Reducer roe Top of Concrete
REF Reference TOG TopofGrout
REINF Reinforce TOL Thread-o-let
REQ'D Required TOS Top ofSteel

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


CHAPTER 8 REVIEW QUIZ 169

TR Temperature Recorder CHAPTER 8 REVIEW QUIZ


TRC Temperature Recording Controller
TSE Thread Small End
1. Explaín the difference between codes and
Tff Tangent to Tangent
TW Temperature Well specífications.
TW Thermowell
TYP Typícal

Using information found in the General Piping


V Specifications, answer the following questions.
UA Utility Air 2. Dimensions are provided on drawings to the
us Utility Station nearest of an inch.
3. Piping drawings are drawn to which scale?
V
VA Valve 4. What is the mínimum headroom clearance of a
VA Vent to Atmosphere secondary roadway?
VB Vortex Breaker
ve Vitrified Clay
VERT Vertical s. What is the mínimum headroom clearance over an
VF Vent to Flare aisleway?
VOL Volume
vs Vent to Stack
6. Ali operating valves above Grade or
platform shall be chain operated.
w
w/ with
7. What is the mínimum width of a platform?
w West
WB Welded Bonnet
WE WeldEnd 8. What is maximum vertical distance between
WLD Weld platforms?
WN WeldNeck
WOG Water, Oil, Gas
WOL Weld-o-let 9. What type of "start-up" strainers are used at ali
WT Weight pump suctions?

X 10. All lines shall have vents and drains. What size is
XH ExtraHeavy the vent and drain connections?
xs Extra Strong
XXH Double Extra Heavy
xxs Double Extra Strong

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


CHAPTER

9
EquipmentLayout

PLANT COORDINATE SYSTEM distance from the control point, for example, N. 10 -0 1 11•

Though these lines are drawn in an east/west alignment,


Plot Plans, Foundation Location Plans, Equipment they are labeled as North coordinates because they mea-
Location Plans, and Pípíng Arrangement drawíngs sure distance from the control point northward. Vertical
use the plant coordinaie system method of arranging and lines drawn to the right of O'-O', O'-O' are designated as
positioning drawing elements. Universally recognized East coordinates and are labeled as such, for example,
throughout the pípíng industry, the plant coordinate sys- E. 20' -O'. Lines drawn to the south and west of the con-
tem uses intersecting grid lines, similar to the Cartesian trol point will have S. or W. designations, respectively.
coordinate system, drawn relative to an established Piping Arrangement drawíngs are often severely over-
north direction, to locate buildings, structures, steel col- crowded with extensive amounts of graphical symbols
umns, concrete foundations, mechanical equipment, and and written information. Toe use of coordinates reduces
pipe configurations. Toe grid lines, which originate from the amount of written information and simplifies the
a designated control point, are drawn parallel to north/ drawing by minimizing the use of location dimensions.
south and east/west axes (Figure 9.1). Figure 9.2 demonstrates the use of coordinates to label
Toe control point, more commonly known as a bench­ the positions of mechanical equipment.
mark, is a permanent marker erected at a specified location Toe format used to identify plant coordinates will
somewhere within the proposed facility. It is often located vary with each design project. Sorne projects use feet and
so that it cannot be accidentally damaged or destroyed. inch designations, whereas others may use decimals of
Toe control point is the precise location from which the a foot or millimeters. No matter the format, coordinates
intersecting north/south and east/west grid lines orígi- are preceded by the letters N, S, E, or W, except for 0 -0 1 11•

nate. From this point, the grid lines are measured incre- Toe projects in this text will use feet and inches measure-
mentally and labeled with numerical values known as ments. As mentioned previously, the use of coordinates
coordinates. Toe control point, therefore, becomes the eliminates the need for excessive dimensions. However,
primary reference point for the entire facility. By labeling when location dimensions are required on drawings,
the control point with a positional value of O' ·-O", 0' -0 and
11 they use a known coordina te as a datum, usually the cen-
using a North Arrow to establish orientation, the numen- terline of a column, foundation, or piece of mechanical
cal values assigned to the coordinates allow for exact posi- equipment. Whatever the unit of measurement, one rule
tioning of all facility components. Each facility component to remember is: Horizontal length dimensions are found by
will be precisely located using two intersecting coordi- adding or subtracting coordinases.
nates. Coordinaies indicate the distance and direction the Figure 9.3 allows you to see the amount of space
particular structure, foundation, or piece of mechanical required to include linear dimensions on a drawing
equipment measures from the control point, and how the use of coordinates can free a significant
Toe North Arrow typically points up, or toward the amount of drawing space.
top of the drawing sheet, and creates directional bear-
ing for the facility. As an altemate orientation, the North
Arrow may point to the right on the drawing. Assuming PLANT ELEVATIONS
the North Arrow points up, horizontal lines drawn
above, or north of, the O'-O", 0'-0' originare designated as Similar to the way a plan view drawíng has a control
North coordinates and are labeled to indicate their linear point to help establish horizontal dimensions in a piping

170 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghts rcserved.


PLANT ELEVATIONS 171

C>
1
C>
N. 50'-0"

1
N. 40'-0"
~
N
1
N. 30'-0" 1

1
N. 20'-0"

1
N. 10'-0"

C> C> C> C> C>


e-o
fT1 fT1 fT1 fT1 fT1
1
O,
L{)

3
-C>·
"<t'

3
1
-C>·
I") N

3
1
-C>·
3
1
-o~
3
1 o.o. .
.
(OOlffllO. FQNT ~
q-
q
1
N
~º--
o
1
(.,J
~q-
q
1
~
.q-
o
1
(.J1
.q
o
1

S. 11 '-O"

s. 20'-0"

s. J_o·
.i.
.i.
1
FIGURE 9.1 Plant coordinate system.

facility, a control point is also needed to establish verti- both above and below Grade. The use of 100'-O'' as the
cal dimensions, or elevation, in the facility. Elevation, as control point of reference prevents the use of negative
it is traditionally known, is the vertical distance an object numbers when dimensioning pipes below Grade. This
rises above sea level, such as the height of a mountain. simplifies the mathematical calculations that the interpo-
But in pípíng facilities, elevation is used to designate the lation of positive and negative numbers may cause.
heíght an object measures from the ground. In Piping Very few actual dimensions are shown on pípíng
terminology, the ground is referred to as Grade. It is section or elevation drawíngs. However, numerous
from Grade that all elevation references are based. But callouts are placed on drawings to convey elevation
rather than using numbers based on the actual height the information to the reader. Sorne of the callouts and cor-
ground measures above sea level, many facilities use an responding terms are shown below.
arbitrary Grade elevation of 100'-fJ', as a matter of conve- See Figure 9.4 for examples of the plant elevation
nience. In all petrochemical facilities, pipes are installed system.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


172
.
9. EQUJPMENTLAYOUT

o
1
o
N. 50'-0"

N. 40'-0"
~~
N
N. 30'-0" 1

N. 20'-0"

N. 10'-0"

o o •o •o •o rn rn rn rn rn
o'-o"
1 1 1 1 1 u ~
-o l.{)
o
~
o
I")
oN
o q
N
q q q
CJl
q
1 1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3 3 q o
• q o
• q

S. 20'-0"

s. 30'-0"

s. so'-o"

FIGURE 9.2 Using coordinates to locate mechanical equipment.

Toe repeated use of coordinates and elevations makes


Piping Terminology Piping Callout it imperative that correct numbers be used to calcu-
Grade elevation GRADE EL.100'--0" late accurate dimensions. To avoid inadvertent mixing
of coordinate and elevation values, follow this simple
High point of paving H.P PAVING100'-0" guideline: Use only coordinates to calculaie horizontal dimen­
Centerline elevation t EL.102'-0" sions and use only elevations to calculate vertical dimen­
Top of concrete T.O.C. EL.101 '-O" sions. By adding or subtracting coordinates, horizontal
distances between steel supports, concrete foundations,
Top of steel T.O.S. EL. 112' - O" and mechanical equipment can be determined. Knowing
Bottom of pipe B.O.P. EL. 112' - O" when to add and when to subtract can be confusing,
Face of flange F.O.F. EL. 105' - O" however. A basic rule to remember when calculating hor-
izontal distances is: Subtract like coordinates and add unlike
Top of platform T.O. PLAT. EL.137'-6"
coordinates. This basic rule is illustrated in Figure 9.5.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


MATCH LINE W.30' -O"

32·-o· l
f W.18'-0"

-, ·
o:,
8'-0"
z

L
o
• 1i-v

¡f. - 2s·-o- ~

~t< --q --ir-------------


º,· ~ :Z:rt-<
º o' 1--J
1
1
o

o:
...:
~, 1

. . 1 1 (J1
E.10'-0" º·
N 1
~ ~2'=-º"++-- N
1 O)

-· -------='---~-~t
o 1•
• o

~1<.
1
1s·-o· •

L
~I 24'-o"
1 (X)
o 12·-o· 1
~

-=~~
1 --~~~~~...¡I I~

t'·"·-:"·__
22·-o·
1

+.V.~.:o-(1-- D_- _i
MATCH LINE E.30' -0"
FIGURE 9.3 Replacing dimensions with coordinates.
(.) F/F ELEV. 130' -0"

~L~~·~~~~ T.O.PLAT. EL. 125' -o·

ELEV. 115' -0"


~--

l TOS ELEV. 112' -O" BOP EL 112'-3"

- ELEV 10~-o· 1-m-f . --,- k_OfV~!L .. ·1


-t - -- -- ~Ltmv. 1~
--(.) -4 1/~4._--_.-......-_--_--_,,_.___----Y-_----'1'-'1--'-1--•---•------rn-'--'---{Tl 1

-t-filY·-106' -o· t,.1)1(¡.....~


ELEV. 105' -6" 1
~------
1

TOC ELEV.
101·-o·

(9 INV. ELEV. 97' -3"

FIGURE 9.4 Plant elevation system.


