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IAJPS 2018, 05 (02), 1028-1034 Rayapolu Ranga Goud et al ISSN 2349-7750




Available online at: Review Article


Rayapolu Ranga Goud1*, Gunnala Krishnaveni2, Girija Prasad Patro1
1. NATCO Research Centre, Hyderabad – 500018, Telangana State, India.
2. Mallareddy Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.
For the ancient few years, there has been a substantial research done on diverse methodologies for poorly water
soluble and lipophilic drugs. More in modern times voluminous molecules cannot be distributed due to low
solubility. Now a day frequently, particulate vesicle systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microspheres,
niosomes, pronisomes, ethosomes, and proliposomes have been used as drug carriers. Drug delivery designates the
technique and methodology to conveying medications or drugs. Nanoparticles have been refining the beneficial
effect of drugs and minimize the side effects. Basically, Nanoparticles have been arranged by using various
techniques as such dispersion of preformed polymers, polymerization of monomers and ionic gelation or
coacervation of hydrophilic polymer. Nano particulate formulation approaches could be applied instead as
alternative. As in the case of solid dispersions, efficacious permeation of these generally rather difficult to develop
approaches into commercial drug product development has taken. This review tries to gives viewpoint for both
Nano particulate and solid dispersion technologies.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, solid dispersions, coacervation, polymerization, drug delivery.
Corresponding author:
Rayapolu Ranga Goud, QR code
NATCO Research Centre,
Hyderabad – 500018,
Telangana State, India.
E-mail id:

Please cite this article in press as Rayapolu Ranga Goud et al., Solubility and Bioavailability Enhancement
Strategies for Effective Delivery of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs by Nano Formulations and Solid Dispersions,
Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2018; 05(02). Page 1028

IAJPS 2018, 05 (02), 1-7 Rayapolu Ranga Goud et al ISSN 2349-7750

INTRODUCTION:  Deficiency of appropriate industrial and

The word “Nano” itself denotes as one thousand investigative description tools
times smaller than the micro scale, it was  Exclusive technologies maintained by a
occasionally associated with the electronics small number of corporations
industry [1]. Nanotechnology is success established  Insufficiency of high-ranking management
at several levels [2]. Their distinctive size support to capitalize in more precarious
dependent things make these materials superior and machineries
indispensable in many areas of human activity [3].  Lack of understanding to apply the
The nanomaterial’s are most advanced at present, provisions in drug development
both in scientific knowledge and in commercial  Meta-stable nature
uses [4-7]. According to United States of Among countless practices for solubility
Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and enrichment, physical modifications of drugs and
National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) of the products such as dropping the unit size and altering
USA, nanotechnology is research and technology crystal pattern are common methodologies to rise
development at the atomic, molecular, or drug solubility [32-34]. Apart from conventional
macromolecular levels; and the capability to micronizing procedures, particle knowledge now
manipulate an atomic scale [8]. They can be metal deals with various particle and nanoparticle
(gold, silver, copper etc.,), mineral, polymer based engineering procedures as promising methods for
or a combination of constituents [9-12]. The water improving drug solubility [35-37].
solubility of a drug is a necessary thing that plays This assessment effort principally on several
significant part in absorption after oral particle machineries, from conventional size
administration. It is directs the opportunity of reduction approaches to current novel procedures
parenteral direction and also beneficial in retaining that can be used for formulating drugs with reduced
and trying of drug properties during design and aqueous solubility. [38-40].
improvement of drugs [13-14]. Drug solubility is
balance measure but the dissolution rate at which Approaches to make nanoparticulate products
solid drug or dosage form passes into solution is an Nanotechnology carries idea, that the assembly can
important [15-16]. In drug innovation, the numeral be ranked and measured in specific ways. There are
of insoluble drug candidates has improved in latest two diverse methodologies to constructing products
years, nearly 70% of drugs viewing poor water with Nano measure features and attributes:
solubility [17-18]. Solid dispersions have 1. Bottom-up technologies
fascinated great interest on current resources of an 2. Top-down technologies
enlightening the dissolution rate and hence the 1. Bottom-up technologies: This method is
bioavailability of a range of hydrophobic drugs directly related to the chemicals industry. It
[19-21]. The excessive interest in improving drug starts with very small components, frequently
delivery approaches and outstanding to an single particles or even molecules, and gathers
emergent number of poorly soluble drug candidates these building block units into longer
has been widely discussed [22-29]. Because of structures obviously the domain of chemistry.
following reasons solid dispersions and Nano In these cases the drug normally dissolves in a
particulate based preparations had been an solvent composed with stabilizer. The drug
essentially in the attention only of academia but not solution is precipitated e.g. through a nozzle
for pharmaceutical industry [30-31]: into an anti-solvent.

Fig. 1: Schematic representation of manufacturing flow for a bottom-up process Page 1029