PLANT ELEVATJONS 175
MATCH UNE N.40'-0"

.r
RU~~S~A~cf BETWEEN VESSELS V-3 ANO V-6 ~ FOU~
BY AOOING W.18'-0" + E.26'-0" = 44'-0". p I
--------·1 «·-o·
12·-o·
N

t
o
1
N.24'-Q"
~I
u..i

•o
.
o
1
-
_I

(()
•o
;1 io
1
N
1
V-3 RULE N0.1:
o1 ~·=-o·
1 OISTANCE BETWEEN VESSELS V-5 1 0

y~~:.:~~º~~

- ANO V-6 IS FOUND BY SUBTRACTING 1 _ 1
o 1 C)
z O

"? =>
3: o
LL
--co~' - ~. FROM N.24'-o" ~ _,~ ~
w
z (/)
:J
I"') •
~0°1
I
(.)
1-
~I
1
'zº
> 1
C) o
«t-
1 ~-'
~ lñ ~ RULES FOR CALCULATING THE
1 ~
I ~
I

-c ¡j ~ 11 DISTANCE BETWEEN COORDINATES.


11 (/)
T""
1 :
(/) >- :
>º 1 •o ~ CD '( RULE NO. 1:
(/) - b
1
o zºÑ
w z I") TO FINO THE OISTANCE BETWEEN
-' ~
wz • •o Ni
w => (/) TWO COOROINATES LOCATEO IN

. ~e~
I 'o
>1"'": ~
-~ THE SAME QUAORANT, SUBTRACT I
(/) 1
(/)+
w io
N CD O THE SHORTER COOROINATE FROM

T
(1)
>:

w_l . "°:
O
W N LL
1 :
'f
THE LONGER COORDINATE. 1

;1
ü
WN z ~> RULE NO. 2:
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ TO FINO THE OISTANCE BETWEEN
~ ~ 0 -c (/) TWO COOROINATES LOCATEO IN
•• CD <.!> "$)
NWZ DIFFERENT QUAORANTS, AOO THE
() - ___._--+-+ f V- l COOROINATES TO EACH OTHER.
I oz8 S.32'-0"
z~<
lw!:Q>-

lC __ _J_ __
MATCH UNE S.40'-0"
_J
FIGURE 9.5 Horizontal dístance calculations with coordina tes.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


176 9. EQUJPMENT LAYOUT

Calculating vertical dimensions is somewhat easier. engineers and the plant manager who will ultimately
Simply subtract the lower elevation from the hígher eleva- oversee the operation of the facility. Figure 9.7 shows an
tion to determine the distance between the two. However, example of a Unit Plot Plan.
you must be certain that elevations of the same type are
used. For example, always use two "Centerline" eleva-
tions, not one "Centerline" and one "Bottom of Pipe" EQUIPMENT LOCATION DRAWING
(BOP).You must convert BOPelevations to Centerline ele-
vations before subtracting. This is accomplished by add- To arrange and adequately space a1l the compo-
ing one-half the actual outside diameter (OD) of the pipe nents required in the Unit, the piping group will use
to the BOP elevation, before subtracting. Also, be aware the approved Plot Plan to assign coordinate positions
that lines installed below Grade are labeled using Invert to vessels, pumps, heaters, exchangers, pipe supports,
elevations. Invert elevations identify the inside BOP ele- and control rooms and develop the equipment location
vation, that is, the distance from the bottom inside of the drawing. Keeping in mind there will be plant operators
pipe to the ground above it. Figure 9.6 illustrates the use of and maintenance personnel in the facility 24 hours a
elevations to calculate vertical dimensions. day, adequate arrangement and spacing of components
within the facility becomes important. Equipment loca-
tion depends on a number of factors, including piping
SITEPLANS codes, space availability, worker accessibility as well as
client preferences. All pieces of mechanical equipment to
Toe civil/ topographic drafting department of a com- be installed within the facility are positioned usíng two
pany prepares the Site Plan for the piping facility. A Site intersecting coordinate lines, one North/South and one
Plan is an overhead, or top, view drawn to show the over- East/West. These intersecting coordinates define the pre-
all appearance of the facility site and adjacent area. Site cise position of a11 vessels, pumps, exchangers, etc., by
Plans can a1so be modified overlays of aerial photographs locating the centerline of its foundation. When locating
or ímages captured from orbiting satellites. Site Plans equipment such as exchangers and reboilers, that have
rnay include roadways, railways, harbors, shíp channels, a foundational support on each end, at least one of the
aircraft landing zones, office buíldíngs, and recreation equipment's supporting foundations must be located
areas. Drawings of thís size do not show significant detall. with coordinates. By using the plant coordinate system,
Detailed areas of the facility are usually denoted by rect- it is impossible for any other component in the facility to
angular outlines with notes or titles describing the area's have the same pair of intersecting coordinates. Figure 9 .8
purpose. Mechanical equipment within the facility is typí- provides an example of an Equipment Location drawing.
cally too small to be represented on a Site Plan. Therefore,
the complete facility is usually divided into smaller areas
called Units. Each Unit can then be drawn separately on FOUNDATION LOCATION DRAWING
drawings called Unit Plot Plans.
Toe structural drafting departrnent uses informa-
tion provided on the Equipment Location drawing to
UNIT PLOT PLAN show the position of foundations for mechanical equip-
ment, structural supports, and control buildings. On
Unit Plot Plans are generally defined by imaginary Foundation Location drawings, foundations that are
lines called Battery Limits. Battery limits are used to to be built above Grade are drawn as solid lines and
establish a unit's perimeter boundaries. Toe Unit Plot spread footings. Toe portion of the foundation that lies
Plan is usually drawn to small scale, such as l" = 10', below Grade is shown as hidden lines. Figure 9.9 shows
l" = 20', or 1" = 30'. an example of a Foundation Location drawing.
Unit Plot Plans show the location of a11 the buildings,
mechanical equipment, pipe racks, tank farms, and
other items of importance in the unit. True North and PIPING DRAWING INDEX
Plant North are also shown as actual and theoretical
points of orientation.The purpose of this drawing is not Toe Piping Drawing lndex is developed from the
to show the detall, but rather, the arrangement of vari- Plot Plan. This drawing divides the Plot Plan into
ous components to be erected in the Unit. smaller drawing areas, usíng Match Lines. Match Lines
Toe piping group is typically responsible for the are lines drawn and labeled that allow the smaller
development of the Unit Plot Plan. Unit Plot Plans are drawing areas to be pieced together to form the larger
developed using the Mechanical Flow Diagram, cli- Plot Plan, similar to a puzzle. Larger areas are divided
ent specifications, codes, and input from the client's in such a way as to keep related pieces of mechanical

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


(,) F/F ELEV. 130' -O"

~-----------~'~ 125'c~~ ~-T-.O-.P-LA-T._E_l._1_25-'--o-· --?-,--w


NOTES: Ot)
1. TO FINO THE OISTANCE BElWEEN TWO
z
OIFFERENT ELEVATIONS, SUBTRACT TliE
LOWER ONE FROM THE HIGHER ONE.
2. WHEN CALCULATING THE OISTANCE
:: e.o

w
BElWEEN A CENTERUNE ((ü ELEVATION
ANO A BOTIOM OF PIPE (BOP)
ELEVATION, CONVERT TliE BOP TO A i
BY AOOING ONE-HALF OF THE O.O. TO
o
1
l()
......
1-
o
..-""'
l()
N
w
1-
:z
l-
o THE BOP THEN, SUBTRACT THE LOWER 1 o
z CENTERUNE ELEVATION FROM THE r-, z
HIGHER CENTERUNE ELEVATION.
TOS ELEV. 112'-0" --

t­­­~!"·c··,
'
1

o ......
~
1
F
1-
o
TOC ELEV. (ll-41~ .... _1~ ~ :z
101'-0"

Eb INV. ELEV. 97'-3"

FIGURE 9.6 Verticaldistance calculations with coordinates.


178 9. EQUJPMENT LAYOUT

\f¡ -1 -1- -J .o-iooz

i
+ N

.O-,OLl

T r ------------
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1
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::::;

ó
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o1 o1 o 01 o o1 o1 +

o o
o o
1
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+
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+
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+

FIGURE 9. 7 Unit Plot Plan.

equipment on the same drawing if possible. These drawing areas. Toe position, size, and pound rating of
drawing areas are given a drawing number for easy lines entering or leaving an area and continuing into
identification and then assigned to various designers an adjacent area must be properly noted and located
on the project. Duríng the design phase, it is crucial on all related drawings. Figure 9.10 is a sample Piping
that designers interface with those working on adjacent Drawing Index.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


PJPIJ',;G DRAWJNG JNDEX 179

- - 1~~E~-
MATCH LINE S. 55' -0"

... ¡1.
I u.,cX
04-CT-406
--t--i.¡;:-.;- 1
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..te, ,
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$,=
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1 º ~ 1

___ J_ _ _j~~
AREA LIMIT N. 55'-0"
FIGURE 9.8 Equipment Location drawing.

PIPE DRAFilNG AND DESIGN


MATCH UNE w. 40'-0"

rf-1 Lt_J +PS-7 ~


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MATCH UNE E. 40'-0" - -
FIGURE 9.9 Foundation Location dr awmg.
.
PLOT LIMIT W. 120' -0"

'f------------,
<,

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PLOT LIMIT E. 120' -0"


- - -~~
-- --

FIGURE 9.10 Piping drawing index.


182 9. EQUJPMENTLAYOUT

CHAPTER 9 REVIEW QUIZ B.O.P. EL.

1. Define plant coordinate system.


F./F. EL.

2. Name the three units of measurement by which 5. Use only coordinates to determine _
coordinates can be labeled. ____ dimensions.
6. Use only elevations to determine _
____ dimensions.

3. What is the typical arbitrary value for the elevation 7. Define Battery Limits.
of Grade?

4. Define the following terms. 8. Name three factors that influence the arrangement
and spacing of mechanical equipment.
H.P.Paving

T.0.C. EL. 9. How are above-grade foundations represented on a


Foundation Location drawing?
T.0.S. EL.
10. What is a Match Line?

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


trl
~
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MATCH UNE W.30' -O"

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UNIT 02 WEST ELEVATION y,
CHAPTER

10
Piping ArrangementDrawings,
Sections, and Elevations

ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS modeling software programs has had a significant effect


on the process and procedure relating to the develop-
Toe Pípíng Arrangement drawing is the most sígnífí- ment of the Piping Arrangement drawing, as will be
c~t draw":1g developed by a piping designer. This plan discussed in a later chapter.
view drawíng, also known as the Piping Layout draw-
ing, is a major source of information used in the fabrica-
tion and erection of the piping facility. And when using
the traditional, manual method of desígn, information RESPONSIBILITIE
S OF THE PIPING
on the Arrangement drawing aids in the development DESIGNER
of the piping model and isometric drawings.
Toe Piping Arrangement drawíng evolves from the Only after many years of experience does the
Foundation Location and Equipment Location draw- drafter become a piping designer. Toe time invested
íngs. lt shows all mechanical equipment, including in learning company specifications, layout procedures,
vessels in the unit and the pipes connecting them, and mechanical equipment requirements makes the
including manholes, ladders, platforms, cages, and designer a valuable employee.
davits. It identifies a11 structural steel supports such As the Arrangement drawíng is being developed, a
as the main and miscellaneous pipe racks, equipment piping designer should, among other things, consider
structures, columns, braces, and any fireproofing they the following:
may have. Once locations for foundations and mechani- How can the drawing be simplified? Has each pipe
~1 equipment have been established, piping configura- been routed in such a way as to allow for construc-
tions are added to the drawing with the aid of symbols tion, repairs, and equipment maintenance? How will
that represent fittings, flanges, and valves. construction, repairs, and routine maintenance be
Written information placed on the Arrangement p~rformed in this unit? Has enough room been pro-
drawing includes mechanical equipment coordinates, vided for access between mechanical equipment?
identification numbers, elevation callouts, line num- Foremost on a designer's mind should be the safety
bers, flow arrows, and dimensions establishing pipe and protection of plant operators and maintenance
locations. Instrumentation symbols are included to indi- personnel.
cate type, position, and orientation for accessibility by
plant personnel. Ladders and platforms are also shown
on equipment and structures that have them. A nozzle
schedule is included that contains detailed information
INFORMATION SOURCES FOR PIPING
about a11 pípíng and instrument connections for every
ARRANGEMENTDRAWINGS
piece of mechanical equipment. Information such as
A piping designer must assemble the various refer-
nozzle number, size and pound rating, orientation, ele-
ence drawings and documents needed to lay out the
vation, and projection is also included. With so much
Piping Arrangement drawing. These may include:
required information on a drawing, it is easy to under-
stand why the Piping Arrangement drawing must • Mechanical Flow diagram;
be neat, accurate, and legible. Toe development of 3D • Plot Plan;

186 C, 2012 Ehcvic-r lnc. Ali rlghts rcserved.


PIPING ARRJ\l\GEMENT DRAWING LAYOUT 187

• Foundation or Mechanical Equípment Location Plan; allow the designer to explore all requirements
• Piping Drawing Index; necessary for design, operation, and maintenance
• mechanical equipment (vendor) drawings and prior to the final layout.
foundation drawings; 8. Lay out the pípíng system as shown on the study
• Pipíng Specifications; drawíng. lnclude instrumentation connections
• Pipe Line List; on the piping configuration. Note that every
• list of special requirements, if any, for the project. piping facility has different process, mechanical,
and instrumentation requirements. It would
Toe construction document includes all the drawings
be extremely difficult to establish set rules and
and documentation that relate to the fabrication, erec-
procedures for methods of piping development.
tion, commissioning, and operation of the process facíl-
Each line on the layout is, in itself, a special design
ity. These will include as-builts, equipment certification
problem and must be dealt with accordingly.
and nameplate information, operating manuals, testing
9. Add platforms, ladders and cages, pipe guides,
procedures, field changes, and possibly photographs of
anchors, supports, and hangers as required.
the completed construction.
10. Include line numbers, codes, specs, specíalty item
numbers, and callouts.
11. Place locating dimensions for piping.
LAYOUTPROCEDURES 12. Label coordinates for mechanical equipment, pipe
supports, etc., if required for job.
To develop a Pípíng Arrangement drawing, the desígner 13. Add instrument balloons and callouts.
must be familiar with company and client job specifica- 14. Include nozzle schedules and notes as required.
tions and requirements of the current project. Many differ- 15. Complete drawing. Add Match Line, Area Limit,
ent layout and design techniques can be used depending and Battery Limit callouts, reference details, and
on client requirements, company policy, budget limita- Section or Elevation cutting plane symbols.
tions, manpower, and available computer software. 16. Print/plot the completed drawing and check your
Piping Arrangement drawings are quite complex work.
and congested. Therefore, a systematic layout proce- 17. Correct any mistakes you find before releasing the
dure is recommended to ensure all necessary items are drawing to your instructor or supervisor.
included. Toe following are the recommended proce-
dures for layout of Pípíng Arrangement drawings:
1. Define proposed area outline or draw Match
Lines.
PIPING ARRANGEMENT
2. Fill in drawing number and title block
DRAWING LAYOUT
information.
This section provides a detailed explanation of the
3. Place a North Arrow in upper right-hand comer of
procedural steps to lay out the single-line representa-
the drawing.
tion of the Piping Arrangement drawing of Unit-01
4. Locate foundations for buildings, pipe rack
shown in Figure 10.1. Toe double-line altemative of
columns, and mechanical equipment from the
Unit-Ol is shown in Figure 10.2. These procedures will
coordinates used to develop the Foundation
simulate those undertaken on any design project by
Location drawing and dimensions provided on the
an actual engineering company. To simplify the layout
Equipment Foundation drawing.
procedures and consolidate the reference drawings and
5. Draw equipment foundations.
other related information, a copy of the Foundation
6. Lay out mechanical equipment.
Locatíon drawing, Equipment Location drawing, Main
pipe rack, miscellaneous pipe supports, equipment ven-
NOTE:
dor drawings, Elevation, and the structural drawings
• Show only enough detall on mechanical equipment are provided in this chapter.
outlines to provide a generalized description. Toe following procedures present the recommended
• Represent mechanical equipment centerlines, method of developing a Piping Arrangement drawing
outlines, and foundations with thin dark lines. with a 2D CAD software program. When using a draft-
• Show all piping and instrumentation connections ing software program, such as AutoCAD, the drawings
(nozzles, couplings, etc.) on mechanical equipment. are typically created full size and then placed into the
appropriate border at %" = 1 '-O" (0.03125)scale. When the
7. Prepare a study drawíng of each individual piping initial drawing is developed, full-scale layouts are used to
configuration in the facility. This procedure will create various "sheets" of the facility at any desired scale.

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


188 10. PIPING ARRANGEMENT DRAWU\GS, SECTION"S, ANO ELEVATIONS

UNIT-02 MATCHLINE O'-0"


eOP a.112·-0~';5¿0¡:¡_ 'f;oq~-§"-----iri
PROOUCT UNE

COOLING WTR. RETURN

HEAT MEDIUM SUPPLY

HEAT MEOIUM RETURN

A.ARE HEADER
FUEL GAS
TO PROOUCT STORAGE
FEEO

1
~
~
o
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e 1
":

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o "-: 1
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UNIT-01 AREA LIMIT N. 55'-0"


FIGURE 10.1 Unít-Gl Piping A.rrangement drawing: single-líne.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


-e
...,
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9
N
UNIT-01 AREA LIMIT

e:
2.
~.,,
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·-o· ·-o·

MATCHLINE O' -0"


190 10. PIPING ARRANGE.~ENTDRAWIKGS,SECTIONS,ANO ELEVATIONS

Procedures 1-3: Drawing setup: Location of area and Reference drawing: Equipment Location plan
Unit boundaries, Title Block, and North Arrow. Set the following:
References drawing: Foundation Location plan and
Company drawing standards • Make Centerlines the current working layer.
Set the following: • Use OFFSET to create lines parallel to the North and
West Match Lines that will represent the intersecting
• UNITS coordinates of the main pipe rack, miscellaneous
Length: Type-Architectural pipe supports, and mechanical equipment
Precision: Yi6" centerlines.
Toe visibility of various linetypes will require differ- • Change the intersecting lines to the Centerlines layer.
ent values when viewing the drawing in model space • TRIM or use the line's Grips to shorten the
and paper space. intersecting lines that will represent the various
• LTSCALE equipment and structural support's foundation
Set to 32 centerlines.
A value of 32 will make the linetypes visible in Once the foundation centerlines are completed, your
Model Space and a setting of 1 will make them visible drawing should appear as shown in Figure 10.4, with-
in Paper Space. out the text.
• Create the following layers with corresponding Procedure 5: Drawing pipe rack and equipment
colors, line types, and line weights: foundations.
Reference drawing: Foundation Location drawing
(Figure 10.5) and foundation drawings for individual
pieces of mechanical equipment (Figures 10.6-10.10) and
Layername Color Line type line weight the Main Pipe Rack and Miscellaneous Pipe Support
control drawings (Figures 10.11-10.14).
Match Lines Black/White Phantom 0.70mm • Make Foundations the current working layer.
Centerlines Black/White Center default • Use the appropriate commands to draw mechanical
Foundations Yellow Continuous default
equipment, pipe rack, and pipe support foundations
from coordinates and dimensions shown on the
Steel Cyan Continuous default Equipment Foundation drawings. Your drawing
Equipment Oran ge Continuous 0.30mm should appear as shown in Figure 10.5 when
Pipe Blue Continuous 0.53mm procedure 5 is completed.
Platforms, ladders, Cyan Continuous default Procedure 6: Equipment layout.
andcages Reference drawings: Mechanical equipment vendor
Instruments Red Continuous default drawings
Use dimensions provided on the mechanical equip-
Text Black/White Continuous default
Dimensions Black/White Continuous default
ment vendar drawings to lay out the mechanical equip-
ment as represented in Figure 10.15. Toe equipment
vendar drawings are shown in Figures 10.16-10.21.
• Make Equipment the current working layer.
• Make Match Lines the current working layer. • Draw ali mechanical equipment with the necessary
• OBJECT PROPERTIES commands. Toe dimensions needed to draw and
Set COLOR Control, LINETYPE Control, and orientate the ladder and platforms for 01-V-101 are
LINEWEIGHT Control to "Bylayer" in the Object supplied with vendar drawings. Toe dimensions
needed to draw the cages are shown in Figures 10.40
Properties toolbar.
and 10.41. Change the linetype of those portions of the
• Draw a rectangle SS'-O" wide and 40' -O" deep to foundations located below the mechanical equipment
represent the Unit-01 boundary Match Lines. Toe from "continuous" lines to "hidden" lines.
lower, left comer of the rectangle will be at the O' -O'', • Make Steel the current working !ayer.
O' -O" origin. • Use the necessary commands to draw the main
Use Figure 10.3 as a reference to lay out the Unit-Ol's pipe rack and miscellaneous pipe supports. Toe
perimeter from the 0'-0'', 0'-0'' origin. dimensions needed to draw and orientate the steel
Procedure 4: Lay out the centerlines for the main columns are provided in the section and detail
pipe rack and equipment foundations. drawings in Figures 10.11-10.14. Change the linetype

PIPE DRAFTING AND DESIGN


-
...,
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-
~
tri
o UNIT-01 AREA LIMIT w. 40'-0"
{.,

e
a.
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IB NI 1 <(
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1 1
L _ ___ _J
UNIT-03 MATCH UNE O' -0"
-
..., ....