IAJPS 2018, 05 (02), 1-7 Rayapolu Ranga Goud et al ISSN 2349-7750

2. Top-down technologies: Mechanical an aqueous surfactant is pressures through a small

energies affected on crystal construction gap of 20-30 μm with a piston. The streaming
and which lead to crystal destruction. velocity of fluid dramatically improved by pushing
Limited or complete amorphisation or the material through the gap. The static pressure
polymorph alteration can happen. drops behind the gap, water starts to boil.
Note: In both methods surfactants or polymers Implosion of the resulting water gas bubbles
stabilized the nanoparticles. The top down generates very tough cavitation forces that main to
technologies particularly the ball milling process mechanical damage of the crystals [44]. One of the
has led to prosperous promotions of different very significant features of nanoparticles is that
products and applications broadly designated in they characteristically have the affinity to re-
patents [41-43]. In this process characteristically agglomerate due to growing status of attractive
the drug suspended in its micronized form in an inter particulate for Vander Waal forces in the ‘nm’
aqueous medium to simplify the Nano milling. The range. Another phenomenon Ostwald ripening is
milling chamber (sizes from 300 ml to 60L) based on an imbalance between the higher
contains raw suspension and grinding medium. The saturation concentration in the vicinity of very
fluid is pumped through a media separator and back small particles and lesser concentrations close to
again into the milling chamber. A motor driven longer particles [45-46].
mechanical agitator shaft bears the impeller and
runs high shear agitation up to several thousand To overcome these phenomena, nanoparticles can
rpm. Mill and outside recirculation vessel are be divided by fostering repulsive forces among
jacketed to control the temperature sufficiently (e.g. them or keeping them apart via steric interference
5-10°C inlet temperature). by adsorbing polymeric stabilizers such as
hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC),
High-pressure Homogenization hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), povidone (PVK K
Mueller et al., evaluated high-pressure 30) and copolymers like pluronic F68 or F127 (see
homogenization. A macro suspension comprising figure 3)

Fig. 2: Schematic representation simplified scheme of a ball milling technology

Fig. 3: Stabilization of drug nanoparticles: steric hindrance (a) and repulsive electrostatic forces (b) Page 1030

IAJPS 2018, 05 (02), 1-7 Rayapolu Ranga Goud et al ISSN 2349-7750

Recently Deng et al., described another stability solvent-free solution to extrude thermoplastic
phenomenon by as gel relaxation and shortly after materials (polymers) together with dissolved drugs
wet milling particle cluster formation has been homogeneously at much lower temperatures than
observed with dramatic morphology changes under the melting point of the drug and the softening
the scanning electron microscopy (SEM): With the temperature of the polymer. Timpe et al, explained
particle growth up to a maximum a significant more detailed about solvent based manufacturing
viscosity rise has been measured dramatically when procedures for solid dispersions [49]. Melt
the Nano suspension was standing for more than 24 extrusion processes are compared against a solvent
hours. By modifying milling conditions (i.e., co-precipitation [50]. Characteristically for melt
milling time, concentration of surfactants etc.) the extrusion processes drug substances are extruded
extent of this phenomenon could be reduced. together with a polymer at high temperatures in a
Adsorption of positively or negatively charged twin extruder to dissolve the drug in the molten
particles at the charged drug surface leads to an polymeric carrier matrix. The mechanical shear
electrical double layer and specific electrical charge forces applied during extrusion represent apart
of drug nanoparticle which is decreasing with from the high temperature. Twin screw extruders
increasing distance from nanoparticle surface. The comprise apart from shearing elements heating and
potential at the boundary plane is expressed as `zeta cooling segments and allow for short residence
potential` measured in mV units and it should be times and reduced heating stress due to the
typically at least 30 mV [47]. continuous mass flow. Manufacturing processes are
typically developed on a drug material and carrier
Solid dispersion formulations specific basis [51]. Homogeneity of the extrudates
Typically an oversaturated solution is generated, should be carefully checked; application of
bearing the threat of fast recrystallization or confocal Raman spectroscopy described [52].
precipitation. Solid dispersions is preferably based
on an amorphous and molecular dispersion of a Physical stabilization principles of solid
poorly soluble drug in a carrier matrix which dispersions
allows to improve dissolution of the drug in water Solid dispersions can principally be stabilized by
or in physiological media since no crystal lattice following methods
energy needs then to be overcome. Three different Thermodynamic stabilization: The drug
generations of solid dispersions can be concentration is kept below the saturation solubility
differentiated [48]. e.g. in the polymeric carrier matrix.
1st generation solid dispersions (1960s) using Kinetic stabilization: In case of less soluble drugs
crystalline carriers like fructose, urea, mannitol in the polymer, the viscosity of the resulting solid
etc., are lead to improvement of wettability, but dispersion typically expressed via the glass
again require energy to break up the crystalline transition temperature Tg - should be sufficiently
structures of the carrier high (recommend 40 – 50 K above the intended
2nd generation solid dispersions (1970s) using storage temperature) [54-55].
polymeric carriers like poly vinyl alcohol (PVA),
hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), Screening of solid dispersions
hydroxyl propyl cellulose (HPC), ethyl cellulose Solid dispersion formulations can be analysed with
(EC), poly ethylene glycol (PEG). Due to lone different analytical techniques regarding
partial miscibility (heterogeneous mixtures of  In vitro performance in water,
amorphous solutions in polymer) carrier and un- physiological media (simulated gastric fluid
dissolved in small microcrystalline particles (SGF), Fasted State Simulated Intestinal
3rd generation solid dispersions (1990s until now): Fluid (FaSSIF), fasted and fed state
These are modern systems, typically the drug is intestinal bio relevant Media (FeSSIF) etc.)
kept in an amorphous (or Nano crystalline) state [56-58].
and during dissolution no crystal structures need to  Physical stability: Powder X-Ray
be damaged up. By addition of surfactants (inulin, Diffractometer and Diffractogram (XRPD),
lauroyl macrogol glycerides or glyceryl behenate) Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)/
increase bioavailability of solid dispersions. Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM),
Gas Chromatography (GC) etc., [59].
Manufacturing technologies of solid dispersions
Classical methods of preparing solid dispersion CONCLUSIONS:
formulations are: Nowadays, special drug delivery systems are
 Melting method (melt extrusion) becoming more and most important with the
 Solvent evaporation techniques. increasing number of poorly soluble drugs. In
The melting processes at high temperatures (>> early, Nano based formulations have gained strong
100°C), which may lead to thermal degradation of interest now in cases where drugs depict only
the drug. Melt extrusion has offered an attractive, marginal solubility in lipid and surfactant Page 1031

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