,--
o IO
N

-
r
~
w.
o
-- UNIT-01 AREA LIMIT 40'-0"
-Ñ=-i

~ t PS-1
yl
a1
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..a.o
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lil; .
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e,
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t:: "'¡;:;
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!! ~t------t-~~02
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o •
W.8'-6"
5
z(/]

~tz
~~
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~t
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1
01-P-JOJA
-t----+--
W.4'-0'
¡- 1
1 1
L __ tPS-3
I __ _ _ _J
UNIT-03 MATCHUNE 0'-0"
-
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- r
~
tri
o UNIT-01 AREA LIMIT W. 40'-~"- ---
¡,, lPS-1 - - --- - - 91
31
s
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á".
o::,
t,;_.3&·::a-=t::ft
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le

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o ...,
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w. 2s·-o·
1
z
ca"" io o
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111
o ¡g

¡~
s' wl z >
21 ám
..... ~
~ PS-2 ~ ~-i

~
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I~a::
s
~
zo
IB NI 1 -c .....
C) o
z 1 ~o
t:: o ~
z 1
::> t::
z
1 ::>
1

01-P-JQJA --+-
1 +-;,;_;.- 1
1 L----+-- 1
b_ __ ___J
UNIT-03 MATCHLIÑE - O' -O"
---
194 10. PIPING ARRANGEMENT DRAWU\GS, SECTION"S, ANO ELEVATIONS

5•-4•

1·-ei· 2·-~· ,·­ei


·­,i ·­,i

..x.
'j
....

A A o
~'<' ~~
-
1
~~ ~N~TNÑ
"'1 1
'9
.. ,:¡ .
...
. ,;
~ ;,, ;,,
~• o
•• •• <:1ºº
. ·~: .. 1

12-1"0...AIICHOII
BOt.l'S cau,uy SPACED
OH A ...-S" BOt.T
"' ...
CIRCU s:
'j
....

TOC EL 101'-0"

H.P. PAVING 100'-0"

13'-11 1/2"

SECTION A-A
Nato· NOT TO SCALE

DEPROPANIZER UNIT 01-V-101 PEDESTAL ANo FOUNDATION


FIGURE 10.6 Depropanizer 01-V-101 Pedestal and Foundation drawing.

PIPE DRAFI1NG AND DESIGN


."'
1
;,.

1 \ ~
\_L __ __ J) 1'-- -l /i

..
.... · .

...
,·-··
-. ',
.· .......
.
•: .
.
... I'
- ..
··."· '. ·~
. ....
:
: ""· .

EASJ ELEYATION NORTH ELEYAJION Note· NOT JO SCALE

DEPROPANIZER REFLUX ACCUMULATOR UNIT 01-V-102 PEDESTAL ANo FOUNDATION


FIGURE 10. 7 Depropanizer Accumulator 01-V-102 Pedestal and Foundation drawing.
15'-0"

..... . ...
si i: .. • 01­[­101

..
4
1o
1
4. t. w. JJ'-6" ..
• == q,_

.
o
1
;.,.
"''l:
;¡µ

TOC ELEV. 104'-03/4"

1'-6" 1'-6"

3·-0·

. <
HP PAVING 100'-0"
112" EXPASN. JIIT•
MATL (l'IP)
. 4
. .,

• : !1111
· -~· EAST ELEVATION
• - -
. . .. ~
..
'··~
. ·.
. ... .
.
,.: ·-
. .. -

NORTH ELEVATION
Note· NOT TO SCALE

DEPROPANIZER REBOILER UNIT O 1-E-1 O 1 PEDESTAL ANo FOUNDATION


FIGURE 10.8 Depropanizer Reboiler 01-E-101 Pedestal and Foundation drawing.
<t4jt
. ·.
4'-6"
1· ·1
~[ ~ . ~~-:1:,__
,.b.\ 01­E­102
-. ·..

.
I>
:
i-'l . ., : : ,. .. f - w. ,a·-o· - •. ii,, •
.,a ... . i,e,..
. 1 ~.. .. .,~ 1

1 1

.
1 1

01
16'-0"
.JII
~I ~

t zl
i

n. . -----
1•11
fl ~u--- TOC ELEV. 103'-4" • IIJW
~1
1
"-
.,.
1
;
...
Á
1
1

1
1 ·-0· 1·-0·

2'-0"
~1 1 /2" EXPASN. JNT.
it, HP PAVING 100'-o• l.(4TL {lYP)
4 ~w:'ii2·.,,.~,
--,,,,,··."""'·,""'4.,- .~._.~..;,:~.:~~~--~·
..~·-

Note· NOT TO SCALE EAST ELEVATION NORTH ELEVATION

DEPROPANIZER OVERHEAD CONDENSER UNIT 01-E-102 PEDESTAL ANO FOUNDATION


FIGURE 10.9 Depropanizer Condenser 01-E-102 Pedestal and Foundation drawing.
....
IO
00

12'-0"
6'-0" 6'-0"

.,'•, .d • s·-o·
o1 ·"
t")
•o
- -
.
1
<D
o
1
t")

__ J _
HP PAVING ,oo·-o· ... .
. ..;.. ... ......

1-.
~"" .. -o( ., b... b. _
~~·~·Y,><
....... '. 4:
·. : . . ''b
~ ·.
<O . .. :a.
--
4
·~~i>~~·-·_~,,._·~-~~ .. ·-"'_.·_b~-.. 1 . •
',...;. _.·t.·.· b.. l> -·.,mwmlJUmi
- .

EAST ELEVATION NORTH ELEVATION

Nato· NOJ JO SCAl E

DEPROPANIZER PUMPS UNIT 01-P-101 A&B PEDESTAL ANO FOUNDATION


FIGURE 10.1 O Depropanizer Pumps 01-P-lOlAand B Pedestal and Foundationdrawing.
!1 º·' 1 ~·
JI
1-- -
":•

1
1.ü1 01 ~·

N.o·-o·1 ~ Wl2x45 ­ --I-- - Wl2x45 ­ Wl2x45 ­ --I-- - Wl2x45 ­

o1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .1
~I ~I ~I ~I ~I

'l
~

N. ,0'­0" ] ••h 0 _ ] ••h 0 _ ] "" • 0 _ ] "" • 0 _

~ ~ m·­o· ~ ~ m·­o· cS ~ w·­o­ ~ m·­o· ~

PLAN

TOS E:L 114·-o·,


1~.
w,
w,.,2­,x_•s _
1 Wl2 X 45
1 Wl2 x 45
i Wl2 x 45
i~.
1
¡;,

TOS E:L. 1 1 o· -o· Wl2 x 45 Wl2 x 45 Wl2 x 45 Wl2 x 45

~

"'¡¡
.
"'s
~

s"'
~

"'
¡¡
~

s"'
TOC E:L 101'­0" ..._ ..._ ..._ ..._ _

NORTH ELEVA T/ON Note· NOT TO SCALE

MAIN PIPE RACK: PLAN ANO NORTH [L[VAT/ON


FIGURE 10.11 Main Pipe Rack: Plan and North Elevation drawing.
N
8

PS-1 t 111.40'-0"
12"
~:g,.,
¡,, t 11'.20'-0" 8"
ti
PS­2

--Jb I
DETAIL 1A I 12" I721/8"
ll'f2x~ 1 1
W12x45 W12x65
PS-4 t E.20'-0" STRUCTURAL SHAPE SIZES
PS­s tuo·­o·

1
1
1
1 TOS U. 11''-0"
... DETAIL 10
./-PFOIICIC:<XNimlCWDCIM.S1A-C W12x~ + ~
(
d 1 )
Wl2x65 f 1
TOS ei. f 12'-0"
7 1 l
DETAIL 1[
/-PFOIICIC:<XNlmlCWDCIM.S1A-C
~ 1\. ­Pff1110(~0ETNLSIA­E
DETAIL 18 1 T~ '1,. f!Q'-Q" ll'f2x45
l 7 1 l ~
1 1

1 1 ,11'12x~
(rYP.)
1 v-W12K~
(rYP.)

t
1 1

I ./
DETAIL
IWN PIPfl1IOt
1C
caiHCCOONDETAIIS IA ­ f
1
rr- TOC EL 101'-0" 1 roe a 101·-o·
(1 1 1) H.P. PAVING 100'-0" 1 H.P. PAVING 100'-0"
.......... 1 1

S[CTION A-A S[CTION B-B


Note· NOT TO $CALE

MAIN PIPE RACK: SECTIONS A-A ANO B-B


FIGURE 10.12 MainPipeRack: SectionsA-AandB--B.
l'-4" so.

l
J" J"
-i--;--r
' ! 1
Wl2,c46 ros El. 114·­o·

5/16"
r THCK PWf
5/16"
¿:;, Pf1''if x 1 '-8" LG.
:g
~
i
OETAIL 1A OETAIL 18 ...,
OETAIL 10 ;;!

z
ca"" o
>
111
o ¡g
>
s' ám
21 ~
~ ~'"i

~ roe a. ior­o:
s
~
o 5/16"
zo
IB
C)
Wl2,c.f6 ,,o·­o· .....
z H.P. PAVING 100'-0"
~o
~

5/16"

OETAIL 1C DETAIL 1E
Noto· NQT TO $CALE

MAIN PIPE RACK: CONNECT/ON DETAILS 1A­[


FIGURE 10.13 Main Pipe Rack: Connection details lA-E. N
o
.....
N
o
N

1b -iª"ti
8"
,ª'b 1 ti
I r I I12 ,1s..
8"
1
9 7/8"
t I
12"
12 ..

t ~¡
8:,:
W8xJ1 W1 Ox39 W12x45 W12x65 DETAIL 1A PS­1 tW.40'­o•

W12x6S
t
PS­2 w.20·­o·

STRUCTURAL SHAPE SIZES ----- -----5--.o·--o-=--·


PS­J

:l:! UPS­1
~
UPS­2
.
o
1

.
"O
m J6'­s· 16·­o· ;,,
o
~
=l o
o
el .1
:!l:.; W8xJ1
TYP.
.o

tí ~~:.; TOS EL 114'­0"

so
>
PLAN
W12x4S
TOS EL 112•­o•
W12x615
m
l'[l
C) TOS e: 110'­o• TOS a. 110·­o· TOS fL 110'­0"
z W12x4S

W10xJ9
TYP.
W12x6S
(TYP.)

DETAIL 1C
­ PffRIO(: ClHICCIDI DETAlS IA ­ f
o
.!. TOC EL 101'­0"
H.P. PAVING 100'­0"

ELEVATION SECTION A-A


Note· NOT TO SCALE

UNJT-01 PIP[ RACK WITH MtSC[LLAN[OUS PtP[ SUPPORTS 1 ANO 2


FIGURE 10.14 Unit--01Pipe Rack with Miscellaneous Pipe Supports 1 and 2.
-
'Ti
C)

~
....
o
;...
t PS-
UNIT-01
-----
AREA LIMIT

V\

.si
e:
i'
"'
;:!.
5'
ea.
o :i
:,
o.
¡;¡
s
:,
~
o
o 01-y-101
w. 26'-0º
1
;;!
"O

ca"" ~
1 lO
111
o
º1 I~ >
¡g
s' wl 1 z >
21 z á
::::¡ !::: ~
~ J: 2 ~--i

~,
o
,~
:::::¡
~
~ 01 E-102 s
o
~ w. 18'-0º ~
O:'.
IB NI MPS-2
1 <( ~
....
C)
z o ~o
1
!::: o ~
z 1
=> !:::
z
1 =>
01-v-102 1
~.87-6º

_J
UNIT-03 MATCHLINE - o' -o"
N
i
NOZZLE SCHEDULE
NOZZLES "N1"&"N5" NOZZLE "N2" MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE PROJECTION

H1'-51/." 1'-81! • IMP. METRIC IMP. METRIC

1='Ef~ Í= ,-1,·-0:J ~.
171,· 1 21 N1 BOTTOM OUT 10· 251.0 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
N2 REBOILER RETURN 12" .JOM 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
- ~ 8
N3 FEED INLET 8" 20J.2 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
~ 3"(TYP.7) N4 REFLUX 4" 101.6 RF 2'-6" 162.0
300#
N5 OVHD.VAPOR OUT 10" 251.0 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
NOZZLE "N3" NOZZLES "N4"&"N6" NOZZLE "N7" N6 P.S.V. 4• 101.6 300# RF
p

t~-=t
61/i" N7 VENT 2· 50.8 300# RF
~ 10" 31
19. I

11s·r1H~
~ a·
L.G.CONN. 2 3/4" 3000# CPLG

t=LIT-=t
"O
~o
MANWAY 2 18" 151.2 300# RF 2·-10" 86.J.6
s' , ,,.. s"
1%" ~ 4:.U- 2:.U,_ ~z
:l:! o
"O re
m
o NOZZLE DETAILS ~-1

;
~ 270'
=l
tí 225'
270' 225'
z
so
> .@

g
(/]

m
l'[l
C) ~
z y,
>
ze,
180' o· 180' o·
"'¡;:;
;;i
""z 5
(/]

135' 135'
/
PLATFORM PLATFORM
115' 90'
NO. 1 115· 90' NO. 2

DEPROPANIZER 01-V-101 SHEET 1 of 2


FIGURE 10.16 Depropanizer 01-V-101 Sheet 1 of2.
NOZZLE SCHEDULE

N e:==- MK

Nl
SERVICE

BOTTOM OUT
NO.
IMP.
10"
SIZE
METRIC
254.0
RATING FACE

300# RF
PROJECTION
IMP.
2'-8"
METRIC
812.8
N2 REBOILER RETURN 1 12" 304.8 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
N3 FEED INLET 8" 203.2 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
N4 REFLUX 4• 101.6 300# RF 2'-6" 162.0
N5 OVHD.VAPOR OUT 10" 254.0 300# RF 2'-8" 812.8
N6 P.S.V. 4• 101.6 300# RF
N7 VENT 1 2· 50.8 300# RF
C1&2 L.G.CONN. 2 3/4" 19. I 3000# CPLG
MI MANWAY 2 18" /51.2 300# RF 2·-10· 863.6

NOTE:
1. THE NOZZLE DIMENSIONS SHOWN ON THE EQUIPMENT
DRAWING DO NOT INCLUDE 1 '-0" CONCRETE FOUNDATION.
NOZZLE ORI ENTATION TAIL DIMENSIONS ARE FROM BOTIOM OF BASE PLATE.

36' -o• TAN~NT TO TANGENT

12 SPACES ot 2'-0" • 24'-0" {13 TRA'l'S )

DEPROPANIZER 01-V-101 SHEET 2 of 2


FIGURE 10.17 Depropanizer 01-V-101 Sheet 2 of 2.
NOZZLE SCHEDULE
NOZZLE "N1" NOZZLE "N2" MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE PROJECTION

,~-=ta·
IMP. METRIC IMP. METRIC
1 7/8"1n
LIQUID IN 203.2 812.8

w
N1 8" 300/1 RF 2'-8"
UQUID OUT 10· 25M 812.8
i~
5/8J 8"
N2 300/1 RF 2'-8"

3"(TYP.)
kci N3
N4
DRAIN
VAPOR OUT

4•
50.8
101.6
300/1
300/1
RF
RF
2'-6"
2'-8"
162
812.8
NS RELIEF 4• 101.6 300" RF 2'-8" 812.8
NOZZLE "N4"&"N5" NOZZLE "N3","N6"&"N7" N6 LEVEL GAGE 2· 50.8 300" RF 2'-6" 162

7/8"i1 L¡:
N7 LEVEL GAGE 2· 50.8 300/1 RF 2'-4" 111.2
125"-t;
'H~ 8"
C1
M1
VENT
MANWAY
1•
18"
25.I
157.2
6000/1
300"
CPLG W/PLUG
RF 2·-10· 86J.6
4•-1-1- 2·~
,
NOZZLE DETAILS
!ti¡---+'11,
1

j
1
1

I ,:t
I ,,

1 1 ' .,,.
1 1

DEPROPANIZER REFLUX ACCUMULATOR 01-V-102


FIGURE 10.18 DepropanizerRefluxAccumulatorOl-V-102.
NOZZLE SCHEDULE

A
NOZZLE "A"&:"B" NOZZLE "e" NOZZLE "E"

r1
11 •
ñ . V. MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE PROJECTION

1--g-4•. 1=°H~·· jai:t· ·


1· 17¡8· 11/4. IMP. METRIC IMP. METRIC
A HEAT MEO OUT 1 6' !SU 150# RF 1'-8" 508

-t4 µ2:.j
:W- 3"{1YP.7)
4
B
e
HEAT MEO IN
LIQUIO IN
1
1
6'
10"
!SU
25M
150#
300#
RF
RF
1'-8"
2·-2·
508
66M
NOZZLE "O" NOZZLES "F"&:"G"
o VAPOR OUT 1 12" .JOM 300# RF 2·-2· 66M
PROOUCT OUT 1 4" 101.6 300# RF 2'-2" 66M
1'-81/ •
2 s1h" E

J=· 1• 1 F GAGE COLUM 1 2" 50.8 300# RF 2'-0" 609.6


%=i_11 G GAGE COLUM 1 2" 50.8 300# RF 2·-0· 609.6
LQ=t8"
11·-0·1
ri~s· V TW/VENT 8 1" 25./ 6000# CPLG W/PLUG
2:.....1-l--
NOZZLE DETAILS
3 ,;2·---1rr
1 1;2·--in=2·

U]
1/ : 1:
11 'f,!.. ~'-----,1+1
1
I:-,
1
;-1 - - -----H(W)+H---
\ 1 1

PLAN SEE DETAil "A"


26'-0"

G 10·-o· D 1:r-4·
B DETAil "A"
2'-5" ~~

...
:\ ~, JJ--IT------"'
/

----.--~ -----rr
. .___
_ ----li'i
r
V

: ci s·
3 1/2"

-1---
c::!::b!:,
2'

Jt
$_
ir

>-=--

r;--~ :-t
!¡ -~ ,~, 1 1 ,f

1 '-6 1·-21
-l-4--10·
2'-4" 1 1s·-o· 2·-2· 2·-a·
'::-i-{AXf)
2'-1Lj ©D
1

F~ ELEVATION C A RIGHT END VIEW

DEPROPANIZER REBOILER 01-E-101


FIGURE 10.19 Depropanízer Reboiler 01-E-101.
N
o
00
NOZZLE SCHEDULE
MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE PROJECTION
NOZZLE "A"&"B" NOZZLE "C" NOZZLE "D"

1.A_1_
IMP. METRIC IMP. METRIC
A C.W.INLET 1 6" !5U 150# RF 1'-8" 508
1 7/8i_fl 1 5/8"L~

T~_L rB' B C.W.OUTLET 1 6" !5U 150# RF 1'-8" 508

,·~---,- ~L
Jrr8"(TYP.)
e VAPOR IN 1 10· 2~ 300# RF 1'-8" 508
3"(TYP.) ~ D UOUID OUT 1 8" 203.2 30D# RF 1'-8" 508

V TW/VENT 8 1" 25.I 6000# CPLG W/PLUG

31/2"t
NOZZLE DETAILS

··~$" ~-
1 1 1/2" 2·

U]
1

1 , 1, /'."
i - -
\ 1 I I 1 1
'
.__
1
'
PLAN
SEE DETAil "A"
24'-o"
DETAil "A"
e B

-
'-4 18'-10" 2'-8" -1'-2"

o'
1' 1'
-'--
3 1/2" 2 2"
V ____.___
.
~,- J r_

3
-r; 1

.,
CIO
1
1 1 ~
--~g - +- t-t
\.1 ri 1
"l r
1
-!l},·-o·
-
8" -,--
J. L
f.. '-

EN:-:.1
~ 1s·-o·

ELEVATION @ A

DEPROPANIZER CONDENSER 01-E-102


FIGURE 10.20 Depropanizer Condenser 01-E-102.
NOZZLE SCHEDULE
NOZZLE "A" NOZZLE "8" MK SERVICE NO. SIZE RATING FACE
1'-3" IMP. METRIC

LM A
8
SUCTION
DISCHARGE

6"
2(JJ.2
152.4
300#
300#
RF
RF
,51sit:'.r
l.q
NOZZLE DETAILS 8"

co
ca""
1
111 N
o
s'
21
~
~
o
IB
C)
z ----,
1 O"

1 '-6"

1 '-6"

HP PAVING 100' -0" 2"

ELEVATION END VIEW

DEPROPANIZER PUMPS P-101A & P-1018


FIGURE 10.21 Depropanízer Pumps P-101Aand P-lOlB.
210 10. PIPING ARRANGE.~ENTDRAWIKGS,SECTIONS,ANO ELEVATIONS

of those portions of the beams, columns, and A 300# gate valve is located fitting make-up below noz-
foundations that are hidden from "contínuous" lines zle N3. Its handwheel is oriented toward the west.
to "hidden" lines. Figure 10.23 provides the Plan and Elevation views
• When procedure 6 is completed, your drawing of the depropanizer, 01-V-101 and the kettle reboiler,
should look like Figure 10.15. 01-E-101. Also shown is their associated pipíng, lines
01-2-C30-10''-IH and 01-3-C30-12"-IH.
Procedures 7 and 8: Development of pipe line con- Line 01-2-C30-10''-IH starts at nozzle Nl of 01-V-101.
figurations for Unit-Ol. Begin at nozzle Nl with a flange and an elbow that are
Reference drawings: Mechanical Flow Diagram, equip- welded together. Toe elbow is welded onto the flange
ment vendor drawings, and Piping Specifícations. so that it points north. A straight run of pipe travels
In procedures 7 and 8, the step-by-step routing of north and another elbow flat-turns west into nozzle C
each pipe confíguration from beginning to end will of 01-E-101.After a short run of pipe, an elbow turns up
be described relative to the commodity flow direc- and a flange connects to nozzle C. A 2" drain drops out
tion. That is, the written explanation of the develop- of the bottom of 01-2-C30-10"-IHand connects to the
ment of each pipe confíguration found in Unit-01 will oily water sewer. lt is located 10' -8" south of the center-
dictate the sequential placement and orientation of fit- line of nozzle C; its handwheel points north.
tíngs, flanges, and valves as it follows the direction of Line 01-3-C30-12"-IH rises out of the top of Ol-E-
the flow of the commodity within the pipe. Toe written 101 at nozzle D with a flange and short vertical length
descriptions of the confígurations will not include exact of pipe. An elbow is attached that is oriented south.
placement or size dimensions of the fittings, flanges, or Another short run of pipe travels south until an elbow
valves required for the layout. Toe dimensions that are flat-turns west into 01-V-101, at nozzle N2.
needed to place the pipe on the arrangement drawing Notice in Figure 10.24 that nozzle NS is oriented
in its proper location and orientation can be found on on vessel 01-V-101 at a 45º angle, pointing toward
the various dimensioning charts and vendor drawings the northeast. Line 01-4-C30-10'' comes out of nozzle
found in this chapter and in the appendix. The 30 mod- NS fitting make-up at EL. 141'-0'', where an elbow
eled, isometric view of each line is shown in the upper turns down alongside the vessel. A long, vertical drop
right comer of the drawing associated with each pipe. descends to centerline elevation 110'-5%'', where it turns
This view will be especially beneficia! to help visualize east. A short, easterly run of pipe will align Ol-4-C30-
the routing and placement of pipe components needed 10'' with the centerline of 01-E-102, where it flat-turns
to accurately depict the lines on the arrangement north, toward nozzle C. As the line travels north, it rests
drawíng. on a Miscellaneous Pipe Support-2, then it turns down
into nozzle C of 01-E-102. Lines that drop such a long
• Make "Pipe" the current working layer. distance down the side of a vertical vessel, as Ol-4-C30-
• Use the UNE command to draw all lines. Pipes 14" 10" does, typically require pipe supports and/ or pipe
in diameter and larger are drawn double-line with guides. Toe support used in this particular situation is
actual OD dimensions havíng Default lineweight. Toe a trunion, which is welded to the side of a vessel. Figure
centerlines for double-line pipes are represented as a 10.25 shows a typical trunion pipe support.
Center linetype. Draw all single-line pipes, those 12" Line 01-5-C30-8" transports condensed vapor from
in diameter and smaller, with a 0.53 mm lineweight. condenser 01-E-102 to the overhead accumulator 01-V-
Toe fitting, flange, and valve symbols created in 102. 1t attaches to nozzle D, which comes off the bottom
the previous chapters can be inserted into their of 01-E-102 and travels to nozzle Nl on 01-V-102. This
appropriate locations. 300# line drops out of nozzle D fitting make-up and
turns east for 2'-7", where it tums up. After a vertical
run of pipe, an elbow turns the confíguration south to
rest on Miscellaneous Pipe Support-2 at elevation 110'-
Routing
O''. Toe pipe continues south to align with nozzle Nl of
Con.figurations for lines 01-1-C30-8" through 01-V-102. Once aligned with nozzle Nl, an elbow tums
Ol-16-C30-2" up toan elevation that is fitting make-up when measur-
As shown in Figure 10.22, line Ol-1-C30-8" enters ing against the flow, or backward, from nozzle Nl of
Unit-01 from the Loading Facility on the west end of 01-V-102. Toe pipe runs east before turning up into Nl
the Main Pipe rack having a centerline elevation of (see Figure 10.26).
110'-4o/il'. After the line travels 14'-0" into Unit-Ol, from Lines 01-6-C30-10'' and 01-7-C30-6"/4" are suction
Match Line W. 40' -O', an elbow flat-turns the line north and discharge lines for pumps 01-P-lOlA and 01-P-lOlB,
toward vessel 01-V-101. 01-1-C30-8" travels north before respectively. Line 01-6-C30-10",the suction line, is a 10"
it turns up and into nozzle N3 of 01-V-101at EL. 125'-0". confíguration that drops out of the bottom of Ol-V-102

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


UNIT-01 MATCH UNE W. 40'-0"

-N-

-----
01-1-CJ0-8'

l'S­1
V-101
25'-()'
lf.

e, PLAN :1'1
~ \ ~

t
.Y::1í!1..

---- 1 ros. El 111'­().


01-1-c.J0-8'
tas: EL 112'­()'

1'$­1
1 ros. El 110'­().

_J_,
H. P. PAVINC 100'-0"

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.22 Line 01-1-C30-8".


N
......
N

~ N _.,
@
,-r--~~~-=-=--,--=-:;---,-,--,------,::--~~-------+---r-1@)
~
.3-C:30-12"-IH @ E-102
-W. .3.3'-6"

2-C.30-1 O" -IH

V-101
W.26'-0"

PLAN

l
.3-C.30-12"-IH
EL. 113-:_0 .. - +-----
®
E-102

EL.102' -.3"
H.P. PAVING

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.23 Unes 01-2-00-10"-IH and 01-3-C30-12"-IH.


-N-

PLAN

1 1 i I

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1

t
1

V-101 V-101 t
1

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"


FIGURE 10.24 Line01-4-C30-10".
214 10. PIPING ARRANGE.~ENTDRAWIKGS,SECTIONS,ANO ELEVATIONS

Exiting the 6 X 4" tee to the west, the line becomes


11

01-7-C30-4". From the center of the tee, a 14"-lOW' run


of pipe ends with an elbow that turns down 2'--0''.
Below that elbow another one turns north, out of the
rack. This section of pipe has an orífice flange assem-
bly positioned 3'-0" from the north end of the run.
Long runs of pipe that have an orifice flange assembly,
such as this one, are known as meter runs. Toe precise
positioning of the orifice flange within the meter run
is based on a formula that will be discussed in greater
detail in Chapter 12. Line 01-7-C30-4" then turns down
into control valve manifold FCV-1, also discussed in
Chapter 12. Toe control valve manifold, also known as
a "control station" or "control set," keeps the line in a
north orientation as it runs along the east side of 01-V-
101. Toe line rises up, out of the FCV-1 control mani-
fold, when it is aligned with the centerline of 01-V-101,
eventually attaching to nozzle N4 at EL. 139' -O". Toe
Plan and Section views of control station FCV-1 can be
seen in Figure 10.29.
FIGURE 10.25 Trunion pipe support. Line 01-9-C30-4" drops out of the bottom of 01-E-101
connected to nozzle E, fitting make-up. The line turns
from nozzle N2. After a vertical drop to centerline east befare rising to centerline elevation 110'-2%". Once
elevation 108'-9", an elbow turns south. After a short at this height, an elbow turns south, travels 6'-8", and
southerly run, the line tees to align with the centerline drops down into control station TCV-1. This control sta-
of pumps 01-P-lOlA, to the east, and 01-P-lOlB, to the tion is similar in size and appearance to the one used
west. Once the east and west branches align with the in line 01-7-C30-4". Toe control station runs in an east
centerline of the two pumps, an elbow turns down into a to west direction and lies 2' -O" to the north of the cen-
vertical run. Within each of these vertical drops is a gate terline of the pipe rack. Toe handwheels of the block
valve that has been installed with its handwheel rotated valves point south. Use the dimensions in Figure 10.30
45º to the southwest. Attaching fitting make-up to the to represent the control station on your drawing.
bottom of the valve is a flange and elbow that turns Toe west end of the control station rises to center-
south. A 10'' X 8" eccentric reducer is installed with the line elevation 110' -21.4", turns south, and runs below the
flat side on top, as indicated by the FOT abbreviation, pipe rack as it rests on Column B on the Main pipe rack.
befare the line connects to the pump suction nozzle A of Toe line then rises up through the rack, turns east, and
01-P-lOlAand 01-P-lOlB with a flange (see Figure 10.27). travels through Unit-01 into Unit-03.
Line 01-7-C30-6" /4" shown in Figures 10.28 and 10.29 As shown in Figures 10.31 and 10.32, lines
is a long line that connects the discharge nozzles of 01-10-A15-6"-IH and Ol-ll-A15-6"-IH are heating
pumps 01-P-lOlA and 01-P-lOlB to nozzle N4 on vessel medium return and supply lines, respectively, for 01-E-
01-V-101. Rising vertically out of the pump discharge 101. Line 01-10-A15-6"-IH, the heating medium return
nozzle B, the configuration is a 6" NPS. A check valve, line, is a simple line dropping out of 01-E-101 from noz-
which is attached to the discharge nozzle, precedes a zle A fitting make-up. Toe bottom elbow turns the line
block valve, whose handwheel has been rotated 45º to west for a short distance, then up, fitting make-up into
the southwest. A short vertical run of pipe is installed a block valve, whose handwheel is oriented north. Toe
befare two elbows, whose centerline elevation is at EL. line continues vertically to EL. 110' ­6o/il', where it turns
108'-5", turn toward each other. Equidistant between south, rests on Miscellaneous Pipe Support-1 (with a
the two pumps, the line tees with the branch oriented pipe shoe), then runs toward the Main pipe rack. Line
up to create another vertical run. At a centerline eleva- 01-10-A15-6"-IH will rest on Column B as it enters the
tion of 110'-3o/il', an elbow turns south, travels 3'-2", Main pipe rack. Once below the rack, the line turns up
tums up 2'-0" into the Main pipe rack, and tees again, and stubs (stub-in) into line 19-A15-10"-IH.
branching in the east and west directions. A 6 X 4"11 Line 01-11-A15-6"-IH is the heating medium supply
eccentric reducer (FOB) is welded to the west side of line for 01-E-101. It drops out of the heating medium
the tee. All piping components attached to the east side supply header, 20-A15-10''-IH with a stub-in. After
of the tee are part of line 01-8-C30-6", which continues dropping out of 20-A15-10''-IH, an elbow turns the line
down the pipe rack into Unit-03. north where it rests on Column B with a pipe shoe.

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


ís ~~!J
~~1
¡;,¡<.;;,~~ ®
- N
-
E-102 OVERHEAO
w. ,e·­o·­ CONOENSER-
~·<::,
~t:'
~~
@
~ ,,
0/8
,/c:5 ;;!
1/ z
o
"O
!¡;:~
ca"" '·' o
~I~
111
o
s' ~
~ _J @ >
¡g
>
ám
21 ~
~
~ PLAN ~..;

~
s
~
o zo
IB
C) ....
z ~o
~

T.O.S. El. l /0'-0"

H. P. PAVINC 100'-0"

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.26 Line Ol-5-C30-8".


N
.....
°'
,.,, N - @
_,¡,_0!_-P-1018 _
-Y- W. IJ'-o•
~

~-
1 1 1~'
------
V­1112
W.8'­6'
1 1
1 1 1
~l, '
1 1
/ 10
( 01-P-10/A _ c'!Jº" p
w.,·­0· 6" 31

o1"
"O
~o

~z
o
re

_J ~-1

;
PLAN

z
.@

g
(/]

~
@ y,
>
ze,
"'¡;:;
;;i
'"-l
5
z(/]

H.P. PAW.C f(J(}'-0'


OI-P-1018 01-P-IOIA

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.27 Line 01-&-C30-10".


~ N _.
r;-
01-P-101A
­­­tw. 1J'-o;-
.....1
al..,l ~1
6"x4TCC. ~
<s
REO.(FOB} ,!_

ca""
111
o
s'
21
~
~
b
PROOUCT ANO
REFLUX PUIJPS
l~¡
,1:: 1

..,,
~~
~
c:::;1~
~

@
PLAN
~ 6"x4" ECC.
o
IB
C) -- -f.!!:-112'-J 5/16"
---- --iR.:::::!i:::lJ.::(i='FQ='B.==~:::::~f,EB~-::_~C.~'J0~-~6~EL!!.~ 5¿"~
z
BOP. EL. 110'-0" __ -f [L._1_10'-:__J_S/._16:_
_

El.108'-5"
~i::3~~!E::::~~----

@ F.0.F. El. @
). Of_-P-10!j&8 -i ::!L @t- -f fL.102':.6~

------
-y- EL. 102'-6"
! 1
::::¡¡-
1 H.P.PAV!NG 100'-0" _d d _
SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.28 Line Ol-7-C30-6".


....
N
00

-N-
v­tor IJi1'flOIWtZ'ER
J.
Ti.i,._¡r­ ­ ­­

l!j r,
PLAN
1

Y­101

EL 102'­d'
H.P. PAIMt;' El. tar­o:
SECTION "A-Jt SECTION "B- B"

FIGURE 10.29 Llne 01-7-C30-4".


-N
-

PLAN

8<lP. El f/2'-()'

8<lP. El f/0'-(J'

OI­E­101 OEFf/OPAMZER
.v~·
EL 106'­() RE80ilEff

F1EZD SUPPT.
H.P.PA

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B" SECTION "e-e· SECTION "C-C"


ENLARGED

FIGURE 10.30 Line 01-9-C30-4".


N
N
o

~N-
rT
!~~~~~~~3-
...
;I
b
PLAN

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "8- B"

FIGURE 10.31 Line 01-10-AlS-6"-IH.


,._
fT
- -
N

i
;
~

r,
~ .J
PLAN

,._,.
8.0J'. l1. 110'­f

NP. or Mlt\C a: 100'­{/'

SECTION ·e-B" ELEVATION

FIGURE 10.32 Line 01-11-AlS-6"-IH. N


.....
N
222 10. PIPING ARRANGE.~ENTDRAWIKGS,SECTIONS,ANO ELEVATIONS

Toe pipe will continue north, cross Miscellaneous Pipe Line 01-13-A-15-6",shown in Figure 10.34, is designed
Support-l and into a meter run. Precise positioning of to transport waste gas from 01-V-102 to the fiare stack.
the orífice fiange assembly, FE-1, must be established at Line 01-13-A-15-6" rises off the top of 01-V-102, con-
this time. Because there is adequate upstream clearance nected to nozzle NS. A gate valve, whose handwheel
to locate the assembly, its position will be established is oriented east and is bolted to NS, precedes the pres-
based on the required downstream distance. Using sure safety valve, PSV-2, which has a 4"-300# inlet and
the guideline of 6 pipe diameters downstream, a míni- a 6 -150# outlet. Coming out of PSV-2, the line trav-
11

mum straight-run pipe distance of 3' -O" (6 pipe díam- els south, where it drops down onto column B at TOS
eters X 6 pipe size = 36") is required to the first weld.
11 EL.114'-3o/tl'. An elbow turns the line south again where
To locate the center of the orífice fiange assembly, add it rolls down and east to stub into the top of 18-A15-8",
3'-0" plus 9", the center-to-end dimension of a 6 elbow,
11 the fiare header at a 45° angle. Toe 8" fiare header then
which totals 3' -9 This 3' -9'' total dimension establishes
11• travels off-site to the fiare stack 03-FS-305,in Unit-03.
the position of the orifice flange assembly from the cen- Lines 01-14-A15-6" and 01-15-AlS-6" are cooling
ter of the elbow on the downstream side. water return and supply lines, respectively. They are
From the north end of the meter run, the line drops used to circulate the cooling water between 01-E-102
down into control station FCV-1. Toe control station and cooling tower 04-CT-406. Line 01-14-AlS-6" is the
runs south to north and lies on the west side of 01-E- cooling water return line. This pipe will circulate the
101. Out of the north end of the control station, the cooling water that has been heated in 01-E-101 back
elbow is rolled at a 45° angle to the northeast where it to 04-CT-406 to reduce its temperature. Ol-14-A15-6"
drops into nozzle B ofül-E-101. rises off the top of 01-E-102 at nozzle B with a gate
This layout conforms to the basic rule of piping for valve whose handwheel is oriented to the west. After
exchangers: hot stream in the top, cold stream out the a short vertical run up and out of the valve, the line
bottom. As the hot oil goes through the tube bundle of turns east then immediately south, fitting make-up, As
the kettle reboiler, it loses its heat and begins to cool. the line travels south, it will rest on Miscellaneous Pipe
Line 01-10-A15-6 -IH picks up this stream at nozzle
11 Support-l then further south to rest on Column B at
A of 01-E-101 and pipes it back to the pipe rack to be centerline elevation 110'-3o/i6". From there it runs below
returned, vía the heat medium return header, to the the Main pipe rack and turns up to stub into the cooling
fired heater 03-H-304 on Unit-03 for reheating. Both water return header 21-AlS-10".
lines 01-10-A15-6"-IHand Ol-11-A15-6"-IHare 6" lines Line 01-15-A15-6"is the cooling water supply line.
that branch from a 10" header. To determine the type of It routes water that has been cooled in cooling tower
branch connection to be made, we must follow Piping 04-CT-406back to 01-E-102. This line drops out of the
Specification Class A15. A15 mandates that a stub-ín bottom of 22-AlS-10", the cooling water supply line to
be used to make the branch connection on these lines. centerline elevation 110'-3o/tl' and turns north. When the
Notice these are liquid lines. Toe typical procedure for pipe aligns with nozzle A of 01-E-102, it drops down
branchíng lines with a liquid commodity is to branch to EL. 109'-OVi/' and turns west. When it reaches the
off of the bottom of the rack headers. If these lines con- centerline of 01-V-102, it turns up into a block valve.
tained steam, we would rise off the top of the header Toe block valve, whose handwheel is oriented west, is
pipe to avoid getting condensate in the line. bolted directly to nozzle A. See Figures 10.35 and 10.36
As shown in Figure 10.33, line Ol-12-C30-4"rises fit- for Plan and Elevation views of lines 01-14-A15-6"and
ting make-up off the top of 01-V-102 from nozzle N4 01-15-AlS-6".
with an elbow turning west. Another elbow turning Line 01-16-C30-2" is a short drain line dropping out
down routes the pipe through a control station PCV-1. of the bottom of 01-V-102. This 2" line is attached to
Toe control station runs parallel to the north/ south nozzle N3 and drops straight below the nozzle into a
centerline of 01-V-102. Because Ol-12-C30-4" has the drain funnel. A block valve is located at centerline ele-
same pipe diameter and pound rating as 01-9-C30-4", vation 104 -6 Its handwheel is oriented to the east (see
1 11•

the measurements required to lay out control station Figure 10.37).


PCV-1 can be derived from TCV-1 in Figure 10.30. Toe Toe level gauges and level controllers depicted
south end to the control station rises to a centerline ele- in Figures 10.38 and 10.39 are mounted on a bridle
vation of 110'-2W' and turns south. A dummy support attached to vessels 01-E-101 and 01-V-102, respectively.
is required to support the southerly run of pipe from Toe level gauge and level controller are installed so
column B in the pipe rack. A further explanation of an operator can easily monitor and control the normal
dummy supports and their required pipe size is shown liquid level of each vessel. Toe normal liquid level of
in Chapter 11. From the dummy support, 01-12-C30-4" 01-V-102, the overhead accumulator, is typically con-
turns up, then south again and drops into the 8 fuel 11 trolled to be level with the centerline of the accumu-
gas line, 17-A15-8"in the pipe rack. lator. Toe normal liquid level of 01-E-101, the kettle

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


fT M# N
- g
~
"'
I~ ~ /
'
~"I!

~
PLAN

~ _J

B.aP.ELI U'-d'

a.aP.EI..112'-0"

É EL.102'-o"
H.P. PAV!NC El. 100'-o"

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.33 Line Ol-12-C30-4".


~ N _..

I I
{ 01-1:J-A/5-6'

~..
~Id
'l'
! ,~f
Id
i¡i
~
PLAN

H.P. PAVING ELEV. 100'-0"

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.34 Line01-13-AlS-6".


..

1
~
/ .,,'~

y
110/
MPS­2
IT.TJqJ""

@
~ _J ,,. .6
..
lt,.../--1 ;;!
,...1
a1 z
"O

ca"" o
>
111
o ¡g
>
s' ám
21 ~
~ ~..;

~
s
~
o zo
IB
C) ....
z ~ ~o
PLAN
~

gwxa.1(11)'..qº

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.35 Líne 01-14-AlS-6".


N
N
\J\
N
N
°'
-N-

PLAN

15­A/5­ó

SECTION"B-B"
SECTJON "A-A"

FIGURE 10.36 Line 01-15-AlS-6".


~---+-~~2~RAIN.-.~~
(807J: 1:

" 1 1
'r 1 1

PLAN

_ __¡,_D_f-V-{02 _ _,¡,!}1-V-}02
­­­­.­Y EL.117'-o· -y EL.117'-o•

4'­6.
H.P.PAVING EL 100'-0"

SECTION "A-A" SECTION "B-B"

FIGURE 10.37 Line 01-16-C30-2'.


N
N
00

N _.

«
31
"O
~o

_J ~z
o
re
~-1
PLAN
PI
t
;
z
.@

g
(/]

(!) ~
y,
>
ze,
"'¡;:;
;;i
'"-l
5
z(/]

H.P.PAVING 100'-0'

SECTION "A-1( SECTION "B-B"


FIGURE 10.38 Bridle No.1. Bridle attachments for 01-E-101.
..,, N _.
1 1
1 1
~ r1-11= [02 _
: : YwJl'-Ó
1 1
.J'-5'

J
V-102
EL. 117'-0"

H.P.PAVING 100'-0'

SECTION "A-A"
FIGURE 10.39 Bridle No.2. Bridle attachments for 01-V-102.
230 10. PIPING ARRANGE.~ENTDRAWIKGS,SECTIONS,ANO ELEVATIONS

reboiler, is usually one-half the weir height. The weir, NOTE: To avoid congestion on a drawing, extend cenier­
in this application, is a vertical plate inside the kettle lines away from the equipment symbol and label the equip­
reboiler that serves as a dam to keep the tube bundle ment's description and coordinates in an open area of the
submerged under liquid. As the liquid level increases, drawing.
the excess liquid will flow over the weir and be drawn
• Labels for all pipe lines with the following
out through nozzle E, which is line 01-9-C30-4".
infonnation:
Procedure 9: Platform, ladder, and cage layouts line number;
Reference drawing: Vendor drawings flow direction:
insulation symbol and thickness;
• Make Platforms, Ladders, and Cages the current steam, heat, or electrical tracing if required.
working layer.
• Place a reference note somewhere within the area
• The size and location dimensions for the platforms,
lirnits of the drawing to indicate the finished Grade
ladders, and cages are established from dimensions
or High Point of Paving elevation.
provided on the vendor drawings for 01-V-101.
• Label all instrumentationper the Mechanical Flow
Figures 10.40and 10.41 provide an enlarged view of
diagram. All instrumentationshould be accounted
01-V-101describing platforms 1 and 2, respectively. for one time in either the Plan view or Section view.
Use dimensions provided in these figures to place Use W' diameter instrument bubble.
the platforms, ladders, and cages on 01-V-101in your
• Label for the Top Of Platform (TOP) elevation on the
piping arrangementdrawing. Plan drawing.
Procedures 10-15: Placement of line numbers, call- • Reference notes to describe the following:
outs, coordinates, and dimensions piping specialty items;
Reference drawing: Flow diagram, pipe line list, [ob reducers and reducing tees;
specifications out of spec flanges;
Key information about a piping facility is not always any nonstandard ítem not covered in piping spec;
depicted graphically. Sorne information must be com- vessel davits;
municated in written form. Certain components of a chain operatorsfor valve handwheels;
drawing such as dimensions, coordinates, elevations, pipe guides, supports, anchors, and hangers.
line numbers, fitting and equipment callouts, and design • Cutting Plane callouts that identify the name and
and fabrication notes can only be represented as writ- direction of the section or elevation to be drawn.
ten infonnation. The arrangement of information and • Labels for lines running through a pipe rack to
reference notes on an Arrangement drawing usually specify the commodities they contain.
requires preplanning and proper placement to achieve a NOTE: For clarity and neatness, group similar callouts
good sense of balance on the drawing. This inforrnation together in one common locaiion where possible (see Figure 11.2).
must be arranged logically and in a clear legible manner.
Therefore, interferences among reference notes, dimen- • Identificationfor any rniscellaneous items. Locate
sioning, and object line work must be kept to a minimum. and describe as required.
The following items must be included on piping
As a general rule, drawing notes and callouts are
arrangementdrawings:
drawn 0.125"tall. When the drawing is created full scale,
• CompletedTitle Block information. as with AutoCAD, the actual text height is determined
• North Arrow. Place the North Arrow in the upper by multiplying the desired text height by the drawing's
right comer of the drawing. It should point up or scale factor. Scale factor is established from the desired
toward the right. plot scale of the drawing, in this case, %" = 1 '-O". To
• Coordinates for match lines, area limits, battery find the scale factor, find the decimal equivalent of %",
lirnits, mechanical equipment, and structural support then divide that into 1 '-0" (12''). For example, 3 divided
foundations, all pump suction and discharge nozzles. by 8 equals 0.375. Then, 12" divided by 0.375 equals 32.
• Labels for angular degrees of orientation (30º, 45º, When applied to text height: 0.125 (text height) times 32
etc.) to indicate orientation of all vertical vessel (scale factor) equals 4 Therefore, all text in the full-scale
11•

nozzles. drawing should be a rninimum of 4" tall. Ultimately,


• Tag numbers (Nl, N2, N3, etc.) for all nozzles on when placed in the appropriate border to % = 1'-0" 11

mechanical equipment that corresponds to the vessel scale, the result would be text 0.125"tall.
outline drawings, mechanical equipmentvendor All notes should be read from the bottom of the
drawings, and nozzle schedule. drawing. Information such as coordinate labels for
• Show mechanical equipmentnumbers and title match lines, area lirnits, or battery limits, line numbers,
information. and equipment names, coordinates, and elevations

PIPE DRAFTING ANO DESIGN


270-
1
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z
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ca"" o
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111
o ¡g
s' o- >
ám
21 ~
~ 4" ~..;

~
s
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o zo
IB
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z ~o
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90º

PLATFORM No.1

DEPROPANIZER UNIT 01-V-101 PLATFORM No.1 DIMENSIONS


FIGURE 10.40 Platform No. 1.
N
l.,.)
N

270º

~0
135·
/7
90"

PLATFORM No. 2

DEPROPANIZER UNIT 01-V-101 PLATFORM No. 2 DIMENSIONS


FIGURE 10.41 Platform No. 2.
PIPING SECTIONS ANO ELEVATIONS: WHAT ARE THEY1 233
should be labeled parallel to the ítem to which they • Show all angular offsets. Indicate the degree of offset
apply. This may result in notes being read from the bot- and plane direction (horizontal or vertical).
tom or the right side of the drawing. No written informa­
Procedure 16: Checking your work
iion should be read from the left side of a drawing.
R.eference drawing: All available information and
drawings
Now that the drawing is complete, it must be
DIMENSIONI